Euphoriatric & “Ta panta rei”-Heracleitus from Ephesus, Anaximandros, Drama, Poetry, Philosophy, Astronomy, Mathematics, Arts, Delphi etc



The site is NOT Only about The Gastronomical Healthy Life but also the holistic way of living which includes the Following: Education, Culture, by Physical, Mental & Spiritual practices, as:(Gymnastics & Athletics),

All Fine Arts(:Sculpture, Architecture,  Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics,   Language-etymology, ,  (as a clue to analyze words & improve real historical facts),Literature(=λογοτεχνία) and finally MYTHOLOGY, wich is COSMOLOGY, as well, contaning ALL the above…THAT`s HOW the HELLENIQUE(Greek)Language CREATED: INTERRELATED with,(as said above): All Fine Arts(:Sculpture, Architecture,  Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics,   Language-etymology((as a clue to analyze words & improve real historical facts), Literaure(=λογοτεχνία= the art of logos= speech and word),as: HOLISTIC and COMPLETE ONE!

  Lectures, Beauty, inspiration Sourses & Traveling is the main line of our mission in combination with our sugested remendies, training (both external & inner exercises – reverse breathing, meditation etc). All this knowledge & Information is NOT for commercial purposes!

Find Clues to an Ancient Greek Riddle

The  Antikythera mechanism

The two researchers published a paper advancing our understanding of the Antikythera Mechanism, an ancient Greek that modeled the known universe of 2,000 years ago. The heavily encrusted, clocklike mechanism—dubbed the “world’s first computer”—was retrieved from an ancient shipwreck on the bottom of the sea off Greece in 1901.

After several years of studying the mechanism of eclipses, the collaborators have pinpointed the date when the mechanism was timed to begin—205 B.C. This suggests the mechanism is 50–100 years older than most researchers in the field have thought.

The new work fills a gap in ancient scientific history by indicating that the Greeks were able to predict eclipses and engineer a highly complex machine—sometimes called the world’s first computer—at an earlier stage than believed. It also supports the idea that the eclipse prediction scheme was based on Greek trigonometry (which was existent since the 5C. B.C. in Greece)

Far more conjecturally, this timing also makes an old story told by Cicero more plausible—that a similar mechanism was created by Archimedes and carried back to Rome by the Roman general Marcellus, after the sack of Syracuse and the death of Archimedes in 212 B.C. If the Antikythera mechanism did indeed use an eclipse predictor that worked best for a cycle starting in 205 BC, the likely origin of this machine is tantalizingly close to the lifetime of Archimedes.

The calculations take into account lunar and solar anomalies (which result in faster or slower velocity), missing solar eclipses, lunar and solar eclipses cycles, and other astronomical phenomena. The work was particularly difficult because only about a third of the Antikythera’s eclipse predictor is preserved.


“Ta panda rei (τα παντα ρει) = Everything flows” (Heracleitus of EPHESUS)

 The world according to Heracleitus (Ηράκλειτος) – end of 500 B.C. – from Ephesus (Εφεσος) – :- is not a result of the creation or generation, but existed eternal and is described as live fire, which alternately strengthens and weakens, never completely extinguished. From Ancient Greek πᾶν ‎(pân, “whole”Ex: Panorama(παν+οραμα=vision),  Pangreas, Pangration from: -(κρατω) – krato =  to hold, to keep etc.) – neuter, nominative singular of πᾶς ‎(pâs, “whole”).

Despite their undeniable charm, Socrates and Plato us are essentially strangers. The distance that separates the modern man from the complex problems of Athenian society of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, of ​​the problems that formed the Socratic and Platonic philosophy, is huge and unbridgeable. Continue even today read with interest the Platonic dialogues, but we read them more like a literary form, the mosaic tesserae like an exotic era is finally over. This philosophy has made us a personal search, requires our isolation of the current issues and concerns of daily life, based on painstaking relationship solitary reader with the printed version of a book. The philosophy is primarily understanding and knowledge – no longer alive nor dialogue nor art of life.

With Aristotle, on the contrary, the modern reader feels more familiar. First of all, Aristotle writes in a way reminiscent of the current spelling of philosophy; in fact, is the one who establishes the first scientific treatise as philosophy transmission vehicle. The dominant Aristotelian texts are not the author or literary masks, but the problems are discussed and positions are exposed. At the beginning of each Aristotelian treatise is a specific problem. Before proceeding to the exposure of its own positions, Aristotle cites the views of other philosophers (many times, and widespread perceptions of ordinary people), proceeds to analyze and review, to come up with some fundamental questions – philosophical and scientific dilemmas. His own contribution is now generally takes the form of a probative procedure: precedes the formulation of general positions, “first principles” or the axioms of each discipline, and following the conclusions of these first principles by a strict syllogistic manner. Reading the writings of Aristotle, watch a researcher opening a theoretical debate with earlier and his contemporaries, indicating clearly the sources and influences, and claiming for himself a new strict philosophical method.

The range of interests now are truly impressive. With the exception of pure mathematics and practice medicine in all other areas of knowledge Aristotle decisive contribution. In philosophy seeks the successful combination of Platonic ethics and political philosophy with the natural pre-Socratic philosophy and launches of Logic industry. Science sets the stage for physics, chemistry and meteorology and highlights the importance and the centrality of biology. Systematize the practice of rhetoric, it establishes the theory of literature (the “Poetics”) and begins a program of systematic registration regimes of Greek cities. In short, the Aristotelian writings represent the encyclopedia of knowledge of the 4th century BC, but are treasure of knowledge for centuries.


The name ARISTOTELIS in incredible way involves the philosophy !!! Derived from synthetic “ `(άριστο+τελης, ), Aristo = excellent ex: aristoctat, telis = purpose).  (benevolent – ameinon – excellent). The good with the importance of a competent and useful characterizes Aristotle. Meanwhile, the end (= purpose), all the ancient philosophers was to inculcate the “ good, and virtue to others. The end was part of philosophy of Aristotle who said that the purpose dictates every facts and developments. In concluson, there is a teleological criterion even in the name of Aristotle !!!

(Aristo=excellent end teles= purpose – Ex: Aristophanes, aristocrat(=the one, who keeps noblest), Praxitelis (= he who finishes his works,Greek sculptor, – statue of Hermes in  pentelian marble etc)

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.




The ONLY KEY of Learning & understanding deeply the “Indoeuropean- New Greek”, Hebrew, Latin, &  other Hybride Languages, as the English..IS : PREPOSITIONS, Prefix, suffix, adverbs, pronouns etc.:

PREPOSITIONS, Prefix, suffix, adverbs, pronouns etc.: A – a privative(=un in Latin=not) (where N is added between two vocals) Ex: A(+n)arhy(=without authority from: αναρχια, thus:α(+ν)+αρχη=authority, start), abyss(= Bottomless); from: Aβυσσος – Abyssos, Anandros(=Cowardice), Α(+ν)+ανδρος,Genetivus of  Ανηρ). Atopos(= atopy),etc.. ANA(=Upwards): ex: anodos from ano+odos=way – ana tom, analysis*****, Anabole – Anastasis – Αναστασις = resurrection – name: Anastasia).etc. EXO=(Output, out, outside) Ex: exodus(exo+odos – – εξω+οδος)., Exotic etc. EU(Prefix=Well) Ex: Evagelium(=the good message- Angelo= to message)), Euphoria, eumorphos(ευμορφος) = Wellshaped, Eugenios, -a(=Names meaning Noble gens heritage; from:ευγενης-eugenis=from noble, polite, aristocratic heritage), euhelius-from: ευ+ηλιος=Sunny, etc. DYS(Prefix=adversely Badly); Ex: Dysphoria-δυσφορια(=DISCOMFORT), Dyslexia-ΔΥΣΛΕΞΙΑ, Dyspnia(=breathlessness)from: δυσ+πνοη=adversely breath; etc. Dis(Quantity= double)Ex: diphthong(δίφθογγος)=Double vocal. pronouncen, as one, (like: eu, au, ei, oi, ai.Ex:  Di-opt-ra(Διοπτρα, ος, η; from: δια+οπωπα-οραω-ω)= instrument with which you look away the well / measuring instrument for determining the level / plate of transparent slate, which entered instead of glass windows., instrument with which you look away the well / measuring instrument for determining the level / plate of transparent slate, which entered the anti glass windows. Dipus(διπους)=the one, who has tow feet. Dillema,subs.(=sort of reasoning that two contradictory proposals / ambiguous proposal, from: διλλημα .(δις+λαμβανω=to receive)etc. KATA(=Dowonwards): ex: catastrophe(=to turn down, =disester from: kata+strofi,os turn, cathodos=down way), Katabole(= to throw downwards; from: βολω – bolo=to throw – (kata+bolo) etc. DIA(=Through): ex: Diametre(Dia+metro=meter, Dialysis, Diaspora etc), Dianoia=intellect-διανοια(Δια+νους) Diabolos(= Devil),., Dialysis***** etc.;. PERI(=Round). ex: Peripheric(peri+pheria=area),Periscope-περισκοπιον etc. META(= after): metabolisme, Met(h)ode, from meta+odos=after+way, Methodius,  (like anode, kathode etc), – there , (when next word starts with vocal -T- turns into Th, like katharsis(=purification) from:κατα+αρσις=lifting. and(H is anded before the word (Latinized, as ie: Helios, hepatite, Hypnos,Harmony, Hypophysis etc, depending of the apostrophe.)– etc,.AMPHI(=Round.) ex: Amphitheatre(Amphi= round+theatron, αμφι+βιος-(Amphi+Bios)=amphibian= the one who can live both in the water & land, like frogs) etc., APO(=From). ex: apocalypse – apo+kalypsisis- from calypto=cover, apostrophe, ), etc. ANTI (Against, opposite). Ex: antidote(αντι+δοτος=given), antidemocratic, antipolemic(=agaist war), antarktis (anti+arktos=bear) etc., (H)YPER(=Super): ex: Hyperthermia(Thermos,i=warm), Hyperanthropos= Superman), PRO(=Before, opposite, ago;  ex: Prophete – Προφητης (προ=φημι) = the one , who guess the future, Probiotic (pro+bios), Prologue -προ+λογος,where logos means=word,speech,reason.;etc. PROS(=direction)  (H)YPO(=Under. ex: Hypothyroid(Hypo+thyroid=door-kind, hypophysis), Hypocrcy etc.), EPI(=On) ex: Epidemia, epidemic(Epi=on+dimos=people), epi+dermis – (derma=skin) etc.  PARA(=Beside) Ex: Paralysis*****, Parabole, Parallel = beside each other; (Para+allilos-αλληλos=mutual), Paradox (παραδοξος -from: para+doxo=doctrine;..Dogma etc.), Ex: paranous- para+nous=Mind , parabolic, paranoid, παρά+δειγμα=paradigm, Paragraphe(παρα+γραφος), Parenthesis (Para+en+thesis=Position), paranomos(=illegal) etc.. EN(=in,at) ex: ενεργεια- energy – (Eν+εργο)-En+ergia = in actio., embryon(εν+βρυω), (vryo=to grow inside an other bodys waters); etc
SYN(P)(=Plus, CON in Latin) Ex: Sympathetic, Symposion (-um in Latin) from Syn+ posion= to drink together – socialy having philosophical, Social, Strategic, and other discusions; –  (N before consonant turns into M, L before L; like: syllable),Synagoga (Syn+agogi,from ago=to lead, like pedago= to lead the child,), synonymus, synopsis(συv+οψις=sight), symphony, sympathetic, symbios etc…EXCEPT: before Th, or T , like Ex: Synthetic, syntaxis etc…before L into L, as Ex: Syllable(συλλαβή).

ESO(εσω)= Inside, Ex: esoteric. EXO(εξω)= outside. Ex: Exodus=output; (from Εξοδος – exo+odos=outside+way.AUTO(Pronoun)- (οὗτος, o, η) = Self, this one. Ex: Autonome (auto+ nomia; from Nomos= Law; like astronomy, gastronomy, agronomy, dasonomy etc. auto+graphe (αυτο+γραφω= write.),etc. (H)ETEROS(Pronoun)=one of the two – ἕτεροs, ov, η.(The opposite of Homo=same)

. AUTO(Pronoun)- (οὗτος, o, η) = Self, this one. Ex: Autonome (auto+ nomia; from Nomos= Law; like astronomy, auto+graphe (αυτο+γραφo from: γραφω = write.,etc. (H)ETEROS(Pronoun)=one of the two – ἕτεροs, ov, η.



What the word EUROPE means?

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.

ALL Greek words ending in ANDROS turn into -ANDER in latin AFTER the 3th century B.C. : Like: Alexandros, Meandros, Leandros, Anaximandros etc. and  names in -OS ; Latinized ending in: US..Ex: Oedipus-Οιδίπους=edema+foot(οιδημα+πους, – Gen: ποδος), Aristarchos-us, Archelaos-us etc.


PAN(=“whole”,each) πᾶν ‎(pân, “whole”Ex: Pan+orama(παν+οραμα=vision),  Pangreas, Pangration from: -(κρατω) – krato =  to hold, to keep etc.) – neuter, nominative singular of πᾶς ‎(pâs, “whole”,each).


‎(plural : πάντα) Ex: “Ta panta rei” (Heracleitus from Ephesos – 500B.C.)

 (pánta) = everything

Nominative, accusative and vocative plural form of παν ‎(pan)neuter nominative singular of πᾶς ‎(pâs) neuter accusative singular of πᾶς ‎(pâs). neuter vocative singular of πᾶς ‎(pâs)

  1. the universe

  2. the most important thing

  3. everything(usually plural)

Transliteration of English panda

Noun: πάντα  ‎(pánta) n ‎(invariable) Noun[

πάντα  ‎(pánta) f ‎(plural πάντες


πάντα  ‎(pánta) = always

What the word EURO


See more About the first Astronomers  & Philosophers further down on Astronomy etc.





Αρχαία Δωδώνη -

The cult of Zeus at Dodona was introduced later by the Sella, to evolve in a short time in the dominant cult.

Ancient Dodoni: Oracle and Theatre

Αρχαία Δωδώνη: Μαντείο και ΘΕΑΤΡΟ

The shrine of Dodona was an important spiritual place in ancient Greece. It was the oldest of Greek oracles and ancient people were making great distances to parliamentary priests of oracles in order to learn things for the future. Outside the temple of Zeus, the priests gathered beneath the sacred oak tree and listened to the sound of the leaves trembling in the air. People from around the world came to worship the oracle in order to consult the future.

The oracle is at the foot of the majestic twin peaks of Mount Tomaros (1972m and 1816m height), and while the whole area is sprinkled with ancient ruins. One of these ancient ruins are the theater. No matter, the seats are limestone windswept and inserts in a semicircle between the two huge retaining walls. The theater hosted theatrical performances in ancient Greece, and it definitely modified by the Romans at a later date to accommodate gladiatorial games that required a semicircular orchestra and some protection from the top positions. Request a free brochure when you get the ticket to know to to be katefthynthite to see all ruins. Dodona is a complex archaeological site it remained a vital center from about 2000 BC and flourished well into the Roman period. So there are many layers of history that have been discovered by the archaeological excavations.

1. Aeschylus was born in Eleusis in 525 BC and died in Gela, Sicily in 456. He wrote about 90 works. He first appeared on stage in 500 BC The first of the 12 theatrical victories won in 486 BC From his works preserved only 7: a) “Prometheus Bound”, b) “Seven Against Thebes”, c) “Persians”, d) “Iketides” e) “Agamemnon” f) ‘Libation Bearers “and f) “Eumenides”. Many of his works were trilogiki or tetralogiki form. From the most famous trilogies is the Theban (“Laios”, “Oedipus” and “tighten”) and the Oresteia (“Agamemnon”, “Libation Bearers” and “Eumenides”). Twenty of his works belong to the satirical dramas. Many lost works were saved quotes.

From the most significant innovations in theater attributed to him are: a) the addition of the second hypocrite, one more person say to interactive parts which paved the way for the creation of scenes with individual conflicts; b) finding the tragic trilogy. Considered the founder of classical tragedy.

2. Sophocles (496-405 BC): Son of Sophilos. Born in the municipality of Hippias of Colonos. Follow the traces of Aeschylus. He first appeared as a tragic poet in 468 BC with his work “Triptolemus.” He wrote a total of 123 projects, defeated 20 times in dramatic contests, took many second wins and no third. They survived only seven of his tragedies: Ajax, Electra, Oedipus Rex, Antigone, Trachiniae, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus) and many excerpts from the lost. And he wrote to form Trilogy and tetralogy. One of the tetralogy called “Tilefeia”.

He gave a further boost in the form of tragedy received by Aeschylus. Among the innovations brought about by the increase in the number of dancers from 12 to 15, and third addition hypocrite and posting of the hero from the dance. Beyond that Sophocles dealt theoretically with the problems of the theater in his work “Dance”.

3. Euripides was born in the municipality Flyeias / FLYA in Athens in 484/480 BC Son Mnisarchou / Mnisarchidi and Cleito. He died in 406 BC in Pella, the capital of Macedonia, where he was invited by King Archelaos along with other artists, to help the developing of culture and there and sings the exploits of King.

His first official appearance in poetic spotlight did in 455 BC with his work “Pelias”. From that year until 438 that showed the “Alcestis,” the oldest of the surviving works, we do not know almost nothing about the poet. The next 10 years was the top of dramatic creation. He wrote 88 tragedies or 22 tetralogy. Of these only survived complete the following: 1) “Alcestis” (taught in 438 BC), 2) “Medea” (taught in 431); 3) “Irakleidai” (first performance in 430), 4) “Hippolytus “(first performance in 428), 5)” Andromache “(first performance in 420 or 417), 6)” Ekavi “(first performance in 425) 7)” Iketides “: their name comes from the dance, comprising mothers captains of the Argives who fell before Thebes (first performance in 420 or 421), 8) “Hercules” (first performance between 421 and 416), 9) “Ion” (first performance in 419 or 418) 10) “The Trojan Women”: an trilogy the lost tragedies “Alexander” and “Palamedes” (taught in 415), 11) “Electra” (first performance in 413), 12) “Iphigenia in Tauris” (first performance in 412 ) 13) “Helen” (first performance in 412) 14) “Orestes” (first performance in 408). The latest tragedy Euripides attended the Athens live and 15) “The Bacchae”: He was taught in 405 by the son of the poet after his death. There are two projects that could not be attributed directly or wholly or certainly in Euripides: 1) “Iphigenia in Aulis”: There came to us as a project ready for show. 2) “Rhesus’ expressed serious objections if Euripides or later.

Euripides is the leading innovator in the area of ​​the tragedy. The most important innovative interventions are: a) introduced the introductions: a god or hero on stage tells monologontas biographical information, etc. B) Enter the “deus ex machina”(«από μηχανής θεό»-apo mihanis theo). With the invention of this closes the drama. This is vented in the course of the drama. c) A third innovation is the place of dance in drama. From Euripides dance deteriorate. From interventionist role and balancing between the rival claims that played before so final conciliation and pacification of competitors, now the dance expresses personal opinions of the poet, often poorly related to the case of drama or alter a loyal partner and accomplice of the protagonist.

Euripides is considered, rightly, the greatest of tragedies. This closes the circle of great tragedy. Euripides was marked “by the scene philosopher” because of the profound ideas that passed through his works. There was a significant effect suffered by sophistic philosophy. Intense is also the work of the misogynist element.

Other forms of poetry (lyrical, epic, etc.) Have significant presence in this period, as happened during the immediately preceding two centuries, during which flourished.


And only at the sound of this project our minds go directly to the patriarch and chief priests species, large ARISTOPHANES Yet he was not the first to apply. Before him there were several and important servants of the theater such as the magnet Cratinus the Eupolis (446-411 BC) etc. Unquestionably the Aristophanes comedy reached the apotheosis, the sublime perfection. Even today his works have an amazing timeliness and monitored with interest.

For the life of Aristophanes not know much. He was born around 445 and died in 385. It must be linked to Aegina, where he had estates. Conservative and pacifist. Satirized caustic almost all influential men of his era (especially the demagogues in which was very tough), but also many social decline phenomena. Until the Alexandrian period reached 44 of his works; of these survived to us complete only 11 (in brackets the year their first appearance and the reason): 1) “Acharnians” (425), 2) “The Knights” (the Linea 424 ), 3) “Clouds” (the Dionysia, in 423), 4) “Wasps” (Linea, 422) 5) “Peace” (the Dionysia, 421) 6) “The Birds” (the Dionysia, the 414) 7) “Lysistrata” (in Linea, 411) 8) “Thesmophoriazusae ‘(411) 9)” Wealth “(388), 10)’ Frogs ‘(405) and 11)” Ecclesiazusae’ ( 392). Saved quotes and many of the lost works.


“Apollo and the Muses.” Mosaic floor, Archaeological Museum of Ancient Elis.

Tradition says: two Muses invented the theory and practice in learning. Three Muses invented the three musical tones Collider, medium and dim the three strings of Lyra, the three prosody acute, grave, circumflex and three parelilythota times, present tense, future tense three persons, three numbers, the triangle of stars and other triarithma . Four Muses invented the four dialects: Attica, Ionici, Dorici and Ahaici. Five Muses the five senses: sight, taste, smell, touch and hearing. Seven Muses invented the seven strings of the lyre, the seven Heavenly belts, the seven planets and the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet.


Below Mosaic of the NINE Muses iof southern Ionia the now days south-west Turkey – 

More and more research discovers that the ancient Greeks had a strong performance in the field of music. To us in a long evolutionary process reached this music in the form of so-called Byzantine music, which is more appropriate to be called Greek. The terms of music, harmony, rhythm and law, but also all the technical terminology of Byzantine music (stixis, antistixis, yfesis etc.) is Greek. There are, unfortunately, the necessary data so that we today we make a reconstitution of Greek music in the ancient form.

In Homer’s time the singers were calling the muse to teach them how to sing. Usually the song was related to dance. Something similar to today’s folk music. The organ most frequently found to accompany the singer (singer) is phorminx. It is a 4chordo organ may be the same as kitharin. Other instruments mentioned in Homer: a) the pipe twice, b) the syringe, once as an instrument of Trojans and another as an instrument of the shepherds (and later) and c) the trumpet once.

After Homer the bards appear. Accrue throughout Greece and recited, but without the accompaniment of musical instruments, parts of the Homeric epics, but also their own lyrics.

A set of musical instruments of the time have much in common, either in form or (above all) to the generated sound either as to both. These are: forminx, kitharis, lyre, guitar and barbitos. Lyra can cover them all. The barbitos differed from the lyre only in shape. The sound produced in the lumen such as human voice, breath, and different from that of the lyre.

Chances are that the ancients were unaware of the polyphonic music as we know it today. But this does not mean that there was a brutal mono system. Prevailed while the solo, but with several polyphonic elements, inlays. That was a mono alloy and pluralism, without strict dividing lines imposed by the musical culture of the West.

By the classical period instrumental music was connected with the song. The musician (ie singing with guitar accompaniment) systematized when Z c. by Terpandros. At the same time appears the most wonderful guitar player, the Arion from Mythimna related dithyramb. Another combination instrument (flute) and singing was avlodia. About the F c. we look and instrumental music without singing.

The prominence of music in antiquity underlines the institution of musical competitions. They were held during festivals and various Panhellenic festivals.

The musicality coexisted in poetry, especially lyric. The term “lyric poetry” was confirmed by the Alexandrians of Alexandria one century later. Formerly called “member / members”. Pindaros first used the term “music”, only then did not mean what exactly today, but the organic coexistence of music and speech in verse. In its current meaning the term was first used music after Plato.

A special relationship with music has the term “harmony”. They established him in this space the Pythagoreans, Plato and Aristotle. Thus the octave (as an essential component of music) named harmony; the same and different provisions of sounds in an octave.

In Aristophanes and Plato we find the term “rate” with musical meaning. The student of Aristoteles named Aristoxenos, theorist of music, clarifies the relationship between musical rhythm and “adjustable” material (sound, syllable, dance) the relationship between “format” and “formed” material. The pace of ancient music resulted cumulatively from the variety in the juxtaposition of two fixed rhythmic elements, the short and the long.

Another musical concept the ancient Greeks formed is the “law” as “kitharodikoi laws” (voiotios, sharp, erect etc.) Or “avlodikoi laws” (eg “Multihead Act”). Plato, along with other laws, speaks of “musicians laws”.

Since the end of E. c. musician rate began to autonomous from the rhythm of speech. Since the strings of the guitar beat 7. prominent representatives of this trend were traffic, Frynis and Timothy.

The ancient Greek dramas, except immortal historical and cultural monuments, we can offer a valuable look at the climate of Greece and the Mediterranean, as it was before 2500 years, says study Greek researchers. Scientists recognized the constant presence of “halcyon days”, in the middle of winter, from the 5th century BC

Since the bombing of the Second World War until the medieval writings of the Arabs, more and more historians and climatologists are turning to unexpected sources, in an attempt to fill the climate puzzle in which our ancestors lived.

This did two Greek scientists turning their attention in 43 plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles Euripides and Aristophanes. Their study showed, in several of them, reports the time of ancient Greece and by extension, the Mediterranean.

In ancient Athens in the 5th century BC, during the seventh month of the Attic calendar, Gamêliôn, the Linea held a celebration in honor of Dionysus. During the celebrations, presented comedy and tragedy took place match.

The halcyon days allowed the Athenians to attend the works of the great dramatists, even in the dead of winter, open air theaters (like Efesus, Epidaurus etc)

Epidaurus Theater
Οι αλκυονίδες μέρες επέτρεπαν στους Αθηναίους να παρακολουθούν τα έργα των μεγάλων δραματουργών, ακόμα και στο καταχείμωνο, στα ανοιχτά θέατρα (στη φωτογραφία, της Επιδαύρου)
The fact that the Gamêliôn corresponded approximately to the current January (winter month), drove the Greeks researchers to consider the weather conditions allowed the Athenians of the classical era to see performances off theaters of antiquity.

The ancient Athenians enjoyed the great works of ancient dramatists, off theaters, at the foot of the Acropolis, even in midwinter, between January 15 and February 15, due to the halcyon days.

The myth of Alcyone

The halcyon took their name from the Greek myth about the marine bird Kingfisher, under which the bird was the daughter of King Aeolian, Alcyone. Zeus transformed her into a bird after her suicide. Because Kingfishers lay their eggs in January, Zeus allowed the sun shines and warms them up to incubate.

From a scientific perspective, the good weather during the halcyon (typically, the last half of January) is explained by the fact that the latitude of Greece, the period of winter stagnant high barometric pressure occurs, thus the weather is sunny.

The conclusion of the research

As shown by the analysis, the lyrics of classic dramas were several references to – friendly theatergoers ancient Athenians – halcyon days, which brought clean and sunny skies in the heart of winter. In particular, the comedies of Aristophanes.

“The fact that the dramatic contests were held in the middle of winter, without postponements, combined with references to dramas for clear weather, we can assume that these days almost every January, it was summer, the 5th century BC “the researchers concluded.

Place of ancient drama were outdoor theaters semicircular capacity of more than 15,000 spectators, men and women, although the presence of women questioned by some.
The actors, the hypocrites, they were all men who could easily impersonate female roles, and wore masks, like dancing. Also wore cothurnus (very high shoes, for most imposing appearance). Comedians hypocrites additionally had excessive physique as the 4th century BC artificial genitals while satyrs dance wearing masks liver noses and horse ears and a short pants and tail back and phallus in front.

The structure
Every tragedy begins with a prologue in which the chorus occurs time and dramatic context in which the case is part of the project, before the entrance of the chorus in the orchestra. The passage is the song that sings on the chorus when entering the lanes reaches the orchestra and stays there continuously while the hypocrites remain front of the stage. Here are the episodes, parts of the project that contain dialogues between the pretenders and the drama itself and separated by chants of dance called stagnant. The work ends with the exit, in which occurs the “solution” of the plot of the project.
The ancient Greek comedy includes four parts. The first part or preface (small full drama), the second, spanning over until the first offense (song of dance that you are facing the audience) and here is the struggle (conflict between two parties until reconciled). The third section extends from the first to the second infringement and the fourth of the second infringement to end.


The case and style
The topics usually drawn from the rich heritage of Greek mythology, but with exceptions tragic poets who composed works imagining events of their time (eg Phrynichos “Miletus alosis” Aeschylus ‘Persians’). The outlines of the story told by the projects were well known to the audience and judged by the skill of addressing the theme. The tragedy dealt with terrible views of human life, such as sacrilege, the human sacrifice, infanticide, suicide or incest. Violent incidents not represented almost never on stage. The aim of tragedy cause viewers emotions pity and fear in order to achieve a kind of “catharsis”. Instead the cases of comedy were fantastic situations, mocking various perceptions, facts and persons from the life of that era.
In the style of ancient drama was solemnity and grandeur. All lyrics were Rhymes (iambic meter for interactive parts anapaistiko to chants of dance, and various other measures for lyrical odes dancing or singing the hypocrites).

Volute krater, 400-395 BC, height 75 cm.
Two distinct zones shown
writer, musicians, actors
and eleven members of a dance
satirical drama.
In the middle of the upper zone up
Luxury bed
illustrated embraced Dionysus
Ariadne, his partner.

The music, which consisted of odes and songs, were equally important, which, it should be noted, composing himself dramatist. There was at least one musician playing flute and if there was a second guitar playing. In any case the words were the ones importance and thousands of fans had to listen to clean. Also dancing mimeito action with orchestral movements (“orchestral” by the testes which means dance), without of course bears no resemblance to the current ballet.
Of the other ancient Greek playwrights, only projects three great tragic poets, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides and two comic poets, Aristophanes and Menander, have reached down to us intact (or almost entirely).
“The fact that the dramatic contests were held in the middle of winter, without postponements, combined with references to dramas for clear weather, we can assume that these days almost every January, it was summer, the 5th century BC “the researchers concluded.

Apart from the study of ancient drama, scientists analyzed and other archaeological finds, such as images of blood vessels, which support this conclusion, showing the ancient Athenians with light costumes, during the Dionysian festival of Linea.


The Mausoleum of HALICARNASSUS

Mausolos was ruler of Caria, subordinate Persian Empire from 377 until 353 BC Capital had the Greek city of Ionia, Bodrum. He succeeded his father to the throne, but managed to shake off the Persian yoke.

Mausolos, married his sister Artemisia. When acquired wealth and power designed a tomb for himself and his queen. A tomb so majestic that resembled the centuries, the glory. However, Mausolus died before finishing his work, which he completed Artemisia around 350 BC The Mausoleum name comes from the King’s name itself and itself has come to be called even today every state stately tomb eg the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow.

The ashes of the royal couple were placed into golden vessels in the burial chamber at the base of the building. Stone lions undertook the storage chamber. Above the strong stone base was erected a building, similar to ancient Greek temple, belted by columns and statues. At the top of the building there was a tiered pyramid and on to it, at a height of 43 meters above ground, was erected the statue of a chariot, drawn by horses. Inside the chariot were perhaps the statues of King and Queen.

Eighteen centuries later, a terrible earthquake destroyed the Mausoleum. In 1489, the barbaric “Christian Knights of St. John”, took the materials to build the neighboring fortress. Some walls of the fortress built by green boulders that once flanked the main part of the Mausoleum. Some years later the Knights discovered the burial chamber of Mausolus and Artemisia. But one night left him unattended, resulting in the pirates loot and grab as many gold and other precious objects were.

They spent another 300 years to explore the area by archaeologists. They excavated part of the Mausoleum foundations and found statues and other sculptures that remained intact. Among them they identified and large statues, which probably represent the king and queen. In 1857 they moved to the British Museum in London and there are yet. In recent years also become other excavations so far few stones reminiscent of the glory of ancient Halicarnassus Mausoleum.

A massive rectangular gymnasium is part of the ruins of the ancient Greek settlement of Cyrene – in now days Libya -, which was founded in 700 BC as a center of learning and was later absorbed into the Roman Empire.

Byzantium (Constantinople), Istanbul(from: Eις την πολη – Is tin poli = to the city)Turkey

The city was founded by Greek settlers in 657 BC from Megara and was named Byzantium (Byzantium) after the reign of King Byzas of Megara (ancient KIngdom between Coritnh & Athens) It keeps its name nearly a thousand years until Constantine the Great decided to rename. It only city in the world located on two continents, Europe and Asia.

Croesus decided to build a temple in honor of the goddess Artemis, who was the goddess of the moon and protector of wild animals and girls. The church was built of marble and limestone materials carried over from neighboring hills. Somewhere 120 marble columns supporting the main part of the church. Each column had a height of 20 meters. Huge boulders were transported there with pulleys and connected with metal pins. After the completion of the roof decorated artists building with wonderful carved scenes. In the middle of the temple was a marble statue of Artemis. The church was one of the greatest of the classical world, much larger than the Parthenon in Athens was built later. The base of the foundation had length 131 meters and width 79 meters.

The only restored columns that exists today. But still more glorious ruins of the city, a theater, a library, baths and many other public buildings.

Two hundred years later, in 356 BC The temple was destroyed by fire. Fire someone put the Irostratos, who wanted in this way to become famous(!).

By coincidence, the day of the destruction of the temple, Alexander the Great was born. Later, Alexander visited Ephesus and gave the order to build the temple again in the same position.

The temple of Alexander survived until the 3rd AD century. With the passage of time the mud engulfed the port of Ephesus and the city ended up insignificant! The Goths then ransacked the temple and floods completed the destruction Today what remains of the temple in Ephesus are few boulders foundations and restored only one column!

The temple of Artemis (Diana in Latin), as it should have been 600 BC It had 120 columns of marble and were decorated with beautiful sculptures.
Croesus was the last king of Lydia, a region of Asia Minor. It was known for its many riches. 560 BC commanded to build a magnificent temple in Ephesus.

The Greek temple is a place of worship; the faithful gathered there in it and its architecture is not made either for personal meditation nor collective dedication. It is basically a house, as its name suggests to [6]. It is the residence of the deity; it is not open to the crowd; there are even shrines where entry (avaton *) completely prohibited. Without any religious or spiritual signaling, the nave (nave) serves exclusively as roof of the divine image. In front there is a portico (pronaos *) and back complemented by a secluded room (opisthodomos *) which was used sometimes as a vault or warehouse offerings. The actual religious life was unfolding outside the temple, around the altar *, space for sacrifices or offerings, which were always outdoors. And it was again from the outside of the church that nobody perceived religious or artistic significance.
The original architectural core, the house of God and of the closed space (cella *) passes into the background; what is alleged is the gallery or the galleries system surrounding the temple. Temples “in antis” with two columns between the pilasters, extensions of the nave walls *) temples in antis * (with columns in front); temples amphiprostyle * (with a colonnade on both narrow sides); temples peripteral * (with peristasin *, that with a colonnade on all sides), Diptera * (double colonnade) monopteral * (temples circular external circumstances [7]) – all of these forms of the classical temple is made visible from the outside.
Long before Pythagoras, the temples manufacturers knew that the number is the key to harmony. So the dimensions of the whole construction and the parts are not independent but TDI are functions of a meter unit and harmony called “emvatis’. Generally the emvatis is the radius (or diameter) of the column to the base of the shank. Any calculation starts from this emvati each dimension in line with this. What the Greeks called architects eurhythmy * is exactly the setting t “of the general and the individual dimensional. relationship with emvati: length, width, height, overhangs decorations, columns number, length intercolumnia etc. The eurhythmy says Vitruvius (De Architectura, chap. II), is achieved when founded “a proper proportion in the general building layout, associating the height to the width, the width to length, and leading all the details in order to work together in total perfection. ” The correct ratio is the result of the relationship of the dimensions of the parts together between the diameter of the column and height (in Doric temples height contain five, six or seven times the diameter) between f ratio of the intervals between the entablature and the height of the column. This relationship or ratio is also a function of emvati, always symmetrical with it. So emvatis is both cause and effect. Determined according to the overall dimensions and also defines the relationship between the parties. Not the man, but the number of the measure of things: some elements for use by humans, such as doors or steps, can be sized unreasonable in relation to the size of a man, but the regularity of law observed.
Pressing firmly on the ground with a mysterious serenity, the church does not have any straight line. All steps are slightly curved outwardly, each to a different degree. Gables, roofs and facades are inclined. Each column has a slight “intensity” [8], none is completely vertical, or positioned equidistant from the side of “but from the corners toward the center, the” tensions “, gradients and distances vary in descending ratio. so one has the feeling of a rhythmic motion exceeding the solidity of the building and the rhizome \) in herein means all, miraculously, balance – in a “rate” clearly defined and codified.
For Plato, order, rhythm and harmony are synonymous; the same meaning should give two major architectural styles: the Doric order is the Doric order, the Doric harmony; the Ionic is the Ionic order, Ionic harmony.
Born in the Peloponnese, the Doric quickly spread to mainland Greece and the colonies with strong Peloponnesian influence: Great Greece and Sicily. In plain. measured, bulky, Doric, columns rise directly from the backbone. The trunk of the column are rarely monolithic (for example in the temple of Apollo in Corinth, about 540); most often consists of vertebrae. Posidonia (Paestum) has a straight edge: almost everything is slightly curved, with “intensity”. The “reduction”, with direction from the bottom up, is estimated at three centimeters for each measure, the columns of the 6th century, and in two columns on the 5th. The trunk is ribbed with sharp edges, the number of which varied from sixteen to twenty four to twenty stabilize the 5th century.
The violent contrast between the vertical and the horizontal, between strength and mass, harmoniously solved by connecting the capitals of columns with architraves. The capital includes the curvilinear and rectilinear echinus “abacus”. Initially urchin accompanied by ypotrachilio as the temple of Artemis in Corfu from the 5th century onwards, however, the rigorous simplification of the rate will lead to its disappearance.
The architrave, smooth, without decoration, resting on the abacus, which always protrudes. In the 6th century, is in line with the body of the column, the 5th century protrudes. Panv) the architrave there is a zone of alternating triglyphs, rectangular decorated with two full beaded center and two half at the ends and metopes, sometimes naked, sometimes decorated with representations. The entablature crowned by a cornice on the bottom surface whose promochthoi are decorated with eighteen relief drops.
In this class gives the Doric temple incomparable solemnity and inaccessible greatness, contrasted the Ionic order, lighter, more fluid, more flexible, more humane. The pillar, thinner, resting on a pedestal the “plinth” on which rests a coil. In Athens, the temple of Athena Nike, the base has two coils separated by a darkness. With little ‘tension’, decorated with twenty four ribs, a semicircular section, the trunk of the column is almost always monolithic. The capital characterized helices reminiscent of the plant; the architrave, consisting of three successive horizontal bands, followed by either geisipodes either a continuous belt, formerly called “frieze” which often carry a written or embossed decoration. Everything loses geometric gravity, the Ionic wins in decorative thanks: organic matters, eggs, rosettes, lighten the weight of the material and highlight the elegance and flexibility of the structure.
As if wanting to ridicule the functionalist aesthetics, the two rates indicate a strong survival of primitive techniques of wooden buildings. The Doric triglyphs are transferring to stone architecture ends of wooden beams’ drops adorning the promochthous refer to primitive nails; the Ionic architrave with horizontal bands is recollection of planks that were placed on top of each other, the teeth below the cornice represent the edges of the abutting beams …
It would be illusory to see the two rates reflection of a “racial” contrast between the Doric “masculinity” and the Ionic “femininity.” Like the literary language, these two rates are clearly cultural products and have nothing to do with national characteristics. Very soon changed into simple elements cross grace and combined in the same building. The Doric order will reach perfection in the Athens Parthenon.
Everywhere stone replacing wood and clay. They cut the stone, the callus in pieces pave horizontal without mortar, and unite them with links and studs of iron or copper. The cover with a special mortar for decoration; then marble, abundant in Greece and a wide variety of shades and textures, is established as the prime building material.
The Doric architecture in the 6th century
 In Doric world, the temple of Hera in Olympia (around 600) is the one that marks the transition to the classical form. To replace the old Ireon, they built a pavilion temple, 50 meters long and 18.76 wide, which rested on stone foundation walls of the cella were of stone throughout their height, but continued with brick superstructure. Also, the wood was still plays another important role. Of the six columns on the short and the sixteen to the long sides, height 5.40 meters, most were originally oak; replaced at various times by stone trunks, without any attention to the symmetry or uniformity; and the sanctuary worshiped especially had no gables or carved fronts; plastic decoration limited promontories, the moldings and the gutters from clay, painted black on a yellow background, as in Corinthian pottery of the era.
Probably, the same mixing materials and characterized the first sanctuary of Athena Pronaia at Delphi (marble), built around the same time. Narrow and slender, with thin trunks and flattened capitals, this temple was not at all correspond to the “heroic” massive and compact image we usually have to Doric architecture. Unfortunately, nothing has survived from the first stone church that Delphi had been dedicated to their god. After the disappearance of the legendary temples of dafnoxyla, feathers and copper, the inhabitants of Delphi tells Pausanias (X, 5 and IX, 37). They mandated the Trofonios Agamedes and rebuild the house of the god of stone. In 547, this first stone church was destroyed by fire and possibly as early as 539-538 began to rebuild thanks to the money collected by an international fundraiser. We know that Amasis, Pharaoh philhellene sent from Egypt 1000 talents alum and the sum of the reconstruction amounted to 300 talents (1,800,000 gold francs). 5 14. the project had not yet been completed. Strong Attic family Alcmaeonidae, which was banished from Athens by Pisistratus, had found shelter in Delphi. He offered to complete the restoration of the building. We can no longer judge their work, as the temple of Alcmaeonidae destroyed in 373, but the wonderful retaining wall that supported him, the only one who maintained, is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable work done in the sanctuary of Delphi. This Cyclopean wall of polygonal masonry with curved joints, stretches for 117 meters about ‘irregular tumors, some of which reach 2,20 x 1,45 meters, had implemented so perfect as the 2nd century used their completely smooth surface to etch approximately eight hundred official acts. The work of Ph. Courbet, yet we know that the church, which replaced between 370 and 340 the temple of Alcmaeonidae. It was almost exact copy of the previous one and that the 548 faithfully replicated the oldest construction which appears to occupy the same space. In any case, it is not in Delphi that we form a correct idea about the features of the Doric architecture of the 6th century.
The first monumental works of Doric architecture the encounter in Corinthian colonies in West Syracuse and Corcyra (Corfu). The temple of Apollo, Syracuse (around 570), architect Cleomenes and quarrier Epiklis signed his work as if they wanted to commemorate their victory on stone. Indeed, this temple reveals our laborious beginning of great architecture, with their stubby columns (their height barely exceeds four times less in diameter), the excessively heavy entablature and very narrow gaps. Unlike the peripteral temple of Artemis at Paleopolis (around 590) represents a high degree of perfection. The long nave (35 x 9.35 meters), which included a vestibule and opisthodomos was divided into. three aisles by two rows of ten columns each. With the monumental dimensions (48.14 m. Long and 22.56 m. Wide) the beautiful colonnade (numbered seventeen columns on the long sides eight to close) and already … classic perfection of the capitals, this church certifies an astonishing maturity; moreover, pedimental sculptures are the earliest evidence of monumental sculpture that came to us.
Towards the middle of the 6th century, the Doric order developed in Greece (temple of Apollo at Corinth) and especially in Italy, Selinunte (Temples C and D), Syracuse (Temple of Olympian Zeus), Posidonia and Heraion of Silareos. Acropolis of Selinunte, Temple C (about 540?) Emerging from the ruins left by two altars and an ancient sanctuary. The whole of coarse yellowish limestone, coated with white plaster, highlights, on a shelf four levels, a wonderful peristasin *. embellished in front with six on the long sides with seventeen columns height 8.60 meters and of various diameters (from 1.81 to I, () 4 meters). Upon them rested a colorful crowned with a clay liner. Temple D was less elongated proportions. It included six columns on the facade and the 13th on the sides, which crowned a pillar length 56 and 24 meters wide. Two other temples of Selinunte, Temple F, dedicated to Athena and the Temple G, dedicated to Apollo, allow us to follow the development of the Doric monumental architecture during the second half of the century. The temple of Athena (62 meters long by 24.43 meters wide) has only fourteen columns on the sides and the light colonnade heralds the best creations of the 5th century: the columns have a mean diameter of 1.82 m. At the base and a height of about nine measures. The temple G (Apollonian) should be the most daring conception of Greek architecture: was 113, 34 meters long, 54.05 meters wide and covered an area of ​​6.126 square meters. The cluttered mass, each element of surprising us with its colossal dimensions, suggesting a titanic struggle and a great dominion of the space. The peristyle comprised seventeen columns on the long sides eight to close. These columns had an average diameter less than 3.41 meters, reached a height of 16 27 meters. The echinus of the capitals formed a surface sixteen square meters. Such was the spaciousness of peristyles of which two thousand believers could easily and move between them. Even the construction of which began around 520, continued until 480 and was never completed.
However, the best-preserved temple of the 6th century we find him in Paestum (Poseidonia): This is the first temple of Hera, also known as the “Royal” (around 530). The cella divided into two aisles by a row of seven columns, three of which are still standing. The colonnade of the peristyle (nine columns on each facade eighteen on each side) is a masterpiece of elegance where each pillar, which tapers strongly upwards, with the “intensity” in the middle of the trunk, is treated as a sculpture. Then, towards the end of the century, another church, the so-called “temple of Demeter”, dedicated to Athena. He is a pavilion hexastyle who receives IP 34 columns. If the structure is similar to that of Hera proportion (33 and 14 meters long, 50 meters wide) is more harmonious and the vestibule has an unusual depth. With a prostyle 4×2 columns, the nave was Ionic: it is the oldest known temple in which simultaneously used both styles in the same building.
We find the same coexistence rhythms in “treasure” of the Hera temple on the banks of the river Silari near Posidonia. This treasure (thirteen meters long, nine meters wide), of whom the relief frieze could almost entirely be restored, had a Doric facade with two columns in antis, capitals of which were formed in Ionic. Other Doric “treasures” found in Olympia (treasures of Syracuse Selinountos of Gela): that of Gela is particularly noteworthy because of the cornice with clay lining, decorated with geometric themes.

The temple of Athena on the Acropolis of Assos in Asia Minor marks one of the first incursions of Doric in eastern Greece; actually been built according to a composite rate, with nature both Ionic and Doric. Beyond the Doric frieze, where alternating triglyphs and metopes, the architrave was decorated with a frieze bas (low) reliefs on the facades and in the corner of the long sides of the temple. The metopes were and are decorated with bas reliefs paristousan mythological scenes, etc. zoomachies The nave of this pavilion temple, with six columns on the facade of thirteen on the long sides extending in length one 7.74 meters with 6, 65 meters wide; the front, stood a vestibule with pilasters and two columns grooved, but not included opisthodomos.
Other Doric temples must be built on the territory of Asiatic Greece. But. is generally imposed was the Ionic order.

The Later Ionic architecture  under the 6th century (
Towering temples of colossal dimensions, surrounded by a double colonnade. The temple of Hera in Samos and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, around 570-560, represent the first two monumental achievements of Ionic and are really the two largest buildings ever seen in Ionia. With a length of 112 meters and a width of 56, surrounded on the facades of eight columns, with carefully crafted bases, and on the sides of twenty-four, Heraion, work Samian Rhoikos and Theodore, called “labyrinth of Samos” because the forest of 134 columns of. Artemision of Ephesus, created by Chersiphron Knossos and his son Metagenes, is an even more colossal construction,. which will require one )hundred and twenty years, until 430. Is he too dipteral, peristyle with a double colonnade. with amazing proportions (115, 14 AD 55, 10 m. to the backbone), and deeply grooved shafts of the columns reach nineteen meters high (ie twelve times lower diameter). With his wonderful capitals with spirals and rosettes sculpted vertebrae of eight columns of its façade, the long frieze bearing representations, cedar ceiling and embossed doors, Artemision of Ephesus caught the attention of Croesus, the powerful king Lydia, who became, in 560 about, principal of Ephesus: from 127 columns were rising in front of the huge edifice, the thirty-six, who had a special decoration in the lower vertebra, was dedicated by Croesus in the great goddess of Ephesus. In Samos the temple of Rhoikos destroyed by fire shortly after its construction, probably during the invasion of the Spartans on the island, the 525-524. Polycrates will rebuild the even more remarkable proportions: thus, in imitation of Artemision of Ephesus, added a third colonnade on both narrow sides. Work stopped after political unrest following the death of Polycrates by the Persians (522), and were not completed despite the Roman era.
The first temple of Artemis-Cybele at Sardis, the capital of Croesus (which was destroyed in 494), and the first temple of Apollo in Gemini (late 6th century) are two other magnificent creations of Ionic Asia Minor. In Gemini the peristyle consists of a double colonnade, I height 5.45 maitre l and the lower vertebrae of the facade bore forms Korone *. We find this particularly classic element in conical treasures that Cnidians (Dorian …) and Sifnians erected at Delphi, the 550-545 and 525, but here the Daughters * play the role of “Caryatids”. In Delphi, the Ionic ing represented by the treasures of Marseille and Klazomenon, but the capital with propellers has been replaced by capital with rosettes.
If the Dorians of Knidos had chosen the Ionic, the Athenians for their part they used both rates simultaneously. The Acropolis, the buildings destroyed by the Persians in 480, the Doric order prevailed. But when Peisistratids demolished the old Parthenon, built in place, to a greater extent, a large dipteral temple of limestone, Ionic, commensurate with the colossal temple of Zeus, where he had laid the foundations in the lower town, on the banks of Ilissos. The myth of Deucalion ascribe to the dedication of the first temple to Zeus and Gaia Olympia, went to where the last waters of the flood, to the holy river Ilissos. Around 515, the Peisistratids undertook the construction of a colossal Olympieion (41 x 107 m, 75 m. To the backbone), inspired directly from L Ionic standards and more specifically by the large dipteral temple Polycrates. Four architects (according to Vitruvius), the resistor, Kalaischros, Antimachidis and porins, began the construction of this temple, which had to include one hundred and four columns, divided into two colonnades of twenty columns on the long sides and three colonnades row eight columns on narrow. We still see some vertebrae without streaking these columns of limestone, which had a diameter of 2.38 meters: NIA is the most massive columns preserved today in Greek territory. Soluble temple, which is not comparable despite the Artemision of Ephesus and the Apollonian of Selinountos, remained unfinished (will be completed in Corinthian, six centuries later, the Emperor Hadrian); the fall of the tyrants 510 will cease operations, and will soon be followed by the fiery ordeal of the Median wars.
In the middle of the 6th century, the Ionic order has taken its final form. The capital has evolved: propellers, formerly unconnected with each other, with the stalk almost vertical (as the house * of Naxos, Delos, in the early 6th century), are united by an elegant curvature and tend to become horizontal as in capital of the column of Naxos Delphi. He has evolved from the early 6th century, called the wind capital in TAVŞAN ADASI (around 580-570) and Larissa on Hermus (around 550) in Asia Minor; although it eliminated the classic Ionic , will experience a second boom in Etruscan provinces and some monuments of the Hellenistic era. Moreover, what we call the Corinthian order (from the end of the 5th century onwards) is by no means an independent rate, but only a form derived from the Ionic and will not become important until the Roman era. In summary, all the fundamental elements of the two rates were already established in the mid 6th century; within each rate, despite often fans variations and nuances, there is no distinction between a supposed Archaic period (6th century) and the classical era ( 5th century): painting and sculpture will experience significant and accelerating change, but the architecture will remain surprisingly faithful to the framework established in the 6th century.
Visual arts: problems of classification and periodization
On the basis of traditional or conventional distinction between “archaic” art of the 6th century and the “classical” art of the 5th century is the axiom of imitation *: the art should “mimic” or “represents” the nature and history of art is the history of the progression or regression of this imitation *. For the classicist aesthetics (which was also the aesthetics of ancient decadence), the idea of ​​”accurate” representation be a criterion so obvious it may be, for the modern world, the need for technical development. So Pliny presents the history of painting and sculpture yielding to various artists the virtues of gradual progress in the imitation of nature: the painter Polygnotos eta first able to represent persons who open mouth leaving to see their teeth; the sculptor Pythagoras He was the first who could afford the chart of muscles and veins; the painter Nicias sought to correctly render the outline of the shadow and light, etc. In the same manner described how statues of Kouros * with rigid and immobilized attitude began to move one leg, then bend arms, how the “conventional” the smile sweetens, how, in the 5th century, the lines of symmetry tempered a light intensity curves and how the “truly natural” life manages to penetrate in these marble bodies that once were “schematically” and “without naturalness”. The entire process seems so perfectly logical that finally dares to sort documents and monuments like succession in a continuous progress towards the depiction of “life”, restriction or less in … anatomy. So, the most “rigid” tracks described as “archaic” and anything that plays the most “kinetic” aspects “of life” will be considered a “classic”. “Why only the left leg of the statue to project forward?” Wondering de Rinter and Nteonna. “This is contrary to the diversity of life. That’s why the teenager 698 Acropolis raises his right arm …  “
With such reasoning insist stubbornly, even today, to characterize the archaic Daughters * Acropolis or painting Exekias. Similarly, the history of ancient art, as we find in Pliny’s work and Kouintilianou – these perfect representatives of anemic classicism of late antiquity – is presented as a time of conquests in the art of “plausibility”. For Kouintiliano, for example (Institutio oratoria, XII. 10, 1, 10), the whole history of sculpture is summarized in a gradual and progressive transition from the “coarse roughness” of the 6th century “style sweetness” and “elegance” teachers t0y 4th century. So Pliny standing to Lysippos, who stated in his work that the previous artists painted people as it was while he portrayed “as appeared [10].”
The (protoklasikes) First Classic forms: the first third of the 6th century.
Undoubtedly, it is the world of “epiphenomenon forms” that we discover the first classical forms, at the dawn of the 6th century. In colossal pediment of the temple of Artemis at Corcyra (Corfu), we see both the oldest monumental composition has been saved and the first expression of the first proeikasma the new order of the world *. Already long ago, the myth had arrested the rise of Olympian class as giants; the extermination of monsters by civilizing heroes, Hercules, Theseus the Perseus, and expressed this feeling of victory over the primitive fears. We have already seen how it dealt with the pre-classical art legend of the beheading of the Gorgon Medusa by Perseus. Corfu pediment combines this with the giants’ in the corners, on a small scale, the Immortals -a Jupiter ageneios- still struggling against the Giants, but in the center of the drum, a mermaid who winced, height 2.74 meters, it remains seemingly unshakable, even bringing all the demonic power that evoke leontopanthires which the flank. According to legend, once killed by Perseus, gives birth to Pegasus, the winged horse, and chrysaor, “with the gold sword.” In gable not see Perseus, but the Mermaid already surrounded by the heavenly stems (the Pegasus and chrysaor is Neptune’s children). While giants completed at the corners of the pediment, witnessing the transformation of the monster and the transformations that signal the triumph of Zeus. Henceforth, the Gorgon heads (the gorgoneia) will adorn the headlands of temples – as trophies …
What Corfu pediment negative is as nightmarish recollection and as yet unfulfilled promise, demonstrated positive as confidence and presence in colossal forms of hereinafter mark the landscape. People or gods alike, these large naked youthful figures mark the advent of the classic theomorfismou. From anthropomorphic, pragmatic, anecdotal and almost caricatures art of pre-classical era, now we come to the representation of a real humanity “equal” and “similar” to the deity. At the end of the 7th and the first decades of the 6th century, the entire Greece is filled with colossal Kouros with two fragments of the colossal Apollo that Naxos had raised close to the house *. Delos. On the basis of this marble statue an inscription with archaic spelling of the 7th century, praises – as the inscription of Syracuse – domination over the material: “I am made of the same stone, statue and base.” In Naxos, near a village that still bears the name Apollo, opposite a beautiful beach crowned by colorful rocks, we can see, in an ancient quarry, a statue just Topic Started nearly ten meters long. Thassos, another unfinished giant carries a ram. In all Greek lands, until the distant Cyrene, Apollonia and naked youthful herald the awakening of a new soul. And it is in Attica, in the cemetery of Dipylon and around the temple of Poseidon in Sounion, they found the finest examples of these protoklasikon (in the sense of fruh-klassisch) * Kouros. Entirely extroverted, marching towards the light, the light drinking with their huge eyes are “the Dipylon Kouros” (circa 620-610), these giant forms (some have more than three meters high) introduce us to the “providential space grace “that praise Pindar:
Ephemeral; what one is and what is not?
Shadow dream man.
But like giving glamor providential,
Glimmering bright hugging
And sweet is the life of man 
Again Pindar and athletes who touched “the glow of glory” think when we look at Delphi image Kleovi and Biton [12], work of Argos Polymidi (around 600). Twinned tied themselves in ritual oxcart to carry their mother, a priestess of Hera, the Heraion at Argos. To reward, the gods gave a “sweet” death, and fell asleep in the sanctuary. The Polymidis them immortalized in the supreme moment of the effort: it is like to read a challenge in almost brute force that permeates their subtly smiling forms and pulls back their arms with clenched fists instead of letting it hang like other statues.
At Kouros of Polymidi we believed that we recognized, the Doric spirit seal. Indeed, we find the same tendency in power, expressiveness, even brutality sculptures (katopinotera visibly provincials) adorning the metopes of the West Doric temples: Perseus and Hercules in the temple C of Selinountos, Dioskoyroi treasure of Silareos (Paestum) seem oh heirs of Polymidi twins. Nevertheless, just one colossal head of Hera in Olympia (early 6th century), attributed to the Spartans Medon and Dorykleidi to realize how futile it is to theorize about alleged “national” characteristics.
       The art is very early nationwide: neither architecture nor sculpture or painting have local characteristics, no more than the literary language. The more or less distinct schools did not prevent the creation of a common aesthetic. From the pre-classic era we Cretan artisans Dipoinos Scylla and working in Argos, Sicyon, Delphi even Ambracia. In the middle of the 6th century, the Doric Sparta will call the Samian architect Theodore to construct umbels of  and the sculptor Bathycles from Magnesia in Ionia to build and decorate the monumental ensemble was called Throne of Apollo and surrounded the statue of the god in the sanctuary Amyclae (about 540-530). Nothing has been saved from this monument described in detail by Pausanias, but the column in Chrysafa Laconia (around 540-530. East Berlin) or idypathis bronze Venus Berlin museum are enough to show how the Ionic art influenced laconic art. Vice versa. is Sikyonios Kanachos a Dorian – that painted the statue of Apollo in the sanctuary of Gemini. In the 5th century, the Athenian Kalamis and Eginitis Onati – Doriefs- painted together chariot Ierionos Syracuse in Olympia while the Doric Cyrene will find one of the brightest Attic forms. On the other. all major sanctuaries – Delphi. Olympia, the Heraion of Samos etc. was really living museum where all the rates coexisted: without doubt here we must seek the explanation of the surprising speed with which the classical style spread to the most remote parts of the Greek world and spread the ‘barbarian’ countries of the West (Etruscans) and East.
The route of Branchidai, Miletus. It represents another form of the new search of monumental. The sanctuary of Didyma Apollo was linked with the port of Panormos with a Holy Road six kilometers long. Incorporate appropriate, sphinxes, statues of seated priests adorned on both sides of the last kilometer of the processional route resulted in a large square where the pilgrffertheir offerings. From the pre-classic era, Delos had ,, its own path of Lions, but in Gemini dominated by statues of human figures. Some are signature and represent members of the powerful priestly family Branchidai, which ruled the oracle to the Persian wars. A female model – only to be preserved almost intact (around 570-560, British Museum) – refers to Egypt, with its compact mass and magnificence of bustling solemnity of attitude.Unfortunately, we can not only speculate about the art of Ionia during this critical period. Only a fragment of the base of a column from Gemini (around 560, East Berlin Museum) allows us to suspects beauty of the daughter of Miletus. In Samos, the popular reverence and grandiose constructions Rhoikos had turned Iraion real art center. Solid pitched like a tree – 32 column, Hera Louvre (around 570), offering of Chiramyi. It shows us how the classic art manages to combine the perfection of the organic material with the fluid suppleness of linear abstraction: it is through the folds of the pain of not and drape that Chiramy- th wanted to highlight the curves of the female body. Similarly, but less successfully, they are the statues that make up a family complex built by Geneleos around 560, in the north of the Sacred Way of Heraion (now in the museum in Vathy). The young Filippa has been the attitude of the classics Ko- eral, but these headless statues do not help us at all to imagine what was the Ionic art during the first third of the century.
In painting, the alarm expressed by the reappearance of narrative scenes and the gradual disappearance of the old “Orientalizing” decoration. From now on everything will be anthropomorphic. Although the so-called Rhodian pottery continues to paint in the vessels bands with animal subjects, the human form becomes dominant in Corinthian and Attic pottery Legend had already transformed the nature and the scenery only in gods and heroes action space. The mountains, rivers, the sea, the sources, the animals. the trees were the same divine persons, companions of the gods or witnesses of their accomplishments. Behind each source was a nymph, the sea was not just the ‘endless smile wave “, but the place of human action the theater of exploits of Dionysus, accompanied by dolphins. The landscape has no sense unless the extent concentrated and transformed into the mythical action; and it is through the crazy dance of Maenads, the meeting of Oedipus with the Sphinx, the dance of Silenus, the rapture of Apollo’s cattle by Hermes, the countless adventures of gods and heroes that (.Ithikos man recognizes the essence of nature. Henceforth, the painting is inspired by the myth and, as a natural decoration disappears as such while the human form becomes dominant, a new design form appears announcing the incredible rigor of the classic style.
This new style born in Corinth in the late 7th century. A monumental column krater, located in the Louvre gives us the measure of this change. The central scene depicts the symposium widely. The names of the persons marked with Corinthian characters: Heracles, Iole, Ifitos, Evrytios, Miss, TFTs Tosh and Toxefs and presented as affluent Corinthians the 7th century, the average) of their luxurious furnishings. On the back of a crater soldiers fight takes place, while across the lower zone a galloping horsemen procession. Under the right handle watching the preparations of the symposium and under the left shows the suicide of Ajax. For all the promises of olpe Chigi have been met and the crater, height 45 cm., Already presented as a monumental composition.
During this period ( “Early Corinthian ‘, 620-590), formed all the elements of classic design and a simple alternation of red and black has replaced the bygone colorful. Not surprising that we see artists sign their works (like Timonidas, the National Archaeological Museum of Athens), and we see a real table decorating a trefoil oinochoe in the Louvre: these horsemen galloping armed with spears and horses them, accented with red and white shades, truly herald the magnificent processions of horsemen of the 5th century.
In Athens, the “painter of Gorgon” (around 590) is the one that allows us to grasp the transition to the classical form. While the “painter of Nessus” (620-600, National Archaeological Museum of Athens 33, Aegina, Berlin), maintains folkloric realism protoattikou style, the large dinos Louvre (93 m. Height and 1.75 m. Circumference) illustrates a monumental composition of traditional cosmetic difference and the design of the new style. On one side is decorated with friezes and a luxurious decor with rosettes and garlands; on the other hand, in one of the sides of the shoulder, Perseus gets chased by the Gorgons, having decapitate Medusa; on the other side, two soldiers fighting between the chariot, which lead two charioteers. The dinos foot * is adorned with garlands, rosettes and animal forms. We can not imagine megaleiodesteri composition of the new and the old: this ingenious designer announces the great black figure painting, which will soon transform Athens into first Greek pottery.
In Athens again, the painter Sophilos dared and he sign his works; in particular a dinos * the match made the funeral of Patroclus (National Archaeological Museum shown) [14] we find the humor in the birth of Athena anonymous artist, the so-called painter C ( «korinthiazon”) portrayed a tripod compass in the Louvre. But the painters of the “Attic-Corinthian” vases do not stay long in imitation. The famous crater potter Ergotimos and Kleitias painter. who was found in Chiusi Etruria and is known as the “vase Frangois» (Florence museum), is brilliant testimony of the primacy that had conquered Athens as early as 570. This vessel, height 66 cm., including, in current state, about 270 forms, people and animals. They have described this vessel as a kind of “paper”, because of the richness and variety of his subjects, placed in six successive zones the strength of the project, the grace of color, the joy of storytelling, the style flexibility, passing religious rigor in humorous liveliness, this vase – modern musk of the Acropolis – launches the period will witness the first flowering of classical forms, acne * the style of Kouros * and * Maidens and the peak of black-figure painting.
Of course, not all the species of the same development. In Athens itself the abyss separating a Kleitias skill and clumsiness of small forms with vivid colors at the Olive pediment (around 570) or Host Hercules to Olympus, the Acropolis of Athens (around 580). Without reaching the epic grandeur of the pediment of Corfu, some other sculptures of Acropolis enable us to identify the difficult first steps of the monumental decoration. A lion devouring a bull, a feline complex mince a slain bull, remind us of the elemental forces mentioned by the leontopanthires Corfu. Instead, the remains of a pediment which probably adorned the temple of Athena (around 580-570) illustrate the triumph of gods and heroes civilize. The central part of the pediment is missing, but the right wing Hercules strangling marine monster Triton while opposite them on the other stand *, a ofiomorfo monster E-31 with three human feathered bodies, the “sea old man,” Nereus, gazes smiling winning the protected Athena. Here the cosmogonic drama found the clearance of *: nothing more foreign to the teratosyni of these three harmless and smiling heads, one of which, with carefully combed beard blue, turned to the viewer with big eyes cheerfully.
This composition – reminiscent cheery picturesque “painter of Nessus” – impresses with its colourfulness. Although the time;: weakened its luster. these brilliant colors that never mixed either. passing from one color to another, and dominated, often comparatives, red and blue, covered the \ rough surface of soft stone; simultaneously expanded to the entire monument sovereignty clean and clearly engraved “forms already imposed in painting of black-figure vases and tables * 6th century.

Kouros and Kores: flourishing

“Even little akin to the gods immortals, the spirit and the innate momentum (nature *)” Pindar said. And precisely this similarity of human nature * to the divine nature; highlights the exquisite series of Kouros * and * Maidens covering the second half of the 6th century.
The smile given indiscriminately to everyone. even the fighters or the dying, is the most obvious sign of the consubstantial unity. mortal or immortal, Earth children: the Piraeus Apollo does not differ at all from the young athletes that adorn the temples or. funerary monuments. Even more, the same perfection characterizes all beings, humans, gods or animals. This vast democracy beings will find in the frieze of Panathenaic integrated expression, and will be extended until the last of the world * with horses. The Sun and Moon, but is already present in the musk of the Acropolis Museum (about 570). With his eyes fixed on the same salutary object, the perpetrator Rhombus and calf bearing on his shoulders. go to the altar of sacrifice, so perfect, as if vibrated by the same rate. The horse’s head horseman Rampin (Acropolis Museum, Louvre Museum, about 560) or that of the rider 623 of the Acropolis (approximately 550) have not survived, but must have the same perfection with the hound (Acropolis, Nr. 143 ) that might keep the entrance to the Brauronia temple near the Parthenon or the horse offered to Athena on the 490-480.
Life from which overflowed the first colossal Kouros and kept closed as if in their clenched fists, gradually spreading in their bodies, alive crooked eyes and confirms the smile big agreement between neoafypnisthen’s and the world * which is now understood and acceptable. Even monsters like sphinxes will now participate in the great community of the living: the monumental sphinx who hoisted the Naxos Delphi around 560, the sphinx adorning a grave stele in Athens (about 540, now in New York), the sphinx of the ceramic (about 560) or sphinx-cape Louvre (about 530) in no way different from the winged Victory * that Chios Archermos offered Delos sanctuary (about 550, Athens, National Archaeological Museum). In those lofty and smiling heads we read the same greedy and dense life will shine in large Kouros * of the second third of the century.
Between 550 and 520, within a single generation, the whole Greece experienced the myth of Pygmalion. This seems to mu say Kouros * found in Attica (most in the National Archaeological Museum), Megara, Thira (Santorini) in Milos, the KEO (all located in Athens), in Thasos (Thasos and Copenhagen) Paros (Athens and Paris), Samos (Samos, Berlin, Istanbul) in Tenea, near Corinth (Munich) in the sanctuary of Ptoiou Apollo in Boeotia (Athens and Thebes), f Aktion (Paris), in Yvlaia Megara (tomb of Somvrotida 550, Syracuse Museum) etc. Each project is completed in himself and for himself, but among cute Kouros Thera and Milos and the statue of Croesus Anavyssos (all at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens) we see VI outlines the logic (not necessarily chronological) history this mysterious mixing (as Plato said) the ideal and natural as the classical art will never cease to redefine and deepen. And alongside these masculine bodies that pulsate with life, we show the most graceful female figures ever produced by art.
The history of classical art literally changed shaft when discovered and studied, between 1886 and 1889, the “Persian backfilling” of the ancient temple of Athena, real sacred cemetery where buried reverently numerous statues desecrated by the vandalism of the Persians in 480. Votives goddess or representations [as Gkraintor (Graindor)] of women who were dedicated to the service, the Daughters * our Acropolis introduce a enchanted world. Serious the elegant, dressed in a rich robe * Ionic or Doric strict veil *, alone or part of a family dedication (as of Geneleo in Ireon Samos), the Daughters * – and Wins *, the cousins ​​represent them; one of the highest creations of the human spirit: we must expect great moments of Indian art at Sanchez or holy, or “Gothic” (the Uta of Naumburg the forms of Chartres, Reims and Strasbourg); rediscover such a comprehensive nature and grace merger such a blissful reconciliation of femininity about herself.
Let’s hear Hofmannsthal (Hofmannsthal):
“At that moment something happened inside me, an unspeakable shock. Not from me but from the middle depths immeasurably an internal abyss. It was like a thunderbolt: the room … suddenly lit up by a light completely different than that until that moment really shining eyes of statues turned suddenly to me, on their face spread an ineffable smile. I understood immediately: it was not the first time that I saw, I found in front of them to another world, we maintain some contact and then all means waited my current feeling, so violent, that had to hold fire to regain myself as before. I say “you” and “since then”, but no time visa can not fit into a trance in which I had abandoned. Stood outside the course and one from which it was made happen over time … [15] ”
Indeed, time does not exist anymore in this mysterious space in which moving these seemingly immovable creatures that move towards the viewer holding me. one hand their anasikῳmeno dress and the other an offer, a vase or a fruit. Faced with these visions understand what he meant by Plato to the “memory”: it is indeed archetypal images “perfect, simple, serene and blissful”: whole and simply and atremi and prosperous spectra [16] offered here in stunned our eyes , filomeidis * kalliplokamos * kallipygos * … all the divine names and divine properties now acquire their full significance. A veiled dating between 540-530 opens the series of masterpieces. The Daughter of Efthydikou (about 490) completes: between these two dates, an art that we insist to call “archaic” was able to capture and define all the nuances of classical decency [17]
A perfect life, both animal and divine, carnal and spiritual, full, secret, circulate, uninterrupted and uncorrupted, the faces, the bodies, the aspects of the machine and confirmed even triumphal and less mutilated fragments. The same feeling harmonious expansion of space, respect and affection permeates our front in the integrated forms of Kouros of the last quarter century. From the Kouroi the Apollonian temple at Ptoon until Aristodikos (about 500), the Kouros of Agrigento (around 500-490) to the blonde teenager (about 480) or of “Piombino” Apollo (Louvre, about 480) before our eyes unfolds the world of great triumph Odes. In the famous Skolis, addressed the Thessalian Scopa Simonides (550-460) translated lyrics ideal that Kouroi expressed in the language of the stone:

ἄνδρ’ ἀγαθόν μέν ἀλαθέως γενέσθαι

χαλεπόν, χεροῖν τε καί ποσί και νόω

τετράγωνον, άνευ ψόγου τετυγμένον

“It is difficult to become really good man, a square in the hands and feet and mind, worked without blemish.” Only humans who love the gods, who are endowed with a happy genius *, appropriate to approach this perfection. So Simonides hurry to complete: “But when I get between us, children of the earth, a flawless, you will meet him.” This is what we know the statues of Kouros. Them has in mind Pindar (born in 518) when, in the preface to the 5th Nemeonikou (written around 489), compares his art to that of the sculptor: “I’m not andriantopoios. Statues not conjure, motionless where they reside on the same pedestal forever. “

For Pindar, the “empty promises” the poet was more effective than the properties statues: “Oh, my song, from Aegina, the island, let’s movements with a raft fast, or with a boat, and touted: the son of Lamponos the Manual force Pytheas, Nemea the wreath pankration has won. ” But art and poetry have the same mission: to spread the light of truth *, to make unforgettable moment man touches the virtue * and * is actually square and “worked without blemish.” And the similarity goes even farther. When reproducing the flourishing vigor of Kouros, the statues of this period show a specificity similar to that of pindarikis poetry: do not try to express the psychological elements or personal character, but the great body of the integrated being. So does Pindar speaks of the winners rather than as individuals as incarnations of supreme virtue *.
       This attitude, which adopts both the sculptor and poet, comes directly from the Greek understanding of the relationship between art and truth. In Greek, the truth. * Etymologically means “lack of oblivion.” As such, the truth * refers directly to the primary objective of the poet, which is to present and preserve the memory: Memory, or Mnemosyne * *. Daughters of Memory, the Muses, called Mneiai, “remembrances”: the poet is guard the truth because, with their praises, rescues from oblivion what is true * “unforgettable.” To glorify, to save from oblivion, to preserve what exists, “to glorify the immortals, to glorify the exploits of brave people,” says Hesiod in his Theogony, behold the first objective of art. “Of the old project svei memory and will not remember anything mortals, unevenly poets not celebrate with insert lyrics and turns,” says Pindar 7th Isthmioniko (f 16-19). The existential field in which the presocratic thought unfolds is the space of continuously regenerating confrontation between night, reproach, silence, oblivion, on the one. and light, praise, reason and truth, “weaver memory” on the other. The oblivion; not forgetting a past, which simply refers to time or in person. Is a concept synonymous with zero implying disregard and sulfur. indeed, for Parmenides, ignorance of Being. Hesiod list of the Night children, Li ih, the hunger and pain go together and only laudatory action of art can protect humans from being engulfed “in darkness” black veil “the black veil of silence” as mentioned Bacchylides and Pindar. “As the morning dew tree lifts, says Pindar [18], the virtue that poets praise and the Fair, the growing up, raises in the liquid ether.”
This is not a mere literary figure. Keeper of laudatory function, art means actually as physical reality, rooted in nature *, is synonymous. And the truth is by no means a merely good judgment, adaequatio rei et intellectus. Is a Goddess says Bacchylides, and “gives shine and light on everything”:

Soluble in light of the “truth” that twinkle over the Kouros and Kores, gradually spreading to monumental compositions multiplied during the second half of the century, in Posidonia-Paestum (treasure Silareos. 550-540, 510-505 Heraion) in Selinunte (temple C, approx. 540) Delphi (Treasury of Sikyon, 560; Siphnian, 530-525; Alcmaeonidae church of about 510), Athens (temple of Athena Peisistratids, about 525), Eretria ( temple of Apollo, about 510), in Aegina (Doric temple of Aphaia, western gable on the 500).
Conquest of monumentality
Despite the beautiful rhythmic movement of cattle, which ripped the Dioscuri, the five metopes of Doric treasury of Sikyon at Delphi us back to the difficult start of the monumental composition. An abyss separates the balanced strength of Kouros of the forms depicted in metopes Silareos or Selinou- concerned. But a quarter century later, the Ionic treasure Siphnian Delphi suddenly reveals the enormous progress made.
Already the “Caryatid” Daughter of the eastern facade of the treasure is presented as wonderful sister Kore 675 of the Acropolis Museum, project and this one islander, perhaps from Chios. Chios was at that time a famous art center. We have already mentioned the Archermo, alleged creator of the Nike of Delos; his works and those of his sons, Bupalus and Athens, were scattered in Asia Minor and Delos. Perhaps in these islanders mandated Sifniotes to please the god of Delphi on gold mines were discovered.
However, the sculptural decoration of Sifnaiou treasure is the first major monumental creation of the classical era. The east pediment depicted the mysterious strife between Hercules and Apollo for possession of Madhya legged, while on the four sides of the nave rested a frieze height sixty-five cm. Two sculptors worked on it. On the west frieze, a great artist animal forms anaparestise the crisis Paridi, with three of the four-horse competing goddesses; the south frieze unfolded a grand procession of horsemen which perhaps represents the abduction of the daughters of Leucippus by the Dioscuri. In northern and eastern frieze, another, no less gifted creator attended a hoplite battle between two tanks, in the Trojan plain, under the gaze of the gods, and especially a magnificent giants, highlighted by the thrill of the lions of Cybele , the impetuous onslaught of gods and guns, helmets and shields of giants.
In sculptures sifniakou treasure, the great single rhythm of classical frieze has already almost achieved. Unfortunately, the decor (a giants) of the west pediment of the temple of Apollo (Temple of Alcmaeonidae) Delphi has almost completely destroyed. Instead, the marble east gable had better luck. The Athenian Antenor, the alleged creator of the great Kore 681, the future creator of Tyrannicides complex (which was snatched by the Persians in 480) was the creator or the initiator of. Beast fights in the corners, male figures and wonderful Daughters accompany the Epiphany of Apollonian triad on a chariot: the harmonious balance of this composition, the P Levek (P. Leveque) and the transceiver. Vidal Nake (P.Vidal-Naquet) saw, rightly reflection geometric rationality of Miletus and political rationality of Cleisthenes.
From the Amazons who adorned the west pediment of the temple of Eretria (Halkidos Museum) has survived in spite of the remarkable complex of Theseus grabbing Antiope and the bust of Athena. A typical form of Kouros and a standard form Kore posted here from their original isolation to form a unique plastic body. We remain to mention the giants of the east pediment of Ekatompedou Athens, making visible the conquest of monumentality: the defeated giants, the frightening, yet peace form of Athena, difference 44 put all the tensions and all the rigors of the season that saw tragedy to be born.
Let’s revisit the Kouroi and Daughters: will not find anywhere forms both our nearby because of the similarity and yet so distant. We understand very well the feeling of panic Hofmannsthal front of Daughters of the Acropolis Museum: “Nothing over them does not make me think of the world in which I breathe and move. Did I find myself in front of the most unknown of the unknown? Did you, in these virgin silhouettes discern the horror of chaos? “Integral carnal presence and infinite distance: real blood seems to flow under these skins; as the divine ichor [19], is foreign to mortals but gathers all animal forces and make these into tiniest fragment. Let’s look at the legs of the goddess of Ekatompedou, this Maiden of which have not survived only walk to the Acropolis museum (no. 136) or legs that may belong to the mysterious daughter 674: is the archetypal leg, the ‘efficiency “leg (as would say the medieval Aristotelian), the very idea of life itself, which is located there.
No other art is not created remains as indestructible and the most surprising, and almost unbearable, this circumstance is to see the world * forms that emerged from this pure and unchanging life.
And it is this life that targeted and captured the bronze sculptor to whom we owe the marvelous statuettes of horsemen. warriors of symposiasts revealed us the cemeteries or sanctuaries of Dodona. Olympia or Delphi. And the same monumentality that exude large craters Trebenište or Vix manifested by similar success in Diadoumenos of Market museum as the most useful objects, coins or pottery. And just in. the latter will need to address in order to form an idea about the great painting of the 6th century.
The height of the black-figure painting (560-540)
Unlike sculpture of the 6th century introduces us to a world saturated by sulfur. the most secret areas of the spiritual life, the painting of Our vessel brings back to ourselves and what our most intimate myth offers. From the epic heights where echo the lyrics of Pindar and lightning of Zeus. Our ceramic leads to a world where the human, even ‘too human’ regain their rights; giving human form to the gods, the pottery shows her love for humanity: what is there in common between the Birth of Athena of the ” painter C »(Louvre) and the secular miracle of Phidias? It is this world of joyous intimacy that the Ionians painters opened before us like a family album. The Ionas painter of kairetanon hydrates [20] rediscovers around the verve of the Homeric Hymn to Hermes.
       We already know how the “thief, thief of oxen, dream guide, spy night, pylorus [21], had started the” perilalita works “of:” Although born dawn, noon already played guitar, and the even stole the makrovolou Apollo oxen “… and hid in a cave. We also know that “only then realized the son of Zeus and Maiados the makrovolo Apollo voyage is angry about the oxen, rammed amid the fragrant of infancy; such large carbon log park the ashes to cover, so Mercury as he saw Ekaergo coiled. And instantly picked up the head of the hands and feet as neoloustos inviting sweet sleep [22]. ” At this point the painter of pitcher Louvre begins to tell his story: Hermes pretends to sleep in his crib, while Apollo and other IM ‘people talk about the disappearance of oxen that distinguish f cave covered with bushes among which a hare running [23]. At the same playful inspiration Reconvene the bulk of production in the second quarter of the century, even in strict Spartans: a humor colored by irony, famous laconic kylix National Library shows Arkesilaos, king of Cyrene, weighing sacks with silfio [24] before t loaded. In abundant production workshops of Rhodes Cyclades, Chios, Samos, Clazomenae. Halkida, Rhegium and mainly Corinth and Athens, we recognize mu race with exuberant temperament who wants to see and see again what chilioakousmenes stories, myths and anecdotes that rejoices t spectacle of life and pursue their dramas and battles where excelled as exemplary heroes and immortal gods. But more than the artistic thirst is the expressive power of the plan but amazing.
Faced with these thousands of blacks forms that spring up in the orange-red deep vessels and plates *, we understand the religious cult which surrounded the Pythagoreans sense of completion *, integrated and well-defined shape. A children’s riddle mentioned by Plato in the state (479c) reveals perhaps better than anything else the true soul of this people of the design, the sacred terror that looked ahead to whatever was not clearly visible, tangible, understood and tested. To the riddle: “A man is not man see without seeing a bird is a bird, sitting on a piece of wood is not wood; throws and did not throw a stone that is no stone” man te Cook Aner hen hen Cook when he saw, wood epi te tion wood kathimenin fossils te tion fossils directed te tion challenges.
He’s a eunuch – man and non-man – that distinguishes the sunset a bat perched on a reed moved; throws a pumice and naturally fails nothing. The eunuch, pumice and bat posing for Plato the three sides of the hybrid world of glory * world intermediate between it and the ground where the man, without shape, refers to devices without recommendation which can not be targeted than with pumice. In this puzzle we read all the Greek distaste for amorphous: it must keep that in mind if we want to understand the amazing quality and the wonderful destiny of classical pottery.
We have already mentioned the great era of Corinth and a Attic painting :. After Kleitias, Athens becomes the second capital of Greek pottery and from the mid-6th century captures a real hegemony: more than three quarters of Greek vases of the Classical era produced from Athens laboratories. With horses Nearchos (National Archaeological Museum of Athens, about 560-550) angiography reaches to the edge of plastic, and the Lydian the spirit of monumental decoration itself introduced to pottery. Henceforth the painter introduces a real metopes tables perfectly adapted to the body curves: never more classical decoration will not escape the rigor of the rule that keeps it at defined locations and contexts. Starting from the three founders – Kleitias, Nearchus and Lydian – Athenian painting captures a substance richness, a completeness, an authority that distinguish it from any other modern production: only chalkidaios craftsman who decorated the amphora I -33 and Hercules of Geryon ( “painter of signs” Paris, National Library) is approaching epic greatness of Athenian hydria showing the struggle of Hercules with the Hydra. With Exekias and his school (painters ‘Group E’), the black-figure reaches to peak. Painter and potter simultaneously Exekias (about 540-530) is the classic of black-figure painting: it is already the spirit of tragedy manifested in Aianta suicide adorning the beautiful amphora Boulogne. Tables * Berlin amphora Vatican showing Achilles and 47 Ajax playing piers, the amphora Munich with Ajax transport the body of Achilles and the dreamlike journey of Dionysus, the goblet of Munich, are masterpieces of painting 6th century.
Simultaneously with the monumental amphorae Exekias, Athens produces cups of exceptional elegance, lekythoi and olpes which decorate miniature great talent, such as the “painter of Amasis” and mainly “small artisans”, the “painter of Toad” or ” painter Tlisonos “. A cup in the Louvre, which represents Dionysus and his followers and a great battle soldiers and horsemen indicates the excellent quality of some of these anonymous “small craftsmen.” In a olpe Louvre, height 21 cm, a krioforos Mercury occurs running a large stride beneath a garland of ivy: the vitality of the movement, the perfect form of a ram, the white and red shades and three Rodanthe defining the pig add to this a monumental task broadly resembling the noble and grandiose compositions Exekias.
The Psiax, creator including a magnificent chariot in an urn located in Berlin, is the last great representative of the black-figure style, which will start to decline by the end of the century. Of the 530, a new invention seemingly simple, brought a real revolution in the art of painting: the “red-rate.” Soluble longer translates into painting language integrated and developed form of Kouros and Maidens.
The peak of the red-figure painting (520-480)

The glaze instead be used to form the silhouettes serves to as depth and forms, undyed, keep the color of the clay. This reversal of the traditional way was truly revolutionary because it allowed much greater freedom of movement, since the line was planned was much slimmer than the line drawn by the spike. This reversal of values ​​finally liberated painting from the influence of etching, held around 530, the circle potter Andokides or antagonist Nikosthenes. For a long time while using both techniques [25] such as e.g. the magnificent funerary loutrophoros Louvre (early 5th century): the mourners lamenting about the dead, neck and belly of the vase is red-but six riders in the lower zone are still the black-figure style. Both sides of the Munich amphora (about 520) show us a real race *, where the “painter of Andokides” and “painter Lysippidi” have the same theme – the Hercules meal with Athena – according to both techniques . In both cases the painting thanks to clearly see what is gained and what is lost in vigor: in any case, the two techniques are completely autonomous and nothing allows us to see the black-figure painting as a lower stage, one of the new phase of preparation rate. The “painter of Andokides” the Oltos, Epictetus, the Euphronios, the competitor Euthymides (who states in an inscription: “like never able to make the Euphronios. ..”), Finch, be the first explore the novel and, as early as 520-510, the drive to perfection. What first surprised at this free and incomparably elegant painting is r affinity with the reliefs of the same period. In one aspect of the famous crater Efroniou representing the struggle of Hercules with Antaeus (Louvre), we see three elegant young Athenians beautiful Leagros (which is dedicated to the whole series of performances with traditional inscription Good * ie handsome), the Kephisodorus and an anonymous [26] to prepare to listen to music with double lumen will play the musician called polyclonal: here we recognize the style and spirit-like reflections of funerary reliefs of Athens or New York (reliefs of Megakles the of Philo).
Under the influence of sculpture, the painters are removed from the old calligraphy and looking volume, beautiful physicality that only movement can bring. Our large Euphronios shows how could explore the possibilities offered them this new freedom: between monumental crater Arezzo (battle of Hercules and the Amazons, dances of revelers) and wonderful horseman of goblets of Munich, revealed to us all spirit of the 6th century. The second generation of painters (500- 480). Epictetus B ‘(or’ Kleophrades Painter “), the” painter of Berlin “, the” painter of Bruges, “Douris, Makron, Onesimos will do nothing more than to cover all the possibilities that were already sufficiently explored the 6th century.
Let us observe more closely those of the red-figure technique pioneers. You will initially see the cult of beautiful boys, declared with neat inscriptions. The beautiful Leagros returns incessantly in thought Efroniou around 520-500. As was killed in 456 in the battlefield, the Leagros had the opportunity to meet the most beautiful people of the century: Panaitios, Athinodoto, Chairestrato after Erothemi, lupus and himself the son, Glaucon, who was a celebrity around f “. 470. The Louvre goblet with the exploits of Theseus and the journey to the underworld to owe to an anonymous lover Panait and is probably due to the Athinodotou love that scrumptious Peithinos painted amazing couples of lovers surrounding Thetis earth Peleus in goblet Berlin! The Euthymides (Louvre), Finch (Munich) had handled the issue of the abduction with the same breadth of monumental sculptor pediment of Eretria. We find the same monumentality both individual figures like the Louvre Ganymede, Heracles of “Berlin Painter” (Würzburg and Basel) or Finch (Tarquinia), and in the long epic compositions such as scenes of the Trojan war the Acquired B (Naples) or the “painter of Bruges” (Louvre and Vienna). A kylix of the latter is kept in Berlin probably gives the composition of the two poles root of this tender and peaceful era. External walls unfolds an impetuous giants, but inside, the goddess of the moon drives the chariot with two winged horses at the cathode to the cosmic ocean: close the program that will make Phidias in the Parthenon pediments.
A figural language perfectly dominated, consolidated, radiates with a lively sparkle in these creations. Between 510 and 480, in the course of a single generation, materials, or almost all, the potential of the red-figure technique had been used, had expressed had seen the light: the struggle; and the good old quarrel * between them like gifted and similar thirsty for recognition of the primacy artists has undoubtedly contributed much to this great acceleration of historical time. After 480 one has the impression that forms pales and runs: despite itself “painter Pistoxenou” (around 475). despite the real talent of the “Painter of Altamura” or “painter of Pan despite the boldness of Ermonaka. nothing essentially new will not say red-language [27]. Acne * of. the highest point of the boom is much earlier that the traditional periodization called classical period of Greek painting.
The great turning point: the strict rate
As we reach the end of a long season, let stand for a while to date. Between the time the Euphronios stops painting (around 500) and those who Epictetus Second paints the tragic abduction of Cassandra in the urn of Naples (480), a deadly threat hovering over Greece. The revolt against the Persians Ionia has crashed. Miletus was destroyed in 494 and the Temple of Gemini was ablaze. In the battle of Marathon (490), the young Athenian democracy showed its value but, ten years later, Athens was destroyed by the Persians and the Carthaginians and the Etruscans threaten Sicily. Then, the same day as it is called, defeated the Persians at Salamis waters and Syracuse triumph of their opponents in the battle of Imeras. During the twenty those terrible years, the Greek art changed axis, horizon and orientation. The glow of the inner life that illuminates the face of Kore 643 turns into profundity with recent Kouros and latest Daughters of the Acropolis: the Daughters 674 and 686 and Adolescent Blond. Then the art of Kouros and Maidens, which concentrated the spirit of the 6th century, ending suddenly: the wonderful “child Kritios” sees the light a new style, more humane, less vibrant than shivering sulfur. “The spirit, says Hegel, is working on the objects only as they still have a mysterious side, not explicit, undisclosed (Nichtoffenbares) [28]». Not arrogantly aspire to give a name to the mystery revealed and expressed during this century full of vigor this circumstance the ypsilokormes youthful figures, but obviously et fulfill their mission and should be eliminated. In place of these undifferentiated divine and human beings second classical era will place the human as such, distinct from the Divine and simultaneously close to it “by the greatness of his spirit.” The Charioteer of Delphi and the companions and heirs will succeed 53 the Kouroi but no win even though they Acropolis – no Venus, no “Caryatid” especially those of the Erechtheion – will not be able to resurrect the glorious epiphany of the new century ends. The greatness of the 5th century will emerge in a completely different direction.
The second classical era is firstly the time of flowering of architecture.
Throughout the 5th century, a building orgasm gripped Greece. In commemoration of the victory over the Carthage (480), the gels Syracuse raises a majestic Doric temple in Imera. At the same time, the Cyrene adorned with a great temple dedicated to Zeus, while in the East, the Monument of the Harpies Xanthos Lycian launches localization Asia. In the decade of 470, the temple of Athena will be built in Miletus, the Stoa of the Athenians at Delphi, the great temple of Zeus at Olympia (468-456), the amazing OLYMPIEION, the “Temple of the Giants” in Agrigento. This gigantic temple (110×52,7 m. The pillar), almost monstrous, the most nonconformist of Doric temples: no columns. but half columns. based on the walls; thirty-eight Telamon. huge Atlases, height 7.70 m., occupied the space between the columns to raise the mass of the entablature their logismena arms. Fortunately, the wonderful temples of Hera Lakinias (around 460). Demeter and Persephone and especially the temple of Omonia (about 440) restore the city of Empedocles the classic measure. Around 470, the Selinous still building the temple of Apollo colossal (Temple G); simultaneously endowed with a temple of Hera (Temple E) with beautiful frieze, and then, around 440 with two other temples, their O and A . Together with the church of Omonia in Agrigento and the temple of Hera II in IIoseidonia (around 450). the unfinished church in the beautiful landscape of Egesta represents the extension of Doric architecture in the West in the 5th century. Simultaneously, in the Peloponnese after the Olympia Zeus, another Doric masterpiece, a temple dedicated to Epicurean Apollo rises on the wild beauty of Vasses of Figaleias in Arcadia (around 430); Argos adorned with a new Iraio while Delos, which it became the headquarters of the naval, Alliance, the Athenians build, between 425 and 417, another Doric temple, which was to house the colossal statue of Apollo that had built the Tektaios and the angel in the middle of the 6th century. But the miracle happened in Athens.
In 450-449, Pheidias, son of Charmides, forty-two years old then and already famous, as shown by the gold and ivory statue of Zeus at Olympia, undertakes Pericles all powers to efprepisei the “Great Temple * ‘goddess at the Acropolis. Directing and inspiring one of the megaleiodesteres collective creations of history, gathering a multitude of architects (Kallikratis, Kite. Mnesicles, Korivos). sculptures (Alkamenes, Agorakritos, Krisilas) and anonymous craftsmen, Phidias completes the Parthenon and its sculptural decoration in ten years (447-438). In Mnesicles owe the Propylaea (437-432), stunning marble diadem on the burning sun off the cliff. The 410 Mesountos the Peloponnesian war, completed the other two wonders of the Acropolis, the Temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion. At this time. Athens and Attica had completed their marble decoration. In Athens itself was the temple of Ilissos (around 450), the Theseion (temple of Hephaestus) and the temple of Ares (around 440). the Stoa, the Dome Market. A new Telesterion (initiation hall) stood at Eleusis (around 460-450), while in the sacred places of June and Rhamnus new temples were dedicated to Poseidon. Athena and nemesis.
Filokaloumen outward meanness * “cherish the beauty in the simplicity,” this programmatic understanding of Pericles translated in their language marble monuments of the Acropolis. What Anaxagoras. friend of Pericles, called mind *, the regulatory intellect which adored as the foundation of the world *, embodied in the Parthenon, the symbol of moderation and proportion, where everything has been planned and measured, but where everything vibrates with a sacramental life, elusive and unpredictable. Everything seems to be the result of a huge geometric calculation, but, as John Miliades says, “until the most hidden details of Parthenon, we always have the feeling that there are mathematical calculations, but the eye and the touch of the hand, which determine the arrangement of architectural elements [29]. ” The more subtle deformations were at the service of sensitivity in this majestic geometry, where everything seems to be summarized in a simple alternation of horizontal and vertical lines. The long horizontal data lines such as architraves, cornices and pillars, forming lines slightly, almost imperceptibly, convex. Curl or lowered to the medium to give the impression of a straight. The layer of the stone platform is not exactly horizontal, not to bend in the middle: the western and eastern front, the mainstay has been the center of a small curvature, five or six centimeters; it is eleven centimeters on the long sides. Similarly, the vertical shafts of the columns lean slightly towards the wall of the nave, to avoid the illusion that made them seem to lean outwards. The corner columns are fatter by 6.4 cm. To camouflage thinner than others. The tilting axis of the columns is calculated such that the shafts could meet at 1500 m. From the ground. Never matching art large monumental volumes with that the slightest detail perfect and not been as happy as the Parthenon. If the Platonic dream of a “speech combined with music” (ratio mousikῇ alloy [30]), never took place, then – surely this was the rock that tore Poseidon with his trident and where Athena planted the olive. In this rock also plastic searches classical era were completed and their corollary.
The pro-Parthenoneian art
Certainly not the disappearance of the so-called “archaic” (sic), see “conventional” (sic again) smile, and even less progress of anatomical knowledge that reveals the depth of the changes announced by the advent of the Severe Style.
In the frontal and the apparent immobility of musk and Kouros not see any sign of inferiority, “archaism” or “primitivism.” What she had to tell the daughter of Antinoros and all Athenian sisters, did not have the language, movement or bad and changing epiphenomena. The Charioteer is not “pre-classic” because standing still and Poseidon Istiea not classic because the muscles are visible. Similarly, angiography does not reach its classical perfection at the same time with the sculpture or the architecture of the 5th century or even the “great painting which texts speak but we do not know absolutely nothing.
We know enough jokes for Micon, Polygnotos Nominal Parrhasius the ancient writers, from Pliny to Pausanias, have left us detailed descriptions of some of their works, murals or paintings. The Greco-Roman copies of Hellenistic mosaics of Pella or the frescoes of the tombs Lucania, Thrace or Macedonia despite not speaking for themselves. Equally useless would be to look for reflections of the great paintings in the production of potters: inasmuch actually been, exercised baneful influence. quality designer, the “painter of niobids” looks embarrassed in front of the model of the mural and more specifically the prospect invented Agatharchus Samos, the designer of Aeschylus: the new sense of space we perceive the calyx krater Louvre does nothing by destroying the harmony of the composition. We note with satisfaction that the last great painters, the “painter of Pistoxenou”, the “painter of Sotades”, the “painter of the bottle”, the “painter of Achilles’ or the ‘painter of Reeds’, were able to resist the temptation of permutation. And most importantly is that left more or less exhausted black-figure technique to turn to the colorful painting in white or yellow background, only means most to preserve the primacy of the draft of the supreme and final flourishing. And it is on the whitish depth lekythoi the classic angiography says its last word.
We do not know and will never know the frescoes executed Polygnotus the Thasian in Stoa Athens or at Delphi, where he painted the last of Ilion, and a descent into Hades, on the walls of the club Cnidian.Woe is to know and the works of the most famous sculptors of the age of Phidias: the Kanachos of Kritios and Nisiotis, Pythagoras of Rhegium, the Kalamis Myron, of Polycleitus. All these beloved teachers, copied thousands of times on behalf of Greco-Roman art lovers, more or less enlightened, it is not for us nothing but names. And we can not, of these insipid and lifeless copies to imagine Tyrannicides of Kritios and Nisiotis, Tray Myron or satellites Polycleitus. But the fragments and some more or less intact, masterpieces that came down to us reveal a huge change, a real revision values.
Let’s look first monumental compositions of the early 490: sculptures of Aphaia temple in Munich (eastern gable), Athens (for example a very good warrior head), Aegina museum, the new girl running to escape in front of the abduction of Persephone, unique fragment of a pediment of Eleusis, the feats of Theseus on the metopes of the Athenian treasury at Delphi. The forms have here won a plasticity and a freedom of movement unthinkable a few decades earlier. The most striking symbol of this relaxed, more flexible and freer life is perhaps the god abducting Ganymede, Olympia. (Around 470).
Let’s also see some female figures, typical of the decades 470-450: divine heads of Selinunte to Palermo, Cyrene in Cyrene, the goddess of the “Apple Disk” in Athens, forms the throne Lountovizi in Rome. The ideality of their beauty has nothing to do with the carnal presence of Olympia Athens, sister Peloponnese Kore 684 Acropolis. Similarly, the rhythmic movement of the folds and the hands in the Flower Glorification of Farsalon relief in the Louvre brings before our eyes a new spirituality. At about the same time (470-460), in Locri, a series of clay RESOLUTIONof reliefs, some of which still retain their original polychrome, reveals unknown aspects of the mysticism of the cult of Demeter. Everywhere, the serenity of persons, courtesy of colleges preaching the advent of a new culture and this idealism manifests with the same force in brass works. in clay, even on coins, for example the wonderful Arethusa of silver decadrachm (Dimareteia *) which cut the gels in Syracuse, commemorate his victory at Himera.
All these elements, which reveal a new momentum, will be found clustered in a first composition in the monumental sculptures of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, about 460 years later Goat, namely 447, Phidias will start decorating the Parthenon.
This huge project will end after ten years, 438. At twenty years that separate the Olympia sculptures than the Parthenon, Greece had experienced a miraculous peace, divine Quiet * that sung by Pindar. This is the time when classical art experienced its greatest flowering.

From Olympia Acropolis: the peak

Despina alatheias *: thus presents Pindar sacred landscape of Olympia [31]. In the spirit of the Truth * reigned in the place where the Agon * reveal what the anthem should retain memorable. Christians, earthquakes, flooding, any kind of natural disaster struck the temples resting now in peace in the pine forest, at the feet of the hill shrine of Saturn. From the temple of Zeus not survived despite the colossal podium, around which lie huge column drums. The ivory Zeus of Phidias disappeared from a fire in Constantinople in 475 AD Everything almost lost by the disaster: two large square bases are what remains of chariots large Aeginetans sculptors Glaukias and Onati, and the Athenian Kalamis built for Gelon of Syracuse and his brother and successor Hieron, the favorite hero of Pindar. Amorphous ruins indicate the location of the workshop of Phidias and fencing of Kallistefanou olive, with the strands of which they made wreaths of the winners. But Despina Truth is always there and tells us even the Labours of Hercules, the terrible story of chariot given Pelops hand 64 Hippodamia and the kingdom of Pissis, battles of Lapiths with drunken Centaurs to his Peirithoos weddings, his friend Theseus, with Deidamia. Metopes representing the Labours of Hercules is probably the masterpiece and beyond, I suppose those of the Parthenon. The eastern pediment depicts the preparation of Pelops and Oenomaus races: the few forms kept intact, the pruning, the god of destructive river, the seer, the old maid, etc., lead us to the heights of classical art. But what is literally marvelous is the epiphany of Apollo in the midst of enraged complex unfolding in the western gable. Low in the corners, a crazy wind drifts drunks and lustful Centaurs and defenders Lapithidon young, and the ferocity of the battle as if it is praised by the incredible beauty Deidameia and their girlfriends. Higher up, near the center of the pediment, the serene face of Theseus, striking with an ax in both hands, announcing the proximity of untold power. And, indeed, in the center of the pediment is Apollo himself emerging from an infinite distance, tends to
hand salvation. So lifted before our eyes the veil that hides the tragic depth of Apollonian serenity: the divine measure must appease the titanic hubris, always ready to manifest. The Vinkelman had the inspiration to compare the “calm grandeur” of Greek forms with the “depths of the sea that always stay calm as much though is the power of the storm rage on the surface) then referred to the thankless Apollo Belvedere, which considered supreme moment art. What would he say, I wonder if he had seen the Olympia?
After this incomparable masterpiece, the Parthenon metopes, which represent the same subject, can not help but look a little bit weak. It is because the spirit of the “Olympian” (so called by the contemporaries of Pericles), the monstrous battles belonged to a final finished past. For him the mind *, the regulator ratio of Anaxagoras, had already conquered the world. Already the Oresteia of Aeschylus had shown that a court free men can still appease and controversy that divides the divine powers, the patron of Athens transformed the Black Furies into Eumenides favorable.
Furthermore, Pericles was a friend and student of the Pythagorean Damon, who taught that it is “to move the modes of music” (the “civilization” we would say today) “free to move together and leading politicians laws [32].” The State of Pericles was the only hitherto known where music and politics, that the arts of civilization and the art of management of the common life, practically merged, the only state also where the word “participation” – so in vogue today – was not a deceptive slogan but a reality that people experiencing daily. These citizens, who were soldiers, judges, public servants, chosen by lot free elections were the ones who were dancing tragedies, comedies, musical competitions. Only the first day “the Great Dionysia, the competition of dithyrambic odes participated ten. chorus. five men and five young boys, each of which consisted of fifty members, and which came lumen. The next day presented five comedies The tragedy contest lasted three whole days, each dedicated to ;. Bidders tragedians. who wrote about that case three tragedies and a “satirical drama.” The scale of participation was “amazing,” says MJ writes Finley [33]. “The active participants were about a thousand men and young boys who had previously spent several days testing.” This was everything every year with new projects. Over 1,800 plays written were played during the 5th century. Aristophanes was sure to understand where the Frogs, Aeschylus comparing art with that of Euripides stating parodontas crowd extracts, thus describing the whole evolution of the tragedy. And this theatrokratia *, in the words of Plato, was also a democracy: do not forget that one of the main arguments of Aristotle in favor of democracy was that “better judge the many works of music or poets; for elsewhere judge everyone in his perception, so everyone judge everything in the whole [34]. ” What modern Ca dare to speak so?
This participation expressed by Phidias in magnificent frieze which stretches for 160 meters around the four sides of the nave. In sculpture decoration, height 1.05 m., A whole people is to attribute values ​​in the city goddess. Three hundred and sixty persons, of whom one hundred forty-three horsemen with two hundred and twenty animals, galloping horses, cows, sheep fternokopoun are the procession of the feast of Panathenaic, which goes from the city to deliver to the priests of Athena on the Acropolis in neoufasmeno veil * on offer in diipetes (fallen from heaven) ancient wooden statue *. According to ancient custom, this web *, in the yolk color, embroidered with blue thread, paristouse the struggle of Athena Enceladus giant; the huge procession began at dawn. Also, as in reality, the number of: tax begins its journey from the side of the Propylaea: watch the departure of the riders on the beautiful horses artist, sculptor or painter could ever imagine. This pindariki ode to the glory of the horse and rider and mate changed in real agreement on the north side: all end up in a living arabesque that vibrates and throbs legs veins, nostrils, loud necks of animals, the fabric folds, the always precise movements of riders. But. already, the south side, the procession organized: people and animals. pack animals and victims ,. thallophoroi and ydrioforoi, Trader, the ergastines [35] upright within long the folded robes, marching in the free spontaneity of a celebration that does not resemble anything from a military procession, to conclude, on the east side, between twelve great gods who came to mixed with their people: j between the assembled gods, stop the huge wave Above this incomparable work, two miracles unfold gables. In the west, Athena and Poseidon disputing for and Attica: among the fragments preserved (the Kifissos river in the British Museum), seeing heavenly bodies, the most beautiful ever created by the ancient art. The east pediment, we are witnessing the eminently miracle: the epiphany of Athena emerging fully armed from the head of Zeus. This is the dawn, when the chariot of the sun emerges from the night and the horses of the night preparing to immerse themselves in the cosmic abyss. It is impossible not to feel someone a scare shiver front in demonic head horse Night: nobody – not even Bernini Versailles not captured the chthonic ambiguity horse with such clarity. The horse moon sinking in the ocean and the sea, or rather a wavy itself, like a caress, foam designs folds and gives form to the Venus body and Dione: the Goddess, who came from the foam of Cyprus waves or Kythira, leaning divine (psig * …) on the Dione; does not seem to suspect the enormous importance of the event that takes place in the center. Similarly, the other stands of the pediment, Dionysus. dazzled by the first rays of the sun, has not yet heard the triumphant message Iris sends the Immortals; but already the deities-nannies, Demeter and Kore, turning to the miracle place. An almost imperceptible movement permeates the other heavenly bodies: before the day you get up and the view will be visible to everyone.
And with this message eothina classical world completed.
A few decades after the Parthenon, many Victories erected in Greek soil. The 420, the Paeonius from Mende created a wonderful winged Victory placed in front of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Based read this simple sentence: “The Messenians and Nafpaktias dedicated to Olympian Zeus, the tenth of the spoils won from the enemies.” The enemies were the Spartans, weakened by their defeat at the battle of Sfaktirias the 425. From 431 the war raging in Greece. The plague had decimated Athens, taking with him and Pericles. Phidias died having fallen out of favor. In Athens, a superb victory in the portico of Zeus in the Agora and the Acropolis stood the temple jewel of Athena Nike. Victories exceptional grace – the last masterpieces of the classical era – covering the thorakeio surrounding the church tower. In the middle of this thorakeiou, length 41 m., Athena accept values ​​from two converging groups winged victories, which prepared the trophies and sacrifices. In view of the one fills an indescribable euphoric feeling ‘as if that hear the rustle of feathers, laughter and whispers, the girls voices c seaside. astonishing freshness bodies distinguish between the aspects of macerated tunics, but in vain sway these lovely creatures. The century will not end in a triumphant paean, but amid tears and laments.

Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles, Archaeological Museum of Olympia

[1] Thucydides II, 41.
[2] Plutarch, Pericles (Ed. I. Zacharopoulos round. TG Papaconstantinou).
[3] MJ Finley, The Ancient Greeks (French translation, 1971, page 1 36).
[4] Pausanias VI, 10, 4.
[5] The word genus perform to the condition type (do nowadays).
[6] = naio houses (do nowadays).
[7] The author describes as monopteral circular temples by external circumstances. However, monopteral temples can be often circular but their main characteristic is to have colonnade without nave (do nowadays).
[8] “intensity” of the column is called a slight curvature of the contour of the bottom so it looks as if pressed by the weight of the entablature (high sheets;).
[9] A. de Ridder and W. Deonna, Art in Greece, 1924. p. 222.
[10] Pliny, Natural History, XXX, IV, 65.
[11] Pythionikoi, VIII, f. 95 (Issue Vikelaia Public Library, Texts Greek, Heraklion, 1994 paid. Yannis Economides).
[12] The identity of these two statues is actually under discussion: some believe that depicted the Kleobis and Biton, others Dioskoyroi (note the French version).
[13] The building where the municipal church met (high sheets);
[14] We now know, and another work Sophilos, a very nice dinos * in the British Museum and represents the wedding of Thetis and Peleus (note the French version).
[15] Hugo von Hofmannstahl, Augenhlicke in Griechcnland. 1908. trans. E. Coche dc La
Fcrte. Heuresgrecques. G.L.M., Paris, 1948.
[16] According to the definition of Phaedrus, 250c (Ed. I. and II. Zaharopoulos, paid. B.
[17] In order to correctly estimate the errors of a certain ‘classicism’, it is interesting to recall what could be said about the Daughters. in 1901, a lover of the “Greece of Renan ‘:” I used to cross the room almost running to fourteen priestesses of Athena wrote in Moron Journey project in Athens. Their split eyes as the Mongolian people, their nostrils, strange forehead … this uniform and indefinable smile on shiny as ivory cheeks caused me a kind of sadness that made me put the legs … The fourteen priestesses to exasperate their clothing … liken this supposedly luxury with that of a Mycenaean ruins … Alas, say, who gets out of my way these Chinese girls? ”
[18] Pindar, 8th Nemeonikos. st.40, RC. (Pindar, victory celebration, var. BI Lazana. Lthina, 1997)
[19] ichor (anc.) = Blood (do nowadays).
[20] found in Caere (ancient Cairo) Etruria (do nowadays)
[21] Hymn to Hermes, I. f. 1 5-20.
[22] Ibid, f. 235 ff
[23] Today the urns of Caere probably dating to the last third of the 6th century (n. French version).
[24] Silfio: plant sought after as a spice and as a medicine exclusively produced in Cyrenaica and disappeared at the end of antiquity (do nowadays).
[25] This is the famous “bilingual vases” (high sheets)
[26] In this third new name has recently been recognized: it was called Hylas (n. French version).
[27] In fact, many other painters of red-figure vases would be worth mentioning, some of which offered much in the art, such as the so-called pan niobids painters of Penthesileia of Achilles, Kleophon.[28] Hegel, Aesthetics. Werke (a version). XIII, sel.231.
[29] John Miliades, The Acropolis, Athens I960, p. 46.
[30] Plato, The State, 549b.
[31] Pindar, Olympians 8th 3
[32] reported “Po Plato, Politeia, 424. c.
[33] The ancient Greeks, p. 92.
[34] Aristotle, Politics. III, 6, 4 (ed. I. And II. Zaharopoulos, var. Panayi Lekatsa).
[35] Athenian virgins and matrons prominent families were preparing the sacred veil of Athena for the celebration of the Great Panathenaic (do nowadays).








Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria is one of the largest Hellenistic and traditional cultural centers in the city of antiquity. It was named and founded in 331 BC the most great Greek Alexander the Great and remained the capital of Byzantine Egypt of Hellenistic, Roman, over a thousand years until it was conquered in 641 AD by Muslims. One of the most famous places in this city is the Royal Library which is the most famous and the largest library in Antiquity.

During the third BC century built a lighthouse to guide ships safely to the port of Alexandria. During the night reflected the glow of a big fire while day rises to heaven a great column of smoke. This was the first lighthouse in the world and remained in place for 1500 years.

The building was built on a small island called Pharos, in front of the Alexandria of Egypt. Famous this city
built by Alexander the Great, to an architect’s plan Deinokratous when he captured Egypt. The building was named after the island.
It took probably 20 years until they built and completed around 280 BC during the reign of Ptolemy II. The building of the lighthouse was designed by architect Sostratos.

The lighthouse consisted of three marble towers, built on a foundation of stone blocks. The first tower was quadrangular and contained apartments for the workers and soldiers. On top was a second octagonal spiral ramp leading to the last tower.

The Ultimate Tower has cylindrical shape and inside the burning fire that led the ships safely to port. From the top there was a statue of Zeus Soter. The total height of the lighthouse was 117 meters.

For maintenance of the fire need vast amounts of fuel. The supplying with woods, carrying thanks to spiral ramp horses and mules. Behind the fire there were brass sheets reflected the glow of the sea. Ships could distinguish it from 50 kilometers away. In the twelfth century the port of Alexandria was filled with mud and ships ceased to use it. The lighthouse fell into disuse. Possibly the leaves of bronze mirror and they became detached coins. In the fourteenth century an earthquake destroyed the lighthouse. Some years later the Muslims used the materials to build a fort. The fort was reconstructed and it remains in place the first lighthouse in the world.


The Colossus was a giant statue erected in the harbor of Rhodes. In antiquity Rhodians seeking permanently to preserve their independence, to exercise trade and not to participate in wars of other Greek cities. Nevertheless they conquered several times.

At the end of the 4th Century si Rhodians celebrated a great victory. Demetrius besieger after besieged for a year the city finally forced to flee and leave behind a large part of its equipment. The Rhodians decided to sell the equipment of Demetrius and the money to erect a magnificent statue of Helios value protected them.

THE bronze statue
We do not know exactly how was the statue nor at what point it up. We know, however, that was constructed of brass and had a height of 33 meters. The designed by architect Harry and it took 12 years to complete.

The brass casing was mounted onto an iron frame. The statue was hollow inside, and as construction progressed, the workers filled the gaps with heavy stones in order to ensure its stability. The Colossus was completed around 280 BC For many centuries, people listening to the Colossus, thought they stood above the entrance to the port of Rhodes with legs apart, as in the opposite drawing. But practically this was impossible because the entrance to the harbor of Rhodes was somewhere width 400 meters and the Colossus was not so … colossal! Our texts allow to assume that probably was in the city center and looked to the sea and harbor.

The colossal CRASH
Around 226 BC, less than fifty years after its completion, the Colossus fell. In an earthquake rocked and cut the knees. An oracle advised the Rhodians not to the rebuilding and so let him lying on the ground remained in this position for 900 years and many people saw the fallen statue of the god Helios. In 654 AD a Syrian prince conquered Rhodes and stripped the statue of the bronze plates. He said that he took them to Syria using 900 camels. Brass sold to dealers rather the melted and minted on coins.

DELPHI  Image result for μαντειο δελφων


Δελφοί Ιστορία Μαντείο των Δελφοί  Ναός Απόλλωνα Πυθία  Δελφοί Ιστορία


When Laios, king of Thebes, married Jocasta, the oracle of Delphi an oracle made it known that if Jocasta gave birth to this child would kill him and mary his mother Jocasta……(from  Oedipous(=Swollen foot), of Aeshylous) 



The oracle first belonged to the goddess Gaia, and when Apollo killed the child, the serpent Python became his own house of worship.
Another legend tells us that Apollo turned into dolphin and rode a Cretan ship in this part, guiding the sailors to build there the temple of (Delphi took their name from the archaic word delfis = dolphin or as support from others a foreign word delf, meaning hollow and denote the location).Ιέρεια προσφέρει θυσία στον βωμό, αττικό ερυθρόμαυρο κύπελλο
Delphi emerged in the seventh century BC, when it became the center of Amphictionian Alliance.
In 585 BC, the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sikyon liberated Delphi from the town of Krissa and large village of Kirra, which imposed exorbitant amounts to guests arriving at the port, to ask the help of the oracle and sometimes their They robbed.
With the help of Amphictionian Alliance (Athens, Thessaly etc.), Cleisthenes ruled harbor with its fleet of Sikyon and after a long siege, which lasted ten years, conquered and totally destroyed Kirra (first sacred war 595-585 BC).
Kleisthenes built new vaults and organized the Pythian Games grandly, every four years, like Olympia competitions (from a single musical sport, he added chariot races, boxing, running, etc.). The sanctuary was entrusted the protection of the Alliance, which is now called and Delphic Amphictyony.
When the Persians invaded Greece, Xerxes sent a big force to Delphi (September of 480 BC), in order to plunder them. When they learned the inhabitants of Delphi, they tried to remove the treasures of the sanctuary, but this was forbidden by God.
The sacred arms, which were hung in a cell in the interior of the church and it was great sacrilege to touch them, found outside the cell door, as if the god intervened to give weapons to the defenders.
But when the Persians climbed the slope of Mount Parnassus and reached the temple of Athena Provident erupted heavy rain and a storm terrifying, with thunder and lightning and a terrible noise was heard by two huge rocks, which falls off the Fedriades. Huge rock pieces plummeted from Parnassos and loud cries were heard from the temple of Athena. The rocks falling upon the Persians, caused great disaster and the survivors fled in panic, they said later chased by two supernatural warriors. The priests later confirmed that the two combatants were heroes prison and him, whose shrines were near. The whole Greece learned that Apollo intervened and saved the sanctuary.
In 356 BC, the Phocians occupied the place and stole the relics until Philip, king of Macedonia, ten years later in 346 BC freed.
These events are detailed as follows: the Thebans accused the Phocians in Amphictionian Alliance that occupied a large area of ​​the oracle. The Alliance found them guilty and ordered them to pay a large fine.
The Phocians who could not pay the fine, took up arms and chose as their leader the bandit Philomelos, who captured Delphi and killed many of their priests. To justify his actions ordered the Pythia to pull out a prophecy that says that everything what happened was destined to become.
 When Pythia refused, upwards by force the tripod and as they were frightened by the spears of the soldiers, he said:
      “You are free to do whatever you want.”
After that, Philomelos looted the treasury of Delphi. With the money he (worth of sixty million Attic drachmas of the time), he created an army of mercenaries and bribed many leaders of Greek cities. The Amphictionian allies fought them all, in a war that lasted ten years. In the second year of the war, Philomelos suicide falling into a ravine to avoid arrest.
The place took his brother Onomarchos, who fought king Phillip in many hard battles and defeated, but in the end was defeated by Philip in Orchomenos and again in the great battle of Pagasitikos Gulf. Six thousand Phocians were killed in battle and other three thousand prisoners, threw them into the sea to drown, punishment for the sacrilege.
Other useful information on the history of Delphi is:
Alexander the Great forced the Pythia to give the oracle he wanted.
In 279 BC, the Galatians invaded Greece and reached the gates of Delphi, which was saved from stones and rocks cast by residents of the location Phaedriades forcing them to withdraw.
During the Roman occupation the sanctuary was damaged but also benefited from various emperors.
General Sula pillaged the region, to pay the expenses made for the occupation of Athens.
Augustus and Hadrian benefited and the Herod Atticus rebuilt stage.
Nero took with him in Rome, 500 statues from Delphi.
The Great Constantine moved to Constantinople the best works.
Emperor Theodosius closed the oracle and forbade the ancient worship.
When Julian the Apostate tried to restore back the Greek religion and asked the advice of the oracle, the oracle gave the following prophecy:
    “Tell the king that the walls have fallen into decay?
     Apollo no longer temple, nor prophecies,
     nor Castalia source. The creek, which had so much to say,
     It has dried up. “
Unfortunately The Goths and Slavs invaders – during the Othoman ocupation – plundered Delphi and also destructive earthquakes.
1891 to 1893m.Ch., Excavated at Delphi and restored to light the theater, the stadium, the temple of Apollo, the treasuries and other buildings, with 6000 inscriptions from statues and other works.





Image result for αρχαιοι ελληνες φιλοσοφοι

Marcus Aurelius Latin Stoic philosopher
While he was in the campaigns between 170 and 180, Marcus Aurelius wrote “The In Himself” in Greek as a source for improving the character and spirit. Marcus Aurelius was a priest in Rome and passionate patriot. He had logical mind and was an advocate and representative of Stoicism and stoic. The  “Εις Εαυτόν” “To Himself” is excellent work, a classic example of the Stoic philosophy

Temple Of Hercules-Amman, Jordan ~ by Marcus Aurelius

The highest hill (Jebel) al-Qala Amman, the “ACROPOLIS” – alias – Citadel was built during the Hellenistic period. In fact the first Roman rampart hill, restored by the Umayyad, and today some parts of it are preserved. Impressive panoramic views of the city and among the ancient ruins you will see on the southwest corner of the ruins of the Temple of Hercules.

Next to the church was built on Marcus Aurelius, according to tradition, there was a colossal statue of Hercules of 10 meters, as evidenced by the fragments found during excavations. The best preserved building is quite tall rectangular Byzantine 6th century AD

The old Amman was built on two levels: the Upper and Lower. Upper was the Citadel, the Citadel, also called (in Arabic) Jebel Kalaat. On the acropolis meet erect three columns of the Temple of Hercules and a Byzantine  church in the 6th century and distinguished around the Roman fortifications.

Croesus decided to build a temple in honor of the goddess Artemis, who was the goddess of the moon and protector of wild animals and girls. The church was built of marble and limestone materials carried over from neighboring hills. Somewhere 120 marble columns supporting the main part of the church. Each column had a height of 20 meters. Huge boulders were transported there with pulleys and connected with metal pins. After the completion of the roof decorated artists building with wonderful carved scenes. In the middle of the temple was a marble statue of Artemis. The church was one of the greatest of the classical world, much larger than the Parthenon in Athens was built later. The base of the foundation had length 131 meters and width 79 meters.

The only restored columns that exists today. But still more glorious ruins of the city, a theater, a library, baths and many other public buildings.

Two hundred years later, in 356 BC The temple was destroyed by fire. Fire someone put the Irostratos, who wanted in this way to become famous(!).

By coincidence, the day of the destruction of the temple, Alexander the Great was born. Later, Alexander visited Ephesus and gave the order to build the temple again in the same position.

The temple of Alexander survived until the 3rd AD century. With the passage of time the mud engulfed the port of Ephesus and the city ended up insignificant! The Goths then ransacked the temple and floods completed the destruction Today what remains of the temple in Ephesus are few boulders foundations and restored only one column!

The temple of Artemis (Diana in Latin), as it should have been 600 BC It had 120 columns of marble and were decorated with beautiful sculptures.
Croesus was the last king of Lydia, a region of Asia Minor. It was known for its many riches. 560 BC commanded to build a magnificent temple in Ephesus.











Pages in category “Ancient Greek philosophers”

The following 141 pages are in this category, out of 141 total. This list may not reflect recent changes 



The old Ionian Greek Theater of EFESOS as it looks today


Έφεσος: Άρωμα Ελλάδας!



Reconstruction of the Temple of Aphrodite from the Baroque architect J. B. Fischer von Erlach (published in 1721)
The Temple of Aphrodite in Palepaphos (current Kouklia) built around 1200 BC The sanctuary of the Late Bronze Age is composed of two distinct architectural elements: an open mosque and a covered room joined with him. The mosque was surrounded by a wall built of massive ashlar limestone pillars that reached up to 5 m. Long and 2 m. Height. These pillars were erected on a pediment smaller, horizontal mounted limestone boulders. This section, much admired by the ancient travelers, is now the most striking point that can still be seen in this archaeological site.

Ephesus was a city dedicated to Artemis. The city was at the beginning a small temple, which was later destroyed to build the majestic Artemisio, whose construction lasted 120 years.

During the 6th century passed under the rule of Croesus, while maintaining its autonomy. He then successively from the domination of Cyrus and subsequent Persian kings and thus became part of the Persian Empire. It was released in 334 BC by the troops of Alexander the Great, so he changed his name and was named Arsinoeion, named after the wife of Lysimachus. At that time he rediscovered the old commercial activity. Later he was included in the kingdom of Pergamon and became one of the most remarkable Roman provinces of Asia. In 88 BC He understood it Mithridates, but after the defeat of the Roman legions, settled there in headquarters Sulla.This temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was the largest structure of Ionia. The Temple of Artemis serving priests and priestesses virgins, called Megabyzus. The temple was destroyed in 356 BC, rebuilt and eventually became marble building materials for various Byzantine monuments in Constantinoupolis alias Istanbul.


Alexandros of Antiochia


Between 130 and 100 BC




Louvre Museum, Paris, France

Venus de Milo on display at the  Louvre

The Hermes of Praxiteles(Praxi+teles).

The statue is dated to 343 BC and is made from Parian marble. It is the only original work of Praxiteles, that has survived and it was found at Olympia, intact on his base, several meters under the ground. Its height is 2.10 m.  It was dedicated to the sacred Altis from the Eleians and Arcadians to commemorate their peace treaty. Later it was moved to the temple of Hera, where it was found in 1877 AD.
The sculpture, “the diamond of Olympia”, represents Hermes, the messenger of the Gods, holding the small Dionysos, who tries to take something from his hand. 
The story is as follows: Themele, the mother of Dionysos, died from terror, when Zeus appeared in front of her, with all his thunderbolts and all his splendor. She was though pregnant at the time and Zeus took the infant and sent him to the nymphs in Crete, with Hermes. When the baby started to cry, Hermes in order to keep him quite, showed him a shiny object.Hermes of Praxiteles

Hermes looks sluggish but manly, resting in the trunk of a tree. In his lips, which have a light shadow, you can see the beginning of a smile. The delicate mouth comes in contrast with the strong nose.  Hermes hairs are mixed up and come in contrast with his skin, which looks tender and smoother. The unrivaled art of Praxiteles, in taking off the hardness of the marble, making it the same with the look of the flesh, is owed in his great skill, in the use of the light and shadow. Praxiteles in order to give life in the statue, purposefully does not keep the symmetry. If one looks the face from the left, is sorrowful, from the right is smiling and when you see it from the front is calm.

Archaeological Museum Olympia


Hermes of Praxiteles

The Aphrodite of Knidos was one of the most famous works of the ancient Greek sculptor Praxiteles of Athens. It and its copies are often referred to as the Venus Pudica type, on account of her covering her naked vulva with her right hand.

Hermes of Atalante, a Roman marble copy of a lost bronze attributed to Lysippos (National Archaeological Museum of Athens)

Sculpture found near the Varvakeion school reflects the type of the restored Athena Parthenos(=Virgin) presently in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens

    1. Winged Victory(ΑΠΤΕΡΟΣ ΝΙΚΗ-APTEROS NIKI) of Samothrace

    2. The Winged Victory of Samothrace, also called the Nike of Samothrace, is a 2nd-century BC marble sculpture of the Greek goddess Nike.

Η Νίκη της Σαμοθράκης

Photo (2005) of the workshop of Phidias at Olympia

Seated Zeus, marble and bronze (restored), following the type established by Phidias (Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg).

Statue of Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, the sculpture gallery Munich

  • Discobolus

  • The Discobolus of Myron is a Greek sculpture that was completed towards the end of the Severe period, circa 460-450 BC.

Discus-thrower (discobolus)Media: Bronze

Laocoon and His Sons
Antiphas and Thymbraeus.

  1. The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group, has been one of the most famous ancient sculptures ever since it was excavated in Rome in 1506 and placed on public display in the Vatican, where it remains.
  2. Media: White marble
  3. Museo Pio ClementinoHellenistic marble statue from
    the Pergamon School. It is one
    of the greatest sculptures ever.

The Greek colony of Chersonesos near modern Sevastopol

Taurica was the name of Crimea in antiquity. Taurica was inhabited by a variety of peoples. The inland regions were inhabited by Scythians and the mountainous south coast by the Taures, an offshoot of the Cimmerians. Greek settlers inhabited a number of colonies along the coast of the peninsula, notably the city of Chersonesos in modern Sevastopol. In the 4th century BC[ the eastern part of Taurica became part of the Bosporan Kingdom, before being incorporated into the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC. During the 1st, 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, Taurica was host to Roman colonists in Charax, Crimea.Taurica was eventually renamed by the Crimean Tatars, from whose language Crimea’s modern name derives. The word “Crimea” comes from the Crimean Tatar name Qırım, via Greek Krimea (Κριμαία).The ancient Greeks called Crimea Tauris (later Taurica, Ταυρική in Ancient Greek), after its inhabitants, the Tauri. The Greek historian Herodotus accounts for the name by asserting that Heracles plowed that land using a huge ox (“Taurus”). Herodotus also refers to a nearby region called Cremni or ‘the Cliffs'”, which may also refer to the Crimean peninsula, notable for its cliffs along what is otherwise a flat northern coastline of the Black Sea.

PANTHEON (Pan+theon AllGods Temple) of ROME

  1. The Pantheon is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns under a pediment. 

  2. Address: Piazza della Rotonda, 00186 Roma, Italy
  3. Opened: 126 AD
  5. Architectural style: Ancient Ionian architecture
  6. Height: 46 m
  7. Architect: Apollodoros (= gift from Apollo)of Damascus

     (Apollodorus of Damascus was a Greek engineer, architect, designer and sculptor from Damascus, Roman Syria, who flourished during the 2nd century AD.)

  8. Function: Roman temple, Museum

Pantheon interior

rome pantheon interieur1 in architect apollodorus of damascus HD Wallpaper

Forum of Trajan, including Basilica Ulpia (following entry), Rome, c. 111-117, attributed to Apollodoros of Damascus

Trajan’s Forum

  1. Address: Via dei Fori Imperiali, 00186 Roma, Italy
  2. Opened: 112 AD

  1. Arch of Constantine

  2. The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I’s victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312.
  3. Address: Via di San Gregorio, Roma, Italy
  4. Architectural style: Corinthian order
  5. Height: 21 m

Apollodorus of Damascus 

The monumental Danube Bridge of Apollodorus. Apollodorus himself stands in the foreground behind the sacrificing emperor.

Sybaris, Italy

The city is currently in southern Italy had been established in 720 BC by Greeks(Troezenian and Achaean) colonists. The town has become famous for its position in the Gulf and Taranto became synonymous with luxury and wealth.

Hellenic (Ionian order)monument in the rock in Petra(=Stone). The ancient aesthetics at its peak!

Bouthroton, Albania

It is also known as Butrint (Βουθρωτό). Established as one of the official city between the sixth and eighth centuries BC by Corinthians colonists and explorers. The town is an ancient Greek city flowing human activity and was one of the parts of the Greek kingdom of Epirus.

Heliopolis, Lebanon

In 334 BC, the city was called Heliopolis by the Greek word Helios(«ήλιος», meaning “sun” and “polis”(«πόλις») meaning city. “The character of this city held during Roman rule and some of the temples dedicated to Greek gods and especially Zeus.

Ancient Mieza, Macedonian tombs of Lefkadians Lyson and Kallikles(Λύσων και Καλλικλης)

Category:Ancient Greek poets



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Pages in category “Ancient Greek poets”

The following 104 pages are in this category, out of 104 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).



Thales, Euclid, Archimedes, Pythagoras.

1)  Archimedes the SYRAKOUSIOS (from Syracouse/Corinthian Colony from 774 B.C.)

He lived the time (287-212). He belonged to the rich and great family, son of the astronomer Phidias and relative of the tyrant of Syracuse. He dealt mainly with the study of all the problems pending from earlier studies and discovered new proposals. He traveled to Alexandria to study. It was then the cultural center of the time. Teachers in mathematical science was successors of Euclid(ΕΥΚΛΕΊ∆ΗΣ ). It was a prominent mathematical figure with huge volume projects, of  top quality. Excellent geometric researcher with the Hippocrates and Eudoxus. The inventions made him famous and reached up to us.
Archimedes leaves a certain mysterious covers how
lead to results. As if he had deliberately cover the traces of his inquiries, as if he was unwilling to reveal the secret of his research method. Originality and the effectiveness of previous studies of the cause were to qualify greatest mathematician of all times and nations. So the wise us is the father of geometry and inspiring younger studies. Famous verbal << >> eureka phrase was said when he discovered the principle of buoyancy and the excitement was running naked on the road constantly repeating that phrase.

Archimedes may have used mirrors which are operated collectively as a parabolic mirror and burn ships attacking Syracuse.


A sphere, the most perfect spatial shape according to Pythagoreans, also is an important concept in modern understanding of Euclidean spaces



Born about 325 BC and died in 265 BC. The name of Euclid is
synonymous with geometry. The “elements” is one of the most important projects in
history of mathematics. They have been used as basis for the geometric education
the whole of the West for the past 2000 years.
Although there are doubts said to apprentice at the academy of Plato and left
there until Ptolemy invited him to teach at the new university in
Alexandria. There Euclid founded the college student and stayed until the end of
life. He had a reputation that he was righteous, patient, honest and polite. Yet
they were sarcastic. One story says that one of his students
He complained that he had no profit from the mathematics taught. Then
Euclid quickly called to his slave to give the boy a coin because
“I had to win them to learn.”
Another story says that Ptolemy asked him if there is an easier
way to learn geometry than you by learning all theorems. Euclid
He replied that “there is no royal road to geometry” and sent to king
Some of the key projects besides the data is “data”, the “parts
numbers “, the” phenomena “and” visually “. All are in ancient Greek except
the ‘parts numbers “that have been preserved only parts in Arabic. All have
the basic structure of “elements” with definitions and strictly documented proposals.

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements. Euclid’s method consists in assuming a small set of intuitively appealing axioms, and deducing many other propositions (theorems) from these. Although many of Euclid’s results had been stated by earlier mathematicians,[1] Euclid was the first to show how these propositions could fit into a comprehensive deductive and logical system.[2] The Elements begins with plane geometry, still taught in secondary school as the first axiomatic system and the first examples of formal proof. It goes on to the solid geometry of three dimensions. Much of the Elements states results of what are now called algebra and number theory, explained in geometrical language.

Every point in three-dimensional Euclidean space is determined by three coordinates.

For more than two thousand years, the adjective “Euclidean” was unnecessary because no other sort of geometry had been conceived. Euclid’s axioms seemed so intuitively obvious (with the possible exception of the parallel postulate) that any theorem proved from them was deemed true in an absolute, often metaphysical, sense. Today, however, many other self-consistent non-Euclidean geometries are known, the first ones having been discovered in the early 19th century. An implication of Albert Einstein‘s theory of general relativity is that physical space itself is not Euclidean, and Euclidean space is a good approximation for it only where the gravitational field is weak.

Euclidean structure

These are distances between points and the angles between lines or vectors, which satisfy certain conditions (see below), which makes a set of points a Euclidean space. The natural way to obtain these quantities is by introducing and using the standard inner product (also known as the dot product) on Rn.[2] The inner product of any two real n-vectors x and y is defined by

\mathbf{x}\cdot\mathbf{y} = \sum_{i=1}^n x_iy_i = x_1y_1+x_2y_2+\cdots+x_ny_n,

where xi and yi are ith coordinates of vectors x and y respectively. The result is always a real number.


Main article: Euclidean distance

The inner product of x with itself is always non-negative. This product allows us to define the “length” of a vector x through square root:

\|\mathbf{x}\| = \sqrt{\mathbf{x}\cdot\mathbf{x}} = \sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i)^2}.

This length function satisfies the required properties of a norm and is called the Euclidean norm on Rn.

Finally, one can use the norm to define a metric (or distance function) on Rn by

d(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}) = \|\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{y}\| = \sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^n (x_i - y_i)^2}.

This distance function is called the Euclidean metric. This formula expresses a special case of the Pythagorean theorem.

This distance function (which makes a metric space) is sufficient to define all Euclidean geometry, including the dot product. Thus, a real coordinate space together with this Euclidean structure is called Euclidean space. Its vectors form an inner product space (in fact a Hilbert space), and a normed vector space.

The metric space structure is the main reason behind the use of real numbers R, not some other ordered field, as the mathematical foundation of Euclidean (and many other) spaces. Euclidean space is a complete metric space, a property which is impossible to achieve operating over rational numbers, for example.


Main article: Angle


Positive and negative angles on the oriented plane

The (non-reflex) angle θ (0° ≤ θ ≤ 180°) between vectors x and y is then given by

\theta = \arccos\left(\frac{\mathbf{x}\cdot\mathbf{y}}{\|\mathbf{x}\|\|\mathbf{y}\|}\right)

where arccos is the arccosine function. It is useful only for n > 1,[footnote 1] and the case n = 2 is somewhat special. Namely, on an oriented Euclidean plane one can define an angle between two vectors as a number defined modulo 1 turn (usually denoted as either 2π or 360°), such that ∠y x = −∠x y. This oriented angle is equal either to the angle θ from the formula above or to θ. If one non-zero vector is fixed (such as the first basis vector), then each non-zero vector is uniquely defined by its magnitude and angle.

The angle does not change if vectors x and y are multiplied by positive numbers.

Unlike the aforementioned situation with distance, the scale of angles is the same in pure mathematics, physics, and computing. It does not depend on the scale of distances; all distances may be multiplied by some fixed factor, and all angles will be preserved. Usually, the angle is considered a dimensionless quantity, but there are different units of measurement, such asradian (preferred in pure mathematics and theoretical physics) and degree (°) (preferred in most applications).

Rotations and reflections[edit]

Symmetries of a Euclidean space are transformations which preserve the Euclidean metric (called isometries). Although aforementioned translations are most obvious of them, they have the same structure for any affine space and do not show a distinctive character of Euclidean geometry. Another family of symmetries leave one point fixed, which may be seen as the origin without loss of generality. All transformations, which preserves the origin and the Euclidean metric, are linear maps. Such transformations Q must, for any x and y, satisfy:

Q\mathbf{x} \cdot Q\mathbf{y} = \mathbf{x} \cdot \mathbf{y} (explain the notation),
|Q\mathbf{x}| = |\mathbf{x}|.

Such transforms constitute a group called the orthogonal group O(n). Its elements Q are exactly solutions of a matrix equation

Q^\mathsf{T} Q = Q Q^\mathsf{T} = I,

where QT is the transpose of Q and I is the identity matrix.

But a Euclidean space is orientable.[footnote 2] Each of these transformations either preserves or reverses orientation depending on whether its determinant is +1 or −1 respectively. Only transformations which preserve orientation, which form the special orthogonal group SO(n), are considered (proper) rotations. This group has, as a Lie group, the same dimension n(n − 1) /2 and is the identity component of O(n).

Group Diffeo-
SO(1) {1}
SO(2) S1 U(1)
SO(3) RP3 SU(2) / {±1} 
SO(4) (S3×S3) / {±1} (SU(2) × SU(2)) / {±1} 
Note: elements of SU(2) are also known as versors.

Groups SO(n) are well-studied for n ≤ 4. There are no non-trivial rotations in 0- and 1-spaces. Rotations of a Euclidean plane (n = 2) are parametrized by the angle (modulo 1 turn). Rotations of a 3-space are parametrized with axis and angle, whereas a rotation of a 4-space is a superposition of two 2-dimensional rotations around perpendicular planes.

Among linear transforms in O(n) which reverse the orientation are hyperplane reflections. This is the only possible case for n ≤ 2, but starting from three dimensions, such isometry in the general position is a rotoreflection.

Euclidean group

Euclidean geometry is an example of synthetic geometry, in that it proceeds logically from axioms to propositions without the use of coordinates. This is in contrast to analytic geometry, which uses coordinates.

3). Pythagoras (580-490 BC)

Vatican Museum sculpture of Pythagoras

Illustration of Pythagoras in the currency of the 3rd century BC

He came from Samos where he was born and died at the age of 90 years in
Metapontion southern Italy from violent death. He was greatest Greek mathematician, philosopher, scientist and leader, regarded as the founder of mathematical science.
Pythagoras taught that the soul is immortal and that there is life after death. In
old age married a pupil of the Theano and gained her
children. He was founder of the first systematic university world. It
university, it was a political-religious institution with political objectives.
Diogenes Laertius says about Pythagoras that: “Young yet, motivated by
the curiosity and he left his homeland to be initiated in all Greek and
barbaric rituals. He went to Egypt and then introduced him to Polytarkis
letter to `Amasa. He learned perfect Egyptian like and Antiphon says
He visited the Chaldeans and the Magi. Following on Crete with Epimenides
He descended in Ideon Andron, and Egypt had entered the inner sanctum. So he knew the secrets of the gods. Then he returned to Samos, but because he found the home the tyrannokratoumeni by Polycrates, left for Croton. “The
Heraclides of Pontus ,, says Pythagoras said that once existed
Aithalidis and was the son of Hermes. Mercury asked him to choose what he wanted, except immortality. He asked then, as he lives, to remember what have happened. So could restores the memory of everything from past lives.
Pythagoras had many loyal disciples. Every time I entered the house
They are telling them to say the following. Who was wrong? what did I do; I had to do and I did not do? The students over five years remained silent and listened only to speeches Pythagoras never see him. After the end of this test, students
of, were members of the house and were allowed to see him.
Pythagoras died, according to Diogenes Laertius, while trying to escape
by tracking Krotoniaton who feared the establishment of tyranny reason
great power he had acquired he and his students in the city. The Croton
They massacred him and his four hundred students after they burned his house
Milon in which shortly before they had gathered.


Thales was born in 624 BC Miletus and was the founder of Ionia school (faculty
Miletus). Thales loved traveling and traveled a lot. Hecalculated the height of a pyramid in Egypt measuring the shadow of the momentjust his own shadow was equal to his real height. Sages of the sixthcentury (eg Solon) was established to travel to Egypt and to study the lifestyle and science (geometry) in Alexandria
Thales was one of the seven sages of antiquity and considered father
Greek philosophy because first raised the issue of a general principle of all
things. Thales died at an advanced age watching sporting events
because of the heat, thirst and exhaustion. The grave of the following charaktike
epigram: This small tomb is Thales of excellence, whose glory reached as the

The Thales’ Theorem. For the figure above applies: \ textstyle \ frac {DE} {BC} = \ frac {AE} {AC} = \ frac {AD} {AB}

Thales was a great astronomer, as well  and mathematician. Herodotus mentions how Thales accompanied Croesus during his campaign and proper channeling of water River Halys his troops facilitated their crossing. Thales predicted the
solar eclipse in 585 BC, and wrote lyrics for epic celestial bodies. Diogenes
Laertius writes of Thales in 1o Paper: “Some say that he first said
souls are immortal. One of them is the poet Choerilus. First he found
course of the sun from solstice to solstice and was of the view that the size
the sun and moon are equal to 1/700 of its trajectory. First
He named the last day of the month and the first thirty, as some say,
He dealt with nature.
As a mathematician Thales is known in the elementary geometry of the homonymous theorem on the parts dissected by parallel lines on the plane
two other lines and the analog of the geometry of the space. The theorem
geometry that the corners of an isosceles triangle are equal to each other is also due to him.

Diogenes Laertius says that Thales of Miletus prevented an alliance with Croesus during his war with Cyrus, which saved the city after finally defeated Cyrus. [6]

Theories [edit | edit source]
Cosmology [edit | edit source]
Thales of Miletus was the first who tried to explain natural phenomena by natural processes. Characteristic was the attempt to explain the phenomenon of earthquakes. According to Thales, the Earth floats on water and earthquakes are caused when the Earth wobble from water waves.

In cosmology philosopher important is water (water). Attributed two cosmological views:

The earth in the form of a circular disc which is based on water
Water is the beginning of everything
According to Aristotle (On Heaven B 13) was the oldest theory was formulated and was delivered by Thales. This view bears traces of Homeric and Hesiodic cosmological concepts, especially the image of Ocean River that surrounds the Earth and is the source of all waters. The idea, however, that under the earth there is water, takes an interest survey to the side of Babylonian and Egyptian mythology and indicates a degree a direct contact Thales with the mythologies of the Near East.

Whether considered that water except cosmogonic principle involved in the formation of the world or not, the important thing is that the philosopher removes from water the divine nature and recognizes only a physical body.

Theology [edit | edit source]
As we deliver Aristotle in On the Soul A5 and A3 Thales believed that the world is full of gods (the gods are always full) and that the soul is something the motor (kinetic what). It is basically an archaic formulation of the theory of hylozoism, according to which the world is alive and animate, as evidenced by his mobility. The hylozoism in modern sense considers as a structural element of the world’s natural element, meaning it as a living, as an entity in which matter and energy are inextricably united.

Thales of Miletus discovered the tees (solstices), the eterofotous Moon, and electricity and magnetism from the attractive properties of the mineral magnetite and amber (amber).

Geometry  The Thales’ Theorem. For the figure above applies: \ textstyle \ frac {DE} {BC} = \ frac {AE} {AC} = \ frac {AD} {AB}
Thales is referred to as a great geometrician. Even won the admiration of the Egyptians by measuring the height of the pyramids, based on the length of the shadow and the shadow of a rod to tamp the ground.

Known is Thales’ Theorem that states: when parallel lines intersected by two other straight sections between then parallel set out in a cutting, proportionate ????

In Thales attributed by ancient writers five other evidence geometric proposals are:

The circle diameter bisects the circle.
The peak at angles equal.
The only base isosceles triangle angles are equal.
If two triangles have one side equal and adjacent angles equal to it, are together equal.
Registered angled semicircumference is correct.

In Thales, as in other wise, attributed famous sayings of antiquity. Some of the sayings attributed to Thales are:

“Know thyself”
“Bespoke coloring”
“Presvytaton beings god unborn gar”
“Kalliston world gar poem god”
‘Maximum place complete works gar countries “
“Speedy mind forever gar run”
“Sofotaton gar always finds time” .

.«Γνώθι σ’ αυτόν»,
«Μέτρω χρω»,
«πρεσβύτατον των όντων θεός αγέννητον γαρ»,
«κάλλιστον κόσμος ποίημα γαρ θεού»,
«μέγιστον τόπος άπαντα γαρ χωρεί»,
«τάχιστον νους δια παντός γαρ τρέχει»,
«σοφώτατον χρόνος ανευρίσκει γαρ πάντα»..


Women’s perfume had math in ancient Greece.Certainly
“Relay” for the discovery of unknown ancient Greek Women
mathematics began to winning both the World Group for
the study of ancient cultures and the Academy of Athens
math, when a student asked him “out of Hypatia, who
refers to the textbook of Geometry, there were no other women
mathematicians in ancient times? “
A research adventure four years resulted
identified a total of 40 women mathematicians of the 10th century. BC to the 5th
c. AD. .The Most had studied beyond primary education.
Those who belonged to the Pythagorean School no problems,
because Pythagoras accepted women in school.
But there were also some from Arcadia who seems attended and
at Plato’s Academy dressed as men, because not authorized
Today women but women and mathematical concepts like
incompatible. Indeed, the President of Harvard Lawrence Summers was forced
to resign shortly after his statement that “women are not
made for math! “. “Maybe the treatment of women
dealing with mathematics not to have changed much since the
Antiquity “” Even today many surprised when they hear that a
woman is a mathematician, which perhaps is because mathematics
considered difficult.
Below we will refer to some of the ancient Greek women mathematicians


Hypatia was born in
Alexandria in 370 AD. and died in the same city 415.Itan the first woman
She had a substantial contribution the growth of Mathematics, Philosophy & Astronomy. Even were daughter of the mathematician and
philosopher gods Alexandria is quitecertainly studied mathematically below the
guidance and education of father.
It is rather remarkable that Hypatia became head of the school of Platonists
in Alexandria around 400 AD. There he taught mathematics and philosophy, in particular.

Hypatia was one of the greatest philosophers of Alexandria. Cause the respect and admiration of intellectuals of the city, but found a tragic end at the hands of fanatic Christians. Her father was a mathematician and astronomer Theon, who never limited the appetite for learning. Hypatia studied in Athens and returned to Alexandria, where he taught philosophy to the youth of the city. Among the students were the descendants of the most powerful families of Alexandria, which later took extremely high offices. Two of them were the Bishop of Cyrene, Synesius and the Provincial Governor of Alexandria, Orestes. In Synesius maintained constant correspondence, parts of which have survived and reveal the enormous admiration harbored Bishop for Hypatia. “… Even if there is absolute forgetfulness in Hades, even there will remember you dear Hypatia,” he wrote in his letters. “Hypatia” Charles William Mitchell, 1885 Hypatia was equally respected by Christians, who used it as an example of purity. It is said that replied to a young she expressed his love, showing him a handkerchief stained with menstrual periods to illustrate the impurity of carnal relations. The death of Hypatia For the death of the philosopher wrote two historians, Socrates the Scholastic and John Nikita. The text of Scholastic considered more valid, since Nikki was obviously influenced by the propaganda of the Christians. Typically he said Hypatia “enticed people with satanic tricks of.” So, according to the most impartial commentator, death of Hypatia was a result of the conflict between the provinces of Alexandria, Orestes and the Bishop of Alexandria, Cyril. In 415 AD, Orestes HAVE ADOPTED decree which regulated the public festivals of the Jews, as they usually attract large crowds and causing riots. The decree were posted and a Christian named Ierax supported aloud the new settings. The Jews perceived the act of Hierax as attack and appealed to the District Officer, who ordered to arrest Christian Ierax and tortured in public. The harsh punishment angered Christian Bishop Cyril, who launched an attack against Jews. After continuous counterattacks, where both camps had great losses, Cyril expelled all Jews from Alexandria and allowed the Christians to usurp their properties. The provincial governor was furious with Cyril and intensity peaked between them. Then they arrived 500 fanatic monks to fight alongside Cyril. One of them, Ammonius, threw a stone Orestes, which wounded him in the head. Ammonius was arrested on the spot, tortured and executed. The murder of Hypatia then became involved in the history of Hypatia, who was a close friend and advisor of the province. According to Scholasticus, the philosopher was a victim of political rivalries, as unfounded accused by Christians that estrefe Orestes against them. Kidnapped the mob led by cleric Peter and moved it to a church, where she stripped and flayed alive. When he died, they diamelisan her body and threw every piece into a fire. The agonizing end of Hypatia in 415 AD He characterized by Professor of Philosophy at the University Michigan, Kathleen Gouainter by the end of classical antiquity. However, let’s not all rush to accuse Christianity altogether. It was a period passions and ferocity, in which each region interpreted in their own way every doctrine and not only the Christian, who is preaching against violence, like almost most religions. But the reality was very different. In 2009 he was released the film “Agora” of Alejandro Amenabar, based on the history of the Alexandrian philosopher ….

The murder oif Hypatia

Η δολοφονία της Υπατίας

Read the full article:


(6th century BC) The Theano of Croton, daughter of doctor Vrontinou was schoolgirl
and fervent follower of Pythagoras. He married in Samos the big secret with
which was 36 years difference in age. He taught at Samos Pythagorean schools and Kroton. The Theano is considered the soul of the theory of numbers, which played a prominent and a key role in Pythagorean academies. In the same Pythagorean view attributed the “Golden Section”. She even attributed various cosmological theories. After death of Pythagoras and Theano succeeded him as head of the dispersed more community.

(7th-6th century BC) Gnostria many geometric theorems, called (testimony
Vitruvius), and that this contributed to the simplification of numerical symbols by
introduction of the principle of acrophonic, namely the introduction of alphabetic letters corresponding each to each in the initial letter of the name of the number. So D original IPCC, representing the number 10. X, original THOUSAND represents the 1000 numbers etc. In the Vitruvius Polygnotos delivered and first demonstrated theproposal “EN cycles or ANGLE HEREIN semicircle CORRECT Estin”


(6th century BC). Disciple of Pythagoras.
He was involved in the construction of regular polygons. The
Pods from Argos writes about an unknown work:
“The nature CYCLE OF subscriber Polygon answered ESTI “.

Many were the Pythagorean women (6th-5th century BC). Iamblichus in The work
“Concerning the Pythagorean LONG” rescued seventeen names
Pythagoreans women were gnostries of Pythagorean philosophy and
the Pythagorean mathematics.
One of the Pythagorean women is Nikareti Corinth
NIKARETI Corinth “THE GEOMETRY THERAPAINIS “.. Since ancient writers
mentioned by Stovaios:
Nikareti behind the epanadiatyposis and Proof of the theorem: “ALL TRIANGLE


List of ancient Greek astronomers

Agrippa the Vithynios
Adrastos the Afrodisiefs
Aetios Antioch
Aeschylus the Astronomer
Alexander Plefronios
Alkmaion Croton
Anaxagoras Klazomenefs
Anaximander of Miletus
Anaximenes of Miletus
Andronicus Kyrristou
Antipater the cheese
Apollonius Myndios
Apollonius Pergaios
Aratos the soles
Aristeidis Samos
Aristothiros Alexandria
Aristotle the Stageiritis
Aristyllos Samos
Arpalos Samos
Arrian the Meteorologist
Archelaos the Athenian
Attalus of Rhodes
Autolycus the Pitanaios
Achilles Tati
B [edit | edit source]
Bion the Avderhite
Helping Sidonios
C. [edit | edit source]
Geminus of Rhodes
D [Edit | edit source]
Democritus the Avderhite
Popular Astronomer
Dikaiarchou the Messinian
Dio Neapolitan
E [Edit | edit source]
Ekfantos Croton
Helicon the Cyzicus
Epigenes Byzantium
Assistant Samos
Epimenides the Cretan
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
Ermippos the Kallimacheios
Eudemus of Rhodes
Eudoxus of Cnidus
Efktimon the Athenian
Echekratis the Fliountios
Z [edit | edit source]
The [Edit | edit source]
Heliodorus of Alexandria
Heraclides of Pontus
Heraclitus of Ephesus
Hesiod the Askraios
Hephaestion the Theban
Th [edit | edit source]
Thales of Miletus
Theano the Thouria
Theon of Alexandria
Thrasyllus Alexandria
I [edit | edit source]
Julian the Emperor
Julian Laokidefs
Hippias Engineer
Hipponicus bestowed the Pitanaios
K [edit | edit source]
Callippus the Cyzicus
Karpos Antioch
Cleomedes the cosmography
Kleostratos the Tenedios
Conon of Samos
Kritodimos Alexandria
Kriton the Naxians
L. [edit | edit source]
Leptin Alexandria
Leonidas of Alexandria
Lysis of Tarentum
M [edit | edit source]
Menelaus of Alexandria
The Athenian Meton
Menadis Alexandria
N [edit | edit source]
Nikon Pergamefs
O [edit | edit source]
Xenarchos the Seleucis
Xenokratis Chalcedon
Xenophanes of Colophon
The [Edit | edit source]
Oenopides of Chios
P. [edit | edit source]
Porphyry the cheese
Poseidonius the Apamea
Proclus the Lykios
Claudius Ptolemy
Pythagoras of Samos
Pytheas the Massalians
P [edit | edit source]
S. [edit | edit source]
Seleucus the Selefkeios
Sosigenis Alexandria
Sosigenis the Trekking
T [edit | edit source]
Tefkros the Kyzikinos
Timaeus the Locri
Timocharis Alexandria
Y [edit | edit source]
Hypatia the Geometric
Ypsiklis Alexandria
F. [edit | edit source]
Pherecydes the Syrian
Philip Opountios
Philolaus of Tarentum
X [edit | edit source]
Chalkidios the Astronomer
Charmandros the Mathematician

So when parts of History, Mythology,  Language etc, are stolen, copied, or twisted …..THEN ..Anyone with the basic intelligence, can obviously see that in faked stolen Historical facts, there`s NOT any INTERRELATION, RELATIONSHIP or CONTINUITY  Between the above!(Architecture, Arts, Music, Poetry, Literature, Theater, Medicine, Physics, Astronomy, Mathematics, Language-Etymology, Mythology, which, as IS COSMOLOGY, as well). That`s the  CLUE to analyze and UNDERSTAND the words & improve real historical facts!!

(What EVER are arguing by twisting the HISTORY by ALL means icluded media, all these low level ofcourse  pseudo”historians”, “scholars” etc, due to various reasons: Political, Strategical, Economical, ethnical inferiority complex etc, facts ARE facts!)

So when parts of History, Mythology,  Language etc, are stolen, copied, or twisted …..THEN ..Anyone with the basic intelligence, can obviously see that in faked stolen Historical facts, there`s NOT any INTERRELATION, RELATIONSHIP or CONTINUITY  Between the above!(Architecture, Arts, Music, Poetry, Literature, Theater, Medicine, Physics, Astronomy, Mathematics, Language-Etymology, Mythology, which, as IS COSMOLOGY, as well). That`s the  CLUE to analyze and UNDERSTAND the words & improve real historical facts!!

(What EVER are arguing by twisting the HISTORY by ALL means icluded media, all these low level ofcourse  pseudo”historians”, “scholars” etc, due to various reasons: Political, Strategical, Economical, ethnical inferiority complex etc, facts ARE facts!)

The Antikythera mechanism


(/ˌæntɨkɨˈθɪərə/ ant-i-ki-theer or /ˌæntɨˈkɪθərə/ ant-i-kith-ə-rə) is an ancient analog computer[ designed to predict astronomical positions andeclipses for calendrical and astrological purposes, as well as the Olympiads, the cycles of the ancient Olympic Games.

Found housed in a 340 × 180 × 90 mm wooden box, the device is a complex clockwork mechanism composed of at least 30 meshing bronze gears. Its remains were found as 82 separate fragments, of which only seven contain any gears or significant inscriptions.[9][10] The largest gear (clearly visible in Fragment A at right) is approximately 140 mm in diameter and originally had 223 teeth.

The artifact was recovered in 1900–1901 from the Antikythera shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera. Believed to have been designed and constructed by Greek scientists, the instrument has been dated at 205 BCE.

After the knowledge of this technology was lost at some point in Antiquity, technological artifacts approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again in Europe until the development of mechanical astronomical clocks in the fourteenth century.

All known fragments of the Antikythera mechanism are kept at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens.[citation needed]



See also: Antikythera wreck


The Antikythera mechanism was discovered in 45 metres (148 ft) of water in the Antikythera shipwreck off Point Glyphadia on the Greek island of Antikythera. The wreck was found in April 1900 by a group of Greek sponge divers, who retrieved numerous artifacts, including bronze and marble statues, pottery, unique glassware, jewellery, coins, and the mechanism. All were transferred to the National Museum of Archaeology in Athens for storage and analysis. Merely a lump of corroded bronze and wood at the time, the mechanism went unnoticed for two years while museum staff worked on piecing together more obvious statues.[14]

On 17 May 1902, archaeologist Valerios Stais was examining the finds and noticed that one of the pieces of rock had a gear wheel embedded in it. Stais initially believed it was an astronomical clock, but most scholars considered the device to be prochronistic, too complex to have been constructed during the same period as the other pieces that had been discovered. Investigations into the object were soon dropped until Derek J. de Solla Price became interested in it in 1951.[15] In 1971, both Price and a Greek nuclear physicist named Charalampos Karakalos made X-ray and gamma-ray images of the 82 fragments. Price published an extensive 70-page paper on their findings in 1974.[14]

It is not known how the mechanism came to be on the cargo ship, but it has been suggested that it was being taken to Rome, together with other treasure looted from the island, to support a triumphal parade being staged byJulius Caesar.[16]


Generally referred to as the first known analog computer, the quality and complexity of the mechanism’ manufacture suggests it has undiscovered predecessors made during the Hellenistic period. Its construction relied upon theories of astronomy and mathematics developed by Greek astronomers, and is estimated to have been created around the late second century BCE.

In 1974, British science historian and Yale University professor Derek de Solla Price concluded from gear settings and inscriptions on the mechanism’s faces that it was made about 87 BCE and lost only a few years later. Jacques Cousteau and associates visited the wreck in 1976  and recovered coins dated to between 76 and 67 BCE..Though its advanced state of corrosion has made it impossible to perform an accurate compositional analysis, it is believed the device was made of a low-tin bronze alloy (of approximately 95% copper, 5% tin). All its instructions are written in Koine Greek, and the consensus among scholars is that the mechanism was made in the Greek-speaking world.[6]

In the late 2000s, findings of The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project suggest the concept for the mechanism originated in the colonies of Corinth, since some of the astronomical calculations seem to indicate observations that can be made only in the Corinth area of ancient Greece. Syracuse was a colony of Corinth and the home of Archimedes, which might imply a connection with the school of Archimedes. Another theory suggests that coins found by Jacques Cousteau in the 1970s at the wreck site date to the time of the device’s construction, and posits its origin may have been from the ancient Greek city of Pergamon, home of the famous Library of Pergamum. With its many scrolls of art and science, it was second in importance only to the Library of Alexandria during the Hellenistic period.

The ship carrying the device also contained vases in the Rhodian style, leading to a hypothesis the device was constructed at an academy founded by the Stoic philosopher Posidonius on that Greek island. A busy trading port in Antiquity, Rhodes was also a center of astronomy and mechanical engineering, home to the astronomer Hipparchus, active from about 140 BCE to 120 BCE. That the mechanism uses Hipparchus’s theory for the motion of the moon suggests the possibility he may have designed, or at least worked on it.[14]

Cardiff University professor Michael Edmunds, who led a 2006 study of the mechanism, described the device as “just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind”, and said that its astronomy was “exactly right”. He regarded the Antikythera mechanism as “more valuable than the Mona Lisa“.[24][25]

In 2014, a study by Carman and Evans argued for a new dating of approximately 200 BCE.[12][13] Moreover, according to Carman and Evans, the Babylonian arithmetic style of prediction fits much better with the device’s predictive models than the traditional Greek trigonometric style.[12]

In mid-2014, a diving expedition to the shipwreck initiated by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports hoped to discover further parts of the Antikythera Mechanism but was cut short due to bad weather. Another expedition is planned for spring 2015.


The original mechanism apparently came out of the Mediterranean as a single encrusted piece. Soon afterward it fractured into three major pieces. Other small pieces have broken off in the interim from cleaning and handling;[26]and still others were found on the sea floor by the Cousteau expedition. Other fragments may still be in storage, undiscovered since their initial recovery; Fragment F came to light in that way in 2005. Of the 82 known fragments, seven are mechanically significant and contain the majority of the mechanism and inscriptions. There are also 16 smaller parts that contain fractional and incomplete inscriptions.

Major fragments


Size [mm]

Weight [g]





180 × 150




The main fragment and contains the majority of the known mechanism. Clearly visible on the front is the large b1 gear, and under closer inspection further gears behind said gear (parts of the l, m, c, and d trains are clearly visible as gears to the naked eye). The crank mechanism socket and the side-mounted gear that meshes with b1 is on Fragment A. The back of the fragment contains the rearmost e and k gears for synthesis of the moon anomaly, noticeable also is the pin and slot mechanism of the k train. It is noticed from detailed scans of the fragment that all gears are very closely packed and have sustained damage and displacement due to their years in the sea. The fragment is approximately 30 mm thick at its thickest point.

Fragment A also contains divisions of the upper left quarter of the Saros spiral and 14 inscriptions from said spiral. The fragment also contains inscriptions for the Exeligmos dial and visible on the back surface the remnants of the dial face. Finally, this fragment contains some back door inscriptions.


125 × 60




Contains approximately the bottom right third of the Metonic spiral and inscriptions of both the spiral and back door of the mechanism. The Metonic scale would have consisted of 235 cells of which 49 have been deciphered from fragment B either in whole or partially. The rest so far are assumed from knowledge of the Metonic cycle. This fragment also contains a single gear (o1) used in the Olympic train.


120 × 110




Contains parts of the upper right of the front dial face showing calendar and zodiac inscriptions. This fragment also contains the moon indicator dial assembly including the moon phase sphere in its housing and a single bevel gear (ma1) used in the moon phase indication system.


45 × 35




Contains at least one unknown gear and according to Michael T. Wright possibly two. Their purpose and position has not been ascertained to any accuracy or consensus, but lends to the debate for the possible planet displays on the face of the mechanism.


60 × 35




Found in 1976 and contains 6 inscriptions from the upper right of the Saros spiral.


90 × 80




Found in 2005 and contains 16 inscriptions from the lower right of the Saros spiral. It also contains remnants of the mechanism’s wooden housing.


125 × 110




A combination of fragments taken from fragment C while cleaning.

Minor fragments[edit]

Many of the smaller fragments that have been found contain nothing of apparent value, however, a few have some inscriptions on them. Fragment 19 contains significant back door inscriptions including one reading “…76 years….” which refers to the Callippic cycle. Other inscriptions seem to describe the function of the back dials. In addition to this important minor fragment, 15 further minor fragments have remnants of inscriptions on them.



Schematic of the artifact’s known mechanism

Information on the specific data gleaned from the ruins by the latest inquiries are detailed in the supplement to Freeth’s 2006 Nature article.[5]


On the front face of the mechanism (see reproduction here:) there is a fixed ring dial representing the ecliptic, the twelve zodiacal signs marked off with equal 30 degree sectors. This matched with the Babylonian custom of assigning one twelfth of the ecliptic to each zodiac sign equally, even though the constellation boundaries were variable. Outside of that dial is another ring which is rotatable, marked off with the months and days of the Sothic Egyptian calendar, twelve months of 30 days plus five intercalary days. The months are marked with the Egyptian names for the months transcribed into the Greek alphabet. The first task, then, is to rotate the Egyptian calendar ring to match the current zodiac points. The Egyptian calendar ignored leap days, so it advanced through a full zodiac sign in about 120 years.

The mechanism was operated by turning a small hand crank (now lost) which was linked via a crown gear to the largest gear, the four-spoked gear visible on the front of fragment A, the gear named b1. This moved the date pointer on the front dial, which would be set to the correct Egyptian calendar day. The year is not selectable, so it is necessary to know the year currently set, or by looking up the cycles indicated by the various calendar cycle indicators on the back in the Babylonian ephemeris tables for the day of the year currently set, since most of the calendar cycles are not synchronous with the year. The crank moves the date pointer about 78 days per full rotation, so hitting a particular day on the dial would be easily possible if the mechanism was in good working condition. The action of turning the hand crank would also cause all interlocked gears within the mechanism to rotate, resulting in the simultaneous calculation of the position of the Sun and Moon, the moon phase, eclipse, and calendar cycles, and perhaps the locations of planets[31]

The operator also had to be aware of the position of the spiral dial pointers on the two large dials on the back. The pointer had a “follower” that tracked the spiral incisions in the metal as the dials incorporated four and five full rotations of the pointers. When a pointer reached the terminal month location at either end of the spiral, the pointer’s follower had to be manually moved to the other end of the spiral before proceeding further.[5]



Computer-generated front panel of the Freeth model

Front face

The front dial has two concentric, circular scales that represent the path of the ecliptic through the heavens. The outer ring is marked off with the days of the 365-day Egyptian calendar, or the Sothic year, based on the Sothic cycle. On the inner ring, there is a second dial marked with the Greek signs of the Zodiac and it is divided into degrees. The outer calendar dial may be moved against the inner dial to compensate for the effect of the extra quarter day in the solar year by turning the scale backward one day every four years. A 36514-day year was used in the Callippic cycle circa 330 BCE and in the Decree of Canopus during 238 BCE, but that is not reflected in the dials.[citation needed]

The position of the sun on the ecliptic is synonymous with the current date in the year. The moon and the five planets known to the Greeks travel along the ecliptic fairly closely, close enough that sense defining their position on the ecliptic is made.

The following Egyptian months are inscribed, in Greek letters on the outer ring:

  • ΘΟΘ (Thoth)
  • ΦΑΩΦΙ (Phaophi)
  • ΑΟΤΡ (Athyr, Hathor)
  • ΧΟΙΑΚ (Choiak)
  • ΤΥΒΙ (Tybi)
  • ΜΕΧΕΙΡ (Mecheir)
  • ΦΑΜΕΝΩΘ (Phamenoth)
  • ΦΑΡΜΟΥΘΙ (Pharmouthi)
  • ΠΑΧΩΝ (Pachon)
  • ΠΑΥΝΙ (Payni)
  • ΕΠΙΦΙ (Epiphi)
  • ΜΕΣΟΡΗ (Mesore)
  • ΕΠ (Ep[agomene])

The Zodiac dial contains Greek inscriptions of the members of the zodiac, which is believed to be adapted to the tropical month version rather than the sidereal:


Front panel of a 2007 reproduction

  • ΚΡIOΣ (Krios [Ram], Aries)
  • ΤΑΥΡΟΣ (Tauros [Bull], Taurus)
  • ΔIΔΥΜΟΙ (Didymoi [Twins], Gemini)
  • ΚΑΡΚIΝΟΣ (Karkinos [Crab], Cancer)
  • ΛEΩΝ (Leon [Lion], Leo)
  • ΠΑΡΘEΝΟΣ (Parthenos [Maiden], Virgo)
  • ΧΗΛΑΙ (Chelai [Scorpio’s Claw or Zygos], Libra)
  • ΣΚΟΡΠΙΟΣ (Skorpios [Scorpion], Scorpio)
  • ΤΟΞΩΤΗΣ (Toxotes [Archer], Sagittarius)
  • ΑIΓOΚΕΡΩΣ (Aigokeros [Sea goat], Capricorn)
  • YΔΡΟΚΟΟΣ (Hydrokoos [Water carrier], Aquarius)
  • IΧΘΕIΣ (Ichtheis [Fish], Pisces)

Also on the zodiac dial are a number of single characters at specific points (see reconstruction here:[30]). They are keyed to a parapegma, a precursor of the modern day almanac inscribed on the front face beyond the dials. They mark the locations of longitudes on the ecliptic for specific stars. Some of the parapegma reads (brackets indicate inferred text):

  • {Κ} Evening
  • {Λ} The Hyades set in the evening
  • {Μ} Taurus begins to rise
  • {N} Vega rises in the evening
  • {Θ} The Pleiades rise in the morning
  • {Ο} The Hyades rise in the morning
  • {Π} Gemini begins to rise
  • {Ρ} Altair rises in the evening
  • {Σ} Arcturus sets in the morning

At least two pointers indicated positions of bodies upon the ecliptic. A lunar pointer indicated the position of the moon, and a mean sun pointer also was shown. The moon position was not a simple mean moon indicator that would indicate movement uniformly around a circular orbit; it allowed for the acceleration and deceleration typical of what is known today is an elliptical orbit, through the earliest known use of epicyclic gearing.

It also tracked the precession of the elliptical orbit around the ecliptic in a 8.88 year cycle. The mean sun position is, by definition, the current date. It is speculated that since such pains were taken to get the position of the moon correct,[29] then there also was likely to have been a “true sun” pointer in addition to the mean sun pointer likewise, to track the elliptical anomaly of the sun (the orbit of Earth around the sun), but there is no evidence of it among the ruins of the mechanism found to date.[6] Similarly, neither is there the evidence of planetary orbit pointers for the five planets known to the Greeks among the ruins. See Proposed planet indication gearing schemes below.

Finally, mechanical engineer Michael Wright has demonstrated that there was a mechanism to supply the lunar phase in addition to the position.[32] The indicator was a small ball embedded in the lunar pointer, half-white and half-black, which rotated to show the phase (new, first quarter, half, third quarter, full, and back) graphically. The data to support this function is available given the sun and moon positions as angular rotations; essentially, it is the angle between the two, translated into the rotation of the ball. It requires a differential gear, a gearing arrangement that sums or differences two angular inputs. Among its other first-known aspects, the Antikythera Mechanism is the earliest verified construction of a deliberate differential gear scheme in history.

Rear face


Computer-generated back panel

In July 2008, scientists reported new findings in the journal Nature showing that the mechanism not only tracked the Metonic calendar and predict solar eclipses, but also calculated the timing of the Ancient Olympic Games.[8] Inscriptions on the instrument closely match the names of the months that are used on calendars from Illyria and Epirus in northwestern Greece and with the island of Corfu.[33][34]

On the back of the mechanism, there are five dials: the two large displays, the Metonic and the Saros, and three smaller indicators, the Olympiad,[27] the Callippic, and the Exeligmos.[5]

The Metonic Dial is the main upper dial on the rear of the mechanism. The Metonic cycle, defined in several physical units, is 235 synodic months, which is very close (to within less than 13 one-millionths) to 19 tropical years. It is therefore a convenient interval over which to convert between lunar and solar calendars. The Metonic dial covers 235 months in 5 rotations of the dial, following a spiral track with a follower on the pointer that keeps track of the layer of the spiral. The pointer points to the synodic month, counted from new moon to new moon, and the cell contains the Corinthian month names:

  1. ΦΟΙΝΙΚΑΙΟΣ (Phoinikaios)
  2. ΚΡΑΝΕΙΟΣ (Kraneios)
  3. ΛΑΝΟΤΡΟΠΙΟΣ (Lanotropios)
  4. ΜΑΧΑΝΕΥΣ (Machaneus)
  5. ΔΩΔΕΚΑΤΕΥΣ (Dodekateus)
  6. ΕΥΚΛΕΙΟΣ (Eukleios)
  7. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΣΙΟΣ (Artemisios)
  8. ΨΥΔΡΕΥΣ (Psydreus)
  9. ΓΑΜΕΙΛΙΟΣ (Gameilios)
  10. ΑΓΡΙΑΝΙΟΣ (Agrianios)
  11. ΠΑΝΑΜΟΣ (Panamos)
  12. ΑΠΕΛΛΑΙΟΣ (Apellaios)

Thus, setting the correct solar time (in days) on the front panel indicates the current lunar month on the back panel, with resolution to within a week or so.

The Callippic dial is the left secondary upper dial, which follows a 76-year cycle. The Callippic cycle is four Metonic cycles, and this dial indicates which of the four Metonic cycles is the current one in the Callippic cycle.

The Olympiad dial is the right secondary upper dial; it is the only pointer on the instrument that travels in a counter-clockwise direction as time advances. The dial is divided into four sectors, each of which is inscribed with a year indicator and the name of two Panhellenic Games: the “crown” games of Isthmia, Olympia, Nemea, and Pythia; and two lesser games: Naa (held at Dodona) and another Olympiad location that to date, has not been deciphered.The inscriptions on each one of the four divisions are:

Olympic dial
Year of the cycle Inside the dial inscription Outside the dial inscription
1 LA ΙΣΘΜΙΑ (Isthmia)
ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ (Olympia)
2 LB NEMEA (Nemea)
NAA (Naa)
3 ΙΣΘΜΙΑ (Isthmia)
ΠΥΘΙΑ (Pythia)
4 L∆ ΝΕΜΕΑ (Nemea)

The Saros dial is the main lower spiral dial on the rear of the mechanism.[5] The Saros cycle is 18 years and 11-1/3 days long (6585.333… days), which is very close to 223 synodic months (6585.3211 days). It is defined as the cycle of repetition of the positions required to cause solar and lunar eclipses, and therefore, it could be used to predict them — not only the month, but the day and time of day. Note that the cycle is approximately 8 hours longer than an integer number of days. Translated into global spin, that means an eclipse occurs not only eight hours later, but 1/3 of a rotation farther to the west. Glyphs in 51 of the 223 synodic month cells of the dial specify the occurrence of 38 lunar and 27 solar eclipses. Some of the abbreviations in the glyphs read:

  • Σ = ΣΕΛΗΝΗ (Moon)
  • Η = ΗΛΙΟΣ (Sun)
  • H\M = ΗΜΕΡΑΣ (of the day)
  • ω\ρ = ωρα (hour)
  • N\Y = ΝΥΚΤΟΣ (of the night)

The glyphs show whether the designated eclipse is solar or lunar, and give the day of the month and hour; obviously, solar eclipses may not be visible at any given point, and lunar eclipses are visible only if the moon is above the horizon at the appointed hour.[29]

The Exeligmos Dial is the secondary lower dial on the rear of the mechanism. The Exeligmos cycle is a 54-year triple Saros cycle, that is 19,756 days long. Since the length of the Saros cycle is to a third of a day (eight hours), so a full Exeligmos cycle returns counting to integer days, hence the inscriptions. The labels on its three divisions are:[5]

  • Blank (representing the number zero)
  • H (number 8)
  • Iϛ (number 16)

Thus the dial pointer indicates how many hours must be added to the glyph times of the Saros dial in order to calculate the exact eclipse times.


The mechanism has a wooden casing with a front and a back door, both containing inscriptions.[8][29] The back door appears to be the “Instruction Manual”. On one of its fragments is written “76 years, 19 years” representing the Callippic and Metonic cycles. Also written is “223” for the Saros cycle. On another one of its fragments is written on the spiral subdivisions “235” for the Metonic dial.


The mechanism is remarkable for the level of miniaturisation and the complexity of its parts, which is comparable to that of fourteenth-century astronomical clocks. It has at least 30 gears, although mechanism expert Michael Wright has suggested that the Greeks of this period were capable of implementing a system with many more gears.

There is much debate that the mechanism may have had indicators for all five of the planets known to the ancient Greeks. No gearing for such a planetary display survives and all gears are accounted for—with the exception of one 63 toothed gear (r1) otherwise unaccounted for in fragment D

The purpose of the front face was to position astronomical bodies with respect to the celestial sphere along the ecliptic, in reference to the observer’s position on the Earth. That is irrelevant to the question of whether that position was computed using a heliocentric or geocentric view of the solar system; either computational method should and does, result in the same position (ignoring ellipticity), within the error factors of the mechanism.

Ptolomy’s epicyclic solar system (still 300 years in the future from the apparent date of the mechanism), carried forward with more epicycles, was more accurate predicting the positions of planets than the view of Copernicus, until Kepler introduced the possibility that orbits are ellipses.[36]

Evans et al. suggest that to display the mean positions of the five classical planets would require only 17 further gears that could be positioned in front of the large driving gear and indicated using individual circular dials on the face.[37]

Tony Freeth and Alexander Jones have modeled and published details of a version using several gear trains mechanically-similar to the lunar anomaly system allowing for indication of the positions of the planets as well as synthesis of the sun anomaly. Their system, they claim, is more authentic than Wright’s model as it uses the known skill sets of the Greeks of that period and does not add excessive complexity or internal stresses to the machine.[6]

The gear teeth were in the form of equilateral triangles with an average circular pitch of 1.6 mm, an average wheel thickness of 1.4 mm and an average air gap between gears of 1.2 mm. The teeth probably were created from a blank bronze round using hand tools; this is evident because not all of them are even.[6] Due to advances in imaging and X-ray technology it is now possible to know the precise number of teeth and size of the gears within the located fragments. Thus the basic operation of the device is no longer a mystery and has been replicated accurately. The major unknown remains, the question of the presence and nature of any planet indicators.[38]

A table of the gears, their teeth, and the expected and computed rotations of various of the important gears follows. The gear functions come from Freeth et al. (2008)[8] and those for the lower half of the table from Freeth and Jones 2012.[6] The computed values start with 1 year/revolution for the b1 gear, and the remainder are computed directly from gear teeth ratios. The gears marked with an asterisk (*) are missing, or have predecessors missing, from the known mechanism; these gears have been calculated with reasonable gear teeth counts.[8][29]

The Antikythera Mechanism: known gears and accuracy of computation
Gear name[table 1] Function of the gear/pointer Expected simulated interval of a full circular revolution Mechanism Formula[table 2] Computed interval Gear direction[table 3]
X Year gear 1 tropical year 1 (by definition) 1 year (presumed) ccw[table 4]
B the moon’s orbit 1 sidereal month (27.321661 days) Time(B) = Time(X) * C1 / B2 * D1 / C2 * E2 / D2 * K1 / E5 * E6 / K2 * B3 / E1 27.321 days[table 5] ccw
R lunar phase display 1 synodic month (29.530589 days) Time(R) = 1 / (1 / Time(B2 [mean sun] or sun3 [true sun])) – (1 / Time(B))) 29.530 days[table 5]  
N* Metonic pointer Metonic cycle () / 5 spirals around the dial = 1387.94 days Time(N) = Time(X) * (L1 / B2) * (M1 /L2) * (N1 / M2) 1387.9 days cw[table 6]
O* Olympiad pointer 4 years Time(O) = Time(N) * (O1 / N2) 4.00 years ccw[table 6][table 7]
Q* Callippic pointer 27758.8 days Time(Q) = Time(N) * (P1 / N3) * (Q1 /P2) 27758 days cw[table 6]
E* lunar orbit precession 8.85 years Time(E) = Time(X) * (L1 / B2) * (M1 / L2) * (E3 / M3) 8.8826 years cw[table 8]
G* Saros cycle Saros time / 4 turns = 1646.33 days Time(G) = Time(E) * (F1 / E4) * (G1 / F2) 1646.3 days cw[table 6]
I* Exeligmos pointer 19755.8 days Time(I) = Time(G) * (H1 / G2) * (I1 / H2) 19756 days cw[table 6]
The following are proposed gearing from the 2012 Freeth and Jones reconstruction:
sun3* True sun pointer 1 mean year Time(sun3) = Time(X) * (sun3 / sun1) * (sun2 / sun3) 1 mean year[table 5] ccw[table 9]
mer2* Mercury pointer 115.88 days (synodic period) Time(mer2) = Time(X) * (mer2 / mer1) 115.89 days[table 5] ccw[table 9]
ven2* Venus pointer 583.93 days (synodic period) Time(ven2) = Time(X) * (ven1 / sun1) 584.39 days[table 5] ccw[table 9]
mars4* Mars pointer 779.96 days (synodic period) Time(mars4) = Time(X) * (mars2 / mars1) * (mars4 / mars3) 779.84 days[table 5] ccw[table 9]
jup4* Jupiter pointer 398.88 days (synodic period) Time(jup4) = Time(X) * (jup2 / jup1) * (jup4 / jup3) 398.88 days[table 5] ccw[table 9]
sat4* Saturn pointer 378.09 days (synodic period) Time(sat4) = Time(X) * (sat2 / sat1) * (sat4 / sat3) 378.06 days[table 5] ccw[table 9]

Table notes:

  1. Jump up^ Change from traditional naming: X is the main year axis, turns once per year with gear B1. The B axis is the axis with gears B3 and B6, while the E axis is the axis with gears E3 and E4. Other axes on E (E1/E6 and E2/E5) are irrelevant to this table.
  2. Jump up^ “Time” is the interval represented by one complete revolution of the gear.
  3. Jump up^ As viewed from the front of the Mechanism. The “natural” view is viewing the side of the Mechanism the dial/pointer in question is actually displayed on.
  4. Jump up^ The Greeks, being in the northern hemisphere, assumed proper daily motion of the stars was from east to west, ccw when the ecliptic and zodiac is viewed to the south. As viewed on the front of the Mechanism.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h On average, due to epicyclic gearing causing accelerations and decelerations.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Being on the reverse side of the box, the “natural” rotation is the opposite
  7. Jump up^ This was the only visual pointer naturally traveling in the clockwise direction.
  8. Jump up^ Internal and not visible.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Prograde motion; retrograde is obviously the opposite direction.

There are several gear ratios for each planet that result in close matches to the correct values for synodic periods of the planets and the sun. The ones chosen above seem to provide good accuracy with reasonable tooth counts, but the specific gears that may have been used are, and probably will remain, unknown.[6]

Known gear scheme


A schematic representation of the gearing of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the 2012 published interpretation of existing gearing, gearing added to complete known functions, and proposed gearing to accomplish additional functions, namely true sun pointer and pointers for the five then-known planets, as proposed by Freeth and Jones, 2012. Based also upon similar drawing in the Freeth 2006 Supplement[29] and Wright 2005, Epicycles Part 2. Proposed (as opposed to known from the artifact) gearing crosshatched.

The Sun gear is operated from the hand-operated crank (connected to gear a1, driving the large four-spoked mean sun gear, b1) and in turn drives the rest of the gear sets. The sun gear is b1/b2 and b2 has 64 teeth. It directly drives the date/mean sun pointer (there may have been a second, “true sun” pointer that displayed the sun’s elliptical anomaly; it is discussed below in the Freeth reconstruction). In this discussion, reference is to modeled rotational period of various pointers and indicators; they all assume the input rotation of the b1 gear of 360 degrees, corresponding with one tropical year, and are computed solely on the basis of the gear ratios of the gears named.

The Moon train starts with gear b1 and proceeds through c1, c2, d1, d2, e2, e5, k1, k2, e6, e1, and b3 to the moon pointer on the front face. The gears k1 and k2 form an epicyclic gear system; they are an identical pair of gears that don’t mesh, but rather, they operate face-to-face, with a short pin on k1 inserted into a slot in k2. The two gears have different centres of rotation, so the pin must move back and forth in the slot. That increases and decreases the radius at which k2 is driven, also necessarily varying its angular velocity (presuming the velocity of k1 is even) faster in some parts of the rotation than others. Over an entire revolution the average velocities are the same, but the fast-slow variation models the effects of the elliptical orbit of the moon, in consequence of Kepler’s second and third laws. The modeled rotational period of the moon pointer (averaged over a year) is 27.321 days, compared to the modern length of a lunar sidereal month of 27.321661 days. As mentioned, the pin/slot driving of the k1/k2 gears varies the displacement over a year’s time, and the mounting of those two gears on the e3 gear supplies a precessional advancement to the ellipticity modelling with a period of 8.8826 years, compared with the current value of precession period of the moon of 8.85 years.

The system also models the phases of the moon. The moon pointer holds a shaft along its length, on which is mounted a small gear named r, which meshes to the sun pointer at B0 (the connection between B0 and the rest of B is not visible in the original mechanism, so whether b0 is the current date/mean sun pointer or a hypothetical true sun pointer is not known). The gear rides around the dial with the moon, but is also geared to the sun — the effect is to perform adifferential gear operation, so the gear turns at the synodic month period, measuring in effect, the angle of the difference between the sun and moon pointers. The gear drives a small ball that appears through an opening in the moon pointer’s face, painted longitudinally half white and half black, displaying the phases pictorially. It turns with a modeled rotational period of 29.53 days; the modern value for the synodic month is 29.530589 days.

The Metonic train is driven by the drive train b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, and n1, which is connected to the pointer. The modeled rotational period of the pointer is the length of the 6939.5 days (over the whole five-rotation spiral), while the modern value for the Metonic cycle is 6939.7 days.[5][27][40]

The Olympiad train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n2, and o1, which mounts the pointer. It has a computed modeled rotational period of exactly 4 years, as expected. Incidentally, it is the only pointer on the mechanism that rotates counter-clockwise; all of the others rotate clockwise.[5][27][40]

The Callippic train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n3, p1, p2, and q1, which mounts the pointer. It has a computed modeled rotational period of 27758 days, while the modern value is 27758.8 days.[5][27][40]

The Saros train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, and g1, which mounts the pointer. The modeled rotational period of the Saros pointer is 1646.3 days (in four rotations along the spiral pointer track); the modern value is 1636.33 days.[5][27][40]

The Exeligmos train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, g1, g2, h1, h2, and i1, which mounts the pointer. The modeled rotational period of the Exeligmos pointer is 19,756 days; the modern value is 19755.96 days.[5][27][40]

Apparently, gears m3, n1-3, p1-2, and q1 did not survive in the wreckage. The functions of the pointers was deduced from the remains of the dials on the back face, and reasonable, appropriate gearage to fulfill the functions was proposed, and is generally accepted.[5][27][40]

Proposed gear schemes

Because of the large space between the mean sun gear and the front of the case and the size of and mechanical features on the mean sun gear it is very likely that the mechanism contained further gearing that either has been lost in or subsequent to the shipwreck or, was removed before being loaded onto the ship.[6] This lack of evidence and nature of the front part of the mechanism has led to numerous attempts to emulate what the Greeks of the period would have done and, of course, because of the lack of evidence many solutions have been put forward.

Wright proposal
Evans et al. proposal
Freeth et al. proposal

Michael Wright was the first person to design and build a model with not only the known mechanism, but also, with his emulation of a potential planetarium system. He suggested that along with the lunar anomaly, adjustments would have been made for the deeper, more basic solar anomaly (known as the “first anomaly”). He included pointers for this “true sun”, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, in addition to the known “mean sun” (current time) and lunar pointers.[6]

Evans, Carman, and Thorndike published a solution with significant differences from Wright’s.[37] Their proposal centred on what they observed as irregular spacing of the inscriptions on the front dial face, which to them seemed to indicate an off centre sun indicator arrangement, this would simplify the mechanism by removing the need to simulate the solar anomaly. They also suggested that rather than accurate planetary indication (rendered impossible by the offset inscriptions) there would be simple dials for each individual planet showing information such as key events in the cycle of planet, initial and final appearances in the night sky, and apparent direction changes. This system would lead to a much simplified gear system, with much reduced forces and complexity, as compared to Wright’s model.[37]

Their proposal used simple meshed gear trains and accounted for the previously unexplained 63 toothed gear in fragment D. They proposed two face plate layouts, one with evenly spaced dials, and another with a gap in the top of the face to account for criticism regarding their not using the apparent fixtures on the b1 gear. They proposed that rather than bearings and pillars for gears and axles, they simply held weather and seasonal icons to be displayed through a window.[37]

In a paper published in 2012 Carman, Thorndike, and Evans also proposed a system of epicyclic gearing with pin and slot followers.

Freeth and Jones published their proposal in 2012 after extensive research and work. They came up with a compact and feasible solution to the question of planetary indication. They also propose indicating the solar anomaly (that is, the sun’s apparent position in the zodiac dial) on a separate pointer from the date pointer, which indicates the mean position of the sun, as well as the date on the month dial, if the two dials are synchronised correctly. Their front panel display is essentially the same as Wright’s. Unlike Wright’s model however, this model has not been built physically, and is only a 3-D computer model.[6]


Internal gearing relationships of the Antikythera Mechanism, based on the Freeth and Jones proposal

The system to synthesise the solar anomaly is very similar to that used in Wright’s proposal. Three gears, one fixed in the centre of the b1 gear and attached to the sun spindle, the second fixed on one of the spokes (in their proposal the one on the bottom left) acting as an idle gear, and the final positioned next to that one, the final gear is fitted with an offset pin and, over said pin, an arm with a slot that in turn, is attached to the sun spindle, inducing anomaly as the mean sun wheel turns.[6]

The inferior planet mechanism includes the sun (treated as a planet in this context), Mercury, and Venus.[6] For each of the three systems there is an epicyclic gear whose axis is mounted on b1, thus the basic frequency is the Earth year (as it is, in truth, for epicyclic motion in the sun and all the planets—excepting only the moon). Each meshes with a gear grounded to the mechanism frame. Each has a pin mounted, potentially on an extension of one side of the gear that enlarges the gear, but doesn’t interfere with the teeth; in some cases the needed distance between the gear’s centre and the pin is farther than the radius of the gear itself. A bar with a slot along its length extends from the pin toward the appropriate coaxial tube, at whose other end is the object pointer, out in front of the front dials. The bars could have been full gears, although there is no need for the waste of metal, since the only working part is the slot. Also, using the bars avoids interference between the three mechanisms, each of which are set on one of the four spokes of b1. Thus there is one new grounded gear (one was identified in the wreckage, and the second is shared by two of the planets), one gear used to reverse the direction of the sun anomaly, three epicyclic gears and three bars/coaxial tubes/pointers, which would qualify as another gear each. Five gears and three slotted bars in all.[6]

The superior planets systems—Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn—all follow the same general principle of the lunar anomaly mechanism.[6] Similar to the inferior systems, each has a gear whose centre pivot is on an extension of b1, and which meshes with a grounded gear. It presents a pin and a centre pivot for the epicyclic gear which has a slot for the pin, and which meshes with a gear fixed to a coaxial tube and thence to the pointer. Each of the three mechanisms can fit within a quadrant of the b1 extension, and they are thus all on a single plane parallel with the front dial plate. Each one uses a ground gear, a driving gear, a driven gear, and a gear/coaxial tube/pointer, thus, twelve gears additional in all.

In total, there are eight coaxial spindles of various nested sizes to transfer the rotations in the mechanism to the eight pointers. So in all, there are 30 original gears, seven gears added to complete calendar functionality, 17 gears, and three slotted bars to support the six new pointers, for a grand total of 54 gears, three bars, and eight pointers in Freeth and Jones’ design.[6]

On the visual representation Freeth supplies in the paper, the pointers on the front zodiac dial have small, round identifying stones. Interestingly, he mentions a quote from an ancient papyrus:

…a voice comes to you speaking. Let the stars be set upon the board in accordance with [their] nature except for the Sun and Moon. And let the Sun be golden, the Moon silver, Kronos [Saturn] of obsidian, Ares [Mars] of reddish onyx, Aphrodite [Venus] lapis lazuli veined with gold, Hermes [Mercury] turquoise; let Zeus [Jupiter] be of (whitish?) stone, crystalline (?)…[42]


Investigations by Freeth and Jones reveal that their simulated mechanism is not particularly accurate, the Mars pointer being up to 38° off at times. This is not due to inaccuracies in gearing ratios in the mechanism, but rather to inadequacies in the Greek theory at that point in time. This could not have been improved until first Ptolemy introduced the equant, circa 150 CE, and then whenJohannes Kepler changed orbits to ellipses and broke from the concept of uniform motion and circular orbits in 1609 CE.

In short, the Antikythera Mechanism was a machine designed to predict celestial phenomena according to the sophisticated astronomical theories current in its day, the sole witness to a lost history of brilliant engineering, a conception of pure genius, one of the great wonders of the ancient world—but it didn’t really work very well!

In addition to theoretical accuracy, there is the matter of mechanical accuracy. Freeth and Jones note that the inevitable “looseness” in the mechanism due to the hand-built gears, with their triangular teeth and the frictions between gears, and in bearing surfaces, probably would have swamped the finer solar and lunar correction mechanisms built into it:

Though the engineering was remarkable for its era, recent research indicates that its design conception exceeded the engineering precision of its manufacture by a wide margin—with considerable accumulative inaccuracies in the gear trains, which would have cancelled out many of the subtle anomaly corrections built into its design.

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ “The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project”. The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Retrieved 1 July 2007. The Antikythera Mechanism is now understood to be dedicated to astronomical phenomena and operates as a complex mechanical ‘computer’ which tracks the cycles of the Solar System.
  2. Jump up^ Seaman, Bill; Rössler, Otto E. (1 January 2011). Neosentience: The Benevolence Engine. Intellect Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-84150-404-9. Retrieved 28 May 2013. Mike G. Edmunds and colleagues used imaging and high-resolution X-ray tomography to study fragments of the Antikythera Mechanism, a bronze mechanical analog computer thought to calculate astronomical positions
  3. Jump up^ Swedin, Eric G.; Ferro, David L. (24 October 2007). Computers: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8018-8774-1. Retrieved 28 May 2013. It was a mechanical computer for calculating lunar, solar, and stellar calendars.
  4. Jump up^ Paphitis, Nicholas (30 November 2006). “Experts: Fragments an Ancient Computer”. Washington Post. Imagine tossing a top-notch laptop into the sea, leaving scientists from a foreign culture to scratch their heads over its corroded remains centuries later. A Roman shipmaster inadvertently did something just like it 2,000 years ago off southern Greece, experts said late Thursday.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Freeth, Tony; Bitsakis, Yanis; Moussas, Xenophon; Seiradakis, John. H.; Tselikas, A.; Mangou, H.; Zafeiropoulou, M.; Hadland, R. et al. (30 November 2006). “Decoding the ancient Greek astronomical calculator known as the Antikythera Mechanism” (PDF).Nature. 444 Supplement (7119): 587–91. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..587F.doi:10.1038/nature05357. PMID 17136087. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Freeth, Tony; Jones, Alexander (2012).“The Cosmos in the Antikythera Mechanism”. Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  7. Jump up^ Pinotsis, A. D. (30 August 2007). “The Antikythera mechanism: who was its creator and what was its use and purpose?”. Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions 26. doi:10.1080/10556790601136925. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Freeth, Tony; Jones, Alexander; Steele, John M.; Bitsakis, Yanis (31 July 2008). “Calendars with Olympiad display and eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism”. Nature 454 (7204): 614–617.Bibcode:2008Natur.454..614F. doi:10.1038/nature07130.PMID 18668103.
  9. Jump up^ “Decoding The Antikythera Mechanism – Investigation of An Ancient Astronomical Calculator”. Retrieved13 November 2012.
  10. Jump up^ Vetenskapens värld: Bronsklumpen som kan förutsäga framtiden[dead link]. SVT. 17 October 2012.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b Price, Derek de Solla (1974). “Gears from the Greeks. The Antikythera Mechanism: A Calendar Computer from ca. 80 B. C.”.Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 64 (7): 1–70. doi:10.2307/1006146.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c Carman, Christian C.; Evans, James (15 November 2014). “On the epoch of the Antikythera mechanism and its eclipse predictor”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 68 (6): 693–774. doi:10.1007/s00407-014-0145-5. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Markoff, John (24 November 2014). “On the Trail of an Ancient Mystery – Solving the Riddles of an Early Astronomical Calculator”. New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Marchant, Jo (30 November 2006). “In search of lost time”.Nature 444 (7119): 534–538. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..534M.doi:10.1038/444534a. PMID 17136067. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  15. Jump up^ Haughton, Brian (26 December 2006). Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries. Career Press. pp. 43–44.ISBN 978-1-56414-897-1. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  16. Jump up^ “Ancient ‘computer’ starts to yield secrets”. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
  17. Jump up^ Angelakis, Dimitris G. (2 May 2005). Quantum Information Processing: From Theory to Experiment. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Chania, Crete, Greece: IOS Press (published 2006). p. 5. ISBN 978-1-58603-611-9. Retrieved 28 May 2013. The Antikythera mechanism, as it is now known, was probably the world’s first ‘analog computer’ – a sophisticated device for calculating the motions of stars and planets. This remarkable assembly of more than 30 gears with a differential…
  18. Jump up^ Allen, Martin (27 May 2007). “Were there others? The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project”. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  19. Jump up^ Lazos, Christos (1994). The Antikythera Computer. ?????S PUBLICATIONS GR.
  20. Jump up^ “Jacques-Yves Cousteau”.
  21. Jump up^ “What was it made of?”. Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  22. Jump up^ Freeth, Tony (December 2009). “Decoding an Ancient Computer”(PDF). Scientific American: 78. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  23. Jump up^ Article “Pergamum”, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1.
  24. Jump up^ Sample, Ian. “Mysteries of computer from 65 BCE are solved”. The Guardian. “This device is extraordinary, the only thing of its kind,” said Professor Edmunds. “The astronomy is exactly right … in terms of historic and scarcity value, I have to regard this mechanism as being more valuable than the Mona Lisa.” and “One of the remaining mysteries is why the Greek technology invented for the machine seemed to disappear.”
  25. Jump up^ Johnston, Ian (30 November 2006). “Device that let Greeks decode solar system”. The Scotsman. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
  26. Jump up^ Marchant, Jo (2006). Decoding the Heavens. Da Capo Press. p. 180.mechanical engineer and former curator of London’s Science MuseumMichael Wright tells of a piece breaking off in his inspection, which was glued back into place by the museum staff.
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Freeth, Tony; Jones, Alexander; Steele, John M.; Bitsakis, Yanis (31 July 2008). “Calendars with Olympiad display and eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism” (PDF). Nature. 454 Supplement (7204): 614–7. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..614F.doi:10.1038/nature07130. PMID 18668103. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  28. Jump up^ Wright, Michael T. (2007). “The Antikythera Mechanism reconsidered”.Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 32 (1): 21–43.doi:10.1179/030801807X163670.
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Freeth, Tony (2006). “Decoding the Antikythera Mechanism: Supplementary Notes 2” (PDF). Nature 444 (7119): 587–91.Bibcode:2006Natur.444..587F. doi:10.1038/nature05357.PMID 17136087. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Cosmos on the front of the Antikythera Mechanism”.
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b Freeth, T. (2009). “Decoding an Ancient Computer”. Scientific American 301 (6): 76–83. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1209-76.PMID 20058643.
  32. Jump up^ Wright, Michael T. (March 2006). “The Antikythera Mechanism and the early history of the moon phase display” (PDF). Antiquarian Horology 29(3): 319–329. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  33. Jump up^ Wilford, J. N. (31 July 2008). “Discovering how greeks computed in 100 BCE”. The New York Times.
  34. Jump up^ Connor, S. (31 July 2008). “Ancient Device Was Used To Predict Olympic Games”. The Independent (London). Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  35. Jump up^ “Olympic link to early ‘computer'”. BBC News. Retrieved15 December 2008.
  36. Jump up^ “Does it favour a Heliocentric, or Geocentric Universe?”. Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. 27 July 2007. Archived from the originalon 21 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  37. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Evans, James; Carman, Christian C.; Thorndyke, Alan (February 2010). “Solar anomaly and planetary displays in the Antikythera Mechanism” (PDF). Journal for the history of astronomy xli: 1–39. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  38. Jump up^ p. 8
  39. Jump up^ Wright, Michael T. (September 2005). “Epicyclic gearing and the Antikythera Mechanism, part II”. Antiquarian Horology 29 (1): 51–63.
  40. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Using Computation to Decode the First Known Computer”. IEEE Computer Magazine. 2011-7. July 2011.
  41. Jump up^ Carman, Christian C.; Thorndyke, Alan; Evans, James (2012). “On the Pin-and-Slot Device of the Antikythera Mechanism, with a New Application to the Superior Planets” (PDF). Journal for the History of Astronomy 43: 93–116. Bibcode:2012JHA….43…93C. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  42. Jump up^ An extract from a 2nd or 3rd century AD papyrus (P.Wash.Univ.inv. 181+221) about an “Astrologer’s Board”, where the astrologer lays out particular stones to represent the Sun, Moon and planets

Category:Ancient Greek writers


This category has the following 24 subcategories, out of 24 total.

Reconstruction of ancient ship sheds

The word neosoikos (Νεώσοικος), ‘ship-house’, became the standard term in Greek for the covered slipways

The ancient shipyards were organized so as to have all the necessary military infrastructure, with more extensive clusters of ship sheds (Fig. 3-5). At the premises of neoroion included beyond the ship sheds and called sideboard. Topographic the dockyards were built in the city plan, as shown for example in Piraeus and Rhodes, and were a military area where security was imperative. Thus the dockyard was defined by trade, but also from the rest of the urban environment mainly with internal walls.

The Shipsheds built to house military fleets when they were not at war and so had the ships pulled out of the water for the protection and maintenance. The first Shipsheds attested are those of Samos in 530 BC under the authority of the tyrant Polycrates, information we get from Herodotus (2 159). But shipyards have come to light in Zea, in Kition, Naxos, Sicily, Kos, Rhodes, the Oiniades and elsewhere. In addition there were individual dockyards carved in the rock at strategic points that served as naval bases as basic monitoring or sea-lanes.

The Shipsheds were oblong buildings with an opening to the sea with a slope inclined towards the water so the ships can easily be pulled ashore. The individual rooms of the ship sheds separated by a colonnade (Zea, Oiniades) or adjacent walls (Naxos Sicily Apollonia), built or carved in the rock. The boats pulled ashore and then were fixed and tied. The sloping ramps were made of beaten earth, sand or stone or exclusive carved in the rock. General infrastructure and the construction of our ancient ship sheds provide important information about ancient technology and naval architecture, and are now the only material remains that largely certify and sizes of ancient ships.

The way he dragged ships ashore is directly related to the ramps and wooden infrastructure in relation to them. The research done on sloping ramps have revealed archaeological relics to install wooden sleepers (phalanges), supports for the hulls of ships or spreads soil with lubricants, suggesting different technical treatment of the case by case. An important issue is also to be investigated is human or mechanical force that was required to be able to pull the boat ramp, the obvious use of engines or winches, the calculation of the friction between the hull and the soil, and soil fertilization .

In an Athenian inscription of 430 BC but survives in fragments indicated that they needed 140 men hauling triremes and at least 120 for the launch, but some scholars believe that only listed 40 or 20.

For the presence winches, port to Thouria bring the remains of three winches, with especially smooth slope levels 1 to 20. Plutarch mentions about towing three-masted olkadas by Archimedes using a hoist that he launched. Athenaeus also mentions that Archimedes launch from the sea the SYRAKOS using stranded. Probably the time of Herodotus be used grooves for lifting ships. The galleys elevator with the stern forward is not impaired and the plunger can then launched or easier.

The Hipponax poet of the 6th century to the use Malthi to spread the keel to be watertight and helps lifting. The white ypaloifi the Athenian lists the 4th century ships would probably wax or resin mixed with lime or fat. Pliny mentions the use of zopissas, a mixture of tar, wax and salt to coat ships. The lubricants generally used for easier hauling ships. The sources also mentioned the barrel, cane, compared with ship sheds and is perhaps the reeds which according to Pliny placed crushed between the ship spaces seal. The rods can also be also used to reduce friction when hauling. Some again shipsheds was carved into the rock on the inclined plane was central slot for the keel of the ship, while likely to elapse and a wooden cover.

Temple of Poseidon at Paestum, an Ancient Greek Colony in Southern Italy Giclee Print

Temple of Poseidon at Paestum, an Ancient Greek Colony in Southern Italy Giclee Print

City states of ancient greek mainland – 5th Century BC

MAP of the HELLENIC CITIES & COLONIES from 1200 – 200 B.C.

Там, где слова становятся звездами.

Their cathedral, the Duomo, built by conversion of the temple of Athena that stood there. Both outside and inside shows the huge Doric columns of the ancient temple that once supported the aisle. In this Doric Temple then they built baroque facade and put statues of saints and the statue of Our Lady of Pilar in which the church is dedicated. This is the only temple in the world that was made by ancient metropolis.

On the eastern side of Sicily are Syracuse, which is a very beautiful city full of Greece, ancient Corinthian colony from 774 B.C. Even the names of the streets are written off by the Italian and Greek and many of them have names of ancient Greek who lived there, as Pindaros, Empedocles, Plato etc. There is also the island of Ortygia, where was the G8 conference on the environment, and therefore in some photos is visible police 

Anaximander (ΑΝΑΞΙΜΑΝΔΡΟΣ;From: ἄναξ + άνδρας – ἄνᾰξ (ánaks) (genitive ἄνᾰκτος); m, third declension). The vocative ᾰ̓́νᾰ (ána) is only used in the phrases ὦ ἄνα (ô ána, O king) or ὦνα (ôna), and Ζεῦ ἄνα (Zeû ána, O Zeus), and always as an address to gods.

(/əˌnæksɨˈmændər/; Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia (in now-days Turkey). He belonged to the Milesian school and learned the teachings of his master Thales. He succeeded Thales and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and, arguably, Pythagoras amongst his pupils.

He was an early proponent of science and tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe, with a particular interest in its origins, claiming that nature is ruled by laws, just like human societies, and anything that disturbs the balance of nature does not last long. Like many thinkers of his time, Anaximander’s contributions to philosophy relate to many disciplines. In astronomy, he tried to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies in relation to the Earth. In physics, his postulation that the indefinite (or apeiron) was the source of all things led Greek philosophy to a new level of conceptual abstraction. His knowledge of geometry allowed him to introduce the gnomon in Greece. He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography. He was also involved in the politics of Miletus and was sent as a leader to one of its colonies.

Anaximander claimed that an “indefinite” (apeiron) principle gives rise to all natural phenomena.

 According to Anaximander the world comes from infinity, which is a vast material mass, unlimited in time and space. Infinity surrounds and secures everything, directs and governs. From infinity born heavens and the worlds in infinite end.
The nature consists of unlike elements (hot-cold, dry-humid etc.) Which are in constant competition. Anaximander that conveys the nature the image of an organized and well-governed society. So proclaims the opposing elements “pay the damage they do and get compensation from one another according to the order of time.” Eg loss for the warm is an exaggeration of the cold during the winter, but when the fullness of time (in summer), the compensated hot and cold forced to retreat etc.
Accepts therefore that Anaximander as in society so naturally prevails the principle of justice, which sets limits on competition elements; if there was no justice, then one element would dominate and lead to the destruction of the world, p. x. prevalence of warm and fire would result in the destruction by fire. Justice is not to impose a higher power, which punishes the elements that exceed the limits. The dispute is solved by the same parties to the conflict, namely the element that exceeded the limit and committed injustice compensates component suffered damage.

Anaximander was the first philosopher who imagines nature as an organized pluralistic society where tensions exist, antagonisms, conflicts. All this however never exceed a given threshold. This limit is determined by the court. The harmony and order are not imposed by a superior power, but the world conceived as a self-regulating, self-reliant and self-controlled opposing forces system.

 ANAXIMANDROS AS ASTRONOMER (Copernicus just copied Anximandros 1800 years later and developed the Astronomy more byintegrating Aristarhos & others, as well)
He believed that the earth was cylindrical in shape with a height of 1/3 of the diameter. The land in his opinion should be at the center of a sphere, the inner surface of which are fixed to the stars. The land is not based anywhere in the center of the sphere.
It is said to have invented the light and the sundial.

According to Anaximander originally the earth was wet and the first animals born to the water element; the man is product of evolution from other animals that looked like fish.

He is considered the first attempt to design a map of the whole earth; the map of the land Anaximandrou surrounded by the sea and contains an internal sea, part of which is the Mediterranean.

Anaximander tried to give a rational interpretation of natural phenomena such as thunder, the lightning and the thunder. These phenomena are attributed to the action of the wind, “ie when. The wind wrapped by a thick cloud and then escape by force thanks to the thin and light nature, then the crack created in the cloud creates the click, and opening the black mass of cloud create the lightning. “
It is also said that he predicted an earthquake in Sparta and warned residents to stay overnight outside the city. So when the earthquake occurred, which resulted in the total destruction of the city, no man suffered nothing.


Detail of Raphael‘s painting The School of Athens, 1510–1511. This could be a representation of Anaximander leaning towards Pythagoras on his left.[7]

Anaximander, son of Praxiades, was born in the third year of the 42nd Olympiad (610 BC). According to Apollodorus of Athens, Greek grammarian of the 2nd century BC, he was sixty-four years old during the second year of the 58th Olympiad (547–546 BC), and died shortly afterwards

Establishing a timeline of his work is now impossible, since no document provides chronological references. Themistius, a 4th-century Byzantine rhetorician, mentions that he was the “first of the known Greeks to publish a written document on nature.” Therefore his texts would be amongst the earliest written in prose, at least in the Western world. By the time of Plato, his philosophy was almost forgotten, and Aristotle, his successor Theophrastus and a few doxographers provide us with the little information that remains. However, we know from Aristotle that Thales, also from Miletus, precedes Anaximander. It is debatable whether Thales actually was the teacher of Anaximander, but there is no doubt that Anaximander was influenced by Thales’ theory that everything is derived from water. One thing that is not debatable is that even the ancient Greeks considered Anaximander to be from the Monist school which began in Miletus with Thales followed by Anaximander and finished with Anaximenes. 3rd-century Roman rhetorician Aelian depicts him as leader of the Milesian colony to Apollonia on the Black Sea coast, and hence some have inferred that he was a prominent citizen. Indeed, Various History (III, 17) explains that philosophers sometimes also dealt with political matters. It is very likely that leaders of Miletus sent him there as a legislator to create a constitution or simply to maintain the colony’s allegiance.


Anaximander’s theories were influenced by the Greek mythical tradition.

He assumed, like traditional religion, the existence of a cosmic order; and in elaborating his ideas on this he used the old mythical language which ascribed divine control to various spheres of reality. This was a common practice for the Greek philosophers in a society which saw gods everywhere, therefore they could fit their ideas into a tolerably elastic system

Some scholars saw a gap between the existing mythical and the new rational way of thought which is the main characteristic of the archaic period (8th to 6th century BC) in the Greek city states. Because of this, they did not hesitate to speak for a ‘Greek miracle’. But if we follow carefully the course of Anaximander’s ideas, we will notice that there was not such an abrupt break as initially appears. The basic elements of nature (water, air, fire, earth) which the first Greek philosophers & doctors (Hipppcrates, Galenos etc) believed that constituted the universe represent in fact the primordial forces of previous thought. Their collision produced what the mythical tradition had called cosmic harmony. In the old cosmogonies – Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) and Pherecydes (6th century BC) – Zeus establishes his order in the world by destroying the powers which were threatening this harmony, (the Titans). Anaximander claimed that the cosmic order is not monarchic but geometric and this causes the equilibrium of the earth which is lying in the centre of the universe. This is the projection on nature of a new political order and a new space organized around a centre which is the static point of the system in the society as in nature.In this space there is isonomy (equal rights) and all the forces are symmetrical and transferrable. The decisions are now taken by the assembly of demos in the agora which is lying in the middle of the city.

The same rational way of thought led him to introduce the abstract apeiron (indefinite, infinite, boundless, unlimited[) as an origin of the universe, a concept that is probably influenced by the original Chaos (gaping void, abyss, formless state) of the mythical Greek cosmogony from which everything else appeared. It also takes notice of the mutual changes between the four elements. Origin, then, must be something else unlimited in its source, that could create without experiencing decay, so that genesis would never stop


Main article: Apeiron (cosmology)

The bishop Hippolytus of Rome (I, 5), and the later 6th century Byzantine philosopher Simplicius of Cilicia, attribute to Anaximander the earliest use of the word apeíron (ἄπειρον “infinite” or “limitless”) to designate the original principle. He was the first philosopher to employ, in a philosophical context, the term archế (ἀρχή), which until then had meant beginning, or origin. For him, it became no longer a mere point in time, but a source that could perpetually give birth to whatever will be. The indefiniteness is spatial in early usages as in Homer (indefinite sea) and as in Xenophanes (6th century BC) who said that the earth went down indefinitely (to apeiron) i.e. beyond the imagination or concept of men.

Aristotle writes (Metaphysics, I III 3–4) that the Pre-Socratics were searching for the element that constitutes all things. While each pre-Socratic philosopher gave a different answer as to the identity of this element (water for Thales and air for Anaximenes), Anaximander understood the beginning or first principle to be an endless, unlimited primordial mass (apeiron), subject to neither old age nor decay, that perpetually yielded fresh materials from which everything we perceive is derived.He proposed the theory of the apeiron in direct response to the earlier theory of his teacher, Thales, who had claimed that the primary substance was water. The notion of temporal infinity was familiar to the Greek mind from remote antiquity in the religious concept of immortality and Anaximander’s description was in terms appropriate to this conception. This arche is called “eternal and ageless”. (Hippolitus I,6,I;DK B2)

For Anaximander, the principle of things, the constituent of all substances, is nothing determined and not an element such as water in Thales’ view. Neither is it something halfway between air and water, or between air and fire, thicker than air and fire, or more subtle than water and earth.Anaximander argues that water cannot embrace all of the opposites found in nature — for example, water can only be wet, never dry — and therefore cannot be the one primary substance; nor could any of the other candidates. He postulated the apeiron as a substance that, although not directly perceptible to us, could explain the opposites he saw around him.

Anaximander explains how the four elements of ancient physics (air, earth, water and fire) are formed, and how Earth and terrestrial beings are formed through their interactions. Unlike other Pre-Socratics, he never defines this principle precisely, and it has generally been understood (e.g., by Aristotle and by Saint Augustine) as a sort of primal chaos. According to him, the Universe originates in the separation of opposites in the primordial matter. It embraces the opposites of hot and cold, wet and dry, and directs the movement of things; an entire host of shapes and differences then grow that are found in “all the worlds” (for he believed there were many).

Anaximander maintains that all dying things are returning to the element from which they came (apeiron). The one surviving fragment of Anaximander’s writing deals with this matter. Simplicius transmitted it as a quotation, which describes the balanced and mutual changes of the elements:[23][24]

Whence things have their origin,
Thence also their destruction happens,
According to necessity;
For they give to each other justice and recompense
For their injustice
In conformity with the ordinance of Time.

Simplicius mentions that Anaximander said all these “in poetic terms”, meaning that he used the old mythical language. The goddess Justice (Dike) keeps the cosmic order. This concept of returning to the element of origin was often revisited afterwards, notably by Aristotle and by the Greek tragedian Euripides: “what comes from earth must return to earth.” Friedrich Nietzsche, in his Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, stated that Anaximander viewed “… all coming-to-be as though it were an illegitimate emancipation from eternal being, a wrong for which destruction is the only penance.”

Different quantum states, of one and the same “primordial substance,”’ proposed that this primordial substance be called apeiron(απειρον).



Map of Anaximander’s universe

Anaximander’s bold use of non-mythological explanatory hypotheses considerably distinguishes him from previous cosmology writers such as Hesiod. It confirms that pre-Socratic philosophers were making an early effort to demythify physical processes. His major contribution to history was writing the oldest prose document about the Universe and the origins of life; for this he is often called the “Father of Cosmology” and founder of astronomy. However, pseudo-Plutarch states that he still viewed celestial bodies as deities.

Anaximander was the first to conceive a mechanical model of the world. In his model, the Earth floats very still in the centre of the infinite, not supported by anything. It remains “in the same place because of its indifference”, a point of view that Aristotle considered ingenious, but false, in On the Heavens. Its curious shape is that of a cylinder with a height one-third of its diameter. The flat top forms the inhabited world, which is surrounded by a circular oceanic mass.

Anaximander’s realization that the Earth floats free without falling and does not need to be resting on something has been indicated by many as the first cosmological revolution and the starting point of scientific thinking. Karl Popper calls this idea “one of the boldest, most revolutionary, and most portentous ideas in the whole history of human thinking.”Such a model allowed the concept that celestial bodies could pass under the Earth, opening the way to Greek astronomy.


Illustration of Anaximander’s models of the universe. On the left, daytime in summer; on the right, nighttime in winter.

At the origin, after the separation of hot and cold, a ball of flame appeared that surrounded Earth like bark on a tree. This ball broke apart to form the rest of the Universe. It resembled a system of hollow concentric wheels, filled with fire, with the rims pierced by holes like those of a flute. Consequently, the Sun was the fire that one could see through a hole the same size as the Earth on the farthest wheel, and an eclipse corresponded with the occlusion of that hole. The diameter of the solar wheel was twenty-seven times that of the Earth (or twenty-eight, depending on the sources)[35] and the lunar wheel, whose fire was less intense, eighteen (or nineteen) times. Its hole could change shape, thus explaining lunar phases. The stars and the planets, located closer,[36] followed the same model.[37]

Anaximander was the first astronomer to consider the Sun as a huge mass, and consequently, to realize how far from Earth it might be, and the first to present a system where the celestial bodies turned at different distances. Furthermore, according to Diogenes Laertius (II, 2), he built a celestial sphere. This invention undoubtedly made him the first to realize the obliquity of the Zodiac as the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder reports in Natural History (II, 8). It is a little early to use the term ecliptic, but his knowledge and work on astronomy confirm that he must have observed the inclination of the celestial sphere in relation to the plane of the Earth to explain the seasons. The doxographer and theologian Aetius attributes to Pythagoras the exact measurement of the obliquity.

Multiple worlds

According to Simplicius, Anaximander already speculated on the plurality of worlds, similar to atomists Leucippus and Democritus, and later philosopher Epicurus. These thinkers supposed that worlds appeared and disappeared for a while, and that some were born when others perished. They claimed that this movement was eternal, “for without movement, there can be no generation, no destruction”.

In addition to Simplicius, Hippolytus reports Anaximander’s claim that from the infinite comes the principle of beings, which themselves come from the heavens and the worlds (several doxographers use the plural when this philosopher is referring to the worlds within, which are often infinite in quantity). Cicero writes that he attributes different gods to the countless worlds.

This theory places Anaximander close to the Atomists and the Epicureans who, more than a century later, also claimed that an infinity of worlds appeared and disappeared. In the timeline of the Greek history of thought, some thinkers conceptualized a single world (Plato, Aristotle, Anaxagoras and Archelaus), while others instead speculated on the existence of a series of worlds, continuous or non-continuous (Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Empedocles andDiogenes).

Meteorological phenomena[edit]

Anaximander attributed some phenomena, such as thunder and lightning, to the intervention of elements, rather than to divine causes. In his system, thunder results from the shock of clouds hitting each other; the loudness of the sound is proportionate with that of the shock. Thunder without lightning is the result of the wind being too weak to emit any flame, but strong enough to produce a sound. A flash of lightning without thunder is a jolt of the air that disperses and falls, allowing a less active fire to break free. Thunderbolts are the result of a thicker and more violent air flow.

He saw the sea as a remnant of the mass of humidity that once surrounded Earth.[44] A part of that mass evaporated under the sun’s action, thus causing the winds and even the rotation of the celestial bodies, which he believed were attracted to places where water is more abundant.[45] He explained rain as a product of the humidity pumped up from Earth by the sun.[8] For him, the Earth was slowly drying up and water only remained in the deepest regions, which someday would go dry as well. According to Aristotle’s Meteorology (II, 3), Democritus also shared this opinion.

Origin of humankind[edit]

Anaximander speculated about the beginnings and origin of animal life. Taking into account the existence of fossils, he claimed that animals sprang out of the sea long ago. The first animals were born trapped in a spiny bark, but as they got older, the bark would dry up and break.

As the early humidity evaporated, dry land emerged and, in time, humankind had to adapt. The 3rd century Roman writer Censorinus reports:

Anaximander of Miletus considered that from warmed up water and earth emerged either fish or entirely fishlike animals. Inside these animals, men took form and embryos were held prisoners until puberty; only then, after these animals burst open, could men and women come out, now able to feed themselves.

Anaximander put forward the idea that humans had to spend part of this transition inside the mouths of big fish to protect themselves from the Earth’s climate until they could come out in open air and lose their scales. He thought that, considering humans’ extended infancy, we could not have survived in the primeval world in the same manner we do presently.

Other accomplishments[edit]



Possible rendering of Anaximander’s world map[49]

Both Strabo and Agathemerus (later Greek geographers) claim that, according to the geographer Eratosthenes, Anaximander was the first to publish a map of the world. The map probably inspired the Greek historian Hecataeus of Miletus to draw a more accurate version. Strabo viewed both as the first geographers after Homer.

Such an accomplishment is more significant than it at first appears. Anaximander most likely drew this map for three reasons.[50] First, it could be used to improve navigation and trade between Miletus‘s colonies and other colonies around the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Second, Thales would probably have found it easier to convince the Ionian city-states to join in a federation in order to push the Median threat away if he possessed such a tool. Finally, the philosophical idea of a global representation of the world simply for the sake of knowledge was reason enough to design one.

Surely aware of the sea’s convexity, he may have designed his map on a slightly rounded metal surface. The centre or “navel” of the world (ὀμφαλός γῆς omphalós gẽs) could have been Delphi, but is more likely in Anaximander’s time to have been located near Miletus. The Aegean Sea was near the map’s centre and enclosed by three continents, themselves located in the middle of the ocean and isolated like islands by sea and rivers. Europe was bordered on the south by the Mediterranean Sea and was separated fromAsia by the Black Sea, the Lake Maeotis, and, further east, either by the Phasis River (now called the Rioni) or the Tanais. The Nile flowed south into the ocean, separating Libya(which was the name for the part of the then-known African continent) from Asia.


The Suda relates that Anaximander explained some basic notions of geometry. It also mentions his interest in the measurement of time and associates him with the introduction in Greece of the gnomon. In Lacedaemon, he participated in the construction, or at least in the adjustment, of sundials to indicate solstices and equinoxes. Indeed, a gnomon required adjustments from a place to another because of the difference in latitude.

In his time, the gnomon was simply a vertical pillar or rod mounted on a horizontal plane. The position of its shadow on the plane indicated the time of day. As it moves through its apparent course, the sun draws a curve with the tip of the projected shadow, which is shortest at noon, when pointing due south. The variation in the tip’s position at noon indicates the solar time and the seasons; the shadow is longest on the winter solstice and shortest on the summer solstice.


Prediction of an earthquake

In his philosophical work De Divinatione (I, 50, 112), Cicero states that Anaximander convinced the inhabitants of Lacedaemon to abandon their city and spend the night in the country with their weapons because an earthquake was near.[52] The city collapsed when the top of the Taygetus split like the stern of a ship. Pliny the Elder also mentions this anecdote (II, 81), suggesting that it came from an “admirable inspiration”, as opposed to Cicero, who did not associate the prediction with divination.


Bertrand Russell in the History of Western Philosophy interprets Anaximander’s theories as an assertion of the necessity of an appropriate balance between earth, fire, and water, all of which may be independently seeking to aggrandize their proportions relative to the others. Anaximander seems to express his belief that a natural order ensures balance between these elements, that where there was fire, ashes (earth) now exist.[53] His Greek peers echoed this sentiment with their belief in natural boundaries beyond which not even the gods could operate.

Friedrich Nietzsche, in Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, claimed that Anaximander was a pessimist who asserted that the primal being of the world was a state of indefiniteness. In accordance with this, anything definite has to eventually pass back into indefiniteness. In other words, Anaximander viewed “…all coming-to-be as though it were an illegitimate emancipation from eternal being, a wrong for which destruction is the only penance”. (Ibid., § 4) The world of individual objects, in this way of thinking, has no worth and should perish.[54]

Martin Heidegger lectured extensively on Anaximander, and delivered a lecture entitled “Anaximander’s Saying” which was subsequently included in Off the Beaten Track. The lecture examines the ontological difference and the oblivion of Being or Dasein in the context of the Anaximander fragment. Heidegger’s lecture is, in turn, an important influence on the French philosopher Jacques Derrida.


According to the Suda:[57]

  • On Nature (Περὶ φύσεως / Perì phúseôs)

  • Rotation of the Earth (Γῆς περίοδος / Gễs períodos)

  • On Fixed stars (Περὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν / Perì tỗn aplanỗn)

  • The [Celestial] Sphere (Σφαῖρα / Sphaĩra)

See also