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euphoriatric.com | October 21, 2017

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Euphoriatric & Music(The nine Muses, Apollo & Orpheus), Etymology, Facts

 

What is “Euphoriatric”?

The word is made up the prefix “ευ” meaning “well”, the verb “phoro” (“φορω” = I carry..i.e: metaphoric etc) and “iatric” (“ιατρικη”=medical)

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In Ancient Greece the music was inseparable from everyday life of all people, and as a complex artistic and intellectual expression had a special place in all aspects of personal and social life. Music, Song and Orchisi (usually interlinked) were the most striking manifestations of civilized society and key actors – and indicators – welfare.
     By Music already ancient times began to acquire an increasingly complex nature and role, culminating in the creation of Music tickets in many cities. The earliest such registered Games are “Karneia” in ancient Sparta, a city where music in general was prominent and was inextricably tied to the education of young people.
     Athens shone literally after the 6th century when most Music played a leading role in two major Festivals of the city, the Great Panathenaic festival and Great Dionysia. Within these major festivals not only made big competitions but were developed and the most important musical and poetic genres of the era culminating course the Ancient Drama.
     Although the music was eminently festive character within both public and private festivities, crucial was the role of the sad moments of life and redeeming its integration into the daily hard – perhaps boring – hours of toil. In moments of joy and celebration, at banquets and gatherings and of course weddings – were intertwined with all private celebrations and “partner” in everyday life. A Piper eg accompanied the women to the kneading, the workers during the harvest and the harvest, the oarsmen and soldiers towards the battle. Inextricably tied to the Sport Music not only because the major sporting events had music competitions, but because the athlete both in his workouts and the fight needed the rhythm of the music to push him and inspires him.

The Nine Muses from the Hellenic Mythology (Ionian Style)
newly escavated on the border of the now daysTurkey – Syria.. 

Displaying zeugma3.jpg

Etymology of music terms

Etymologically speaking, the word derives from the greek word “μουσικός”, Mousikos, relative to the Muses, the figures of Greek and – some thousant years later – Latin mythology. The word refers to “technique”, which is also derived from the greek word “τέχνη” / techne. Originally the term did not indicate a particular art, but all the arts of the Muses, so it was referred to something that was “perfect”.

Music is like everything else that meets the desires and aspirations. The greek philosopher Plato, according to the derivation of the term from the greek word “μῶσθαι”, which means desire or “aspire to”, the term music derive from “muse”.

The common idea is that music is made ​​up of sounds makes it difficult to understand because it is not always true that the sound “makes” music (what is music for someone may not be for others). To make the sound create music is necessary that those who perceive it, take satisfaction from it. This satisfaction can be physical or mental, real or fantastic.

“Apollo and the Muses.” Mosaic floor”, Archaeological Museum of Ancient Elis.

Tradition says:

Two Muses invented the theory and practice in learning. Three Muses invented the three musical tones Collider, medium and dim the three strings of Lyra, the three prosody acute, grave, circumflex and three parelilythota times, present tense, future tense three persons, three numbers, the triangle of stars and other triarithma . Four Muses invented the four dialects: Attica, Ionici, Dorici and Ahaici. Five Muses the five senses: sight, taste, smell, touch and hearing. Seven Muses invented the seven strings of the lyre, the seven Heavenly belts, the seven planets and the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet.

The Nine Muses from the Hellenic Mythology:

 1. Polyymnia (or Polymnia or Polyamnia). ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ (from: “πολύς + ύμνο” polys + hymn = long hymn) from long and hymn, praise because many people or the many and memory, because many mentions in history. He was the custodian of the divine hymns and hypocritical imitation, geometry, history, grammar etc. The painted faces to Heaven with a wreath of laurel and pearls on the head, white dress, with his lyre in her hands and the inscription Multi-mnias Mr. Myths.

ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ – ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ = 80 + 70 + 30 + 400 + 400 + 40 + 50 + 10 + 1 = 1081 => 10 + 8 + 1 = 19 => 1 + 9 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

 2. Urania – ΟΥΡΑΝΙΑ (from: oυρανός uranos= sky) was the custodian of the heavenly bodies and general astronomy discovered. According to tradition with Dionysus begat Hymenaeus and Apollo linen. Painted Urania crowned with stars and prometopidio, blue dress, in front of the tripod up had the celestial sphere and diabetes.

ΟΥΡΑΝΙΑ = 70 + 400 + 100 + 1 + 50 + 10 + 1 = 632 => 6 + 3 + 2 = 11 => 1 + 1 = 2

 3. Terpsichore – ΤΕΡΨΙΧΟΡΗ (from:τέρπω + χορός –terpo+choros = regale + dance, delights through dance, harp and education.), the Muse of Orchiseos.Named Terpsichore because eterpeto, thanks to dance. Perhaps by learning (pleasing listeners). Tradition says that she bore the Strymonikos Rhesos and Mars the Vistones or even with Achelous the Sirens. The Terpsichore painted laurel-crowned and prometopidio holding harp and dancing happy, while her feet barely touching the ground and with the inscription Terpsichore lyran.

Terpsichore – ΤΕΡΨΙΧΟΡΗ = 300 + 5 + 100 + 700 + 10 + 600 + 70 + 100 + 8 = 1893 => 1 + 8 + 9 + 3 = 21 => 2 + 2 = 3

 4. Melpomene – ΜΕΛΠΟΜΕΝΗ (from: μέλπω “melpo” (=μελωδώ + μένος = to create music + stubborness) was the custodian of Tragedy, because it invented, rhetoric and musical melody. Named Melpomene by word molttin because by this melpousin people all their goods. Melpomene with Acheloos, in a tradition born of Horns The painted wears tragedy mask, angry, laurel-crowned with a scepter, bat in hands and Melpomeni inscription Tragodian

Melpomene – ΜΕΛΠΟΜΕΝΗ = 40 + 5 + 30 + 80 + 70 + 40 + 5 + 50 + 8 = 328 => 3 + 2 + 8 = 13 => 1 + 3 = 4

 5. Thalia or ΘΑΛΕΙΑ – (Θάλεια)  was Superintendent of Comedy. Discover comedy, geometry, architecture and agriculture. He was the custodian and Symposia. The name Thalia = thallein plants, or in the Thalia (symposia) or

Thalleia – ΘΑΛΕΙΑ = 9 + 1 + 30 + 30 + 5 + 10 + 1 = 86 => 8 + 6 = 14 => 1 + 4 = 5

6) Calliope ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ (καλή + ωψ = ex: good + ops = this with the beautiful eyes), the muse of epic poetry (ex:οπτικό = optical). Calliope was the superior and more formal than the other sisters of the Muses. He accompanied the kings and their senior leaders to enforce the words of obedience and righteousness. Calliope was the custodian of the heroic poetry and rhetoric. He named Calliope because he had nice view, face. They were called and Kalliepeian because it was evretria poetry. She mated with Apollo and became the mother of Orpheus. The Euterpe was the Muse of music. Painted Kalliopi new and nice, with flowers or ivy in the head, the right hand holding laurels and left two books, many times the Iliad and the Odyssey.

Calliope – ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ = 20 + 1 + 30 + 30 + 10 + 70 + 80 + 8 = 249 => 2 + 4 + 9 = 15 => 1 + 5 = 6

 7.Euterpe  ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ Ευτέρπη (from the prefix ευ = well, fair + τέρπω = regale ,discovered various musical instruments, lessons, and dialectics. Lessons delight people, but ” is Euterpe reasons of educated ‘. Efterpi with Struma gave birth Risso. The painted laurel-crowned playing flute or holding him. Beside her was musical instruments and texts, Eros and trees with singer cicadas (cicada).

 Euterpe -ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ= 5 + 400 + 300 + 5 + 100 + 80 + 8 = 898 => 8 + 9 + 8 = 25 => 2 + 5 = 7

 8. Clio – ΚΛΕΙΩ (from: κλέος= glory) the Muse of History (Cleopatra = the glory of father)Qleio (Q = Qoppa) discovered the History (and guitar). The story was called Cleo, because it refers to Kleos (belonging to the heroes of the past), we narrate the authors through books. According to tradition, the Clio accused because Venus fell in love with the ‘Adoni. Venus retaliated: He led the Pieros’s house and made her fall in love with him. The Clio by Pierre begat Hyacinth. With Magnes (father Pierre) begat Ialemo, the Hymenaeus and Flax. Painted Cleo laurel-crowned and purple garment. In her right hand was holding one tube and left a book that read Cleo history. At her feet was the box of history.

 Qleio – ΚΛΕΙΩ = 90 + 30 + 5 + 10 + 800 = 935 => 9 + 3 + 5 = 17 => 1 + 7 = 8

 9. Erato ΕΡΑΤΩ(from: έρως – eros = love), is the founder of Lyric and especially erotic poems, marriage (and of poetry, music and the dialectic). The name Erato by eresthai and the word love and lover. The painted seated, wearing a rosary (wreath of roses), with the lyre and the bow of love in the arms and the inscription Erato Psaltrian. Apollonius Rhodius begins the third chapter of Part Four of the Argonauts with: ” And now muse Erato, come to us and tell us how Jason brought the Golden Fleece from her love of Medea, because you graces the Cypriot Aphrodite brings the magic to unmarried girls. ”

Erato – ΕΡΑΤΩ = 5 + 100 + 1 + 300 + 800 = 1206 => 1 + 2 + 0 + 6 = 9

 = 5 + 100 + 1 + 300 + 800 = 1206 => 1 + 2 + 0 + 6 = 9

 Pausanias maintains that there were two generations of Muses, the first generation was three and were the daughters of Uranus and Gaia, and the second was nine were daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. 

The oldest Elikoniades Muses were:

Μνήμη – Mnimi =Memory •               

Μελέτη – Meleti = study)

Αοιδή – Aidi = Singing

The poetic art need all three Muses, you need a combination of song, memory and study. Why to sing first needed memory, and after study (exercise).

Delphi worshiped three muses, the High, Middle and NEAT or nete, which have the same name as the three main strings of the lyre. According to Plutarch, however related to the three regions of the world, the region of the fixed stars, the region of the planets and yposelinia region.

The Muses are the source of inspiration for all mental activity and worshiped in many places with special prices and there Orphic Hymn of the Muses. [6] Plato in the Academy had an altar dedicated to the Muses, whereas Homer invokes the Muse Calliope like source of inspiration during the writing of the epic. The same is found in the works of Hesiod, but all great artists of antiquity. He has stayed until nowadays the term muse be often used to show that someone (usually one) inspires an artist, a creator.

 WHAT THE WORD ETYMOLOGY MEANS

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.

Let’s deal with the etymo words.

 

  1. an undeniable kinship relation to: ΜΕΤΟΠΗ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΚΥΚΛΩΨ, ΜΥΩΠΙΑ.
    ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ. (EUROPE, CYCLOPS, METOPI, EUROPE, MYOPIA, CALLIOPE)

 

 

We read of the “Works and Days” of Hesiod verses 168-201, where the poet mentions the mythological version of the genesis of “Iron genus” of people, the fifth in the order of creation. In this integrating and people of his time. And obviously in that we also belong, and since we are an unbroken continuity of that generation.

After enjoying the vivid Hesiodic narration from the original, but more than the most easily understood translations, we stand in certain words of the text, which in one way or another to survive until today, even if they look at first glance perhaps incomprehensible.

The isolated word is  “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” that perform as the “Pantepoptes”. Trace the aitiologisis of any translation: the evryopas (or evryops) is a composite ευρύς + όψ – (=word – wide + brave opening) . The first of these two words are easy to understand, which is why we focus on two:

the brave opening όψ

 – the flesh = όψ – genetivus: οπός=όψις, όρασις, οφθαλμός – opsis(=the view), orasis(=the up vision), ophthalmos (=the eye). Moving to a deeper investigation, we start from the root of the word is op- from which are also produced: op-O-p-s, opsomai (op-p-inbred), OMMA (op-ma), view (op -cis), eye (ori-chamber), hole (hole in the roof as a chimney, opening that enables that vision, and then each hole).

From these basic derivatives root -op find that rescued already aftousios words: view, eye, hole, spoiled the word OMMA> ommation> eye.

We now return to λέξις – LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, the Pantepoptes.

But then the associations recall to our memory a multitude of everyday words, such as: suspect – suspect – suspicious // Synopsis-efsynoptos-this-baked – autopsy – autopsy scout // – // katoptefsis on-optefo – Supervisors-Registry – on-baked – inhab-view – Flat-optron.

 

The word bore us directly refers to the “ROOTS” of the churches, which are among the long holes that let the beams of the roof, which was later covered with embossed plates, while concealing the edge of the beams were placed Triglyphs plates, but in between two holes (eyes) field. This second word but derived from a further Word root -op:

The ops of opos wherein extent of op- to op-.

the LEΞΙΣ –  Lexie this encounter eg in verse 158 C of the Iliad, where Homer, speaking of the beauty of Helen, says (Doric dialect): “αινώς αθανάτοισοι θεής εις ώπα έοικεν” – “Hainaus athanatoisoi theis at opa eoiken”(= ultimate immortal gods has same appearance)

From the LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) ops comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (=Europe = wide), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – stenopos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon= person, ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, which means “cytomegalovirus” as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “evryopa” we saw in the beginning.

 

In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.

And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the LEΞΙΣ-Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς = a(=γέρον=geron=elder ) + ωψ-ops  [=bud, up vision)] = one who suffers from πρεσβυωπία-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).

 

The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

 

Other finally myo derivative is myeo (= enter the sacraments, catechize, instruct, but murmured, secretly). And from this comes: myisis, mystic, mystery.

 

One of the nine Muses, who was distinguished for her beautiful voice, Named-hole as having Καλλι-όπη – “καλήν όπα” “Kalin opa”. Indeed, Calliope was considered the protector of the human voice products, such as rhetoric and, above all, the epic poetry. That is why the word brave opening οψ-ops (=φωνή-phoni=voice) differs from the assonance of brave opening οψ (= up vision) not only semantically but etymologically because produced by root (where epic = ratio), changing qualitatively in op- .

Agathocles = good + glory-Αγαθοκλής = αγαθός + κλέος (the owner good reputation)
Alexander-a αλέξω: απομακρύνω + ανήρ = ALEX: man + Remove the repeller men, the brave, etymologically means “push people (enemies)
Ariadne = Atoll: very+pure-πολύ + αγνή

 Aglaia Aglaia: bright, shiny- αγλαός
Alcmene = Alki: spurn + wrath: moon (αλκή + μήνη)

Αριστοτέλης (Aristoteles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from άριστος (aristos) “best” and τέλος (telos) “purpose, aim”. This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.
Anastasios = + per istimi: stand (ανα + ίστημι) ana+istimi
George = from the farmers (land + work) From: γεωργώ (γη or γαια-gaia+ έργον)
Dimitrios = H (Dorian type of Earth) + mother  Δη (δωρικός τύπος του Γη or γαια) + μήτηρ
Demosthenes = municipality + valence (people power) δήμος + σθένος-demos+sthenos
Diogenes = Zeus + genus (the begotten) Ζευς + γένος
Eleni = ELE: come upon, conquer (candle) ελέ
Irene=Peace-Ειρήνη = είρω- (I speak ) + νους nous-  = eiro (opt) + mind
Epaminondas = on + ameinon, progressive
Erato = Question: I love (the adorable)
Eteocles ETEC =: true glory + (having the true glory).

 Eugenia (from ευ + γένος=noble gens, or high home)again known word, the fair maiden + (cf. Gentle, kindness) but race here is the importance of the origin, so the original meaning would be not “polite” but “high home”
Evangelos = eu+advert (=bearing the good messages)
Evdokia = eu+ doko: I view
Evdoxia = eu+ Glory (having the good reputation)
Eftychios = eu + luck
Euphemia = eu + Fimios
Electra = Helector: the radiating sun (radiation from grace)
Thalleia = million thallium (I’m full)
Thucydides = + kydos God: glory (the praise God)
Jason = Iasis: treatment (the therapist)
Jocasta = + ion kazo: perk
Iphigenia = ifi: powerful + gignomai
Calliope = beauty + ops: bud
Cleopatra = + Patria glory (the glory of the fatherland) – Κλεοπάτρα = κλέος + πάτρη – kleos + patri
Laertes = people + weigh: Elected
Leonidas = people + one thing I know: I know (Λεωνίδας = λαός + οίδα) laos+oida
Lito = Stranded
Lysistrata = unfasten Army +
Cloud = mists: pour water
Xenophon = stranger + voices Ξενοφών = ξένος + φωνέω – xeno + phoneo

APOLLO – (ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ)

Archaeological Museum Olympias.Kentriki form of the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Apollo

Απόλλων

 God of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light,  knowledge, culture and ethics, who were fighting against each barbarism, anarchy and wickedness.

Apollo Belvedere, ca. 120–140 CE

Abode

Mount Olympus

Symbol

Lyrelaurel wreath, pythonraven, bow and arrows

Parents

Zeus and Leto

Siblings

Artemis

Children

AsclepiusTroilusAristaeusOrpheus

Apollo of the Belvedere.jpg

Temple of the Delians at Delos, dedicated to Apollo (478 BC). 19th-century pen-and-wash restoration.

As god of music, is shown playing the lyre. He was also the god of dance farm, containing songs and music.

     (AtticIonic and Homeric  Greek)ἈπόλλωνApollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); DoricἈπέλλωνApellōnArcadocypriotἈπείλωνApeilōnAeolicἌπλουνAplounLatinApollō)

APOLLO: The Great god of the Greek pantheon

 Απόλλωνας

Born of the god Zeus (Aplon in Thessalian dialect), with around 350 invocations, aliases and local cults, healer, soothsayer and solar (Φοίβος – “Phoebus”).(Probably was the inspiration for the god Plain in Etruscan mythology).Awhich appeals to the sunny, cloudless, ypsinefis, Allegory in air and sky) and θεομητρική  – theomitriki from: (θεος+μητηρ = godsmother) goddess Leto (that metaphor in starry night scene). The invocation “Delios” means of course not the only born on the island of Delos, but God makes clear and visible everything, but he sees everything (Ora) (in ancient Eolic greek: “πανδερκές έχων φαεσίμβροτον όμμα”) – ” having total thunderlight (faesimvroton) power  OMMA” according to 34th Orphic Hymn, ie the god glance illuminates mortals and observe everything).

“The light, dark, east and west, the various weather phenomena create queries to people of antiquity and stimulated their imagination. In the image of the solar disk with rays people saw, through the imagination, a person with gold and blonde hair and ciliary wreath, and so created the sun god. The Sun is one who enlightens, he heats and the one who burns. The Sun, because of its position in the sky, could see everything and that’s why people in the difficult moments, they did rely on the testimony of. It is the pure god, the eye of justice, the supervisor and regulator of about … ”

Syracuse (Korinthian colony since 774 B-C, Sicily). Silver Tetradrachm 214-212 BC
Diameter 18 mm. Alpha Bank Numismatic Collection

According to tradition, when he was born only a few days left Delos and searched to find a suitable location to build the temple. He visited almost all Greece and when he arrived at the foot of Mount Parnassus, stayed in excited.
The location however belonged to the goddess Gaia and protected by her son, Python. Apollo using his bow and a lighted torch killed Python, got under the occupation of the area and then left with his sister Artemis to Sicyon, to atone for the murder. In part, the Hellenistic city near the market (the ancient Acropolis of Sikyon at these times), the so-called later “Phobos”, occupied by fear and fled to Crete.
The first priests of the temple were Cretan merchants who traveled from Knossos to Pylos, but God changed the course of the ship and anchored in the port of Krissa.
According to mythology, Apollo left Mount Olympus to atone for the murder and went to work as a servant to King Admetus of Pherae.
When Apollo exagnisthike returned to Delphi crowned with laurels of Tempe.
Slowly, like a god of light, which penetrates the darkness, Apollo was the god of prophecy. Always stating the truth, but does not reveal, and his answers were evasive, only points as Heraclitus said:
“The gentleman that owns Delphi, neither reveals the truth, nor hides, only gives signs”.
Known by many adjectives as Phoebus, litchi, Ageiefs, dolphins, etc., Celebrated more than any other god. As god of light that gives life, promoting health and well is human, celebrated in Thargelia (May, Athens), Dolphins (Athens), hyacinth (Sparta), Ekatomvaia, the sacrifice hundred oxen in Athens (the first month time Ekatomvaios, called the event). The celebrations, as a god of light, were all in the spring and summer.
Celebrated not only on the seventh day of the month (birthday), but also the first day of every month was sacred to him.
Apollo was the god of light, culture, ethics, who were fighting against each barbarism, anarchy and wickedness.
The god of purification, was very connected with the arts. As god of music, is presented always playing the lyre. He was also the god of dance farm, containing songs and music.

The Sun and chariot, metope from the Temple of Athena, Troy 4thcentury B.C.

 The chariot of ΗΛΙΟΣ – HELIOS  the sun & its – MANY CENTURIES LATER – copy:-“the chariot of ELIAS”

The ancient Greeks had devoted many festivals, such as Dili, the Pythian Games, the Karneia, the Dolphins, the hyacinth etc.

From the belief that the cause of all of the products is the Sun, whose light penetrates the hidden causes, the (according to the magical papyri collection Papyri Graecae Magicae) “telescope and the ruler world” god Phoebus Apollo is closely related to the functions of the so called destiny and the Fates, as God manteftis (Agnomantis, True, Dafnaios, divining Moiragetis, Loxias, front view, Tripodilalos). The oracular status of Apollo explained by the fact that the mousikoparagogos properties, as we shall see below, allowing complete visual clarity at different points of time motion, whose time traffic mainstay and genitor is the rate, part of the Triune (Rate , Melody, Harmony) that defines the music.

The god Apollo is associated by religious with the Youth and Beauty (because as the Sun emerges eternally new every morning and then the light of shows all over the earth and nice “THOMAS”. Related invocations of the Kourotrophos, Olviourgos, perfectness, Fanis, gladden) with Medicine and Therapeutics (because sunlight gives health, disinfects, and also increases the healthy and medicinal plants. Related invocations of Peonies, Alexikakos, Ipiocheir, MD), the music (because everything vibrates illuminated as part of the Universal Music) and every kind of artistic creation (chief of the Muses, God Musagete or Musagetes. Related invocations of the musician, guitar player, Musa

Sacred plants of the laurel, the sunflower, the juniper, the Myrica, sunflower and hyacinth. Daphne the nymph daughter of the river Peneus, who loved the great Greek god but without much success. So after warm invocation to Gaia transformed the namesake plant. Apollo than that found no response to erotic call in Daphne honored by the most famous sanctuary of plant. The Hyacinth is also a loved one for the god of the sun. Apollo fell in love with the prince of Sparta but also the god of the west wind, Zephyr. So while the two lovers, Apollo et Hyacinthus playing with a golden disc, the Zephyr blew and struck the fatal gorgeous new. Then Apollo by the blood of his lover made the Sanctuary of plant. Sacred symbols of the pointers, the Guitar and bow and arrow. Sacred animals the wolf, the hawk, the swan, the raven, the cock, the cicada, the dolphin and the ram. Sacred, devotional color of the gold. As the goddess Athena, sacred number is the Seven (ie the number of completeness, the spirit and the macrocosm). 

Son of the Sun wanted the chariot of his father to lead. Phaethon the brainless! The horses do not obey! The Earth is in danger!

Bronze-Apollo-Head

Apollo belongs to the second generation of the Olympian gods

Zeus, the father of gods and men, dazzled by the beauty of Leto who came from the generation of the Titans and mated sex with her. The jealous Hera but indignant by the countless infidelities of her husband by mortal and goddesses and because he had the power to hurt her husband, opposed Leto and began not to let in any way to give birth.

In Vain Leto ran jaded throughout the land, trying plains, mountains and seas to lay her children; the whole earth refused to accept it because he was afraid the terrible revenge of Hera. Only a small floating island, the Ortygia (Quail Island) or star, agreed to give asylum in miserable Leto. This island was poor and barren, unable to graze in this sheep nor oxen, nor is it to bear fruit vines and other trees. That is why it feared the wrath of the goddess. Apollo to reward poor island just pegged the born forever with four columns on the seabed and gave him the name Delos (= Bright).
Nine whole days kept labor pains. Leto lying at the root of a palm tree, the only tree that existed on the island, vogkouse the pain and begged Hera to allow her to give birth to her children. Athena, Demeter, Aphrodite and other goddesses smaller ran to help Leto, but they could not do anything without the consent of Hera, who was holding up to Olympus Eileithyia, the goddess of successful births. Eventually, they sent the colorful Iris, the messenger of the gods, to ask Hera allow childbirth, giving her a necklace of exceptional beauty of Malama and amber, nine cubits, which was built in the workshop of the great craftsman of the gods, Hephaestus. This gift calmed the anger of Hera, who sent the Eileithyia Delos. Leto exhausted by unbearable pain of so many days knelt at the root of the palm and gave birth first to Artemis and Apollo soon. At the time of birth of the god holy swans flew over the island by seven circles, because it was the seventh day of the month.

Leto did not live to vyzaxei all newborn god. Once born, the Themis dripped into his mouth a few drops of nectar and ambrosia so little miracle happened: the baby began to grow sharply, napkins were torn and fell from his body. The goddesses dazzled by its beauty, admired the do walks on the island. Immediately Apollo ran over to Olympus for getting his blessing omnipotent father, but also to meet other gods. Jupiter he welcomed his son and offered him too many rich and beautiful gifts. Among them was a golden miter decorated with rubies and emeralds, which symbolized the power of God and had over carved scenes from the life of the Olympians. Also, Zeus gave him a lyre that Apollo loved her a lot and every time he was playing, his music charmed the gods and humans; in addition a Panorios ZEMENO chariot with seven pure white swans carrying God anywhere in the earth or sky wished. Immediately after Zeus ordered the Hours to pave table with nectar and ambrosia to welcome together the new god on Mount Olympus. Followed by high jinks until morning. Apollo played the lyre and danced the Graces, the Harmony, Hebe, Venus and Artemis; shortly broke into dance and Mercury with Mars.

 

But another tradition narrates that shortly after the birth of swans brought Apollo to their country which was in the Ocean shores, the Hyperboreans; there established the worship of the god that the celebrated incessantly. Apollo was the land of the Hyperboreans a year and returned to Greece midsummer. The whole nature celebrated by all means the return of the great god of feasts and songs; the crickets and nightingales sing and the water sources were more clearly.

The Nymphs and Fairies rivers and lakes danced whole days and nights in the mountains and the glades. Every year in Delphi celebrating this return with carnage, ie collective sacrifices hundred animals.

Delphi Apollo killed a fearsome dragon named Python and had ten hands and four eyes. The dragon who resembled huge lizard made many disasters in the region. Muddy the waters shaking sources and rivers, destroy crops devoured flocks and frightened Nymphs; especially when it was very furious, strangle and swallow the needy residents. In addition, this monster was chase ordered by Hera, Leto when looking place to give birth to her children. Apollo with the golden arrows that earned him Hephaestus killed Python and thus acquitted the local residents to remember the achievement of established in honor of the races who were called Pythian Games. Also they built an oracle, the oracle of Delphi where the Pythia sat there on the sacred tripod, chewing laurel leaves in a state of mania inserts reveal the ambiguous oracles of God. Since the oracle that once crossed the demigod Hercules to ask oracle.

But the Pythia refused to answer, so Hercules stole the sacred tripod and went to found elsewhere oracle. The Lohias (name Apollo for the ambiguous oracles) persecuted for a long time Hercules; when I arrived, fought nine whole days and nights continuously, all the earth rattled off their blows. Eventually, Zeus parted two opponents throwing a thunderbolt among them.

Apollo was a beautiful god, tall, with amazing stature, blue eyes and long blond curls. So he had numerous love affairs with Nymphs and mortals.

So loved the nymph Daphne, daughter of the river god Peneus in Thessaly. This was beautiful and asked her father many lads and well known heroes. Penaeus begged to marry to give him grandchildren. This however,  head, did not listen the elder father, why prefer to hunt in the forests and to accompany the virgin Artemis. When once she met Apollo, dazzled by her beauty and wanted to make her his. The Bride has not responded to God’s love and fled to the mountain. Whole days and nights Phoebus (epithet of Apollo) the hunting among the bushes and holly, the shouting that it was a random groom but brilliant Apollo that honored gods and mortals. But the moment was about to reach the the Nymph begged her father to save her from the embrace of God. Then Pineios who pitied the daughter, transformed the homonymous tree, her legs were the roots of laurel, the body of the trunk, arms of the branches and leaves hair of the famous tree. Apollo inconsolable crying and hugged the tree after failing to mingle with the Bride as she was alive, he vowed that henceforth the laurel would be the sacred tree and he would always wore a laurel wreath.

His relationship with the goddess of Thessaly, the Nymph Cyrene, Apollo had a son named Aristaeus.

 Cyrene lived wildlife in the forests of Pindos and protected the flocks of her father. One day he attacked without weapons in a lion, fought him and won. Phoebus saw the achievement of and fell in love. Then abducted her with the golden chariot driving, flying over lands and seas, Libya; there in a golden palace mated with her.

And with the Muses Apollo had amorous adventures. They say that Thalia acquired their Korybantes demons belonging to the entourage of Dionysos, with Satyrs and other elves of the forest. By Urania became musicians Linus and Orpheus, who calmed the nature entire playing their lumen and tamed wild beasts. Also, Apollo is the father of Asclepius, god of medicine. They say the Flirty god mated with the crown jewel and her pregnant. But over time it waited child did infidelities to God by going with a mortal. When he learned that Apollo, angry by the attack, killed his unfaithful Koronis. But once her body was placed over the fire and was ready to burn, the vengeful god transformed into a vulture swooped and pulled from the bowels of the child, still alive.

At the same misfortune had and Marpissa, the princess of Aetolia. God loved the young lady, but stole the mortal Ida with a winged chariot donated Neptune and led to Messina. There, Ida and Apollo hit but separated them Jupiter. Marpissa had the right to choose between the two lovers. In vain god begged and gave promises of eternal loyalty and devotion. It chose the mortal Ida, from fear of that immortal and eternal new Apollo will give up to the old age, when they were leaving the beauty and freshness of youth.

But with Cassandra, daughter of Priam, love did not favor the god. Apollo loved Cassandra and to win it promised to teach her the art of divination. The young princess agreed, but when he learned well the art, abandoned the god. Others say that God eventually mated with Cassandra and gained her the Troilus.

Mainly in Greece they believed that Apollo was a lover of the local heroine Fthia, with whom he had three sons: Doros, Laodonta and Polipitis that killed their Aitolos. Colophon believed Apollo mated with Manto, the daughter of the blind seer Tiresias and his seed the great seer Law was born. In Crete, the amatory god loved Akalli, the daughter of Minos; fruit of their secret relationship was Miletus. The Akalli just gave birth, left newborn in the woods because she was afraid her father. Apollo made sure to live his son sending wolves to protect it and a she-wolf suckling him.

In Athens, the elfish god raped Creusa, the daughter of King Erechtheus. She just gave birth to the child in a wilderness. Apollo made sure to bring the baby to Delphi where the Pythia grew. This son of Apollo who so badly came to life named Ionas. Apollo said that he loved and young men. More important is the love of adventure with Hyacinth, a tremendously beautiful new. One day the two of them were playing with the disk awesome Zephyr (wind), because he was jealous god, swept away the disc that struck Hyacinth and killed him instantly. Phoebus inconsolable since the death of his friend and to make his name immortal, transformed him in the famous namesake flower.

 

Telling how Apollo twice had to get slave in mortal service. The first time was when, along with Poseidon, Hera and Athena wanted to take the power of Zeus and so I tried to tie him with huge iron chains and the hang in the sky. The conspiracy but failed and punishment of Apollo was to guard the flocks of King Laomedon of Troy, on the slopes of Mount Ida. Apollo and did so, once and could not even antimilisei to his father, the almighty Zeus. But soon passed one year, the Laomedontas refused to pay God for his service and drove home anyhow. When he protested, he threatened to cut off his ears and sell it like slave. Once Apollo rediscovered his divine power, he sent murderous plague in Troy that ravaged the country for six whole months. Women gave birth to dead children, decimated herds and crops dry up without giving fruit.

Apollo passed the test of shepherd and again. This was when Zeus thunder Asclepius, because he had progressed so much in medicine, so he succeeds in resurrecting the dead. Phoebus was wounded by the death of his son and to avenge marked with golden arrows over Olympus Cyclopes had built the thunder. Jupiter indignant anymore by the conduct of Apollo not joking at all; he wanted to imprison his son in oloskoteina and inhospitable Tartarus, in the bowels of Mother Gaia. But Leto asked him to lighten his sentence. Only then Zeus relented and ordered Apollo to enter the service of King Admetus. When Apollo came to Ferres Thessaly and presented to Admetus, that the sweetness of the form and the divine beauty of realized that was a god disguised as a mortal. He fell to his knees and offered him his throne. Apollo but explained that it was the will of Zeus to work in the service of and excited by good behavior and respect of Admetus, brought prosperity to the palace and throughout the country; all the cows gave birth to two calves at a time, the fields karpizan twice a year and more and more wealth concentrated in the hands of noble Admetus.

Our team took part in the Giants alongside his father Zeus. Also he participated in the Trojan war and was always on the side of the Trojans. Also contributed to the completion of the Argonauts helping Jason to reach the magical land of Aiiti.Dyo times took Apollo to use the shuttles in order to defend his mother, Leto. The first time was when the giant Tityus wished Leto and tried to rape her. The divine son acted lightning; killed by the arrows of the giant a bit before making the dishonest thinking. Some other time together with his sister Artemis killed her children Niobe, except two, when he boasted that he was happiest and luckiest of Leto who only had two children while she was fourteen. Apollo killed by the arrows of male children and Artemis her daughters. Zeus took pity on Niobe and transformed into rock still crying at the loss of her children.

Apollo was generally the god of music and poetry. So he presided over on Mount Helicon, the struggles of the Muses. Moreover, he was god and divination. They believed that inspires both seers and poets. Also was a god shepherd who loves with the Nymphs and young flowers were bound it with vegetation and nature. He was still a warrior god with golden bows and arrows could send away from his revenge.

The sacred animals dedicated to Apollo was the wolf and deer. From the birds the swan, the vulture and crow of their throws were taking oracles. Finally, from marine animals dolphin, whose name reminded Delphi, the main temple of Apollo. Laurel was the eminently sacred plant of the god.

Apollo was the personification of light and sun. He represented the arts, music and poetry, so much loved and cultivated by the ancient Greeks.

Orpheus was the son of Calliope and either Oeagrus or Apollo. He was the greatest musician and poet of Greek myth, whose songs could charm wild beasts and coax even rocks and trees into movement. He was one of the Argonauts, and when the Argo had to pass the island of the Sirens, it was Orpheus’ music which prevented the crew from being lured to destruction.

DSC00355 - Orfeo (epoca romana) - Foto G. Dall'Orto.jpg

 Orphic hymn to Apollo

Come, oh Makarios paean, who slew the Tityus, Phoebe Lykoreias, Memfiti, thou who timasai brilliant, everything Inf, the provider Eftychios. where you chrysin(=Golden) lyran and has relationship with the seeds, the patron saint of farmers, Pythias, Titan, the Gryneios. As Sminthefs, the murderer of python, everything Delphic, as soothsayer, wild, God who bring light, dear, what glorious new agreements where you are the leader of the Muses, the leader of the dance, the makrovolos, whatever archer what Gill and Didymefs, Sagittarius, everything Loxias, whatever pure, h retrieves Delos, where your eye, illuminating the people, sees everything, thou golden crown, where we have allocated net prophetic voices and oracles, hear my prayer for people with joyous heart; because you see all this vast ether and from the top you see the happy land and beneath the dark at night this time of quiet, who has eyes for the stars, you see the roots (foundations), and have the ends of the whole world (under your eyes), you take care about the beginning and the end, and do everything to thallium thou each pole mounted with the guitar, which has great sound of times while attending to the termini of the NEAT (the lowest string), once again to ypatin (the highest string = ypsilotatin chordin), other times compounded each pole in the design were Dorian (arrangement). Differentiate retained into life sexes combine with harmony the global fate of people (the Share the position of humans in the whole world); blended equally with both (and the neatin and the ypatin) in winter and summer, winter you made a distinction between areas Hypatia and summer with Tash NEAT and formed a nice Doric blossom beloved earos

Orpheus (left, with lyre) among the Thracians, from an Attic red-figure bell-krater (ca. 440 BC)

Orpheus playing the lyre, from a southern Italian Greek vase. 330 B.C. Canossa, Italy. Munich Antikensammlung. Photo: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.


When Orpheus’ wife, Eurydice, was killed by the bite of a serpent, he went down to the underworld to bring her back. His songs were so beautiful that Hades finally agreed to allow Eurydice to return to the world of the living. However, Orpheus had to meet one condition: he must not look back as he was conducting her to the surface. Just before the pair reached the upper world, Orpheus looked back, and Eurydice slipped back into the netherworld once again.

Orpheus was inconsolable at this second loss of his wife. He spurned the company of women and kept apart from ordinary human activities. A group of Ciconian Maenads, female devotees of Dionysus, came upon him one day as he sat singing beneath a tree. They attacked him, throwing rocks, branches, and anything else that came to hand. However, Orpheus’ music was so beautiful that it charmed even inanimate objects, and the missiles refused to strike him. Finally, the Maenads’ attacked him with their own hands, and tore him to pieces. Orpheus’ head floated down the river, still singing, and came to rest on the isle of Lesbos.

Orpheus was also reputed to be the founder of the Orphic religious cult.

Orpheus (/ˈɔrfiəs, ˈɔrfjuːs/GreekὈρφεύς) Traditionally, Orpheus was the son of a Muse (probably Calliope, the patron of epic poetry) and Oeagrus, a king of Thrace (other versions give Apollo). According to some legends, Apollo gave Orpheus his first lyre. Orpheus’s singing and playing were so beautiful that animals and even trees and rocks moved about him in dance.was a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, film, opera, music, and painting.

The serpent biting Eurydice 5.Charles Nanteuil 1792-1865: Eurydice mourante. Musée de Picardie, Amiens.

“We grant the man his wife to go with him, bought by his song; yet let our law restrict the gift, that, while he Tartarus quits, he shall not turn his gaze.” (Hades. Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy 3.42).

“Who can give lovers laws?” (Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy 3.47).

 

Orpheus, king of the Ciconians, is counted among the ARGONAUTS. Orpheus practised minstrelsy and by his songs moved stones and trees, holding also a spell over the wild beasts. He descended to theUnderworld in order to fetch his dead wife, but had to return without her.

Orpheus loses his wife

Orpheus, whom Apollo taught to play the lyre, traveled to Egypt where he increased his knowledge about the gods and their initiatory rites, bringing from that country most of his mystic ceremonies, orgiastic rites, and his extraordinary account of his descent to the Underworld. Orpheus became famous because of his poems and his songs, excelling everyone in the beauty of his verse and music. He also reached a high degree of influence because he was believed to have discovered mysteries, purification from sins, cures of diseases, and means of averting divine wrath. Some say that Orpheus introduced a cult ofDionysus 2 that was very similar to the cult of Osiris, and that of Isis, which resembles the cult ofDemeter. But others affirm that he praised all the gods except Dionysus 2. The Aeginetans worshipedHecate, and in her honor celebrated every year mystic rites which, they said, had been taught to them by Orpheus. And the Lacedaemonians asserted that it was Orpheus who had taught them the cult ofDemeter Chthonia (of the Lower World). Orpheus married Eurydice 5, but she, while strolling through the grass with a group of naiads, was smitten in the ankle by a serpent, which shot its poison into her body and killed her. Having mourned her to the full in the upper world, Orpheus decided to fetch her, and for that purpose he descended to Hades through the gate of Taenarus. Having descended to the Underworld, Orpheus accompanied his words with the music of the lyre, and it is told that not only the spirits wept but that also the ERINYES were wet with tears. He also entranced Persephone by his songs, and persuaded her to help him in his desire to bring back to life his dead wife. And so even Hades himself was persuaded to let her go.

Orpheus loses his wife again

However, the god promised to do so only if on the way up Orpheus would not turn round until he came to his own house. But thoughtless Orpheus forgot, and when he turned round and looked at his wife, she instantly slipped into the depths again. In this manner Orpheus lost her a second time.

Some read the story thus:

“To you this tale refers,
Who seek to lead your mind
Into the upper day;
For he who overcome should turn back his gaze
Towards the Tartarean cave,
Whatever excellence he takes with him
He loses when he looks on those below.”
(Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy 3.52).

Hades and Persephone listen to Orpheus’ song in the Underworld.
5132: H. W. Bissen, 1798-1868: Orpheus pleading with Pluto and Proserpina to restore Eurydice to him. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

Some have thought that through his descent to the Underworld, Orpheus performed a deed full of courage inspired by love.

Not willing to die

But others point out that Orpheus did not receive his wife back, because his attempt was the quest of a coward, who was not willing to die for her but entered the Underworld alive, and alive he left both Underworld and wife, who in that way died twice. And as they reason thus, they have in mind Alcestis, who was allowed to return from the Underworld for having willingly died for love of her husband.

Death of Orpheus

Some affirm that Orpheus was torn in pieces by the MAENADS, but others say that he committed suicide out of grief for the death of his wife. Still others assert that Orpheus came to his end by being struck by a thunderbolt, hurled at him by god because he revealed sayings in the mysteries to men who had not heard them before. Yet others say that because Orpheus first favored love for youths, he seemed to insult women, and for this reason the latter killed him.

Aphrodite, Calliope, Dionysus 2Apollo

Concerning the MAENADS or women who killed him, some say that when Aphrodite and Persephone were both in love with Adonis, Orpheus’ mother Calliope was then appointed judge by Zeus, and she decided that each should possess him half the year. Aphrodite then, angry at the decision, stirred all the women in Thrace with love, each to seek Orpheus for herself, so that they tore him limb from limb. But some affirm that these women were instigated by Dionysus 2, who was angry against Orpheus because he had looked into the rites of the god. His head fell into the sea and was cast by the waves upon the island of Lesbos where the Lesbians buried it, and for having done this the Lesbians have the reputation of being skilled in music. In the island of Lesbos, they say, Orpheus had a shrine where oracles were given until Apollo, the god of prophecy, rebuked him:

Orpheus losong his wife while leaving the Underworld5125: Orpheus and Eurydice. Painting from 1806 by C. G. Kratzenstein-Stub, 1793-1860. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

“Cease to meddle with my affairs, for I have already put up long enough with your vaticinations.” (Flavius Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.14).

Women and wine

It is also told that the Thracian women plotted Orpheus’ death, because he had persuaded their husbands to follow him in his wanderings, and that first after having drinking much wine, they dared to kill him. This is the reason why their husbands hereafter adopted the custom to march to battle drunk.

River remembered him

Some believe he was killed near Mount Pieria, and close to this place an urn was preserved, which was said to contain the bones of Orpheus. It is also told that when the women who killed Orpheus wished to wash off in a river the blood-stains, the river sank underground, not wishing to lend its waters to cleanse manslaughter.

Bones and nightingales

It is told that the city of Libethra had received an oracle concerning the bones of Orpheus, which stated that when the sun should see his bones the city would be destroyed by a boar. Nobody believed a boar able to cause such a huge destruction, but when one day by accident the urn fell and broke exposing the bones, that same night came a heavy rain, and the river Sys (Boar), one of the torrents about Olympus, destroyed the walls of Libethra, overturning sanctuaries and houses, and drowning the inhabitants and all the animals in the city.

The Thracians used to say that the nightingales that build their nests on the grave of Orpheus sing more sweetly than others.

Constellation Lyra

It has also been said that Orpheus’ scattered limbs were gathered by the MUSES, who buried them and put the Lyre among the constellations as a memorial.

 

Family 

Parentage

Mates

Offspring

Notes

Oeagrus & Calliope

unknown & Pierus’ Daughter

 

Oeagrus is sometimes called son of Ares. Otherwise Charops 4 is mentioned as his father. Charops 4 is known for having warned Dionysus 2 of the plot of Lycurgus 1 against him. That is why Dionysus 2, having defeated the Thracians in a battle and killed Lycurgus 1, made Charops 5, out of gratitude for his help, king of Thrace, and instructed him in the secret initiatory rites. Later Oeagrus inherited both the throne and the initiatory rites.

Calliopeis one of the MUSES.

Pierus was king of Pella in Macedonia and son of Magnes 1, son of Aeolus 1 and a naiad. He was father of nine daughters who defied the MUSES in a contest of song being defeated by the goddesses. The MUSESthemselves are sometimes called Pierides.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Eurydice 5
Musaeus

The parentage of Eurydice 5 is unknown.

Other Eurydices: Eurydice 1 was the wife of the king of Nemea; Eurydice 2 was mother of Danae; Eurydice 3 is one of the DANAIDS; Eurydice 4 is a nereid; Eurydice 6was mother of the king of Troy, Laomedon 1; Eurydice 7 was married to Neleus, founder of Pylos; Eurydice 8 was Nestor‘s wife; Eurydice 9 was a daughter of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle; Eurydice 10 was married toAeneas; Eurydice 11 was mother of Alcmena; Eurydice 12 was married to Creon 2, regent of Thebes.

Musaeus, who some say was not son of Orpheus but of Antiophemus, also wrote songs and poems and uttered oracles, being trained by Apollo and the MUSES. It is said that he received from Boreas 1 (the North Wind) the gift of flight.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In seal found and dated around th 2nd century AD, appears engraved a crucified man. Resting on a V, having on top of the cross and the crescent above 7 stars appear as crosses. Knowing that time was expanding rapidly Christianity, this finding would not impress us. But what sets it apart is that it bears engraved words “Orphee VAKCHIKOS”(«ΟΡΦΕΥΣ ΒΑΚΧΙΚΟΣ»). Refers So the ancient Greek mystic Orpheus? Rather paradoxically, as the myth of Orpheus says no crucified, but disintegrated and massacred by angry Maenads.
In the first centuries of the emergence of Christianity, some Christian Gnostic currents have identified Christ with Orpheus. It was the similarity of the teachings and moral principles between Christianity and Orphism, which led to this identification. The Crucified Orpheus, perhaps reminding this similarity, uniting old and new symbols.
But interest is the relationship of names Βάκχος – Bacchus (or ‘Iacchos’) and Jesus: in Hebrew, Bacchus / Iacchos JEHSU, which is pronounced “Iesou”. To the Phoenicians and Kanaaites simply transferred as IHS, that for neutral or cationic Greeks, and directly across from the Jews “Jesus.”
V is displayed at the bottom of the cross and in which rests the crucified feet, perhaps associated with seven crosses / stars of the peak, which crowned him crucified. V is one of the ancient symbols of the divine feminine, evoking the womb that gives birth. The number 7 is associated with the Greek goddess Aphrodite, the Goddess of femininity, beauty and love. Interestingly, in Arabic numerals, the number seven is written as V. The Roman numeration, V is the number 5, it is also associated with Aphrodite and the namesake of the planet, which, as has been observed by astronomers of ancient times, with forms to swing a pentacle (5A) in the sky, over a period of 7 years.
The L in Arabic numerals is 8. The symbol  Λ (=L) is associated with the male principle, referring to the phallus that impregnates the matrix. The number 8 is also connected to the sulfur male element, the earth man with a balance therebetween, the regeneration, and hence with the Godman Christ.
Putting it on the V L, formed X, ie the lateral cross. In Roman numbering, X is 10 (number refers to the unit) and mathematics is the multiplication sign.
The crescent at the top of the cross, just above the head of the crucified, is another reference to ancient female deity, the Moon Goddess. Thus, the female element appears to frame the crucified man, supporting his feet and crowning his head …
How positioned his legs crossed on V, the size of the V and the placement of the stars on the top, it seems as if the whole performance springs (born) through the V and ends at 7 stars.
Another paradox of the show is the appearance of crucified man, because the crucifix is ​​not displayed as a symbol of Christianity before the Middle Ages. That refers to the crucified Orpheus makes the symbol even more strange and enigmatic …

 

Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre by Gustave Moreau (1865)

Orpheus & Eurydike

Arion

Arion in sea steed, work of William-Adolf Bougkero (1855).

Lyric poet from Mithymna (Molivos) on Lesvos. The information we have about Arion is scarce and mainly come from the historian Herodotus. We do not even know the year of birth and death.

Arion left early from Lesvos and lived close to the tyrant of Corinth Periandros (625-585 BC). He was the best guitar player of his time and contributed to the evolution of the dithyramb, the chant of the Dionysian cult, which was the forerunner of tragedy. As a poet and composer wrote songs (dithyramb) and preambles (kitharodikous rules) of which were not saved nor a verse.

For his life is a story, which is more like a fairy tale and we bequeathed Herodotus. Once, Arion decided to travel to Sicily for a living. There, after the art of the gathered much money and riches, began the return trip with a Corinthian ship.

During the voyage the sailors decided to rob and to throw him overboard. Arion offered to give the money to save his life, but in vain. Then, he begged them to do one last favor. Let him sing before his death. The sailors were.

Arion, he wore well, he took his guitar in his hands, stood on the bow of the boat and sang the “standing law”, a hymn to the god Apollo. A dolphin was considered the sacred animal of Apollo took him on his back and pulled the Tenaro cape. From there, the Aryans went on foot in Corinth, stating the details in Periander. That after having verified what had recounted Arion ordered the arrest of the Corinthians, who meanwhile had returned to Corinth and ordered to be killed.

Sappho (/ˈsæf/; Attic Greek Σαπφώ [sapːʰɔ̌ː], Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω, Psappho [psápːʰɔː]) was a Greek lyric poet, born on the island of Lesbos. The Alexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. Her birth was sometime between 630 and 612 BCE, and it is said that she died around 570 BCE, but little is known for certain about her life. The bulk of her poetry, which was well-known and greatly admired through much of antiquity, has been lost; however, her immense reputation has endured through surviving fragments.

Sappho’s recently discovered poem on old age (lines 9–20), assigned to Book IV based on its meter. 3rd-century BC papyrus (P.Köln XI 429), from a 2007 exhibit of the Altes Museum

Bust inscribed, literally Sapfo Eresia, meaning Sappho of Eresos.Roman copy of a Greek original of the 5th century BC

Sappho. Fresco from Pompeii

Roman bust of Sappho found at Smyrna (Izmir), copied from a lost Hellenistic original (Istanbul Archaeological Museum)

Sappho on an Attic red-figure vase by the Brygos Painter, c. 470 BC.

Sappho reading to her companions on an Attic vase of c. 435 BC

The Greek language is not accidental … It was built on mathematics, and what few even know is that every word in ellinikiechei mathematical background. The letters in the Greek language is not sterile symbols. Upright, upside down with a special intonation, they were all of 1620 symbols that were used in Harmony (Music in Modern Greek). The most important is the property that each letter has a numerical value / value, each letter is a number, so by extension, and each word is a number.

This plundered cist tomb, built of limestone and situated at the edge of the Great Tumulus next to the ‘heroon’, was named Tomb of Persephone because of its painted ornamentation. Prominent among figures of the Fates and of Demeter seated on the “mirthless rock” is a depiction of the abduction of Persephone by the god of the underworld, Pluto.

The artistry of execution, strength of conception and restraint of colouring all denote an artist of great talent (perhaps Nikomachos = Battle winner from: Niki+ Machi) of the mid-4th century BC; this dating is supported by the sherds of pottery found in the interior of the tomb.

Hades abducting Persephone, a mural from the Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, mid 4th century BC

Greek Numbers and Arithmetic

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

Γράμμα

Αξία

 

Γράμμα

Αξία

 

Γράμμα

Αξία

 

Γράμμα

Αξία

Α´

1

 

Ι´

10

 

Ρ´

100

 

͵Α

1000

Β´

2

 

Κ´

20

 

Σ´

200

 

͵Β

2000

Γ´

3

 

Λ´

30

 

Τ´

300

 

͵Γ

3000

Δ´

4

 

Μ´

40

 

Υ´

400

 

͵Δ

4000

Ε´

5

 

Ν´

50

 

Φ´

500

 

͵Ε

5000

Ϛ´

6

 

Ξ´

60

 

Χ´

600

 

͵Ϛ

6000

Ζ´

7

 

Ο´

70

 

Ψ´

700

 

͵Z

7000

Η´

8

 

Π´

80

 

Ω´

800

 

͵H

8000

Θ´

9

 

Ϟ´

90

 

Ϡ´

900

 

͵Θ

9000

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for “5″, “10″, “100″, “1000″, and “10,000″. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss.

The (Ionian) Greek system of enumeration was a little more sophisticated than the Egyptian though it was non-positional. Like the Attic and Egyptian systems it was also decimal. Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception.

A vast knowledge locked-coded into words because of mathematical values ​​they have. One of the pioneers on the matter was maximum Pythagoras.

The numbers, shapes, harmony and the stars have something in common, so respectively mathematics (numbers) geometry (shape), harmony (music) and astro-nomy (one star = a-choris- bracket + natural nomoipou govern ) were sisters sciences by Pythagoras, which in this series we discussed was the ladder to development (= ex -tou- helix, DNA) of mind-soul to the Creator.

A Creator who created based on these four disciplines. 27 symbols-figures in numerical value make up the Greek Alphabet, 3 groups of 9 numbers-symbols each group, totaling each group 45, 450, 4,500.
ALPHA = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

To be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of words of ancient Greek tongue should first know a little about the actual Greek language.

The ancient Greek language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that will try to approach.

The beginning of everything is the same as the Greek alphabet (which of course we did not get it from someone else as we shall see, because factually not possible). The letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole was 33 and as many vertebrae, the last five vertebrae (playing the role of the antenna) directly related to the brain and corresponding to the last 5 ineffable letters which only the priests knew * one of them It was the right (or Gammadion) which in Latin became swstika and the Nazis stole and name Swastika. This symbol is the life-giving Sun (Apollo), the Nazis reversed it to symbolize the opposite of life-giving Sun, ie dark death.

There were also some letters which over time abolished as Digamma (F), Qoppa (Q), stigma (S ‘), Saba (ϡ)
Pythagoras inform us about the 3 levels of Greek language which are:

963
1. Talking
2. Signifier (a. Signal b. Signified)
3. caches (a. Time b. Vibration c. Lexarithmos d. Tonarithmos)
-The First is the speech
-The Second is the relationship between the mark and the signified that we will analyze below
-The Third is the interval (distance & time), vibration (which awakens the brain through resonance frequencies of the pulses dimiourgithentes – Pallas Athena) the lexarithmos (relation of letters and words with numbers) and tonarithmos (relation of letters and words of tunes )

Each letter corresponding to a number, and a musical tone so letter = number = tone (musician), which shows that in our language behind letters-words are numbers (lexarithmoi) and musical sounds (tonarithmoi).

The four sisters sciences by Pythagoras were:
1. Numbers (mathematics)
2. Shapes (Geometry)
3. Music (Harmony)
4. Astronomy

The sciences are interrelated and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.

1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony), shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
2.The Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.

The enormous importance of music for the Pythagoreans

 <<<<<<<<PYTHAGORAS AND MUSIC>>>>>>>
                                                                                                            
So it said that Pythagoras, and practice once, with the help spondiakou State played a piper, extinguished the rage of an intoxicated young Tafromenitou, who during the night attacked with loud voices against his mistress at the door of his rival by drawing to set fire to the house. And so, being in a tizzy and he is steady due to the Phrygian melody lumen. This passion has rapidly healed Pythagoras, who happened at that moment, at an inappropriate time, to deal with the laws governing the stars. Then said the piper to turn the Phrygian melody spondaic, with which the young man, having calmed down, returned immediately and decency in his house, and just now not only tolerated by Pythagoras or admonition, but with fury and insults He had refused to meet him.


That is not the Alphabet is copied from elsewhere seen in that in the year 2300 BC (Studies of Tziropoulou other and not 800 BC) by Homer already at the disposal of 6,500,000 primary words (first person singular present tense &) which if you multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.
The Greek language is the only one that can be used for H / Y due mathimatikotitas and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS: Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc etc if now these words the English translation is completely unrelated.

If we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth the year 100,000 BC; 500,000 BC; who knows …
But the ultimate proof is the same of the mathimatikotita, which does not exist in any other language of the world. Do not even forget that the Creator uses math to create, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1).

But before the “crypt” is the “Signifier”, ie the connection of words with meanings. He said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that such and such a subject would call it “X”, which makes the languages ​​sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.

How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? let alone the multiple aspects of this? It can not be So why all started here. It means therefore is connecting the signal to the signified, that the word itself is generated in such a manner that describes the meaning esokleinei instruments.

Example: The naming of the word curry (Walnut), as we read in thesecretrealtruth, from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with ker.ata their sounds “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name of the State or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.

The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe respective concepts which come from the observation of nature ie of Creation so by extension of the same Creator, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers, yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones into their hide Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?

Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “wisdom Authority names visitation”

De Groot (Netherlands Homeric texts professor at the University of Montreal)

“The Greek language has continuity and teaches to be ownerless and got a glory, that an opinion. In this language there is no orthodoxy. So even if the education system wants people law-abiding – a mold – the spirit of ancient texts and language in learning to be a boss. “
James Joyce (Famous Irish author, 1882-1941)

“Almost afraid to touch the Odyssey, the oppressive beauty is unbearable.”
The great French writer Jacques Lakarrier said:

“In Greek there is a vertigo of words, because only she explored, recorded and analyzed the innermost processes of speech and language, more than any other language.”
The great French enlightener Voltaire had said

“May the Greek language to become common all peoples.”
The French professor at the Sorbonne said Charles Foriel

“The Greek has homogeneity as the German, but richer than that. He has the clarity of the French, but it has greater precision. It is more flexible than the Italian and much more harmonious than the Spanish. Is that what it takes to be considered the most beautiful language of Europe. “
Marianna McDonald, professor of the University of California and Head of TLG said

“Knowledge of Greek is essential foundation of high cultural cultivation.”
The blind American writer Helen Keller had told

“If the violin is the most perfect musical instrument, the Greek language is the violin of human thought.”
John Goethe (The greatest poet of Germany, 1749-1832)

“I listened to St. Peter’s in Rome the Gospel in all languages. The Greek resonated star glowing in the night. “
Dialogue of Goethe with his disciples:

-Daskale What to read to become wise as you?

-the Greek classics.

-And When we finish the Greek classics what to read?

-Old Greek classics.
George Bernard Shaw (Great Irish playwright, 1856-1950)

“If the library of your home you do not have the works of ancient Greek authors, then you live in a house without light.”
Mark Tillios Cicero (the foremost man of ancient Rome, 106-43 BC)

“If the gods speak, then certainly use the language of the Greeks.”
Humphrey Kitty (English professor at the University of Bristol, 1968)

“It’s the nature of the Greek language is clean, precise and complex. The ambiguity and lack of direct enoraseos featuring sometimes English and German, is completely foreign to the Greek language. “
Irina Kovaleva (Modern Russian professor at the University Lomonosov, 1995)

“The Greek language is beautiful like heaven to the stars.”
RH Robins (Contemporary English linguist, professor at the University of London)

“Of course not only in linguistics where Greeks were pioneers in Europe. Overall Europe’s spiritual life goes back to the work of Greek thinkers.

Even today we return unceasingly in Greek heritage to find stimulation and encouragement. “
Frederick Sagkredo (Basque linguistics professor – Chairman of the Greek Academy of Vaskonias)

“The Greek language is the best legacy that has been available to the man on the evolution of the brain. Against all Greek and insist all languages are inadequate. “

“The ancient Greek language should become the second language of all Europeans, especially the cultured people.”

“The Greek language is of divine essence.”
Heinrich Schliemann (Renowned amateur archaeologist, 1822-1890)

“Everything I wanted passionately to learn Greek. I did not do it because I was afraid that the deep charm of this magnificent language would absorb so much that would have removed my other activities. “(The Schliemann spoke 18 languages seamlessly. For two years did nothing other than the studying 2 poems of Homer).
Ibn Khaldoun (Largest Arab historian)

“Where is the secretariat of the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians? All mankind has inherited the secretariat of the Greeks alone. “
Will Durant (American historian and philosopher, professor at the University of Columbia)

“Our alphabet came from Greece by Kimi and Rome. Our language is littered Greek words. Our science esfyrilatise Mian international language by the Greek terms. Our grammar and our rhetoric, even the punctuation and the division areas paragraphs … is Greek inventions. Our genres are Greeks – the lyric, the ode, the romance, the novel, the essay, the prosfonisis, biography, history and above all the vision. And almost all of these words are Greek. “
Jacqueline de Romigy (Modern French Academician and author)

“Ancient Greece offers us a language, which will say that it is universal.”

“Everyone needs to learn Greek, because the Greek language helps us first of all to understand our own language.”
Bruno Snell (Distinguished Professor at the University of Hamburg)

“The Greek language is the past of the Europeans.”
Frangkiskos Ligkora (Modern Italian university professor and president of the International Academy for the dissemination of culture)

“Greeks can be proud to speak the Greek language alive and the mother of all other languages. Do not neglect, since this is one of the few goods we have left and also your passport to the world civilization. “
The. Vantrouska (Professor of Linguistics at the University of Vienna)

“For a Japanese or Turkish, all European languages are not seen as separate but as dialects of one and the same language, Greek.”
Peter Jones (PhD – Professor at Oxford University who drafted lessons of ancient Greek WITH readership, for publication in the newspaper «DailyTelegraph»)

The Greeks of Athens in the 5th and 4th century had reached the language to the point that with her to explore ideas such as democracy and the origins of the universe, concepts such as sulfur and law. It is a wonderful and great language. “
Gilbert Murray (Professor, University of Oxford)

“The Greek is the perfect language. Often one finds that a thought can be expressed with ease and grace in Greek, and becomes difficult and severe in Latin, English, French or German. It is the perfect language, because it expresses the thoughts most perfect people. “
Max Von Laye (Nobel Prize in Physics)

“I Graces in divine providence, because it pleased to teach ancient Greek, who helped me to penetrate deeper into the meaning of science.”
E, Norden (the great German philologist)

“In addition to Chinese and Japanese, all other languages were formed under the influence of Greek, from which they took, besides many words, rules and grammar.”
Martin Heidegger (German philosopher, of the main representatives of existentialism in the 20th century)

“The ancient Greek language belongs to the standards through which showcase the spiritual forces of creative genius, because with respect to the possibilities provided in thought, is the most powerful and yet the most witty of all languages of the world.”
David Crystal (Aka English professor, author of the Encyclopedia of Cambridge for the English)

“It’s amazing to see how much more we rely on the Greek, to talk about entities and events at the heart of modern life.”
Michael Ventris (The man who deciphered the Linear B)

“The ancient Greek language was and is higher all the old and new languages.”
R.H. Robins (Linguist and author)

“The Greek triumph in the spiritual culture is that gave so much to so many sectors […]. Their achievements in the field of linguistics which was extremely strong, ie the theory of grammar and grammatical description of the language is strong enough to merit and to withstand criticism. Also be such as to inspire gratitude and our admiration. “
Luis José Navarro (Deputy to the educational program “Evroklassika” of the EU)

“The Greek language for me is like cosmogony. It is not just a language … “
Juan Jose Puhana Arza (Basque Hellenist and politician)

“We must proclaim that there has been in the world a language which can be compared to the classical Greek.”
D’Eichtal (French author)

“The Greek language is a language which has all the features, all the conditions of an international tongue … touches these same beginnings of civilization … which not only there was no stranger to none of the major events of the human spirit, religion, in politics, in literature, the arts, the sciences, but was also the first tool – to scan all these – so to speak, the womb … Language logic while euphonic, among all the other … “
Theodore F. Brunner (TLG founder and director until 1997)

“Anyone who wonder why so many millions of dollars spent on the hoarding of Greek words, we reply: But this is the language of our ancestors and contact with them will improve our culture.”
Jacques Lang (French Ministry of Education)

“I would like to see to learn Ancient Greek, with the same zeal that we demonstrate, and Greek schools.”
In his work “A Brief History of the Greek Language” by the famous linguist A.. Meillet, supported strongly the superiority of Greek over other languages.

WHAT THE WORD ETYMOLOGY MEANS

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.

Let’s deal with the etymo words.

 

  1. an undeniable kinship relation to: ΜΕΤΟΠΗ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΚΥΚΛΩΨ, ΜΥΩΠΙΑ.
    ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ. (EUROPE, CYCLOPS, METOPI, EUROPE, MYOPIA, CALLIOPE)

 

We read of the “Works and Days” of Hesiod verses 168-201, where the poet mentions the mythological version of the genesis of “Iron genus” of people, the fifth in the order of creation. In this integrating and people of his time. And obviously in that we also belong, and since we are an unbroken continuity of that generation.

After enjoying the vivid Hesiodic narration from the original, but more than the most easily understood translations, we stand in certain words of the text, which in one way or another to survive until today, even if they look at first glance perhaps incomprehensible.

The isolated word is  “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” that perform as the “Pantepoptes”. Trace the aitiologisis of any translation: the evryopas (or evryops) is a composite ευρύς + όψ – (=word – wide + brave opening) . The first of these two words are easy to understand, which is why we focus on two:

the brave opening όψ

 – the flesh = όψ – genetivus: οπός=όψις, όρασις, οφθαλμός – opsis(=the view), orasis(=the up vision), ophthalmos (=the eye). Moving to a deeper investigation, we start from the root of the word is op- from which are also produced: op-O-p-s, opsomai (op-p-inbred), OMMA (op-ma), view (op -cis), eye (ori-chamber), hole (hole in the roof as a chimney, opening that enables that vision, and then each hole).

From these basic derivatives root -op find that rescued already aftousios words: view, eye, hole, spoiled the word OMMA> ommation> eye.

We now return to λέξις – LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, the Pantepoptes.

But then the associations recall to our memory a multitude of everyday words, such as: suspect – suspect – suspicious // Synopsis-efsynoptos-this-baked – autopsy – autopsy scout // – // katoptefsis on-optefo – Supervisors-Registry – on-baked – inhab-view – Flat-optron.

 

The word bore us directly refers to the “ROOTS” of the churches, which are among the long holes that let the beams of the roof, which was later covered with embossed plates, while concealing the edge of the beams were placed Triglyphs plates, but in between two holes (eyes) field. This second word but derived from a further Word root -op:

The ops of opos wherein extent of op- to op-.

the LEΞΙΣ –  Lexie this encounter eg in verse 158 C of the Iliad, where Homer, speaking of the beauty of Helen, says (Doric dialect): “αινώς αθανάτοισοι θεής εις ώπα έοικεν” – “Hainaus athanatoisoi theis at opa eoiken”(= ultimate immortal gods has same appearance)

From the LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) ops comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (=Europe = wide), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – stenopos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon= person, ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, which means “cytomegalovirus” as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “evryopa” we saw in the beginning.

 

In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.

And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the LEΞΙΣ-Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς = a(=γέρον=geron=elder ) + ωψ-ops  [=bud, up vision)] = one who suffers from πρεσβυωπία-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).

 

The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

Other finally myo derivative is myeo (= enter the sacraments, catechize, instruct, but murmured, secretly). And from this comes: myisis, mystic, mystery.

 

One of the nine Muses, who was distinguished for her beautiful voice, Named-hole as having Καλλι-όπη – “καλήν όπα” “Kalin opa”. Indeed, Calliope was considered the protector of the human voice products, such as rhetoric and, above all, the epic poetry. That is why the word brave opening οψ-ops (=φωνή-phoni=voice) differs from the assonance of brave opening οψ (= up vision) not only semantically but etymologically because produced by root (where epic = ratio), changing qualitatively in op- .

Agathocles = good + glory-Αγαθοκλής = αγαθός + κλέος (the owner good reputation)
Alexander-a αλέξω: απομακρύνω + ανήρ = ALEX: man + Remove the repeller men, the brave, etymologically means “push people (enemies)
Ariadne = Atoll: very+pure-πολύ + αγνή

 Aglaia Aglaia: bright, shiny- αγλαός
Alcmene = Alki: spurn + wrath: moon (αλκή + μήνη)

Αριστοτέλης (Aristoteles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from άριστος (aristos) “best” and τέλος (telos) “purpose, aim”. This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.
Anastasios = + per istimi: stand (ανα + ίστημι) ana+istimi
George = from the farmers (land + work) From: γεωργώ (γη or γαια-gaia+ έργον)
Dimitrios = H (Dorian type of Earth) + mother  Δη (δωρικός τύπος του Γη or γαια) + μήτηρ
Demosthenes = municipality + valence (people power) δήμος + σθένος-demos+sthenos
Diogenes = Zeus + genus (the begotten) Ζευς + γένος
Eleni = ELE: come upon, conquer (candle) ελέ
Irene=Peace-Ειρήνη = είρω- (I speak ) + νους nous-  = eiro (opt) + mind
Epaminondas = on + ameinon, progressive
Erato = Question: I love (the adorable)
Eteocles ETEC =: true glory + (having the true glory).
Evangelos = ef + advert (bearing the good messages)
Evdokia = ef + doko: I view
Evdoxia = ef + Glory (having the good reputation)
Eftychios = ef + luck
Euphemia = ef + Fimios
Electra = Helector: the radiating sun (radiation from grace)
Thalleia = million thallium (I’m full)
Thucydides = + kydos God: glory (the praise God)
Jason = Iasis: treatment (the therapist)
Jocasta = + ion kazo: perk
Iphigenia = ifi: powerful + gignomai
Calliope = beauty + ops: bud
Cleopatra = + Patria glory (the glory of the fatherland) – Κλεοπάτρα = κλέος + πάτρη – kleos + patri
Laertes = people + weigh: Elected
Leonidas = people + one thing I know: I know (Λεωνίδας = λαός + οίδα) laos+oida
Lito = Stranded
Lysistrata = unfasten Army +
Cloud = mists: pour water
Xenophon = stranger + voices Ξενοφών = ξένος + φωνέω – xeno + phoneo


 Ulysses

In Greek mythology Champs Elysees are part of Hades. It is the final destination of the soul of heroes and virtuous. The Champs Elysees prevails eternally spring and sources of Lethe gush nectar that makes souls to forget all earthly tears and hardships. There lies in the legend Menelaus and Helen, and Cadmus and other Thebans heroes. Under the shadow Myrties practice in riding and arena or playing dice and music. Minos, brother Rhadamanthus reigns on the plain of arrival, where they had brought the sleeper Saturn that being intoxicated by drinking honey, was captured and tied by Zeus. According to the Orphic, Saturn reigned there having queen Rhea. References to the Champs Elysees in Ancient Secretariat until -4o century is rare. In Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) appear only two: There is one in the Odyssey (Odyssey 4.556) and a mention of Aristotle in that passage of Homer: Odyssey:


Oedipus = ydis + foot (the owner swollen feet) Οιδίπους = ύδης + πους – ydis + pus
Olympus = ex shine from: Όλυμπος =  λάμπω – lambo
Pausanias = ex cease
Pericles = on + glory (glorious) (Περικλής = περί + κλέος)
Penelope = pini: woof + lepo: uncoil – Πηνελόπη = πήνη + λέπω – pini + lepo
Poseidon = Drink: River + eido: I am responsible – Ποσειδών = πόσις: ποταμός + είδω – potamos + ido
Prometheus = pre + mithos: attention (the prudent) – Προμηθέας = προ + μήθος
Rea = ex Raos (ready) – Ρέα = from:ράο – rao
Socrates save + state =
Telemachus = Tele+machi = fight away – Τηλέμαχος = τήλε + μάχομαι Ex: Andromache (= battle against man), – one of the doughters of Priamus of Troja or Ilion. Ex Telepathy, etc.
Phoebus = faos: bright – Φοίβος = φάος-phaos
Christopher + = Christ fetch – Χριστόφορος = Χριστός + φέρω -christos + fero..Ex Metaphoric, periphoric etc.

Equally great interest and various names sites.
Asia = ase: surfeit (wealthy country) or by program (large area)
Attic = Atta: attaiki (very old)
Achaean = a (purpose.) + Earth = native
Europe = + broad ops (ευρύς + ωψ – eurys + ops-genetivus: optikou etc) = large eyed
Evrotas = ef + roos
Thessaly = position + als: sea (Θεσσαλία = θέσις + αλς:θάλασσα)
Thrace = from:Θράκη = θράσσω-THRASSOU= destroy
Kallirroi well = + flow (Καλλιρρόη = καλώς + ρέω)
Laconian = la (purpose.) + Akeon==oligomilitos=short speaking one) Λάκων = λα + ακέων
Macedon = makednos: high, long Μακεδών = μακεδνός
Salamina als = (rpm) + Minion: small (located near the shore)
Slav = tumult + vao (Wajda) Σλάβος = σάλος + βάω (βαίνω)
Sparta = sow
The etymology of the word Anthropos=Man by Socrates (Η ετυμολογία της λέξης Άνθρωπος κατα τον Σωκράτη)

The Greek language is the only conceptual language of the land, ie the only language in which the signifier (name) contains absolutely no misunderstanding and the signified (meaning). That today are given by each of lexin Greek colloquial various interpretations, that’s evidence had the loss of wisdom, which is inherent in our language, by current users of this, ie from us today Greeks.

But on this issue, there is a real treasure of the Greek Secretariat, which should all Greeks to study him. It is the Platonic dialogue “KRATYLOS”, which refers precisely to the history, philosophy and etymology of the Greek language names. Especially those possessed by Etymologicum our language estrus, we will be necessary to carefully read this dialogue.

Etymology

WHAT THE WORD ETYMOLOGY MEANS

The word “etymology” is found in the ancient Greek language as etymology (ἐτυμολογία) from: ἔτυμον + -λογία, = ‘study’  the word ratio, or the true meaning. The Greek poet Pindaros (522 B.C.) employed creative etymologies to flatter his sponsors. Plutarch employed etymologies that were based on vague similarities fantastic sounds. The work of Isidore of Seville Etymologiae was an encyclopedic detect “first concepts” that remained uncritically in use in Europe until the 16th century. But the Etymologicum genuinum is a grammatical encyclopedia edited in Constantinople in the 9th AD century, a project among many similar in Byzantium. The Legenda Aurea 14th century begins the narration of the life of each saint with an imaginative reference to the form of etymology.

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό = etymological”), which go be said: True, real.

 

Let’s deal with the etymo words.

 

  1. An undeniable kinship relation to: ΜΕΤΟΠΗ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΚΥΚΛΩΨ, ΜΥΩΠΙΑ, ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ. (EUROPE, CYCLOPS, METOPI, EUROPE, MYOPIA, CALLIOPE)

  2. The Brave opening: όψ (Ops) – the flesh = όψ – genetivus: οπός=όψις, – opsis(=the view or optic), orasis(=the up vision), όρασις, οφθαλμός (ophthalmos =the eye..ex: Ophalmiatros=eyehealer or doctor)). Moving to a deeper investigation, we start from the root of the word is op- from which are also produced: op-O-p-s, opsomai (op-p-inbred), OMMA (op-ma), view (op -cis), eye (ori-chamber), hole (hole in the roof as a chimney, opening that enables that vision, and then each hole).From these basic derivatives root -op find that rescued already aftousios words: view, eye, hole, spoiled the word OMMA- ommation – eye.

  3. The isolated word is  “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, that perform as the “Pantepoptes”(=Total controlers)..

  4. ..THEN one knows..What the word ΕΥΡΩΠΗ (EUROPE)Europa …means…Here:Europa being abducted by Zeus disguised as a bull, detail from an Attic (Attica was – & still is the county of Athens) krater(, 5th century; in the Tarquinia National Museum

  5. From LEΞΙΣ –  ops comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (=Europe = wide), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – stenopos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon= person, ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

  6. Trace the aitiologisis (=reason) of any translation: the evryopas (or evryops) is a composite ευρύς + όψ – (=word – wide + brave opening) . The first of these two words are easy to understand, which is why we focus on two: We read of the “Works and Days” of Hesiod verses 168-201, where the poet mentions the mythological version of the genesis of “Iron genus” of people, the fifth in the order of creation. In this integrating and people of his time. And obviously in that we also belong, and since we are an unbroken continuity of that generation.

  7. In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.

    And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the LEΞΙΣ-Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς = a(=γέρον=geron=elder ) + ωψ-ops  [=bud, up vision)] = one who suffers from πρεσβυωπία-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).

After enjoying the vivid Hesiodic narration from the original, but more than the most easily understood translations, we stand in certain words of the text, which in one way or another to survive until today, even if they look at first glance perhaps incomprehensible.

But then the associations recall to our memory a multitude of everyday words, such as: suspect – suspect – suspicious // Synopsis-efsynoptos-this-baked – autopsy – autopsy scout // – // katoptefsis on-optefo – Supervisors-Registry – on-baked – inhab-view – Flat-optron.

 

The word bore us directly refers to the “ROOTS” of the churches, which are among the long holes that let the beams of the roof, which was later covered with embossed plates, while concealing the edge of the beams were placed Triglyphs plates, but in between two holes (eyes) field.

The ops of opos wherein extent of op- to op-.

the LEΞΙΣ –  Lexie this encounter eg in verse 158 C of the Iliad, where Homer, speaking of the beauty of Helen, says (Doric dialect): “αινώς αθανάτοισοι θεής εις ώπα έοικεν” – “Hainaus athanatoisoi theis at opa eoiken”(= ultimate immortal gods has same appearance)

 

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, which means “cytomegalovirus” as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “evryopa” we saw in the beginning.

 The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

 

Other finally myo derivative is myeo (= enter the sacraments, catechize, instruct, but murmured, secretly). And from this comes: myisis, mystic, mystery.

 

One of the nine Muses, who was distinguished for her beautiful voice, Named-hole as having Καλλι-όπη – “καλήν όπα” “Kalin opa”. Indeed, Calliope was considered the protector of the human voice products, such as rhetoric and, above all, the epic poetry. That is why the word brave opening οψ-ops (=φωνή-phoni=voice) differs from the assonance of brave opening οψ (= up vision) not only semantically but etymologically because produced by root (where epic = ratio), changing qualitatively in op-

Guide to words translation.

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

 

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

 

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

 

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

Α´

1

 

Ι´

10

 

Ρ´

100

 

͵Α

1000

Β´

2

 

Κ´

20

 

Σ´

200

 

͵Β

2000

Γ´

3

 

Λ´

30

 

Τ´

300

 

͵Γ

3000

Δ´

4

 

Μ´

40

 

Υ´

400

 

͵Δ

4000

Ε´

5

 

Ν´

50

 

Φ´

500

 

͵Ε

5000

Ϛ´

6

 

Ξ´

60

 

Χ´

600

 

͵Ϛ

6000

Ζ´

7

 

Ο´

70

 

Ψ´

700

 

͵Z

7000

Η´

8

 

Π´

80

 

Ω´

800

 

͵H

8000

Θ´

9

 

Ϟ´

90

 

Ϡ´

900

 

͵Θ

9000

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for “5″, “10″, “100″, “1000″, and “10,000″. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss.

Agathocles = good + glory-Αγαθοκλής = αγαθός + κλέος (the owner good reputation)
Alexander-a αλέξω: απομακρύνω + ανήρ = ALEX: man + Remove the repeller men, the brave, etymologically means “push people (enemies)
Ariadne = Atoll: very+pure-πολύ + αγνή

 Aglaia Aglaia: bright, shiny- αγλαός
Alcmene = Alki: spurn + wrath: moon (αλκή + μήνη)
Anastasios = + per istimi: stand (ανα + ίστημι) ana+istimi
George = from the farmers (land + work) From: γεωργώ (γη or γαια-gaia+ έργον)
Dimitrios = H (Dorian type of Earth) + mother  Δη (δωρικός τύπος του Γη or γαια) + μήτηρ
Demosthenes = municipality + valence (people power) δήμος + σθένος-demos+sthenos
Diogenes = Zeus + genus (the begotten) Ζευς + γένος
Eleni = ELE: come upon, conquer (candle) ελέ
Irene=Peace-Ειρήνη = είρω- (I speak ) + νους nous-  = eiro (opt) + mind
Epaminondas = on + ameinon, progressive
Erato = Question: I love (the adorable)
Eteocles ETEC =: true glory + (having the true glory).
Evangelos = ef + advert (bearing the good messages)
Evdokia = ef + doko: I view
Evdoxia = ef + Glory (having the good reputation)
Eftychios = ef + luck
Euphemia = ef + Fimios
Electra = Helector: the radiating sun (radiation from grace)
Thalleia = million thallium (I’m full)
Thucydides = + kydos God: glory (the praise God)
Jason = Iasis: treatment (the therapist)
Jocasta = + ion kazo: perk
Iphigenia = ifi: powerful + gignomai
Calliope = beauty + ops: bud
Cleopatra = + Patria glory (the glory of the fatherland) – Κλεοπάτρα = κλέος + πάτρη – kleos + patri
Laertes = people + weigh: Elected
Leonidas = people + one thing I know: I know (Λεωνίδας = λαός + οίδα) laos+oida
Lito = Stranded
Lysistrata = unfasten Army +
Cloud = mists: pour water
Xenophon = stranger + voices Ξενοφών = ξένος + φωνέω – xeno + phoneo

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

 

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

 

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

 

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

Α´

1

 

Ι´

10

 

Ρ´

100

 

͵Α

1000

Β´

2

 

Κ´

20

 

Σ´

200

 

͵Β

2000

Γ´

3

 

Λ´

30

 

Τ´

300

 

͵Γ

3000

Δ´

4

 

Μ´

40

 

Υ´

400

 

͵Δ

4000

Ε´

5

 

Ν´

50

 

Φ´

500

 

͵Ε

5000

Ϛ´

6

 

Ξ´

60

 

Χ´

600

 

͵Ϛ

6000

Ζ´

7

 

Ο´

70

 

Ψ´

700

 

͵Z

7000

Η´

8

 

Π´

80

 

Ω´

800

 

͵H

8000

Θ´

9

 

Ϟ´

90

 

Ϡ´

900

 

͵Θ

9000

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for “5″, “10″, “100″, “1000″, and “10,000″. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss.

The (Ionian) Greek system of enumeration was a little more sophisticated than the Egyptian though it was non-positional. Like the Attic and Egyptian systems it was also decimal. Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception.

A vast knowledge locked-coded into words because of mathematical values ​​they have. One of the pioneers on the matter was maximum Pythagoras.

The numbers, shapes, harmony and the stars have something in common, so respectively mathematics (numbers) geometry (shape), harmony (music) and astro-nomy (one star = a-choris- bracket + natural nomoipou govern ) were sisters sciences by Pythagoras, which in this series we discussed was the ladder to development (= ex -tou- helix, DNA) of mind-soul to the Creator.

A Creator who created based on these four disciplines. 27 symbols-figures in numerical value make up the Greek Alphabet, 3 groups of 9 numbers-symbols each group, totaling each group 45, 450, 4,500.
ALPHA = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

To be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of words of ancient Greek tongue should first know a little about the actual Greek language.

The ancient Greek language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that will try to approach.

The beginning of everything is the same as the Greek alphabet (which of course we did not get it from someone else as we shall see, because factually not possible). The letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole was 33 and as many vertebrae, the last five vertebrae (playing the role of the antenna) directly related to the brain and corresponding to the last 5 ineffable letters which only the priests knew * one of them It was the right (or Gammadion) which in Latin became swstika and the Nazis stole and name Swastika. This symbol is the life-giving Sun (Apollo), the Nazis reversed it to symbolize the opposite of life-giving Sun, ie dark death.

There were also some letters which over time abolished as Digamma (F), Qoppa (Q), stigma (S ‘), Saba (ϡ)
Pythagoras inform us about the 3 levels of Greek language which are:

963
1. Talking
2. Signifier (a. Signal b. Signified)
3. caches (a. Time b. Vibration c. Lexarithmos d. Tonarithmos)
-The First is the speech
-The Second is the relationship between the mark and the signified that we will analyze below
-The Third is the interval (distance & time), vibration (which awakens the brain through resonance frequencies of the pulses dimiourgithentes – Pallas Athena) the lexarithmos (relation of letters and words with numbers) and tonarithmos (relation of letters and words of tunes )

Each letter corresponding to a number, and a musical tone so letter = number = tone (musician), which shows that in our language behind letters-words are numbers (lexarithmoi) and musical sounds (tonarithmoi).

The four sisters sciences by Pythagoras were:
1. Numbers (mathematics)
2. Shapes (Geometry)
3. Music (Harmony)
4. Astronomy

The sciences are interrelated and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.

1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony), shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
2.The Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.

The enormous importance of music for the Pythagoreans

 <<<<<<<<PYTHAGORAS AND MUSIC>>>>>>>
                                                                                                            
So it said that Pythagoras, and practice once, with the help spondiakou State played a piper, extinguished the rage of an intoxicated young Tafromenitou, who during the night attacked with loud voices against his mistress at the door of his rival by drawing to set fire to the house. And so, being in a tizzy and he is steady due to the Phrygian melody lumen. This passion has rapidly healed Pythagoras, who happened at that moment, at an inappropriate time, to deal with the laws governing the stars. Then said the piper to turn the Phrygian melody spondaic, with which the young man, having calmed down, returned immediately and decency in his house, and just now not only tolerated by Pythagoras or admonition, but with fury and insults He had refused to meet him.


That is not the Alphabet is copied from elsewhere seen in that in the year 2300 BC (Studies of Tziropoulou other and not 800 BC) by Homer already at the disposal of 6,500,000 primary words (first person singular present tense &) which if you multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.
The Greek language is the only one that can be used for H / Y due mathimatikotitas and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS: Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc etc if now these words the English translation is completely unrelated.

If we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth the year 100,000 BC; 500,000 BC; who knows …
But the ultimate proof is the same of the mathimatikotita, which does not exist in any other language of the world. Do not even forget that the Creator uses math to create, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1).

But before the “crypt” is the “Signifier”, ie the connection of words with meanings. He said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that such and such a subject would call it “X”, which makes the languages ​​sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.

How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? let alone the multiple aspects of this? It can not be So why all started here. It means therefore is connecting the signal to the signified, that the word itself is generated in such a manner that describes the meaning esokleinei instruments.

Example: The naming of the word curry (Walnut), as we read in thesecretrealtruth, from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with ker.ata their sounds “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name of the State or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.

The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe respective concepts which come from the observation of nature ie of Creation so by extension of the same Creator, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers, yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones into their hide Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?

Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “wisdom Authority names visitation”

De Groot (Netherlands Homeric texts professor at the University of Montreal)

“The Greek language has continuity and teaches to be ownerless and got a glory, that an opinion. In this language there is no orthodoxy. So even if the education system wants people law-abiding – a mold – the spirit of ancient texts and language in learning to be a boss. “
James Joyce (Famous Irish author, 1882-1941)

“Almost afraid to touch the Odyssey, the oppressive beauty is unbearable.”
The great French writer Jacques Lakarrier said:

“In Greek there is a vertigo of words, because only she explored, recorded and analyzed the innermost processes of speech and language, more than any other language.”
The great French enlightener Voltaire had said

“May the Greek language to become common all peoples.”
The French professor at the Sorbonne said Charles Foriel

“The Greek has homogeneity as the German, but richer than that. He has the clarity of the French, but it has greater precision. It is more flexible than the Italian and much more harmonious than the Spanish. Is that what it takes to be considered the most beautiful language of Europe. “
Marianna McDonald, professor of the University of California and Head of TLG said

“Knowledge of Greek is essential foundation of high cultural cultivation.”
The blind American writer Helen Keller had told

“If the violin is the most perfect musical instrument, the Greek language is the violin of human thought.”
John Goethe (The greatest poet of Germany, 1749-1832)

“I listened to St. Peter’s in Rome the Gospel in all languages. The Greek resonated star glowing in the night. “
Dialogue of Goethe with his disciples:

-Daskale What to read to become wise as you?

-the Greek classics.

-And When we finish the Greek classics what to read?

-Old Greek classics.
George Bernard Shaw (Great Irish playwright, 1856-1950)

“If the library of your home you do not have the works of ancient Greek authors, then you live in a house without light.”
Mark Tillios Cicero (the foremost man of ancient Rome, 106-43 BC)

“If the gods speak, then certainly use the language of the Greeks.”
Humphrey Kitty (English professor at the University of Bristol, 1968)

“It’s the nature of the Greek language is clean, precise and complex. The ambiguity and lack of direct enoraseos featuring sometimes English and German, is completely foreign to the Greek language. “
Irina Kovaleva (Modern Russian professor at the University Lomonosov, 1995)

“The Greek language is beautiful like heaven to the stars.”
RH Robins (Contemporary English linguist, professor at the University of London)

“Of course not only in linguistics where Greeks were pioneers in Europe. Overall Europe’s spiritual life goes back to the work of Greek thinkers.

Even today we return unceasingly in Greek heritage to find stimulation and encouragement. “
Frederick Sagkredo (Basque linguistics professor – Chairman of the Greek Academy of Vaskonias)

“The Greek language is the best legacy that has been available to the man on the evolution of the brain. Against all Greek and insist all languages are inadequate. “

“The ancient Greek language should become the second language of all Europeans, especially the cultured people.”

“The Greek language is of divine essence.”
Heinrich Schliemann (Renowned amateur archaeologist, 1822-1890)

“Everything I wanted passionately to learn Greek. I did not do it because I was afraid that the deep charm of this magnificent language would absorb so much that would have removed my other activities. “(The Schliemann spoke 18 languages seamlessly. For two years did nothing other than the studying 2 poems of Homer).
Ibn Khaldoun (Largest Arab historian)

“Where is the secretariat of the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians? All mankind has inherited the secretariat of the Greeks alone. “
Will Durant (American historian and philosopher, professor at the University of Columbia)

“Our alphabet came from Greece by Kimi and Rome. Our language is littered Greek words. Our science esfyrilatise Mian international language by the Greek terms. Our grammar and our rhetoric, even the punctuation and the division areas paragraphs … is Greek inventions. Our genres are Greeks – the lyric, the ode, the romance, the novel, the essay, the prosfonisis, biography, history and above all the vision. And almost all of these words are Greek. “
Jacqueline de Romigy (Modern French Academician and author)

“Ancient Greece offers us a language, which will say that it is universal.”

“Everyone needs to learn Greek, because the Greek language helps us first of all to understand our own language.”
Bruno Snell (Distinguished Professor at the University of Hamburg)

“The Greek language is the past of the Europeans.”
Frangkiskos Ligkora (Modern Italian university professor and president of the International Academy for the dissemination of culture)

“Greeks can be proud to speak the Greek language alive and the mother of all other languages. Do not neglect, since this is one of the few goods we have left and also your passport to the world civilization. “
The. Vantrouska (Professor of Linguistics at the University of Vienna)

“For a Japanese or Turkish, all European languages are not seen as separate but as dialects of one and the same language, Greek.”
Peter Jones (PhD – Professor at Oxford University who drafted lessons of ancient Greek WITH readership, for publication in the newspaper «DailyTelegraph»)

The Greeks of Athens in the 5th and 4th century had reached the language to the point that with her to explore ideas such as democracy and the origins of the universe, concepts such as sulfur and law. It is a wonderful and great language. “
Gilbert Murray (Professor, University of Oxford)

“The Greek is the perfect language. Often one finds that a thought can be expressed with ease and grace in Greek, and becomes difficult and severe in Latin, English, French or German. It is the perfect language, because it expresses the thoughts most perfect people. “
Max Von Laye (Nobel Prize in Physics)

“I Graces in divine providence, because it pleased to teach ancient Greek, who helped me to penetrate deeper into the meaning of science.”
E, Norden (the great German philologist)

“In addition to Chinese and Japanese, all other languages were formed under the influence of Greek, from which they took, besides many words, rules and grammar.”
Martin Heidegger (German philosopher, of the main representatives of existentialism in the 20th century)

“The ancient Greek language belongs to the standards through which showcase the spiritual forces of creative genius, because with respect to the possibilities provided in thought, is the most powerful and yet the most witty of all languages of the world.”
David Crystal (Aka English professor, author of the Encyclopedia of Cambridge for the English)

“It’s amazing to see how much more we rely on the Greek, to talk about entities and events at the heart of modern life.”
Michael Ventris (The man who deciphered the Linear B)

“The ancient Greek language was and is higher all the old and new languages.”
R.H. Robins (Linguist and author)

“The Greek triumph in the spiritual culture is that gave so much to so many sectors […]. Their achievements in the field of linguistics which was extremely strong, ie the theory of grammar and grammatical description of the language is strong enough to merit and to withstand criticism. Also be such as to inspire gratitude and our admiration. “
Luis José Navarro (Deputy to the educational program “Evroklassika” of the EU)

“The Greek language for me is like cosmogony. It is not just a language … “
Juan Jose Puhana Arza (Basque Hellenist and politician)

“We must proclaim that there has been in the world a language which can be compared to the classical Greek.”
D’Eichtal (French author)

“The Greek language is a language which has all the features, all the conditions of an international tongue … touches these same beginnings of civilization … which not only there was no stranger to none of the major events of the human spirit, religion, in politics, in literature, the arts, the sciences, but was also the first tool – to scan all these – so to speak, the womb … Language logic while euphonic, among all the other … “
Theodore F. Brunner (TLG founder and director until 1997)

“Anyone who wonder why so many millions of dollars spent on the hoarding of Greek words, we reply: But this is the language of our ancestors and contact with them will improve our culture.”
Jacques Lang (French Ministry of Education)

“I would like to see to learn Ancient Greek, with the same zeal that we demonstrate, and Greek schools.”
In his work “A Brief History of the Greek Language” by the famous linguist A.. Meillet, supported strongly the superiority of Greek over other languages.

 

The name of Apollo itself—though not Paean, a possible name of a precursor god to or epithet of him—is generally considered to be absent from the Linear B (Mycenean Greek) texts although it is possible that the name is in fact attested in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo-[ (Linear B: ]-[) on the KN E 842 tablet.The spelling Ἀπόλλων (pronounced [a.pól.lɔːn] in Classical Attic) had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form Apellon (Ἀπέλλων), is more archaic, derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων. It probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios (Ἀπελλαῖος), and the offerings apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai (ἀπέλλαι).According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella (ἀπέλλα), which originally meant “wall,” “fence for animals” and later “assembly within the limits of the square.”[ Apella (Ἀπέλλα) is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta,[9] corresponding to the ecclesia (ἐκκλησία). R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun.Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo’s name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), “to destroy”. Plato in Cratylus connects the name withἀπόλυσις (apolysis), “redeem”, with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), “purification”, and with ἁπλοῦν ([h]aploun), “simple”, in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀειβάλλων (aeiballon), “ever-shooting”. Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα (apella), which means “assembly”, so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos), “fold”, in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the Ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means “stone,” and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα (Pella,[14] the capital of Ancient Macedonia) and Πελλήνη(Pellēnē/Pallene)

Language

7270-year-old Tablet Found in Kastoria Calls into Question History of Writing

 

Back in 1993, in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in the Kastoria Prefecture, professor George Hourmouziadis and his team unearthed the Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or the Dispilio Disk), a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata) that has been carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP (5260 BC).

In February 2004, during the announcement of the Tablet’s discovery to the world, Hourmouziadis claimed that the text with the markings could not be easily publicized because it would ultimately change the current historical background concerning the origins of writing and articulate speech depicted with letters instead of ideograms within the borders of the ancient Greek world and by extension, the broader European one.

According to the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the markings suggested that the current theory proposing that the ancient Greeks received their alphabet from the ancient civilizations of the Middle East (Babylonians, Sumerians and Phoenicians etc) fails to close the historic gap of some 4,000 years. This gap translates into the following facts:  while ancient eastern civilizations would use ideograms to express themselves, the ancient Greeks were using syllables in a similar manner like we use today.

The currently accepted historic theory taught around the world suggests that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. However, a question emerges among scholars: how is it possible for the Greek language to have 800,000 word entries, ranking first among all known languages in the world, while the second next has only 250,000 word entries? How is it possible for the Homeric Poems to have been produced at about 800 BC, which is just when the ancient Greeks learned to write? It would be impossible for the ancient Greeks to write these poetic works without having had a history of writing of at least 10,000 years back, according to a US linguistic research.

The tablet is 2,000 years older than the written findings from the Sumerian era and 4,000 years older than the Cretan-Mycenean linear types of writing.

The markings on the tablet did not resemble the human figures, the sun and moon or other figures ideograms usually depict. They actually showed signs of advanced apheresis, which indicates they are the result of cognitive processes.

The tablet was partially damaged when it was exposed to the oxygen-rich environment outside of the mud and water in which it was immersed for a long period of time, and it is now under conservation. The full academic publication of the tablet apparently awaits the completion of the work of conservation

– See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/07/16/7270-year-old-tablet-found-in-kastoria-calls-into-question-history-of-writing/#sthash.o0yDtSd4.dpuf

Main article: Ancient Macedonian language

 

The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.

PHOENICIAN “ALPHABET”:  AN HISTORICAL DECEPTION 

This theory:

1. Completely rejects the theorem that the Greek language came from another language (the so-called “Indo-European”!!!), since it is proven to be the only non-conventional language of the world. In other words, the only language where a relationship betweenthe “word” (as a form) and the “meaning of the word” is established.

2. Consequently, it is proven that Greek is the first and only created language of the human species which provided the basis for all “conventional” languages, as are all the other languages of the world (where there is no causative relationship between the form and the meaning). These other languages are a corrupt form of Greek.

3. This theory proves, without a doubt, that the alphabet was created by the Greeks so that the 24 or 27 code letters would aid in attributing the meanings of the Greek words (and only of these).

4. Comparatively, this theory shows that the symbols of the Phoenician writings andtheir nouns, e.g., “alef” =ox, “beth” = hut, “gimel = camel, etc., not only do not containcoded meaning, but are also associated or refer to [the] primitive animal conditions[one would expect in a culturally backward society].

Overwhelming evidence that one of the most important discoveries in the history of civilization is Greek ,a deception that usurps and distorts Greek History and Civilization. It is of utmost importance that the truth be restored not only for modern Greece, but also for thewhole of humanity.The deception that alphabetical script was discovered by the Phoenicians is a long-lived one.For the past 14 years [the Greek scholarly magazine] Davlos has published numerous articleson this problem. This prompted K. Katis to ask that we submit a relevant article for hismainstream daily so that this important issue would become known to a wider audience.

This article summarizes the strong evidence against the “Phoenician Deception,” and proves that the greatest discovery in the history of civilization is Greek. We believe it necessary to republish this article in [this issue of] Davlos exactly as it appeared in the daily.

A SCIENTIFIC MONSTROSITY.

According to linguistic theory, an “alphabet” is defined as “the sum of symbols following a specific sequence and order used to ascribe the essential utterances of a language, under thecondition that each utterance represents only one symbol and vice-versa”. Consequently, in alphabetical script (as an example, in the writings of the people of Europe, America,Australian, as well as the other parts of the world) each letter represents one essential sound.This is not true for the imperfect alphabets expressed through syllables where each symbolrepresents a syllable (with two or more voiced sounds). For example, in Greek Linear A andB, there is a symbol that represents the syllable ko (k + o), a symbol that represents the syllable po (p + o), etc. In Phoenician writing (which has only consonants and no vowels), this situation is even worse, as far as we can tell from the small amount of existing samples.

In Phoenician, each symbol is not equivalent to one specific syllable, but to a variety of syllables, and thus the reader can use his imagination when attempting to decipher the sounds. For example, there are consonants which can be read as either ba, bou, be, bi, bo, etc. Others  is not an alphabet, it is a less advanced form of writingthat can be read as gou, ga, ge, go, and so on. Consequently, Phoenician script does not constitute an alphabet, and is not even an advanced form of syllabic script nearing the perfection of the equivalent Greek syllabic writings. It is truly amazing to think that, in the academic world of the past 150 years, the almost contradictory term of “Phoenician alphabet” has been established, which, in reality refers to a type of writing that has nothing to do with an alphabet. It is even more unbelievable to think that the scientific dogma that Greek came from Phoenician has been enforced. Not only the Phoenician is not an alphabet, it is a less advanced form of writing than Greek Linear A and B.

So, professor G. Babiniotis’ statement that “Phoenician writing is something like a syllabic alphabet” must be rejected and replaced with the correct characterization of Phoenician as a “purely concise syllable system of writing,” as stated by the former president of the Greek Society of Philologists, Pan. Georgountzos (see “The Alphabet: A Greek Discovery” by Pan. Georgountzos, Davlos, issue 142, October 1993, page 8242).

GREEKNESS OF THE ALPHABET

a) Archaeological Evidence The theory that the alphabet is a Phoenician discovery has been maintained through the argument, among other things, that certain symbols of Phoenician writing are similar to the letters of the alphabet. For example, the Phoenician alef is the reverse or sideways Greek “A.” This argument was a strong one until about 100 years ago, when linguists and historians still maintained that the Greeks did not know how to write before 800 B. C.! Around 1900 A.D., however, Arthur Evans excavated the Greek Minoan Crete and discovered the Greek Linear writings, whose symbols corresponded to 17 of the 24 letters of the Greek Alphabet. Given that (A), the most ancient evidence of the Greek scripts (Linear A and Linear B) that were later discovered in Pylos, Mycenae, Menidi and Thebes — but also in more northern areas up to the Danube river as well — were dated to before 1500 B.C. And (B), that the Phoenicians and their writings appear in history no earlier than 1300 BC, Evans was the first person to express doubts about the theory that the Greeks received their script from the Phoenicians. He put forward the scientific suspicion that it was probably the other way round. The doubts pertaining as to who was first — the Phoenicians or the Greeks — in discovering writing, became a certainty when French professor, Paul Fore, an internationally acclaimed specialist on Prehistoric Archaeology, published a report in Nestor (an American Archaeological Journal of the University of Indiana — 16th year, 1989, page 2288). In this report, he submits and deciphers plates with Greek Linear writing found at the cyclopean wall of Pilikates, in Ithaca, dated, through the use of modern scientific methods, back to 2700 B.C., The language of these plates was Greek, and the decoding by professor Fore resulted in the following syllabic text, expressed phonetically: A]RE-DA-TI. DA-MI-U-A-.A-TE-NA-KA-NA-RE (ija)-TE. The phonetic equivalent of this is translated, always according to the professor, as: “Ιδού τι εγώ η Αρεδάτις δίδω εις την ανασσαν, την θεάν Ρέαν: 100 αίγας, 10 πρόβατα, 3 χοίρους” [Here is what I, Aredatis, gives to the queen- goddess Rea, 100 goats, 10 sheep, 3 pigs]. (See, “Davlos” magazine, issue 107, November 1990, page 6103). Thus, Fore proved that the Greeks were writing and speaking Greek at least 1400 years before the appearance of the Phoenicians and their script in history. But, the archaeological excavations in Greece during the last 15 years have given us many more great surprises: The Greeks were writing using not only Linear A and B, but also a type of writing identical to that of the alphabet since at least 6000 B.C. In fact, at Dispilio, in the lake of Kastoria, in northern Greece, professor G. Houmouziadis discovered a plate with writing very similar to that of the alphabet, which was dated, using radioactive Carbon- 14 and visual photothermal methodology, back to 5250 B.C. (see Davlos, issue 147). Three years later, N. Samson, a curator of the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Department, discovered shards of vases (“ostraka”) with letters identical to the present Greek alphabet while excavating at the “Cyclop’s Cave,” on the deserted island of Yioura, near the inhabited island of Alonnissos, in the Northern Sporades island complex. These vases were dated to5,500 to 6,000 B.C. with the same methods (see “Davlos,” issue 185, May 1997). The same archaeologist, while performing excavations on the island of Milos, discovered vessels of the proto-cycladic period (mid-3rd millennium B.C.) with letters identical to the Greek letters:

“X,” “N,” “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi],”Π” [p], “Ο,” & “Ε.” (See N. Samson’s interview in Davlos,issue 204, December 1998, page 12749.)

It is apparent that these archaeological discoveries have given a “comical’ character to the so-called “Phoenician Theory” on the discovery of writing. In addition, these archaeological discoveries have revolutionized chronological dating of Greek history as it is taught today, as well as the world history of civilization itself. (See also the book by Con. Koutrouvelli, “Re- establishing the Chronology of Prehistoric Times based primarily on astronomical information from Ancient Writers,” Davlos Publishing, 1999.)

b) The somewhat mathematical proof

While the house-of-cards which provided “proof”‘ of the so-called “Phoenician alphabet” was being torn down by archaeological discoveries, another overwhelming piece of evidence surfaced. This evidence was offered to us by the 20-year long discreet and timid research of the Greek Language and Writing by a great researcher, Elias Tsatsomoiros. Unfortunately E.Tsatsomoiros passed away on December 19th 1991, after having, however, completed his revolutionary work, History of the Genesis of the Greek Language-from the hunter-gatherer to the time of Zeus-the Deciphering of the Greek Alphabet. The undersigned [writer of this article] had the honor of publishing and editing this work (Davlos Publishing, 1991), but also the honor of having worked closely with the researcher for more than a decade. We had long discussions on the numerous problems arising from the research, and we had published a series of articles in Davlos magazine. This memorable researcher proved in a remarkable way that every letter of the Greek alphabet contained a consistent code meaning, which is literally introduced either exactly or metaphorically within the general meaning of the Greek word it belongs to, as a partial meaning. Consequently, every (ancient) Greek word is basically an acronym (similar to D(imosia) E (picheirisi) H(lektrismou) [=ΔΕΗ in Greek, or as U(nited) N(ations), in English], where every letter provides a significant or less significant notional element, and then, they all together provide the logical definition of the meaning expressed bythe word. The “significant difference” of each word’s meaning is usually provided by the firstletter. Obviously, there is not enough space in this article to present the code meaning of the letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole, as they are analyzed in this revolutionary volume of research in the field of human speech. As an example, I will choose only one of the now days 24 letters (orinaly 27) of the Hellenic alphabet, “Ypsilon” = “Y” or, small case, “u” (pronounced, long-e “eepsilon,” the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet, and familiar to us as “Y” in the so-called “Latin” alphabet– which is nothing more than a variationof the Greek “Chalcidean” alphabet). Ypsilon, therefore, as its shape indicates, has the code meaning of “a cavity” οr, if reversed, of a “convexity.” This meaning is introduced into the words containing this letter, and sometimes, by extension into the meaning of liquids (which, through their natural flow end up filling the “cavity”). I will quickly mention some of the names of vessels and liquids (such as the amphiconical κ-Υ-πελλο which is dated back to 2700 B.C. and is displayed at the Heraklion Museum). One may add to the words mentioned there, many others, such as kot-Y-li, go-Y-ttos, tr-Y-blion, p-Y-xis, amphore-Y-s, b-Y-tion, l-Y-chnos, procho-Y-s, ske-Y-os, etc, all having the meaning of a curvedobject. Also, some other words such as k-Y-hsis (rounding of the stomach ofan eng-Y-os [pregnant] woman); k-Y-ma (curving on the surface of the ocean); cr-Y-pti (curving of the ground); the preposition [h-Y-po] Y-po (meaning under a certain level); h-Y-per (preposition meaning above acertain level); Y-psos =height; and all of the hundreds of words that have h-Y-po or h-Y-per as a prefix, as well as thousands of others. This discovery, which unfortunately has been officially ignored, is a continuation of the forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of language (see Plato’s Cratylus ).

 

THE HERODOTUS EXTRACT

All the Greek writers who mention the alphabet (they called it “grammata”) consider it a very ancient Greek invention (by Prometheus, Palamedes, Linus, etc). The theory of the Phoenician alphabet was always, and is still, based on an exception to this general rule. Thisexception is an excerpt from Herodotus, that he himself presents as his ‘personal opinion’ (“ως εμοι δοκεει” = “as it seems to me”). This opinion was formed based on the sayings of others, as he himself mentions in the previous paragraphs (“αναπυνθανομενος” = taking information from others). Let us have a look at the Herodotus’ excerpt (History, E 58): [58. As far as the Phoenicians, they, who arrived with Cadmus, including the Gefiraioi, had lived in many other places and introduced also arts (new and unknown) to the Greeks; in fact, and also (some) writing, whichhad not been known to the Greeks before that, as I think, first this writing which was used by all the Phoenicians. With the passing of time, however, the Phoenicians changed this type of writing along with their language.]

The most important thing about this excerpt is that in the critical phrase “… ama tin foni metevallon kai ton rhithmon ton grammaton,” it is disclosed that the Phoenicians-Gefiraioi that went to Viotia with Cadmus brought some form of writing with them. But, as the Phoenicians “changed their language” (they learned Greek, in other words), they also changed their writing (they started writing, therefore, with the existing ancient Greek writing that already existed in Viotia). Although this statement was made by Herodotus, the translators, subsequently, provided the translation [meaning] that the local Greek Viotes and not the Phoenician emigrants changed their language and writing and adopted the Phoenician! This generally incoherent reference to the alphabet, as it has been saved, has been obviously altered and meddled with, who knows by whom and when. Let us look at the suspicious continuation of the text, as it has arrived to us:

Around them (the Phoenicians) lived at that place during that year (year of Cadmus) Ionian Greeks, who received through contact or through teachings by the Phoenicians their writings, changing their own writing which they used little. When using this writing and since this writing had been introduced to Greece by Phoenicians, they called it Phoenician.

Ionian Greeks living around the Phoenicians received the Phoenician writing and, using a few of its letters, since they had altered them and since it was just, they called it Phoenician-to pay tribute to the people who brought it to Greece, is a striking contradiction. Consequently, one can assume that this is a forged paragraph, hypothetically explanatory, which aims to reduce the previous statement “…as they changed their language, they changed their writing,” to an unimportant statement. This is how the “Phoenician Theory” was substantiated and is maintained as an obvious forgery.

IN ADDITION

The “Phoenician Theory” was established in Europe during a time, when, as the renowned British classical scholar, S. G. Rembroke (The Legacy of Greece, Oxford University Press, 1984) wrote, “The Phoenicians were given an intermediary role “that is not based on any historical information”. A role, in other words, of the transporter of wisdom and civilization from the “chosen” people of Israel to the “uncivilized” nations, and specifically the Greeks. This, of course, could be forgiven, since this was established around the end of the Medieval Ages, when religious fanaticism and backwardness had reached such a point that the daughter of Agamemnon, Iphigenia, is presented as the daughter of Iephtha; Deukalion is presented as

Noah; Appis is a consul of Joseph; Apollo, Priam, Tiresias, and Orpheus are corrupted personae of Moses; the story of the Argonauts is the crossing of the Israelites from Egypt to Palestine, and other similar distortions. The above are noted by Rembroke.

And we conclude: At the time, Hellenism was in comatose spiritual condition regarding national and historical awareness, and therefore totally unable to defend its history and civilization, and for this reason could not react and did not react. Today, it is with ourtolerance that our language is deemed “Indo-European,” and our writing “Phoenician,” our Athena and our Socrates are presented as “Blacks,” and our civilization as “African.” What spiritual situation are we in now? [i.e., What’s our excuse this time?]

 Notes: On page 13745 of this article, is a picture of a piece of shard [pottery] dated to 6,000 B.C., found on the islet of Youra of the North Sporades island complex with Greek alphabetical writings. One can see the letters “A,” “Y,” & “D” [alpha, eepsilon, and delta ], almost identical to the Greek letters of the classical alphabets. This finding proves that the Greek alphabet is older than the Greek Linear writings. This finding also completely and definitely disproves the false theory that the Greeks got their alphabet from the Phoenicians, who made their historical appearance around 1300 B.C., in other words about 4,500 to 5,000 years after the creation of this plaque at Youra. On page 13747 are shown letter-symbols from the Proto-cycladic vessels of Milos (mid-third millennium B.C.). One can distinguish the [letter] “X” [chi] to the left and the [letter] “N” to the right. These letters are written just as the letters of the Greek alphabet are written today.

Other vessels were also found with “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi], “Π” [p], “O,” and “E.” Source. 

 

About the name “man”, given by Socrates in “Cratylus” the following etymological interpretation (to quote here in translation):

[…… SOCRATES: I think the name of the people of these lesions suffered, and this became the name while ago was expression. With the removal of the Alpha program and the variation tone expiring from acute in heavier.

ERMOGENIS: What do you mean?

SOCRATES: Here’s what I mean: The name “man” means that while other animals nothing from what they see do not study, do not contemplate and do not say anything … anathroun not watch out … not the man once seen something – once and say “opope‘something – and anathrei and ponders what opope. It follows that man properly called “man”, because it is the only animal, which “anathrei s opope” observes that very carefully what is seen ….].

 

So periphrastic adjective “anathron s opope” was composed the word to “anathropos”, followed by removing the letter “a” between the notes “n” and “i” and the transfer of tuna to first syllavin of the word, was formulated the word “man”!

It should be stressed that the Greek language is unique, which characterizes man in mental abilities. All other Romance dialects characterize the man only by the ylikin ypostasin, the choikin, the dirt (homo, human, home, etc.). Be does this random, because the definition of a Greek lexin taken, or does the Greek language is unique, which highlights the priority which should focus the attention of man ;!

An adventure in the vast world of words is finishing here. And to think that we stood in a single row and a single Lexie this!

However, we believe that the results of this periplaniseos significantly both in terms of quality (depth) and quantity (width), to facilitate the possibility of “choice of words”, which is the first (of two) Asking for accurate and nice find. The second is the correct positioning of the words. Furthermore we think that was a visual way an example of the unity of the Greek language from antiquity to today.

From Slovenian blog http://vardaraxios.wordpress.com

The translation from google, (with known weaknesses of them).

KINGS OF Macedonian AND DIADOCHI

1. Ancient Greek Alexander (ALEXANDER Latinized)
Pronounced: al-eg-Jean-dur
From the Greek name Alexandros, meaning “defense men from the Greek alexein» for the defense, protection, help “and Aner» man «(general Andros). Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, is the most famous bearer of the name. In the 4th century BC, built a vast empire from Greece, Egypt, Persia and parts of India. His name was borne by five kings of Macedonia.

2. PHILIPPOS Ancient Greek (PHILIP Latinized)
Intense: FIL-ip
From the Greek name meaning Philip “friend of horses”, composed of the elements Philos friend “and hippos ‘horse’. His name was borne by five kings of Macedon, including, Philip the father of Alexander the Great.

2. AEROPOS Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Male form Aerope in Greek mythology was the wife of King Atreus of Mycenae. Aeropos was the son Aerope, daughter Kepheus: «Mars, Tegeans say with Aerope underestimated daughter Kepheus (king of Tegea), the son of Aleos. He died in giving birth to a child, Aeropos, who clung to his mother, even when she was dead, and sucked great abundance of milk from the breast. Now this was the will of Mars. “(Pausanias, 8:44). His name was taken from two kings of Macedonia.

4. ALKETAS m Ancient Greek (Alkaios Latinized)
Pronounced: al-SEE-us
Alke derived from the Greek meaning “strength”. This was the name of the 7th century BC lyric poet from the island of Lesbos.

5. Amynta Ancient Greek
Amyntor derived from the Greek meaning “defender”. His name was borne by three kings of Macedonia.

6. Antigonus Ancient Greek (Latinized antigen)
Pronounced: A-TIG-o-nus
Media “as the ancestor” from the Greek anti “like” and goneus «ancestor». This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After Alexander died, he took control of the greater part of Asia Minor. He was known as Antigonus ‘Monophthalmos »(« the One-Eyed’). Antigonus II (ruled 277-239 BC) was known as «Gonatos» («knee kneel”).

7. Antipater Ancient Greek (Latinized Antipater)
Pronounced: A-TI-pa-tur
From the Greek name of Antipater, meaning “like his father” from Greek anti “like his father” Father “. This was the name of an officer of Alexander the Great, who became the curator of Alexander Macedon during his absence.

8. ARCHELAOS Ancient Greek (ARCHELAUS Latinized)
Intense: ar-KEE-LAY-us
Latinized form of the Greek Archelaos name, which means “master of the people” by Arche «master» Laos and the “man.” He was also named the 7th Spartan king came to the throne of Sparta in 886 BC, long before the creation of the Macedonian state.

9. ARGAIOS m Greek Mythology (ARGUS Latinized)
Argos derived from the Greek meaning “glistening, shining”. In Greek legend this name belongs to both the man who built the Argo and a man with a hundred eyes. His name was borne by three kings of Macedonia.

10. Ancient Greek Demetrios (Demetriou Latinized)
Latin form of the Greek name Demetrios, derived from the name of Greek goddess Demeter. Kings of Macedonia and the Seleucid kingdom had that name. Dimitrios he (ruled 309-301 BC) was known as the “besieger” (the «Beseiger»).

11. KARANOS Ancient Greek (CARANUS Latinized)
It comes from the archaic Greek word «koiranos» or «karanon», which means “king”, “leader” or “king.” Both words come from the same root archaic Dorica «Kara” meaning head, hence leader, royal governor. The word «koiranos» already had the concept of the ruler or king of Homer. Karanos is the name of the founder of Dynasty Argead Macedonian Kings.

12. Kassandros Greek Mythology (Latinized Cassander)
Intense: ka-SAN-droši
Possibly means “shines over man,” derived from the Greek kekasmai «shine” and Aner «man» (general Andros). In Greek myth Cassandra was a Trojan princess, his daughter and priame Hecuba. He was given the gift of prophecy Apollo, but when she spurned the advances cursed that no one will believe it prophecies. The name of the king of Macedonia.

13. KOINOS Ancient Greek
Koinos derived from the Greek meaning “usual, common.” A Argead king of the Macedonians in the 8th BC century.

14. LYSIMACHOS Ancient Greek (LYSIMACHUS Latinized)
Through “a relaxation of the battle” by Greek solution “relaxation liberalization” and Mach «battle». This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander Lysimachus took control of Thrace.

15. SELEUKOS Ancient Greek (SELEUCUS Latinized)
Through “to be light,” “be white”, derived from the Greek word meaning White ‘white, bright “. This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander argued that most of the countries of Asia and founded the Seleucid dynasty after Alexander’s death in Babylon.

16. ARRIDHAIOS Ancient Greek
Son of Philip and later king of Macedonia. The etymology is Greek Ari (= very) + ADJ Daios (= scary). The meaning is “very scary.” The type Aeolian Arribaeos.

17. Orestes Greek Mythology
Intense: o-RES-teez
Orestais derived from the Greek meaning “mountain.” In Greek myth was the son of Agamemnon. Killed his mother after Clytemnestra who killed his father. The name of the king of Macedonia (ruled 399-396 BC).

18. Pausanias Ancient Greek
King of Macedon in 393 BC .. Pausanias was also the name of the king of Sparta at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC, and the name of the Greek traveler, geographer and writer whose most famous work is ” Description of Greece “, and also the name of the man who assassinated Philip II of Macedonia in 336 BC ..

19. PERDIKKAS Ancient Greek (Latinized Perdiccas)
Partridge derived from the Greek meaning “Partritz”. Perdikkas I presented as the founder of the kingdom of Macedon in Herodotus 8137. The name was borne by three kings of Macedonia.

20. Greek Mythology Perseus
Intense: PUR-see-us
From pertho Greek verb meaning “to destroy, to conquer.” The meaning is the “conqueror”. Perseus was the hero of Greek legend. Kill Medusa, who was so ugly that anyone who gazed upon was the stone, by looking in the reflection and the shield of slaying in sleep. The name of the king of Macedonia (ruled 179-168 BC).

21. PTOLEMEOS Ancient Greek (Ptolemy Latinized)
Intense: TAWL-e-mee
Polemeios derived from the Greek meaning “aggressive” or “War”. Ptolemy was the name of a Greek-Egyptian rulers of Egypt, all descendants of Ptolemy I, one of Alexander’s generals. That was the name of a Greek astronomer. Ptolemy ‘Keraunos’ (ruled 281-279 BC) is named after the lighting bolt thrown by Jupiter.

22. TYRIMMAS Greek Mythology
Tyrimmas, a Argead king of Macedon and son of Coenus. Also known as Temenus. In Greek mythology, Temenus son of Aristomaches and great-great grandson of Hercules. He became king of Argos. Tyrimmas was also a man from Epirus and his father Evippe, who consorted with Ulysses (Parthenius of Nicaea, Love romance, 3.1). The meaning is “one who loves cheese.”

Queens AND ROYAL FAMILY

23. EURYDIKE Greek Mythology (EURYDICE Latinized)
Through all righteousness “by Greek eurys» wide «embankment and” justice “. In Greek myth, she was the wife of Orpheus. Her husband tried to rescue from Hades, but failed when disobeyed provided they do not look back on their way and out. Name of the mother of Philip II of Macedon.

24. Bernice f Ancient Greek (BERENICE Latinized)
Intense: BER-e-NIE-see
Through ‘victory’ by pherein »to« win and “win”. This name was a joint decision between the Ptolemies of Egypt family.

25. Cleopatra f Ancient Greek (Latinized Cleopatra)
Intense: Klee-o-PAT-ra
Through “glory of the father” from Greek kleos «glory» in conjunction with patros’ his father. ” In the Iliad, the name of the wife of Meleager Aetolia. That was the name of the Queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After the defeat by Augustus who committed suicide by allowing herself to bittet by asp. Also, the name of the bride of Philip II of Macedon.

26. St. CYNNA Ancient Greek
Half-sister of Alexander the Great. Its name comes from the ADJ. Dorica dialect Cyna (= hard).

27. THESSALONIKI f Ancient Greek
Through ‘victory over the Thessalians’, named after the region of Thessaly and order, which means “victory”. Name of Alexander the Great step sister and Thessaloniki which takes its name from the 315 BC ..

Generals, soldiers, philosophers and OTHERS

28. Parmenion ancient Greek
The most famous general of Philip and Alexander the great. Another famous bearer of this name was the Olympic Parmenion Mytilene. Its name comes from the name Parmenon + end-ion used to note descendancy. This means the «descedant of Parmenon».

29. PEUKESTAS Ancient Greek
Alexander the Great is stored in India. One of the most famous Macedonians. Its name comes from pine (= acute) + the ending Dorica-TB. The meaning is the one that is sharp “.

30. Aristophanes Ancient Greek
It comes from the Greek elements Aristos ‘better’ and phanes «show». The name of one of Alexander the Great at the personal body guard who was present during the murder of Clayton. (Plutarch, Alexander, “The life of the Noble Grecians and Romans”). That was the name of the 5th century BC Athenian playwright.

31. KORRAGOS Ancient Greek
The Macedonian disputed a race Olympic Dioxippos and lost. Its name comes from Koira (= army) + ago (= result). Korragos has the meaning of “the army chief.”

32. ARISTON Ancient Greek
Aristos derived from the Greek meaning “the best”. The name of the Macedonian with the officer campaign of Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book II, 9 and Book III, 11, 14).

33. KLEITUS Ancient Greek (Latinized Clayton)
Through ‘calling immediately “or” summoned “to Greek. A phalanx battalion commander of the army of Alexander the Great at the Battle of Hydaspes. Also the name of Alexander the nurse of his brother, who cut his arm Persian Spithridates at the Battle of Granicus.

34. Hephaistion Greek Mythology
Derived from Hephaistos («Hephaestus’ Latinized) which in Greek mythology was the god of fire and forging and one of the twelve Olympian deities. Hephaistos in Greek means “oven” or “volcano”. Hephaistion was the closest friend and companion of Alexander the Great. He was also known as «Philalexandros» («friend of Alexander).

35. HERAKLEIDES Ancient Greek (HERACLEIDES Latinized)
Maybe it means “key” Hera “from the name of the goddess Hera combined with Greek kleis» key “or kleidon» small key. ” The name of two Macedonian soldiers on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I, 2, Book III, 11, and Book VII, 16).

36. Krateros Ancient Greek (CRATERUS Latinized)
It comes from the Greek ADJ. Krateros (= strong). This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander the Great. A friend of Alexander the Great, was also known as «Philobasileus» («friend of the King”).

37. Neoptolemos Greek Mythology (NEOPTOLEMUS Latinized)
Through “new war”, derived from the Greek NEW “new” and WAR “war”. In Greek myth, this was the name of his son Achilles, who arrive in the Trojan War because it was prophesied the Greeks could not win if it was not present. After the war was killed by Orestes by marriage with Hermione. Neoptolemus is believed to be the ancestor of Alexander the Great for her mother (Olympias) side (Plutarch). The names of two soldiers during the Macedonian campaigns of Alexander (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I and Book II, 6, 27).

38. Filota Ancient Greek
From Greek philotes meaning “friendship”. Son of Parmenion and the captain of Alexander’s Companion cavalry.

39. PHILOXENOS Ancient Greek
Meaning “friend strangers” coming from the Greek meaning Philos Friend and Stranger meaning “foreigner, stranger. The name of a campaign for Macedonian soldier with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book III, 6).

40. MENELAOS Greek Mythology (Menelaus Latinized)
Through withstand people “from Greek meno ‘at the end to withstand’ and Laos’ people.” In Greek legend was king of Sparta and husband of Helen. When his wife was taken from Paris, the Greeks besieged the city of Troy in an effort to get back. After the war Menelaus and Helen moved to a happy life. Macedonian naval commander during the wars of the Diadochi and brother Ptolemy Lagos.

41. LAOMEDON ancient Greek
Friend from childhood of Alexander and later Satrapi. The name derives from the Greek noun laos (people = «people» + medon (medo = “He who governs”)

42. POLYPERCHON Ancient Greek
Macedonian, Son of Simmias Its name comes from the Greek word “very” (= very) + spercho (= rush).

43. HEGELOCHOS (HEGELOCHUS Latinized)
Known as a conspirator. Its name comes from the Greek verb (igeomai = “walking forward” + noun = Greek company “set up an ambush).

44. POLEMON ancient Greek
From his home Andromenes. Brother Attalos. Within the Greek “he who fights and war.”

45. AUTODIKOS ancient Greek
Somatophylax of Philip III. Its name in Greek means “one who takes the law into his (own) hands”

46. ​​BALAKROS ancient Greek
Son of Nicanor. We already know Macedonians usually used a “beta” instead of «Phi» used by the Athenians (eg «belekys» instead of «pelekys», «balakros» instead of «falakros). «Falakros» has the meaning of “soon”.

47. NIKANOR (Nikanor ancient Greek, Latin: Nicanor) means «Victor» – from Nike (Victory), which means “victory”.
Nicanor was Balakras father’s name. He was a prominent Macedonian during the reign of Philip II.
Another Nicanor son of Parmenion and brother Philotas. He was a distinguished officer (commander Hypaspists) on Alexander the Great service. He died of illness in Bactria in 330 BC ..

48. LEONNATOS ancient Greek
One of the somatophylakes Alexander. Its name derives from Leon (= Lion) + the root Nat substantive nator (= brash). The meaning is “impetuous as a lion.”

49. KRITOLAOS ancient Greek
He was a potter from Pella. His name was in amphorae discovered during the 1980 to 1987 in Pella. Its name comes from Critics (= the chosen) + population (= people). The meaning is “chosen by the people.”

50. ZOILOS ancient Greek
Father Myleas from Veria – Since zo-e (Life) saying “live”, “blithe”. Hence the Italian «Zoilo»

51. ZEUXIS ancient Greek
Name of the Macedonian ruler of Lydia at the time of Antigonus III and also the name of one of Painter Heraclea – from ‘zeugnumi «=» to commit “,” together “

52. LEOCHARIS ancient Greek
Sculptor – under ‘Leon’ = ‘lion’ and ‘Harry’ = ‘grace’. Literally meaning the “lion of grace.”

53. DEINOKRATIS ancient Greek
Alexander helped the creation of Alexandria in Egypt.
From ‘deinow’ = ‘to make terrible »and« kratein «=» judge “
Obviously, indicating a “terrible ruler ‘

54. ADMETOS (Admetus) Ancient Greek
comes from the word a + damaw (damazw) and means tameless, obstreperous.Damazw means Chastel, prevails

55. ANDROTIMOS (Androtimos) Ancient Greek
arising from andreios words (brave, brave) and timitis (honest, upright)

56. PEITHON Ancient Greek
It means “the one who convinces”. It was a common name of the Macedonians and the most famous names of the holders were Peithon, son Sosicles, responsible for the royal pages Peithon, son Krateuas, a messenger of Alexander the Great.

57. SOSTRATOS Ancient Greek
Derived from the Greek words “Sauce (= safe) + Army (= army).” He was the son of Amyntas and executed as a conspirator.

58. DIMNOS Ancient Greek
It comes from the Greek verb “deimaino (= I fear). One of the conspirators.

59. TIMANDROS Ancient Greek
Concept «Man of honor.” From the Greek words “price (= price) + Man (= man). One of the commanders of the regular Hypaspistes.

60. TLEPOLEMOS (Tlepolemos) Ancient Greek
It comes from Greek words “tlimon (= brave) + War (= war).” In Greek mythology Tlepolemos was the son of Hercules. In alexanders time appointed Tlepolemos Satrapi of Carmania by Alexander the Great.

61. Axios (Worthy) Ancient Greek
Meaning “capable”. His name was found in an inscription, together with the patronymic ‘Worthy Antigonus of Macedon. “

62. THEOXENOS (THEOXENIA) Ancient Greek
It comes from Greek words “god (= god) + stranger (= stranger). His name appears as donator temple of Apollo, along with the city and patronymic origin (THEOXENIA Aeschrionia Kassandria).

63. Mitron (womb) Ancient Greek

Ancient Macedonians

Αρχαίοι Μακεδόνες

Deer hunt mosaic from Pella.jpg

Languages

Ancient Macedonian,

then Attic Greek, and later Koine Greek

Religion

Greek Polytheism

The route of the Argeads from Argos, Peloponnese to Macedonia

The Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula. Macedonians  was an ancient Greek people.They gradually expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon valley on the northern edge of the Greek world, absorbing or driving out neighbouring tribes, primarily Thracian and Illyrian.

Although composed of various clans, the Kingdom of Macedon established around the 8th century BC is mostly associated with the Argead dynasty, and the tribe named after it. Traditionally ruled by independent families, the Macedonians seem to have accepted Argead rule by the time of King Alexander I (r. 498–454 BC). Under King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC), they are credited with numerous military innovations, which enlarged their territory and increased their control over other areas, leading to the exploits of Alexander the Great, the establishment of several realms from the Diadochi, and the inauguration of the Hellenistic civilization.

The Ancient Macedonian Testimonies (Literary Sources) Firstly we intend to examine the ancient evidence on the way the Ancient Macedonians were defining themselves in reference to their own identity.b Concerning their own beliefs about themselves we shall review the available evidence coming from sources, both Literary and Archaeological.

A. The Literary Evidence

The first available  evidence comes from the Macedonian king Alexander, during hisspeech to Atheneans. Essentially we have a clear confession that Alexander considers himself

-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I

should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by

descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would

not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If

you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my

freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of

zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘1

Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander I

was proud of his

Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:

Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of

the Macedonians (ανηρ Ελλην υπαρχος Μακεδονων – “anêr Hellên

– Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably… “

Early history

The expansion of the Macedonian kingdom has been described as a three-stage process. Macedonia then led a pan-Hellenic military force against their primary objective—the conquest of Persia—which they achieved with remarkable ease.

Prehistoric homeland

 

In Greek mythology, Makedon is the eponymous hero of Macedonia and is mentioned in Hesiod‘s Catalogue of Women

Temenids and Argeads

 

The route of the Argeads from Argos, Peloponnese to Macedonia(=High Land)

The Macedonian expansion is said to have been led by the ruling Temenid dynasty, known as “Argeads” or “Argives”. Herodotus said that Perdiccas, the dynasty’s founder, was descended from the Heraclid Temenus. 

He left Argos with his two older brothers Aeropus and Gayanes, and travelled via Illyria to Lebaea.

ETYMOLOGY OF ANCIENT MACEDONIAN NAMES.

Φίλιππος (Philippos) which means “friend of horses”, composed of the elements φίλος (philos) “friend” and ίππος (hippos) “horse”. This was the name of five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great. The name appears in the New Testament belonging to two people who are regarded as saints. First, one of the twelve apostles, and second, an early figure in the Christian church known as Philip the Deacon.

ALEXANDER
Latinized form of the Greek name Αλέξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant “defending men” from Greek αλεξω (alexo) “to defend, help” and ανήρ (aner) “man” (genitive ανδρός). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.

AMYNTAS
Derived from αμύντωρ (amyntor) meaning “defender”. This was the name of several kings of Macedon.

ANTIGONUS
From: Αντίγονος (Antigonos) which meant “against the ancestor”, from αντί (anti) “against” and γονεύς (goneus) “ancestor”. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander died, he took control of most of Asia Minor.

ARCHELAUS
Latinized form of the Greek name Αρχέλαος (Archelaos), which meant “master of the people” from άρχος (archos) “master” and λαος (laos) “people”. This was the name of a son of Herod the Great. He ruled over Judea, Samaria and Idumea.

ARISTOTLE
From Αριστοτέλης (Aristo+teles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from άριστος (aristos) – (aristoctat, Aristophanes etc)=”best” or NOBLEST and τέλος-(telos) =”purpose, aim”(ie: Praxiteles the famous sculptur-artist). This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.

KLEITOS
Means “splendid, famous” in Greek. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals.

CLEOPATRA
Κλεοπάτρα (Kleopatra) which means “glory of the father”, derived from κλέος (kleos) “glory” combined with πατρός (patros) “of the father”. This was the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Shakespeare’s tragedy ‘Antony and Cleopatra’ (1606) is based on her.

The Macedonian name Περδίκκας – (Perdikas) obviusly means “famously just” [περ(ί)- + δίκαιος=just] , but to accept it we must “prove” somehow the doubling of the letter “k” in the theme “δίκη” , meaning “justice”. Interestingly our “proof” comes from the female Acarnanian name “Δικκώ”.

The earliest sources, Herodotus and Thucydides, called the royal family “Temenidae”. In later sources (Strabo, Appian, Pausanias) the term “Argeadae” was introduced . However, Appian said that the term Argeadae referred to a leading Macedonian tribe rather than the name of the ruling dynasty . The words “Argead” and “Argive” derive via Latin Argīvus from the Greek Ἀργεῖος (Argeios), meaning “of or from Argos” and is first attested in Homer, where it was also used as a collective designation for the Greeks (“Ἀργείων Δαναῶν”, Argive Danaans). . A figure, Argeas, is mentioned in the Iliad (16.417), therefore it is possible that there may have been an even earlier tradition deriving the genealogy of the Macedonian kings from the heroes of the Trojan Cycle, which was popular in neighbouring Epirus.

Expansion from the core

 

Expulsion of the Pieres from the region of Olympus to the region ofPangaion by the Macedonians

Both Strabo and Thucydides said that Emathia and Pieria were mostly occupied by Thracians (Pierians, Paeonians) and Bottiaeans, as well as some Illyrian and Epirote tribes.

But the country along the sea which is now called Macedonia, was first acquired and made a kingdom by Alexander [I], father of Perdiccas [II] and his forefathers, who were originally Temenidae from Argos. They defeated and expelled from Pieria the Pierians … and also expelled the Bottiaeans from Bottiaea … they acquired as well a narrow strip of Paeonia extending along the Axios river from the interior to Pella and the sea. Beyond the Axios they possess the territory as far as the Strymon called Mygdonia, having driven out the Edoni. Moreover, they expelled from the district now called Eordaea the Eordi … The Macedonians also made themselves rulers of certain places … namely Anthemus, Grestonia, and a large part of Macedonia proper.

 

Regions of Mygdonia, Edonia, BisaltiaCrestonia and Bottiaea

Ethnogenesis 

 

The entrance to the “Great Tumulus” Museum at Vergina

 

An atrium with a pebble-mosaic paving in Pella, the Macedonian capital

The process of state formation in Macedonia was similar to that of its neighbours in Epirus, Illyria, Thrace and Thessaly, whereby regional elites could mobilize disparate communities for the purpose of organizing land and resources. Local notables were often based in urban-like settlements, although contemporaneous historians often did not recognize them as poleisbecause they were not self-ruled but under the rule of a “king”. From the mid-6th century, there appears a series of exceptionally rich burials throughout the region—in Trebenista,Vergina, Sindos, Agia Paraskevi, Pella-Archontiko, Aiani, Gevgelija, Amphipolis—sharing a similar burial rite and grave accompaniments, interpreted to represent the rise of a new regional ruling class sharing a common ideology, customs and religious beliefs. A common geography, mode of existence, and defensive interests might have necessitated the creation of a political confederacy among otherwise ethno-linguistically diverse communities, which led to the consolidation of a new Macedonian ethnic identity.

 

Mosaic of Ancient Macedonians hunting down a lion. Archaeological Museum of Pella, Macedonia

 Non-Argead centres increasingly became dependent allies, allowing the Argeads to gradually assert and secure their control over the lower and eastern territories of Macedonia.This control was fully consolidated by Phillip II.

Culture

 

The Golden Larnax, at the Museum of Vergina, which contains the possible remains of King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC).

Macedonian coinage and medallions, depicting Alexander the Great and Philip II

 


The inscriptions demonstrate that Hellenism in Upper Macedonia was at a high economic, artistic, and cultural level by the 6th century BC—overturning the notion that Upper Macedonia was culturally and socially isolated from the rest of ancient Greece.

Society

 

Aristotle, a philosopher from the Macedonian town of Stageira, tutoring young Alexander in the Royal Palace of Pella. The Macedonian Kings often sought the best education possible for their heirs. Artwork by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris.

.

An important aspect of Macedonian social life were court symposia, which were characterized by heavy drinking (of apparently unmixed wine), feasting, and general debauchery. Symposia had several functions, amongst which was providing relief from the hardship of battle and marching. 

Athenian playwrights such as Euripides and Agathon and the famous painter Zeuxis, all were influential in the early kingdom. Euripides wrote his last two tragedies at Archelaos’s(= people`s leader) court.

Religio

 

Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the Ancient Macedonians.

The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus, Artemis, Heracles, and Dionysus.As all the  Ancient Greeks regarded it as an essential element of Hellenic identity to share common religious beliefs and to come together at regular intervals at Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia, Delphi, Nemea/Argos, etc.) in order to celebrate Panhellenic festivals. Most of the gods who were worshipped in southern Greece can also be found in the Macedonian pantheon and the names of the most important Macedonian religious festivals are also typically Greek. Evidence of this worship exists from the beginning of the 4th century BC onwards, but little evidence of Macedonian religious practices from earlier times exists. From an early period, Zeus was the single most important deity in the Macedonian pantheon. Makedon, the mythical ancestor of the Macedonians, was held to be a son of Zeus, and Zeus features prominently in Macedonian coinage.The most important centre of worship of Zeus was at Dion in Pieria, the spiritual centre of the Macedonians, where beginning in 400 BC King Archelaos established an annual festival, which in honour of Zeus featured lavish sacrifices and athletic contests. Worship of Zeus’s son Heracles was also prominent; coins featuring Heracles appear from the 5th century BC onwards. This was in large part because the Argead kings of Macedon traced their lineage to Heracles, making sacrifices to him in the Macedonian capitals of Vergina and Pella. Numerous votive reliefs and dedications also attest to the importance of the worship of Artemis. Artemis was often depicted as a huntress and served as a tutelary goddess for young girls entering the coming-of-age process, much as Heracles Kynagidas (Hunter) did for young men who had completed it. 

 

Entrance to the tomb of King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC)

 

Banquet, tomb of Agios Athanasios, fresco, detail

Language

7270-year-old Tablet Found in Kastoria Calls into Question History of Writing

Back in 1993, in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in the Kastoria Prefecture, professor George Hourmouziadis and his team unearthed the Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or the Dispilio Disk), a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata) that has been carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP (5260 BC).

In February 2004, during the announcement of the Tablet’s discovery to the world, Hourmouziadis claimed that the text with the markings could not be easily publicized because it would ultimately change the current historical background concerning the origins of writing and articulate speech depicted with letters instead of ideograms within the borders of the ancient Greek world and by extension, the broader European one.

According to the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the markings suggested that the current theory proposing that the ancient Greeks received their alphabet from the ancient civilizations of the Middle East (Babylonians, Sumerians and Phoenicians etc) fails to close the historic gap of some 4,000 years. This gap translates into the following facts:  while ancient eastern civilizations would use ideograms to express themselves, the ancient Greeks were using syllables in a similar manner like we use today.

The currently accepted historic theory taught around the world suggests that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. However, a question emerges among scholars: how is it possible for the Greek language to have 800,000 word entries, ranking first among all known languages in the world, while the second next has only 250,000 word entries? How is it possible for the Homeric Poems to have been produced at about 800 BC, which is just when the ancient Greeks learned to write? It would be impossible for the ancient Greeks to write these poetic works without having had a history of writing of at least 10,000 years back, according to a US linguistic research.

The tablet is 2,000 years older than the written findings from the Sumerian era and 4,000 years older than the Cretan-Mycenean linear types of writing.

The markings on the tablet did not resemble the human figures, the sun and moon or other figures ideograms usually depict. They actually showed signs of advanced apheresis, which indicates they are the result of cognitive processes.

The tablet was partially damaged when it was exposed to the oxygen-rich environment outside of the mud and water in which it was immersed for a long period of time, and it is now under conservation. The full academic publication of the tablet apparently awaits the completion of the work of conservation

– See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/07/16/7270-year-old-tablet-found-in-kastoria-calls-into-question-history-of-writing/#sthash.o0yDtSd4.dpuf

Main article: Ancient Macedonian language

In Macedonian onomastics, most personal names are recognizably Greek (e.g. Alexandros, Philippos, Dionysios, Apollonios, Demetrios), with some dating back to Homeric (e.g. Ptolemaeos) or Mycenean times.

Identity

 

The Vergina Sun – beeing allready PANHELLENIC Symbol, has been proposed as a symbol of ancient Macedonia or of the Argead dynasty by archeologists.

The emphasis on the Heraclean ancestry of the Argeads served to heroicize the royal family and to provide a sacred genealogy which established a “divine right to rule” over their subjects.The Macedonian royal family, like those of Epirus, emphasized “blood and kinship in order to construct for themselves a heroic genealogy that sometimes also functioned as a Hellenic genealogy”.

Macedonian stater featuring Alexander the Great and the goddess Athena on the obverse.

The Persians referred to the Macedonians as “Yaunã Takabara” (“Greeks with hats that look like shields”).   Yauna (“Ionians”(minor Asia Greeks their term for “Greeks”- but they were Doric dialects in Minor Asia, as well, likein Pergamo and other cities, but mainly Ionic), though they distinguished the “Yauna by the sea and across the sea” from the Yaunã Takabaraor “Greeks with hats that look like shields”, possibly referring to the Macedonian kausia hat. Yauna and its various attributes possibly referred to regions to the north and west of Asia Minor..”Worthington concludes that “there is still more than enough evidence and reasoned theory to suggest that the Macedonians were racially Greek.

Heroes
1. worship some unknown elsewhere local hero, the Ippalkmou, an embossed plate associated found near the junction of Egnatia and Plato and dated to the late Hellenistic period. In the performance depicted hunting the bull. A rider on the left with a short chiton and mantle, donning, with a raised right hand which holds a spear, facing the menacing bull rushes with raised front legs. Moreover, frequent in works of art the presence of the hero-horseman or knight-hunter, who is associated with the worship of the dead, which prodilonetai either by the presence of the snake, or the horse itself. The horse was long associated with the underworld, or in relation to a god of the underworld, either independently as a demon of death temporarily only harnessed by mortal heroes, like Bellerophon from Macedonia  or Adrastus, who however later they led to the death of these horses. Even Phaethon driving the chariot of the Sun loses sometime control horses sunk him. These myths were a very good way to show the temporary domination of man over death. An example hero-horseman in the area of ​​Macedonia is the case of Hephaistion, who after his death was worshiped as a hero. Testified in a relief the last fifteen years of the 4th century. BC, the era that Cassander, from Pella (located at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki), dedicated by someone Diogenes the hero Hephaestion (Hephaistion heroine DIOGENIS). The Hephaestion pictured right, rather in front of the cave, as a rider, young, beardless, with short hair, and left standing daughter jug ​​in his right hand, which spendei. But who is he Hephaestion(=Vulcano)? Undoubtedly is the close associate and friend of Alexander, his son Proponents of Pella (cf. The place of finding the relief), who was worshiped as afiroismenos dead by Alexander initiative a few years after his untimely death. The worship could not be established in Athens (Hypereides, Epitaph 21), because the power and the cult of heroes, unlike the gods, were confined to the family, the team, his city. Hephaestion then worshiped as afiroismenos dead, who, like his ilk, has a closer and more personal relationship with people, protective works and conciliators between the worlds of mortals and gods. Like the other heroes, standing closer to the chthonic deities, and therefore represented in front of caves and cave s general gaps land considered entry places in the underworld; and there were offerings to the underworld, the dead and the gods.
As for dedicator only speculations can be made based on existing evidence. Lucian eg (On the non radios believing slander 17-18) reports that many of the veterans partners turned in Macedonia in the years after 321 BC they dedicated themselves and their weapons to Hephaestion. It is not excluded, therefore Diogenes was one of them.
2. Silver tray with mythological scenes and the inscription PAFSYLYPOU THESSALONIKI found buried along with many other utensils (plates, bowls, plates, cups, spoons), at Kaiseraugst, Switzerland. [Macedonia 03] They were objects used by the upper classes of the time of M. Kon / mind and his successors. The disc (dated to the mid 4th century AD.), A work Pafsylypou, depicted in eleven scenes life of Achilles(the ideal hero idol of Alexander the Great); from birth and bath in the waters of the Styx and Kokytos as its discovery by Odysseus in palace of Lycomedes and his departure for Troy. If we consider the relationship of Temenid with Aiakides, we can perhaps find and meaning of representations at a time when the old religion objected to the new religion its own theopaida (Achilles, Alexander).
This is why the horse is often found in tombs as funerary while in pottery since the geometric art accompanying the funeral procession of the dead (eg the amphora of Dipylon).
Cleisthenes when he created the ten tribes of Athens, founded ten memorials Market and each tribe took its name from one of the ten heroes. Introducing So the cult of a new hero, and even from Macedonia, it was natural cause serious and strong reactions.
Votive reliefs of the 4th century. BC from different places, different and far apart, to indicate the interface of these heroic cults around the Greek area.

Bellerophon upon Pegasus kills Chimaera
Mosaic of Olynthos, headquarters of Chalkidean League

 

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