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Hand made by Rose-Marie & Konstantin Schönros/ Green Gourmet since 1993

FREE from: – Gluten, Soy, sugar & dairy products
Made by following fermented organic ingredients: PROBIOFORM, Pineapple, Mango, Goji, Seabuckthorn, Pomegranate seeds,
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OBS! Everything is made with spring water, OR(!): Distilled tap water, mineral enriched, Magnetic-Vortex treated, ..then: Oz3 & Ionization, Pythagoras & Fibonacci- Emoto Caraff.

HIPPOKRATES

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How Hippocrates’ medicine differs from modern medicine

Our food our medicine

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Our food our medicine

How Hippocrates’ medicine differs from modern medicine

How Hippocrates’ medicine differs from modern medicine

How Hippocrates’ medicine differs from modern medicine

In the 5th century BC the most important personality in the history of humanity appears, Hippocrates , the “father” of medicine.

We will not dwell here on his entire scientific work, because that would require whole volumes. We will examine Hippocrates as a naturopathic and holistic physician, as a continuation of the science of the Asclepiads.

Chaos separates Hippocratic medicine from modern medicine, which unfortunately does not serve man, but economic interests. Modern medicine is subordinate to the pharmaceutical companies , and therefore “immoral”, and therefore Plato’s saying “All science separated from justice and the other virtue is artifice, and wisdom is seen” (Plato, Menexenus” 347a) fits here.

The sad thing is that modern medicine does not pay attention to the prevention and treatment of disease with diet, which Hippocrates did and still does in nutrition (nutritional medicine) and naturopathy, which are the only medical systems that they can claim to carry on the teachings of the father of medicine.

Naturopathy: A Holistic Alternative Therapeutic Approach

PHYSICAL DISEASE PHYSICIAN

Professor Foteinos writes about the great physician: “Hippocrates carefully studied the human organism, investigated its nature comparatively, observed and imitated it diligently, reproduced it through experiment and treated nature as a wise guide and inviolable teacher, teaching eternal truth , Physin disease physician”.

His quotes “nature heals diseases” , “it is better to prevent or treat” , “food is your medicine” are the gospel of Natural Preventive Medicine and Naturopathy and we can safely characterize Hippocrates as a naturopathic doctor.

THE CAUSE OF DISEASE COMES FROM WITHIN

Hippocrates argues that what we observe in the patient is not the disease but the symptom , and its cause is within our organism and not outside, as modern conventional medicine maintains, influenced by Pasteur’s microbial theory.

Hippocrates criticizes some of the doctors of his time and the common people who attributed the disease to external factors: “The cause of these things is exalted, the main cause is ignored” (“On Ancient Medicine”) .

But this is the basic doctrine of naturopathic medicine. According to naturopathy, the symptoms are not the cause of the disease, but the result of the state of the organism. While naturopathy seeks to remove or correct the causes and stimulate the organism with natural healthy conditions, conventional medicine seeks only to suppress and isolate the symptoms and pays no attention to the causes.

Naturopathy: The Healing Power of Nature

PREVENTING AND CURING DISEASE WITH NUTRITION

One of the main weapons of natural medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases is a healthy diet. Nutritional therapies, however, are not a birth of the 19th century AD, as most people believe.

Hippocrates, continuing the work of the Asclepiads and Pythagoreans, considers nutrition to be the best weapon in the fight against disease. That is why it influenced the patient’s lifestyle and diet, something they also did in the Asclepia .

He seems to have been influenced by his teacher Herodicus, who believed that diseases were caused by “bad diet” (by diet he meant not only diet but the whole way of life . Man remains healthy if he moves, eats and he drinks according to his capacity and temperament.

It took “only” 2,500 years to establish it again, not everyone like Health Problems: The Body’s Attempt to Adapt to Your Lifestyle

Hippocrates wrote three books on this subject: ” On Diet”, “On Food”, “On Hygiene and Exercise”.

His basic belief is that whoever lives properly, does not get sick.

In “On Ancient Medicine” (622, 14) he writes:

“Therefore, what I think is necessary is a study of nature and everything that is studied as it is, that is, what is the future of the deserving poets, what is human towards what is eaten and what is drunk and what is towards other pursuits, and what, what happens to each of them”

Performance=I really consider this necessary for every physician, the perfect knowledge of human nature, the study of it, if in the future he is to indicate what should be done in terms of nursing, to learn what man is and what relations he has with food, solids, liquids, and the general way of life and what effect each has on each person.

To conclude that “the main purpose of medicine is to teach man how to feed himself, since food is our medicine” (“On Ancient Medicine” 578, 3) . How are these different from the 20th century AD naturopaths’ proclamation: “Food is a Panacea” or “Food is our Medicine”?

With proper nutrition there would be no medicine, because there would be no diseases – Hippocrates

How deeply he penetrates the subject of nutrition, can be seen from the following excerpt from his work “On Diet” :

“People who do not see the future correctly write about the diet of anthropomorphine, but first of all the nature of a person is known and diagnosed. it is known by those of whom it was composed from the beginning, and it is diagnosed under whose parts it is kept. since the constitution from the beginning is not known, it is impossible to become what we become under them. either the prevailing in the body is not diagnosed, it is not capable of bringing about the symptoms of the human being.

These, however, are known to the scribe, and then these of wheat and drink to others, so that we are fed, each of them has a power that is inherent in nature and that is due to the need and art of humanity. Behold, the state of the mighty is as if the strength of nature is taken away, so it is not weakened until strength is added by art, of which if the weather is each produced”

Performance=In my opinion man must first write and fully investigate the nature of man in general. to know what its initial components are and to investigate the factors that control it.

Because if he does not know its original composition, he will not be able to understand what results from these ingredients. And if he does not recognize the prevailing element in the body, he will not be able to prescribe the right treatment for the person.

So the future writer must know all this and also what properties each of the foods and drinks with which we are fed has and their natural properties and those that they necessarily receive through human processing.

That is, to know in what way we should remove strength from those that are naturally strong and with what technical processing to add strength to the weak, when the moment is appropriate for each of them. (“About Diet” A, par. 2).

When Hippocrates says that we must examine both the natural properties of foods and the properties they acquire through human processing, he means that we must examine the properties of raw foods as well as processed, i.e. cooked, brined or vinegared foods. , and beverages ( wine for example is a processed food).

HIPPOCRATES A GREAT-NATURED PHYSICIAN

But if drugs are not used, is it possible to cure diseases with diet alone? No, answers the modern science of natural hygiene. And this was the opinion of the genius Hippocrates. As he states in the previous quote, “the most distinguished physicians treat both by diet and by other therapeutic means.”

But what are the other remedies?

In his work “On Diet” he clarifies things:

“For it is not possible for a man to be healthy, nor for a woman to be in pain. On the contrary, for each other has the powers of strain and pain, and they mutually promote health. pains, because you are wasting your possessions. wheat and drinks you fill the blanks. And see, as a home, they diagnose the strength of pains, both natural and lifelong, and some of these they prepare an increase, like flesh and some a lack”

Performance=Because it is not possible for a person to remain healthy by diet alone, if he does not exercise . Food and exercise have opposite properties, but both contribute to maintaining health.

The exercises were created to use up what’s there, while the food and drinks were made to fill in the gaps.

It is necessary, it seems, to precisely determine the strength of bodily labors, both natural and artificial, which of them contribute to the growth and which to the deterioration of the flesh” (“On Diet”, par. 2).

When he says corruption of the flesh, he means burnings and their effects.

But he continues by emphasizing that we should not only know these things:

“and not only these, but also of the measure of the pains according to the number of grains and the nature of man and the age of the bodies, and according to the times of the soul and according to the changes of the spirits, and according to the positions of the villages in which they are distributed , to the state of the self and to the changes of the spirits, and to the positions of the villages in which they are distributed, to the state of the self.

The stars of the sky and the west are seen, while the changes and excesses are seen, they keep grain and drink and spirits and the good of the world, out of which the minds of such people grow. This is not always a self-diagnostic finding. although he did not find a measure for each nature, and a symmetrical number of pains that do not have an exaggeration neither on the most nor on the least, found if health is exactly the same as a human being”.

Efficiency=And not only these, but also the ratio of the exercises to the amount of food, the person’s temperament, his age, the seasons of the year, the changes in the winds, the location of the place where the person lives and the climatic conditions of that particular year.

One must also know the rising and setting of the stars, in order to know how to protect oneself from the changes and excesses of food, drink, winds and the whole environment, from which people’s diseases originate. But even if he knows all this well, the knowledge will not be satisfactory.

Indeed, if it were possible to determine for the nature of each individual a measure of food and a proportionately correct number of physical exercises, without there being any excess either on the side of excess or on the side of deficiency, then the right way would have been found for the ensuring human health.

Exercise & nutrition the “dipole” of good life

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE WAS PRACTICED IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

What can one add to the above quote? However, with the knowledge of all these, the doctor can achieve the desired prevention of diseases. So don’t think that preventive medicine is a product of the 20th century. And here’s the proof:

“But these things are discovered, and before them they make the man from exaggeration, especially if a pre-diagnosis is made. For straight away the minds are so humanized, but after a little gathering together they appear. Before the healthy is kept in the person under the sick, the sick are discovered, and all these things become the health”

Performance=But I have discovered all this, and even the possibility of predicting a disease, before the person becomes ill, by watching where the excess goes. Because diseases do not attack people suddenly, but accumulated slowly they break out once and for all.

So I discovered the symptoms that man shows before health is defeated in him by disease and how one should restore them all to a state of health. (“About Diet” par. 2).

Chaos separates ancient from modern conceptions.

How would you feel if you learned that Chinese doctors were paid while the client was well, while when the client got sick, the doctors paid for the treatment? This is what “preventive” medicine means. It is noteworthy that in the 2nd century BC. the physiatrist Asclepiades used to say that he would give anyone the right to call him an unworthy doctor if he ever fell ill himself. (Tsamboulis, “Special Nosology”, ed. 1956).

Author: Marios Dimopoulos

Nutritionist-Writer

Member of the American Council of Applied Clinical Nutrition

Member of the American Association of Drugless Practitioners

Member of the American Association of Nutritional Consultants

Member of the Canadian Association of Natural Nutritional Practitioners

Member of the Association for Natural Medicine in Europe

Member of the Panhellenic Association of Naturopaths

Που διαφέρει η ιατρική του Ιπποκράτη με τη σύγχρονη ιατρική - Προϊόντα της Φύσης

  1. HIPPOCRATES(ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ) (Kos 460-Larissa377 BC)

  2. Here MEGAS= GREAT HIPPOCRATES is portrayed to hold with his left hand the CROO of the so-called “HONOR OF HIPPOCRATES” and in his other hand to hold a wooden pen in which he was wrapped in a shirt (medical symbol).
  3. No photo description available.
  4. HIPPOCRATES was a GREEK physician and he is considered one of the most prominent personalities in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of SYMPHONY MEDICAL in recognition of his contribution in the field of MEDICAL SCIENCES as the FOUNDER OF THE HIPPOCRATIC MEDICAL SCHOOL.He`s is the founder of rational medicine use to release it from the metaphysical elements superstitions prejudices the demonology and superstitions of that epoch .He created the harmonious matching of humanistic science to the art of medicine and the philosophical thinking by identifying the professional exercise of the ethical ideologic authorities.

THE OATH OF HIPPOCRATES PROHIBITS MANDATORY VACCINATIONS!!!

(Translated from ancient Greek)
“In memory of Apollo the healer, and Asclepius, and Hygeia, and Panakeia, and all the gods, the poet of history, let them write to the best of their ability and judge me by this oath and by this writing.
You will become a priest who teaches with this art as well as you, and you will share life, and you will become a priest who uses the transmission of debts, and a generation of brothers from the ear, even if they criticize you, and teach this art, I only use them, without wages. of writing and ordering He who hears and learns from the rest of the teaching, you will become sons and daughters of him who taught me.
As a judge, I am used for the benefit of those who act according to power and judgement, and for the declaration and injustice of wrath.
I do not give any medicine, I do not ask for death, I do not give advice like that. In the same way, I will not give a woman pessos fluorine. Purely and surely I will preserve my life and my art.
I don’t pray without stoning, but I will set aside the work of a bloated man here.
And from the house of all, if I am, I pray for the benefit of those who burn, I am free from all unjust ekusia and flori, of the one and the other and of aphrodisiac works on the bodies of women and men, free and slaves.
Ἃ d’ if in healing or I see, or hear, or even without healing against the lives of people, which I do not need to cry out, I keep silent, unspeakably delicious is such things.
I swear that if you tell me who you are, and do not escape, you will be the epitome of both life and art, more glorified than any other person in the world. but transgressing and imporkundi, contrary to these…..
IN SIMPLE(“New Greek”) GREEK:
I swear by the god Apollo the physician and by the god Asclepius and by Health and by Panacea and calling upon the testimony of all the gods that I will execute this oath and this agreement according to my strength and judgment.
To consider my teacher of the medical art equal to my parents and the society of my life. And when he needs money to share mine with him. To regard his family as my brethren, and to teach them this art if they wish to learn it without tuition or other agreement.
To impart the rules of ethics, oral teaching, and all other medical knowledge to my sons, my teacher’s sons, and enrolled students who have taken the medical oath, but to no one else.
I will use therapy to help patients to the best of my ability and judgment, but never to harm or wrong. Neither will I give deadly medicine to anyone who asks me for it, nor will I give him such a hint.
Likewise, I will not trust in a pregnant medium that causes an abortion. I will keep both my life and my art pure and undefiled. I will not use a scalpel even in those suffering from lithiasis, but will leave this work to the experts in the art.
In whatever houses I go, I will enter to help the sick and I will refrain from any willful harm and damage, and especially from sexual acts with men and women, free and slaves. And what I may see or hear during the treatment or beyond my professional occupations in my daily life, what should not be learned outside I will not share, considering these matters secret.
If I keep this oath and do not break it, may I always enjoy acceptance among men for my life and for my art. But if I violate him and swear, let the opposites happen to me.May be an image of text

Apollo & Nine muses Alexandros

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Nine muses Apollo

Posted on Nov 13, 2016 by in Uncategorized | 0 comments

In Ancient Greece the music was inseparable from everyday life of all people, and as a complex artistic and intellectual expression had a special place in all aspects of personal and social life. Music, Song and Orchisi (usually interlinked) were the most striking manifestations of civilized society and key actors – and indicators – welfare.
     By Music already ancient times began to acquire an increasingly complex nature and role, culminating in the creation of Music tickets in many cities. The earliest such registered Games are “Karneia” in ancient Sparta, a city where music in general was prominent and was inextricably tied to the education of young people.
     Athens shone literally after the 6th century when most Music played a leading role in two major Festivals of the city, the Great Panathenaic festival and Great Dionysia. Within these major festivals not only made big competitions but were developed and the most important musical and poetic genres of the era culminating course the Ancient Drama.
     Although the music was eminently festive character within both public and private festivities, crucial was the role of the sad moments of life and redeeming its integration into the daily hard – perhaps boring – hours of toil. In moments of joy and celebration, at banquets and gatherings and of course weddings – were intertwined with all private celebrations and “partner” in everyday life. A Piper eg accompanied the women to the kneading, the workers during the harvest and the harvest, the oarsmen and soldiers towards the battle. Inextricably tied to the Sport Music not only because the major sporting events had music competitions, but because the athlete both in his workouts and the fight needed the rhythm of the music to push him and inspires him

The Nine Muses from the Hellenic Mythology-Comology

Mosaics Revealed at Ancient Greek City of Zeugma in Turkey

mosaic 1
Archaeologists discovered three unique mosaics at the Ancient Greek city of Zeugma, in south Turkey, near the borders of Syria.

The ancient city of Zeugma was originally founded as a Greek settlement by Seleucus I Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, in 300 BC. The population of the city at its peak was approximately 80,000 inhabitants.

Zeugma is 80 percent underwater, after it was flooded with the waters of a nearby artificial lake.
The mosaics, which were recovered in excellent condition, belong to the 2nd century B.C.
mosaic 2
The first mosaic depicts the nine Muses in portraits. This mosaic was originally in a large room of a house that archaeologists have named “House of Muses.” In the center of the mosaic is Muse Calliope and she is surrounded by her sisters. According to ancient Greek poet Isiodos, Calliope was the greatest and finest of the nine Muses, the protector of Epic poetry and arts.
mosaic 3
The second mosaic depicts Ocean and Tithys. What is really striking about this mosaic is the wonderful and vivid colors used as well as the beauty of the heroes’ faces. Experts say that special glass mosaic pieces have been created for this mosaic alone.

Another, smaller in size mosaic, depicting a young man was also revealed and in very good condition.

Displaying zeugma3.jpgBildresultat för mosaic nine muses Turkey

https://www.google.se/search?q=mosaic+nine+muses+Turkey&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=qL-Ke7BS0jNBpM%253A%252C2NN7L5aeYl1WPM%252C_&usg=__-PzVvltT67UHztvQ7OsSZ7ORjWw%3D&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj1yq3sspXYAhVqMJoKHXI4CnIQ9QEIKTAA#imgrc=qL-Ke7BS0jNBpM:

Etymology of music terms

Etymologically speaking, the word derives from the greek word “μουσικός”, Mousikos, relative to theMuses,the figures of Greek and – some thousant years later – Latin mythology. The word refers to “technique”, which is also derived from the greek word “τέχνη” / techne. Originally the term did not indicate a particular art, but all the arts of the Muses, so it was referred to something that was “perfect”.

Music is like everything else that meets the desires and aspirations. The greek philosopher Plato,according to the derivation of the term from the greek word “μῶσθαι”, which means desire or “aspire to”, the term music derive from “muse”.

The common idea is that music is made up of sounds makes it difficult to understand because it is not always true that the sound “makes” music (what is music for someone may not be for others). To make the sound create music is necessary that those who perceive it, take satisfaction from it. This satisfaction can be physical or mental, real or fantastic.

“Apollo and the Muses.” Mosaic floor”, Archaeological Museum of Ancient Elis.

Tradition says:

Two Muses invented the theory and practice in learning. Three Muses invented the three musical tones Collider, medium and dim the three strings of Lyra, the three prosody acute, grave, circumflex and three parelilythota times, present tense, future tense three persons, three numbers, the triangle of stars and other triarithma . Four Muses invented the four dialects: Attica, Ionici, Dorici and Ahaici. Five Muses the five senses: sight, taste, smell, touch and hearing. Seven Muses invented the seven strings of the lyre, the seven Heavenly belts, the seven planets and the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet.

The Nine Muses from the Hellenic Mythology:

 1. Polyymnia (or Polymnia or Polyamnia). ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ (from: “πολύς + ύμνο” polys + hymn = long hymn) from long and hymn, praise because many people or the many and memory, because many mentions in history. He was the custodian of the divine hymns and hypocritical imitation, geometry, history, grammar etc. The painted faces to Heaven with a wreath of laurel and pearls on the head, white dress, with his lyre in her hands and the inscription Multi-mnias Mr. Myths.

ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ – ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ = 80 + 70 + 30 + 400 + 400 + 40 + 50 + 10 + 1 = 1081 => 10 + 8 + 1 = 19 => 1 + 9 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

 2. Urania – ΟΥΡΑΝΙΑ (from: oυρανός uranos= sky) was the custodian of the heavenly bodies and general astronomy discovered. According to tradition with Dionysus begat Hymenaeus and Apollo linen. Painted Urania crowned with stars and prometopidio, blue dress, in front of the tripod up had the celestial sphere and diabetes.

ΟΥΡΑΝΙΑ = 70 + 400 + 100 + 1 + 50 + 10 + 1 = 632 => 6 + 3 + 2 = 11 => 1 + 1 = 2

 3. Terpsichore – ΤΕΡΨΙΧΟΡΗ (from:τέρπω + χορός –terpo+choros = regale + dance, delights through dance, harp and education.), the Muse of Orchiseos.Named Terpsichore because eterpeto, thanks to dance. Perhaps by learning (pleasing listeners). Tradition says that she bore the Strymonikos Rhesos and Mars the Vistones or even with Achelous the Sirens. The Terpsichore painted laurel-crowned and prometopidio holding harp and dancing happy, while her feet barely touching the ground and with the inscription Terpsichore lyran.

Terpsichore – ΤΕΡΨΙΧΟΡΗ = 300 + 5 + 100 + 700 + 10 + 600 + 70 + 100 + 8 = 1893 => 1 + 8 + 9 + 3 = 21 => 2 + 2 = 3

 4. Melpomene – ΜΕΛΠΟΜΕΝΗ (from: μέλπω “melpo” (=μελωδώ + μένος = to create music + stubborness) was the custodian of Tragedy, because it invented, rhetoric and musical melody. Named Melpomene by word molttin because by this melpousin people all their goods. Melpomene with Acheloos, in a tradition born of Horns The painted wears tragedy mask, angry, laurel-crowned with a scepter, bat in hands and Melpomeni inscription Tragodian

Melpomene – ΜΕΛΠΟΜΕΝΗ = 40 + 5 + 30 + 80 + 70 + 40 + 5 + 50 + 8 = 328 => 3 + 2 + 8 = 13 => 1 + 3 = 4

 5. Thalia or ΘΑΛΕΙΑ – (Θάλεια)  was Superintendent of Comedy. Discover comedy, geometry, architecture and agriculture. He was the custodian and Symposia. The name Thalia = thallein plants, or in the Thalia (symposia) or

Thalleia – ΘΑΛΕΙΑ = 9 + 1 + 30 + 30 + 5 + 10 + 1 = 86 => 8 + 6 = 14 => 1 + 4 = 5

6) Calliope ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ (καλή + ωψ = ex: good + ops = this with the beautiful eyes), the muse of epic poetry (ex:οπτικό = optical). Calliope was the superior and more formal than the other sisters of the Muses. He accompanied the kings and their senior leaders to enforce the words of obedience and righteousness. Calliope was the custodian of the heroic poetry and rhetoric. He named Calliope because he had nice view, face. They were called and Kalliepeian because it was evretria poetry. She mated with Apollo and became the mother ofOrpheus. The Euterpe was the Muse of music. Painted Kalliopi new and nice, with flowers or ivy in the head, the right hand holding laurels and left two books, many times the Iliad and theOdyssey.

Calliope – ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ = 20 + 1 + 30 + 30 + 10 + 70 + 80 + 8 = 249 => 2 + 4 + 9 = 15 => 1 + 5 = 6

 7.Euterpe  ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ Ευτέρπη (from the prefix ευ = well, fair + τέρπω = regale ,discovered various musical instruments, lessons, and dialectics. Lessons delight people, but ” is Euterpe reasons of educated ‘. Efterpi with Struma gave birth Risso. The painted laurel-crowned playing flute or holding him. Beside her was musical instruments and texts, Eros and trees with singer cicadas (cicada).

 Euterpe -ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ= 5 + 400 + 300 + 5 + 100 + 80 + 8 = 898 => 8 + 9 + 8 = 25 => 2 + 5 = 7

 8. Clio – ΚΛΕΙΩ (from: κλέος= glory) the Muse of History (Cleopatra = the glory of father)Qleio (Q = Qoppa) discovered the History (and guitar). The story was called Cleo, because it refers to Kleos (belonging to the heroes of the past), we narrate the authors through books. According to tradition, the Clio accused because Venus fell in love with the ‘Adoni. Venus retaliated: He led the Pieros’s house and made her fall in love with him. The Clio by Pierre begat Hyacinth. With Magnes (father Pierre) begat Ialemo, the Hymenaeus and Flax. Painted Cleo laurel-crowned and purple garment. In her right hand was holding one tube and left a book that read Cleo history. At her feet was the box of history.

 Qleio – ΚΛΕΙΩ = 90 + 30 + 5 + 10 + 800 = 935 => 9 + 3 + 5 = 17 => 1 + 7 = 8

 9. Erato ΕΡΑΤΩ(from: έρως – eros = love), is the founder of Lyric and especially erotic poems, marriage (and of poetry, music and the dialectic). The name Erato by eresthai and the word love and lover. The painted seated, wearing a rosary (wreath of roses), with the lyre and the bow of love in the arms and the inscription Erato Psaltrian. Apollonius Rhodius begins the third chapter of Part Four of the Argonauts with: ” And now muse Erato, come to us and tell us how Jason brought the Golden Fleece from her love of Medea, because you graces the Cypriot Aphrodite brings the magic to unmarried girls. ”

Erato – ΕΡΑΤΩ = 5 + 100 + 1 + 300 + 800 = 1206 => 1 + 2 + 0 + 6 = 9

 = 5 + 100 + 1 + 300 + 800 = 1206 => 1 + 2 + 0 + 6 = 9

 Pausanias maintains that there were two generations of Muses, the first generation was three and were the daughters of Uranus and Gaia, and the second was nine were daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne.

The oldest Elikoniades Muses were:

Μνήμη – Mnimi =Memory •

Μελέτη – Meleti = study)

Αοιδή – Aidi = Singing

The poetic art need all three Muses, you need a combination of song, memory and study. Why to sing first needed memory, and after study (exercise).

Delphi worshiped three muses, the High, Middle and NEAT or nete, which have the same name as the three main strings of the lyre. According to Plutarch, however related to the three regions of the world, the region of the fixed stars, the region of the planets and yposelinia region.

The Muses are the source of inspiration for all mental activity and worshiped in many places with special prices and there Orphic Hymn of the Muses. [6] Plato in the Academy had an altar dedicated to the Muses, whereas Homer invokes the Muse Calliope like source of inspiration during the writing of the epic. The same is found in the works of Hesiod, but all great artists of antiquity. He has stayed until nowadays the term muse be often used to show that someone (usually one) inspires an artist, a creator.

 WHAT THE WORD ETYMOLOGY MEANS

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.

Let’s deal with the etymo words.

 

  1. an undeniable kinship relation to: ΜΕΤΟΠΗ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΚΥΚΛΩΨ, ΜΥΩΠΙΑ.
    ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ. (EUROPE, CYCLOPS, METOPI, EUROPE, MYOPIA, CALLIOPE).

  2. What is “Euphoriatric”?

    The word is made up the prefix “ευ” meaning “well”, the verb “phoro” (“φορω” = I carry..i.e: metaphoric etc) and “iatric” (“ιατρικη”=medical)

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We read of the “Works and Days” of Hesiod verses 168-201, where the poet mentions the mythological version of the genesis of “Iron genus” of people, the fifth in the order of creation. In this integrating and people of his time. And obviously in that we also belong, and since we are an unbroken continuity of that generation.

After enjoying the vivid Hesiodic narration from the original, but more than the most easily understood translations, we stand in certain words of the text, which in one way or another to survive until today, even if they look at first glance perhaps incomprehensible.

The isolated word is  “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” that perform as the “Pantepoptes”. Trace the aitiologisis of any translation: the evryopas (or evryops) is a composite ευρύς + όψ – (=word – wide + brave opening) . The first of these two words are easy to understand, which is why we focus on two:

the brave opening όψ

 – the flesh = όψ – genetivus: οπός=όψις, όρασις, οφθαλμός – opsis(=the view), orasis(=the up vision), ophthalmos (=the eye). Moving to a deeper investigation, we start from the root of the word is op- from which are also produced: op-O-p-s, opsomai (op-p-inbred), OMMA (op-ma), view (op -cis), eye (ori-chamber), hole (hole in the roof as a chimney, opening that enables that vision, and then each hole).

From these basic derivatives root -op find that rescued already aftousios words: view, eye, hole, spoiled the word OMMA> ommation> eye.

We now return to λέξις – LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, the Pantepoptes.

But then the associations recall to our memory a multitude of everyday words, such as: suspect – suspect – suspicious // Synopsis-efsynoptos-this-baked – autopsy – autopsy scout // – // katoptefsis on-optefo – Supervisors-Registry – on-baked – inhab-view – Flat-optron.

 

The word bore us directly refers to the “ROOTS” of the churches, which are among the long holes that let the beams of the roof, which was later covered with embossed plates, while concealing the edge of the beams were placed Triglyphs plates, but in between two holes (eyes) field. This second word but derived from a further Word root -op:

The ops of opos wherein extent of op- to op-.

the LEΞΙΣ –  Lexie this encounter eg in verse 158 C of the Iliad, where Homer, speaking of the beauty of Helen, says (Doric dialect): “αινώς αθανάτοισοι θεής εις ώπα έοικεν” – “Hainaus athanatoisoi theis at opa eoiken”(= ultimate immortal gods has same appearance)

From the LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) ops comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (=Europe = wide), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – stenopos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon= person, ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, which means “cytomegalovirus” as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “evryopa” we saw in the beginning.

 

In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.

And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the LEΞΙΣ-Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς = a(=γέρον=geron=elder ) + ωψ-ops  [=bud, up vision)] = one who suffers from πρεσβυωπία-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).

 

The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

 

Other finally myo derivative is myeo (= enter the sacraments, catechize, instruct, but murmured, secretly). And from this comes: myisis, mystic, mystery.

 

One of the nine Muses, who was distinguished for her beautiful voice, Named-hole as having Καλλι-όπη – “καλήν όπα” “Kalin opa”. Indeed, Calliope was considered the protector of the human voice products, such as rhetoric and, above all, the epic poetry. That is why the word brave opening οψ-ops (=φωνή-phoni=voice) differs from the assonance of brave opening οψ (= up vision) not only semantically but etymologically because produced by root (where epic = ratio), changing qualitatively in op- .

Agathocles = good + glory-Αγαθοκλής = αγαθός + κλέος (the owner good reputation)
Alexander-a αλέξω: απομακρύνω + ανήρ = ALEX: man + Remove the repeller men, the brave, etymologically means “push people (enemies)
Ariadne = Atoll: very+pure-πολύ + αγνή

 Aglaia Aglaia: bright, shiny- αγλαός
Alcmene = Alki: spurn + wrath: moon (αλκή + μήνη)

Αριστοτέλης (Aristoteles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from άριστος (aristos) “best” and τέλος (telos) “purpose, aim”. This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.
Anastasios = + per istimi: stand (ανα + ίστημι) ana+istimi
George = from the farmers (land + work) From: γεωργώ (γη or γαια-gaia+ έργον)
Dimitrios = H (Dorian type of Earth) + mother  Δη (δωρικός τύπος του Γη or γαια) + μήτηρ
Demosthenes = municipality + valence (people power) δήμος + σθένος-demos+sthenos
Diogenes = Zeus + genus (the begotten) Ζευς + γένος
Eleni = ELE: come upon, conquer (candle) ελέ
Irene=Peace-Ειρήνη = είρω- (I speak ) + νους nous-  = eiro (opt) + mind
Epaminondas = on + ameinon, progressive
Erato = Question: I love (the adorable)
Eteocles ETEC =: true glory + (having the true glory).

 Eugenia (from ευ + γένος=noble gens, or high home)again known word, the fair maiden + (cf. Gentle, kindness) but race here is the importance of the origin, so the original meaning would be not “polite” but “high home”
Evangelos = eu+advert (=bearing the good messages)
Evdokia = eu+ doko: I view
Evdoxia = eu+ Glory (having the good reputation)
Eftychios = eu + luck
Euphemia = eu + Fimios
Electra = Helector: the radiating sun (radiation from grace)
Thalleia = million thallium (I’m full)
Thucydides = + kydos God: glory (the praise God)
Jason = Iasis: treatment (the therapist)
Jocasta = + ion kazo: perk
Iphigenia = ifi: powerful + gignomai
Calliope = beauty + ops: bud
Cleopatra = + Patria glory (the glory of the fatherland) – Κλεοπάτρα = κλέος + πάτρη – kleos + patri
Laertes = people + weigh: Elected
Leonidas = people + one thing I know: I know (Λεωνίδας = λαός + οίδα) laos+oida
Lito = Stranded
Lysistrata = unfasten Army +
Cloud = mists: pour water
Xenophon = stranger + voices Ξενοφών = ξένος + φωνέω – xeno + phoneo

APOLLO – (ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ)

Archaeological Museum Olympias.Kentriki form of the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Apollo

Απόλλων

 God of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light,  knowledge, culture and ethics, who were fighting against each barbarism, anarchy and wickedness.

Apollo Belvedere, ca. 120–140 CE

Abode

Mount Olympus

Symbol

Lyrelaurel wreath, pythonraven, bow and arrows

Parents

Zeus and Leto

Siblings

Artemis

Children

AsclepiusTroilusAristaeusOrpheus

Apollo of the Belvedere.jpg

Temple of the Delians at Delos, dedicated to Apollo (478 BC). 19th-century pen-and-wash restoration.

As god of music, is shown playing the lyre. He was also the god of dance farm, containing songs and music.

     (Attic, Ionic and Homeric  Greek): ἈπόλλωνApollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); DoricἈπέλλωνApellōnArcadocypriotἈπείλωνApeilōnAeolicἌπλουνAplounLatinApollō)

APOLLO: The Great god of the Greek pantheon

 Απόλλωνας

Born of the god Zeus (Aplon in Thessalian dialect), with around 350 invocations, aliases and local cults, healer, soothsayer and solar (Φοίβος – “Phoebus”).(Probably was the inspiration for the god Plain in Etruscan mythology).Awhich appeals to the sunny, cloudless, ypsinefis, Allegory in air and sky) and θεομητρική  – theomitriki from: (θεος+μητηρ = godsmother) goddess Leto (that metaphor in starry night scene). The invocation “Delios” means of course not the only born on the island ofDelos, but God makes clear and visible everything, but he sees everything (Ora) (in ancient Eolic greek: “πανδερκές έχων φαεσίμβροτον όμμα”) – ” having total thunderlight (faesimvroton) power  OMMA” according to 34th Orphic Hymn, ie the god glance illuminates mortals and observe everything).

“The light, dark, east and west, the various weather phenomena create queries to people of antiquity and stimulated their imagination. In the image of the solar disk with rays people saw, through the imagination, a person with gold and blonde hair and ciliary wreath, and so created the sun god. The Sun is one who enlightens, he heats and the one who burns. The Sun, because of its position in the sky, could see everything and that’s why people in the difficult moments, they did rely on the testimony of. It is the pure god, the eye of justice, the supervisor and regulator of about … ”

Syracuse (Korinthian colony since 774 B-C, Sicily). Silver Tetradrachm 214-212 BC
Diameter 18 mm. Alpha Bank Numismatic Collection

According to tradition, when he was born only a few days left Delos and searched to find a suitable location to build the temple. He visited almost all Greece and when he arrived at the foot of Mount Parnassus, stayed in excited.
The location however belonged to the goddess Gaia and protected by her son, Python. Apollo using his bow and a lighted torch killed Python, got under the occupation of the area and then left with his sister Artemis to Sicyon, to atone for the murder. In part, the Hellenistic city near the market (the ancient Acropolis of Sikyon at these times), the so-called later “Phobos”, occupied by fear and fled to Crete.
The first priests of the temple were Cretan merchants who traveled from Knossos to Pylos, but God changed the course of the ship and anchored in the port of Krissa.
According to mythology, Apollo left Mount Olympus to atone for the murder and went to work as a servant to King Admetus of Pherae.
When Apollo exagnisthike returned to Delphi crowned with laurels of Tempe.
Slowly, like a god of light, which penetrates the darkness, Apollo was the god of prophecy. Always stating the truth, but does not reveal, and his answers were evasive, only points as Heraclitus said:
“The gentleman that owns Delphi, neither reveals the truth, nor hides, only gives signs”.
Known by many adjectives as Phoebus, litchi, Ageiefs, dolphins, etc., Celebrated more than any other god.As god of light that gives life, promoting health and well is human, celebrated in Thargelia (May, Athens),Dolphins (Athens),hyacinth (Sparta), Ekatomvaia, the sacrifice hundred oxen in Athens (the first month time Ekatomvaios, called the event). The celebrations, as a god of light, were all in the spring and summer.
Celebrated not only on the seventh day of the month (birthday), but also the first day of every month was sacred to him.
Apollo was the god of light, culture, ethics, who were fighting against each barbarism, anarchy and wickedness.
The god of purification, was very connected with the arts. As god of music, is presented always playing the lyre. He was also the god of dance farm, containing songs and music.

The Sun and chariot, metope from the Temple of Athena, Troy 4thcentury B.C.

 The chariot of ΗΛΙΟΣ – HELIOS  the sun & its – MANY CENTURIES LATER – copy:-“the chariot of ELIAS”

The ancient Greeks had devoted many festivals, such as Dili, the Pythian Games, the Karneia, the Dolphins, the hyacinth etc.

From the belief that the cause of all of the products is the Sun, whose light penetrates the hidden causes, the (according to the magical papyri collection Papyri Graecae Magicae) “telescope and the ruler world” god Phoebus Apollo is closely related to the functions of the so called destiny and the Fates, as God manteftis (Agnomantis, True, Dafnaios, divining Moiragetis, Loxias, front view, Tripodilalos). The oracular status of Apollo explained by the fact that the mousikoparagogos properties, as we shall see below, allowing complete visual clarity at different points of time motion, whose time traffic mainstay and genitor is the rate, part of the Triune (Rate , Melody, Harmony) that defines the music.

The god Apollo is associated by religious with the Youth and Beauty (because as the Sun emerges eternally new every morning and then the light of shows all over the earth and nice “THOMAS”. Related invocations of the Kourotrophos, Olviourgos, perfectness, Fanis, gladden) with Medicine and Therapeutics (because sunlight gives health, disinfects, and also increases the healthy and medicinal plants. Related invocations of Peonies, Alexikakos, Ipiocheir, MD), the music (because everything vibrates illuminated as part of the Universal Music) and every kind of artistic creation (chief of the Muses, God Musagete or Musagetes. Related invocations of the musician, guitar player, Musa

Sacred plants of the laurel, the sunflower, the juniper, the Myrica, sunflower and hyacinth. Daphne the nymph daughter of the river Peneus, who loved the great Greek god but without much success. So after warm invocation to Gaia transformed the namesake plant. Apollo than that found no response to erotic call in Daphne honored by the most famous sanctuary of plant. The Hyacinth is also a loved one for the god of the sun. Apollo fell in love with the prince of Sparta but also the god of the west wind, Zephyr. So while the two lovers, Apollo et Hyacinthus playing with a golden disc, the Zephyr blew and struck the fatal gorgeous new. Then Apollo by the blood of his lover made the Sanctuary of plant. Sacred symbols of the pointers, the Guitar and bow and arrow. Sacred animals the wolf, the hawk, the swan, the raven, the cock, the cicada, the dolphin and the ram. Sacred, devotional color of the gold. As the goddess Athena, sacred number is the Seven (ie the number of completeness, the spirit and the macrocosm).

Son of the Sun wanted the chariot of his father to lead. Phaethon the brainless! The horses do not obey! The Earth is in danger!

Bronze-Apollo-Head

Apollo belongs to the second generation of the Olympian gods

Zeus, the father of gods and men, dazzled by the beauty of Leto who came from the generation of the Titans and mated sex with her. The jealous Hera but indignant by the countless infidelities of her husband by mortal and goddesses and because he had the power to hurt her husband, opposed Leto and began not to let in any way to give birth.

In Vain Leto ran jaded throughout the land, trying plains, mountains and seas to lay her children; the whole earth refused to accept it because he was afraid the terrible revenge of Hera. Only a small floating island, the Ortygia (Quail Island) or star, agreed to give asylum in miserable Leto. This island was poor and barren, unable to graze in this sheep nor oxen, nor is it to bear fruit vines and other trees. That is why it feared the wrath of the goddess. Apollo to reward poor island just pegged the born forever with four columns on the seabed and gave him the name Delos (= Bright).
Nine whole days kept labor pains. Leto lying at the root of a palm tree, the only tree that existed on the island, vogkouse the pain and begged Hera to allow her to give birth to her children. Athena, Demeter, Aphrodite and other goddesses smaller ran to help Leto, but they could not do anything without the consent of Hera, who was holding up to Olympus Eileithyia, the goddess of successful births. Eventually, they sent the colorful Iris, the messenger of the gods, to ask Hera allow childbirth, giving her a necklace of exceptional beauty of Malama and amber, nine cubits, which was built in the workshop of the great craftsman of the gods, Hephaestus. This gift calmed the anger of Hera, who sent the Eileithyia Delos. Leto exhausted by unbearable pain of so many days knelt at the root of the palm and gave birth first to Artemis and Apollo soon. At the time of birth of the god holy swans flew over the island by seven circles, because it was the seventh day of the month.

Leto did not live to vyzaxei all newborn god. Once born, the Themis dripped into his mouth a few drops of nectar and ambrosia so little miracle happened: the baby began to grow sharply, napkins were torn and fell from his body. The goddesses dazzled by its beauty, admired the do walks on the island. Immediately Apollo ran over to Olympus for getting his blessing omnipotent father, but also to meet other gods. Jupiter he welcomed his son and offered him too many rich and beautiful gifts. Among them was a golden miter decorated with rubies and emeralds, which symbolized the power of God and had over carved scenes from the life of the Olympians. Also, Zeus gave him a lyre that Apollo loved her a lot and every time he was playing, his music charmed the gods and humans; in addition a Panorios ZEMENO chariot with seven pure white swans carrying God anywhere in the earth or sky wished. Immediately after Zeus ordered the Hours to pave table with nectar and ambrosia to welcome together the new god on Mount Olympus. Followed by high jinks until morning. Apollo played the lyre and danced the Graces, the Harmony, Hebe, Venus and Artemis; shortly broke into dance and Mercury with Mars.

But another tradition narrates that shortly after the birth of swans brought Apollo to their country which was in the Ocean shores, the Hyperboreans; there established the worship of the god that the celebrated incessantly. Apollo was the land of the Hyperboreans a year and returned to Greece midsummer. The whole nature celebrated by all means the return of the great god of feasts and songs; the crickets and nightingales sing and the water sources were more clearly.

The Nymphs and Fairies rivers and lakes danced whole days and nights in the mountains and the glades. Every year in Delphi celebrating this return with carnage, ie collective sacrifices hundred animals.

Delphi Apollo killed a fearsome dragon named Python and had ten hands and four eyes. The dragon who resembled huge lizard made many disasters in the region. Muddy the waters shaking sources and rivers, destroy crops devoured flocks and frightened Nymphs; especially when it was very furious, strangle and swallow the needy residents. In addition, this monster was chase ordered by Hera, Leto when looking place to give birth to her children. Apollo with the golden arrows that earned him Hephaestus killed Python and thus acquitted the local residents to remember the achievement of established in honor of the races who were called Pythian Games. Also they built an oracle, the oracle of Delphi where the Pythia sat there on the sacred tripod, chewing laurel leaves in a state of mania inserts reveal the ambiguous oracles of God. Since the oracle that once crossed the demigod Hercules to ask oracle.

But the Pythia refused to answer, so Hercules stole the sacred tripod and went to found elsewhere oracle. The Lohias (name Apollo for the ambiguous oracles) persecuted for a long time Hercules; when I arrived, fought nine whole days and nights continuously, all the earth rattled off their blows. Eventually, Zeus parted two opponents throwing a thunderbolt among them.

Apollo was a beautiful god, tall, with amazing stature, blue eyes and long blond curls. So he had numerous love affairs with Nymphs and mortals.

So loved the nymph Daphne, daughter of the river god Peneus in Thessaly. This was beautiful and asked her father many lads and well known heroes. Penaeus begged to marry to give him grandchildren. This however, head, did not listen the elder father, why prefer to hunt in the forests and to accompany the virgin Artemis. When once she met Apollo, dazzled by her beauty and wanted to make her his. The Bride has not responded to God’s love and fled to the mountain. Whole days and nights Phoebus (epithet of Apollo) the hunting among the bushes and holly, the shouting that it was a random groom but brilliant Apollo that honored gods and mortals. But the moment was about to reach the the Nymph begged her father to save her from the embrace of God. Then Pineios who pitied the daughter, transformed the homonymous tree, her legs were the roots of laurel, the body of the trunk, arms of the branches and leaves hair of the famous tree. Apollo inconsolable crying and hugged the tree after failing to mingle with the Bride as she was alive, he vowed that henceforth the laurel would be the sacred tree and he would always wore a laurel wreath.

His relationship with the goddess of Thessaly, the Nymph Cyrene, Apollo had a son named Aristaeus.

 Cyrene lived wildlife in the forests of Pindos and protected the flocks of her father. One day he attacked without weapons in a lion, fought him and won. Phoebus saw the achievement of and fell in love. Then abducted her with the golden chariot driving, flying over lands and seas, Libya; there in a golden palace mated with her.

And with the Muses Apollo had amorous adventures. They say thatThalia acquired their Korybantes demons belonging to the entourage ofDionysos, with Satyrs and other elves of the forest. By Urania became musicians Linus and Orpheus, who calmed the nature entire playing their lumen and tamed wild beasts. Also, Apollo is the father of Asclepius, god of medicine. They say the Flirty god mated with the crown jewel and her pregnant. But over time it waited child did infidelities to God by going with a mortal. When he learned that Apollo, angry by the attack, killed his unfaithful Koronis. But once her body was placed over the fire and was ready to burn, the vengeful god transformed into a vulture swooped and pulled from the bowels of the child, still alive.

At the same misfortune had and Marpissa, the princess of Aetolia. God loved the young lady, but stole the mortal Ida with a winged chariot donated Neptune and led to Messina. There, Ida and Apollo hit but separated them Jupiter. Marpissa had the right to choose between the two lovers. In vain god begged and gave promises of eternal loyalty and devotion. It chose the mortal Ida, from fear of that immortal and eternal new Apollo will give up to the old age, when they were leaving the beauty and freshness of youth.

But with Cassandra, daughter of Priam, love did not favor the god. Apollo loved Cassandra and to win it promised to teach her the art of divination. The young princess agreed, but when he learned well the art, abandoned the god. Others say that God eventually mated with Cassandra and gained her the Troilus.

Mainly in Greece they believed that Apollo was a lover of the local heroine Fthia, with whom he had three sons: Doros, Laodonta and Polipitis that killed their Aitolos. Colophon believed Apollo mated with Manto, the daughter of the blind seer Tiresias and his seed the great seer Law was born. In Crete, the amatory god loved Akalli, the daughter of Minos; fruit of their secret relationship was Miletus. The Akalli just gave birth, left newborn in the woods because she was afraid her father. Apollo made sure to live his son sending wolves to protect it and a she-wolf suckling him.

In Athens, the elfish god raped Creusa, the daughter of King Erechtheus. She just gave birth to the child in a wilderness. Apollo made sure to bring the baby to Delphi where the Pythia grew. This son of Apollo who so badly came to life named Ionas. Apollo said that he loved and young men. More important is the love of adventure with Hyacinth, a tremendously beautiful new. One day the two of them were playing with the disk awesome Zephyr (wind), because he was jealous god, swept away the disc that struck Hyacinth and killed him instantly. Phoebus inconsolable since the death of his friend and to make his name immortal, transformed him in the famous namesake flower.

Telling how Apollo twice had to get slave in mortal service. The first time was when, along with Poseidon, Hera and Athena wanted to take the power of Zeus and so I tried to tie him with huge iron chains and the hang in the sky. The conspiracy but failed and punishment of Apollo was to guard the flocks of King Laomedon of Troy, on the slopes of Mount Ida. Apollo and did so, once and could not even antimilisei to his father, the almighty Zeus. But soon passed one year, the Laomedontas refused to pay God for his service and drove home anyhow. When he protested, he threatened to cut off his ears and sell it like slave. Once Apollo rediscovered his divine power, he sent murderous plague in Troy that ravaged the country for six whole months. Women gave birth to dead children, decimated herds and crops dry up without giving fruit.

Apollo passed the test of shepherd and again. This was when Zeus thunder Asclepius, because he had progressed so much in medicine, so he succeeds in resurrecting the dead. Phoebus was wounded by the death of his son and to avenge marked with golden arrows over Olympus Cyclopes had built the thunder. Jupiter indignant anymore by the conduct of Apollo not joking at all; he wanted to imprison his son in oloskoteina and inhospitable Tartarus, in the bowels of Mother Gaia. But Leto asked him to lighten his sentence. Only then Zeus relented and ordered Apollo to enter the service of King Admetus. When Apollo came to Ferres Thessaly and presented to Admetus, that the sweetness of the form and the divine beauty of realized that was a god disguised as a mortal. He fell to his knees and offered him his throne. Apollo but explained that it was the will of Zeus to work in the service of and excited by good behavior and respect of Admetus, brought prosperity to the palace and throughout the country; all the cows gave birth to two calves at a time, the fields karpizan twice a year and more and more wealth concentrated in the hands of noble Admetus.

Our team took part in the Giants alongside his father Zeus. Also he participated in the Trojan war and was always on the side of the Trojans. Also contributed to the completion of the Argonauts helping Jason to reach the magical land of Aiiti.Dyo times took Apollo to use the shuttles in order to defend his mother, Leto. The first time was when the giant Tityus wished Leto and tried to rape her. The divine son acted lightning; killed by the arrows of the giant a bit before making the dishonest thinking. Some other time together with his sister Artemis killed her children Niobe, except two, when he boasted that he was happiest and luckiest of Leto who only had two children while she was fourteen. Apollo killed by the arrows of male children and Artemis her daughters. Zeus took pity on Niobe and transformed into rock still crying at the loss of her children.

Apollo was generally the god of music and poetry. So he presided over on Mount Helicon, the struggles of the Muses. Moreover, he was god and divination. They believed that inspires both seers and poets. Also was a god shepherd who loves with the Nymphs and young flowers were bound it with vegetation and nature. He was still a warrior god with golden bows and arrows could send away from his revenge.

The sacred animals dedicated to Apollo was the wolf and deer. From the birds the swan, the vulture and crow of their throws were taking oracles. Finally, from marine animals dolphin, whose name reminded Delphi, the main temple of Apollo. Laurel was the eminently sacred plant of the god.

Apollo was the personification of light and sun. He represented the arts, music and poetry, so much loved and cultivated by the ancient Greeks.

Orpheus was the son of Calliope and either Oeagrus or Apollo. He was the greatest musician and poet of Greek myth, whose songs could charm wild beasts and coax even rocks and trees into movement. He was one of the Argonauts, and when the Argo had to pass the island of the Sirens, it was Orpheus’ music which prevented the crew from being lured to destruction.

DSC00355 - Orfeo (epoca romana) - Foto G. Dall'Orto.jpg

 Orphic hymn to Apollo

Come, oh Makarios paean, who slew the Tityus, Phoebe Lykoreias, Memfiti, thou who timasai brilliant, everything Inf, the provider Eftychios. where you chrysin(=Golden) lyran and has relationship with the seeds, the patron saint of farmers, Pythias, Titan, the Gryneios. As Sminthefs, the murderer of python, everything Delphic, as soothsayer, wild, God who bring light, dear, what glorious new agreements where you are the leader of the Muses, the leader of the dance, the makrovolos, whatever archer what Gill and Didymefs, Sagittarius, everything Loxias, whatever pure, h retrieves Delos, where your eye, illuminating the people, sees everything, thou golden crown, where we have allocated net prophetic voices and oracles, hear my prayer for people with joyous heart; because you see all this vast ether and from the top you see the happy land and beneath the dark at night this time of quiet, who has eyes for the stars, you see the roots (foundations), and have the ends of the whole world (under your eyes), you take care about the beginning and the end, and do everything to thallium thou each pole mounted with the guitar, which has great sound of times while attending to the termini of the NEAT (the lowest string), once again to ypatin (the highest string = ypsilotatin chordin), other times compounded each pole in the design were Dorian (arrangement). Differentiate retained into life sexes combine with harmony the global fate of people (the Share the position of humans in the whole world); blended equally with both (and the neatin and the ypatin) in winter and summer, winter you made a distinction between areas Hypatia and summer with Tash NEAT and formed a nice Doric blossom beloved earos

Orpheus (left, with lyre) among the Thracians, from an Attic red-figure bell-krater (ca. 440 BC)

Orpheus playing the lyre, from a southern Italian Greek vase. 330 B.C. Canossa, Italy. Munich Antikensammlung. Photo: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.


When Orpheus’ wife, Eurydice, was killed by the bite of a serpent, he went down to the underworld to bring her back. His songs were so beautiful that Hades finally agreed to allow Eurydice to return to the world of the living. However, Orpheus had to meet one condition: he must not look back as he was conducting her to the surface. Just before the pair reached the upper world, Orpheus looked back, and Eurydice slipped back into the netherworld once again.

Orpheus was inconsolable at this second loss of his wife. He spurned the company of women and kept apart from ordinary human activities. A group of Ciconian Maenads, female devotees of Dionysus, came upon him one day as he sat singing beneath a tree. They attacked him, throwing rocks, branches, and anything else that came to hand. However, Orpheus’ music was so beautiful that it charmed even inanimate objects, and the missiles refused to strike him. Finally, the Maenads’ attacked him with their own hands, and tore him to pieces. Orpheus’ head floated down the river, still singing, and came to rest on the isle of Lesbos.

Orpheus was also reputed to be the founder of the Orphic religious cult.

Orpheus (/ˈɔrfiəs, ˈɔrfjuːs/GreekὈρφεύς) Traditionally, Orpheus was the son of a Muse (probably Calliope, the patron of epic poetry) and Oeagrus, a king of Thrace (other versions give Apollo). According to some legends, Apollo gave Orpheus his first lyre. Orpheus’s singing and playing were so beautiful that animals and even trees and rocks moved about him in dance.was a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, film, opera, music, and painting.

The serpent biting Eurydice 5.Charles Nanteuil 1792-1865: Eurydice mourante. Musée de Picardie, Amiens.

“We grant the man his wife to go with him, bought by his song; yet let our law restrict the gift, that, while he Tartarus quits, he shall not turn his gaze.” (Hades. Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy 3.42).

“Who can give lovers laws?” (Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy 3.47).

Orpheus, king of the Ciconians, is counted among the ARGONAUTS. Orpheus practised minstrelsy and by his songs moved stones and trees, holding also a spell over the wild beasts. He descended to theUnderworld in order to fetch his dead wife, but had to return without her.

Orpheus loses his wife

Orpheus, whom Apollo taught to play the lyre, traveled to Egypt where he increased his knowledge about the gods and their initiatory rites, bringing from that country most of his mystic ceremonies, orgiastic rites, and his extraordinary account of his descent to the Underworld. Orpheus became famous because of his poems and his songs, excelling everyone in the beauty of his verse and music. He also reached a high degree of influence because he was believed to have discovered mysteries, purification from sins, cures of diseases, and means of averting divine wrath. Some say that Orpheus introduced a cult ofDionysus 2 that was very similar to the cult of Osiris, and that of Isis, which resembles the cult ofDemeter. But others affirm that he praised all the gods except Dionysus 2. The Aeginetans worshipedHecate, and in her honor celebrated every year mystic rites which, they said, had been taught to them by Orpheus. And the Lacedaemonians asserted that it was Orpheus who had taught them the cult ofDemeter Chthonia (of the Lower World). Orpheus married Eurydice 5, but she, while strolling through the grass with a group of naiads, was smitten in the ankle by a serpent, which shot its poison into her body and killed her. Having mourned her to the full in the upper world, Orpheus decided to fetch her, and for that purpose he descended to Hades through the gate of Taenarus. Having descended to the Underworld, Orpheus accompanied his words with the music of the lyre, and it is told that not only the spirits wept but that also the ERINYES were wet with tears. He also entranced Persephone by his songs, and persuaded her to help him in his desire to bring back to life his dead wife. And so even Hades himself was persuaded to let her go.

Orpheus loses his wife again

However, the god promised to do so only if on the way up Orpheus would not turn round until he came to his own house. But thoughtless Orpheus forgot, and when he turned round and looked at his wife, she instantly slipped into the depths again. In this manner Orpheus lost her a second time.

Some read the story thus:

“To you this tale refers,
Who seek to lead your mind
Into the upper day;
For he who overcome should turn back his gaze
Towards the Tartarean cave,
Whatever excellence he takes with him
He loses when he looks on those below.”
(Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy 3.52).

Hades and Persephone listen to Orpheus’ song in the Underworld.
5132: H. W. Bissen, 1798-1868: Orpheus pleading with Pluto and Proserpina to restore Eurydice to him. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

Some have thought that through his descent to the Underworld, Orpheus performed a deed full of courage inspired by love.

Not willing to die

But others point out that Orpheus did not receive his wife back, because his attempt was the quest of a coward, who was not willing to die for her but entered the Underworld alive, and alive he left both Underworld and wife, who in that way died twice. And as they reason thus, they have in mind Alcestis, who was allowed to return from the Underworld for having willingly died for love of her husband.

Death of Orpheus

Some affirm that Orpheus was torn in pieces by the MAENADS, but others say that he committed suicide out of grief for the death of his wife. Still others assert that Orpheus came to his end by being struck by a thunderbolt, hurled at him by god because he revealed sayings in the mysteries to men who had not heard them before. Yet others say that because Orpheus first favored love for youths, he seemed to insult women, and for this reason the latter killed him.

Aphrodite, Calliope, Dionysus 2Apollo

Concerning the MAENADS or women who killed him, some say that when Aphrodite and Persephone were both in love with Adonis, Orpheus’ mother Calliope was then appointed judge by Zeus, and she decided that each should possess him half the year. Aphrodite then, angry at the decision, stirred all the women in Thrace with love, each to seek Orpheus for herself, so that they tore him limb from limb. But some affirm that these women were instigated by Dionysus 2, who was angry against Orpheus because he had looked into the rites of the god. His head fell into the sea and was cast by the waves upon the island of Lesbos where the Lesbians buried it, and for having done this the Lesbians have the reputation of being skilled in music. In the island of Lesbos, they say, Orpheus had a shrine where oracles were given until Apollo, the god of prophecy, rebuked him:

Orpheus losong his wife while leaving the Underworld. 5125: Orpheus and Eurydice. Painting from 1806 by C. G. Kratzenstein-Stub, 1793-1860. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

“Cease to meddle with my affairs, for I have already put up long enough with your vaticinations.” (Flavius Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.14).

Women and wine

It is also told that the Thracian women plotted Orpheus’ death, because he had persuaded their husbands to follow him in his wanderings, and that first after having drinking much wine, they dared to kill him. This is the reason why their husbands hereafter adopted the custom to march to battle drunk.

River remembered him

Some believe he was killed near Mount Pieria, and close to this place an urn was preserved, which was said to contain the bones of Orpheus. It is also told that when the women who killed Orpheus wished to wash off in a river the blood-stains, the river sank underground, not wishing to lend its waters to cleanse manslaughter.

Bones and nightingales

It is told that the city of Libethra had received an oracle concerning the bones of Orpheus, which stated that when the sun should see his bones the city would be destroyed by a boar. Nobody believed a boar able to cause such a huge destruction, but when one day by accident the urn fell and broke exposing the bones, that same night came a heavy rain, and the river Sys (Boar), one of the torrents about Olympus, destroyed the walls of Libethra, overturning sanctuaries and houses, and drowning the inhabitants and all the animals in the city.

The Thracians used to say that the nightingales that build their nests on the grave of Orpheus sing more sweetly than others.

Constellation Lyra

It has also been said that Orpheus’ scattered limbs were gathered by the MUSES, who buried them and put the Lyre among the constellations as a memorial.

Family

Parentage

Mates

Offspring

Notes

Oeagrus & Calliope

unknown & Pierus’ Daughter

Oeagrus is sometimes called son of Ares. Otherwise Charops 4 is mentioned as his father. Charops 4 is known for having warned Dionysus 2 of the plot of Lycurgus 1 against him. That is why Dionysus 2, having defeated the Thracians in a battle and killed Lycurgus 1, made Charops 5, out of gratitude for his help, king of Thrace, and instructed him in the secret initiatory rites. Later Oeagrus inherited both the throne and the initiatory rites.

Calliopeis one of the MUSES.

Pierus was king of Pella in Macedonia and son of Magnes 1, son of Aeolus 1 and a naiad. He was father of nine daughters who defied the MUSES in a contest of song being defeated by the goddesses. The MUSESthemselves are sometimes called Pierides.


Eurydice 5
Musaeus

The parentage of Eurydice 5 is unknown.

Other Eurydices: Eurydice 1 was the wife of the king of Nemea; Eurydice 2 was mother of Danae; Eurydice 3 is one of the DANAIDS; Eurydice 4 is a nereid; Eurydice 6was mother of the king of Troy, Laomedon 1; Eurydice 7 was married to Neleus, founder of Pylos; Eurydice 8 was Nestor‘s wife; Eurydice 9 was a daughter of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle; Eurydice 10 was married toAeneas; Eurydice 11 was mother of Alcmena; Eurydice 12 was married to Creon 2, regent of Thebes.

Musaeus, who some say was not son of Orpheus but of Antiophemus, also wrote songs and poems and uttered oracles, being trained by Apollo and the MUSES. It is said that he received from Boreas 1 (the North Wind) the gift of flight.

In seal found and dated around th 2nd century AD, appears engraved a crucified man. Resting on a V, having on top of the cross and the crescent above 7 stars appear as crosses. Knowing that time was expanding rapidly Christianity, this finding would not impress us. But what sets it apart is that it bears engraved words “Orphee VAKCHIKOS”(«ΟΡΦΕΥΣ ΒΑΚΧΙΚΟΣ»). Refers So the ancient Greek mystic Orpheus? Rather paradoxically, as the myth of Orpheus says no crucified, but disintegrated and massacred by angry Maenads.
In the first centuries of the emergence of Christianity, some Christian Gnostic currents have identified Christ with Orpheus. It was the similarity of the teachings and moral principles between Christianity and Orphism, which led to this identification. The Crucified Orpheus, perhaps reminding this similarity, uniting old and new symbols.
But interest is the relationship of names Βάκχος – Bacchus (or ‘Iacchos’) and Jesus: in Hebrew, Bacchus / Iacchos JEHSU, which is pronounced “Iesou”. To the Phoenicians and Kanaaites simply transferred as IHS, that for neutral or cationic Greeks, and directly across from the Jews “Jesus.”
V is displayed at the bottom of the cross and in which rests the crucified feet, perhaps associated with seven crosses / stars of the peak, which crowned him crucified. V is one of the ancient symbols of the divine feminine, evoking the womb that gives birth. The number 7 is associated with the Greek goddess Aphrodite, the Goddess of femininity, beauty and love. Interestingly, in Arabic numerals, the number seven is written as V.The Roman numeration, V is the number 5, it is also associated with Aphrodite and the namesake of the planet, which, as has been observed by astronomers of ancient times, with forms to swing a pentacle (5A) in the sky, over a period of 7 years.
The L in Arabic numerals is 8. The symbol  Λ (=L) is associated with the male principle, referring to the phallus that impregnates the matrix. The number 8 is also connected to the sulfur male element, the earth man with a balance therebetween, the regeneration, and hence with the Godman Christ.
Putting it on the V L, formed X, ie the lateral cross. In Roman numbering, X is 10 (number refers to the unit) and mathematics is the multiplication sign.
The crescent at the top of the cross, just above the head of the crucified, is another reference to ancient female deity, the Moon Goddess. Thus, the female element appears to frame the crucified man, supporting his feet and crowning his head …
How positioned his legs crossed on V,the size of the V and the placement of the stars on the top, it seems as if the whole performance springs (born) through the V and ends at 7 stars.
Another paradox of the show is the appearance of crucified man, because the crucifix is not displayed as a symbol of Christianity before the Middle Ages. That refers to the crucified Orpheus makes the symbol even more strange and enigmatic …

 

Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre by Gustave Moreau (1865)

Orpheus & Eurydike

Arion

Arion in sea steed, work of William-Adolf Bougkero (1855).

Lyric poet from Mithymna (Molivos) on Lesvos. The information we have about Arion is scarce and mainly come from the historian Herodotus. We do not even know the year of birth and death.

Arion left early from Lesvos and lived close to the tyrant of Corinth Periandros (625-585 BC). He was the best guitar player of his time and contributed to the evolution of the dithyramb, the chant of the Dionysian cult, which was the forerunner of tragedy. As a poet and composer wrote songs (dithyramb) and preambles (kitharodikous rules) of which were not saved nor a verse.

For his life is a story, which is more like a fairy tale and we bequeathed Herodotus. Once, Arion decided to travel to Sicily for a living. There, after the art of the gathered much money and riches, began the return trip with a Corinthian ship.

During the voyage the sailors decided to rob and to throw him overboard. Arion offered to give the money to save his life, but in vain. Then, he begged them to do one last favor. Let him sing before his death. The sailors were.

Arion, he wore well, he took his guitar in his hands, stood on the bow of the boat and sang the “standing law”, a hymn to the god Apollo. A dolphin was considered the sacred animal of Apollo took him on his back and pulled the Tenaro cape. From there, the Aryans went on foot in Corinth, stating the details in Periander. That after having verified what had recounted Arion ordered the arrest of the Corinthians, who meanwhile had returned to Corinth and ordered to be killed.

Sappho (/ˈsæf/; Attic Greek Σαπφώ[sapːʰɔ̌ː], Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω, Psappho[psápːʰɔː]) was a Greek lyric poet, born on the island of Lesbos. TheAlexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. Her birth was sometime between 630 and 612 BCE, and it is said that she died around 570 BCE, but little is known for certain about her life. The bulk of her poetry, which was well-known and greatly admired through much ofantiquity,has been lost; however, her immense reputation has endured through surviving fragments.

Sappho’s recently discovered poem on old age (lines 9–20), assigned to Book IV based on its meter. 3rd-century BC papyrus (P.Köln XI 429), from a 2007 exhibit of the Altes Museum

Bust inscribed, literally Sapfo Eresia, meaning Sappho ofEresos.Roman copy of a Greek original of the 5th century BC

Sappho. Fresco from Pompeii

Roman bust of Sappho found atSmyrna (Izmir), copied from a lost Hellenistic original (Istanbul Archaeological Museum)

Sappho on an Attic red-figure vase by the Brygos Painter, c. 470 BC.

Sappho reading to her companions on an Attic vase of c. 435 BC

The Greek language is not accidental … It was built on mathematics, and what few even know is that every word in ellinikiechei mathematical background. The letters in the Greek language is not sterile symbols. Upright, upside down with a special intonation, they were all of 1620 symbols that were used in Harmony (Music in Modern Greek). The most important is the property that each letter has a numerical value / value, each letter is a number, so by extension, and each word is a number.

This plundered cist tomb, built of limestone and situated at the edge of the Great Tumulus next to the ‘heroon’, was named Tomb of Persephone because of its painted ornamentation. Prominent among figures of the Fates and of Demeter seated on the “mirthless rock” is a depiction of the abduction of Persephone by the god of the underworld, Pluto.

The artistry of execution, strength of conception and restraint of colouring all denote an artist of great talent(perhaps Nikomachos = Battle winner from: Niki+ Machi) of the mid-4th century BC; this dating is supported by the sherds of pottery found in the interior of the tomb.

Hades abducting Persephone, a mural from the Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, mid 4th century BC

Greek Numbers and Arithmetic

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

Γράμμα

Αξία

Γράμμα

Αξία

Γράμμα

Αξία

Γράμμα

Αξία

Α´

1

Ι´

10

Ρ´

100

͵Α

1000

Β´

2

Κ´

20

Σ´

200

͵Β

2000

Γ´

3

Λ´

30

Τ´

300

͵Γ

3000

Δ´

4

Μ´

40

Υ´

400

͵Δ

4000

Ε´

5

Ν´

50

Φ´

500

͵Ε

5000

Ϛ´

6

Ξ´

60

Χ´

600

͵Ϛ

6000

Ζ´

7

Ο´

70

Ψ´

700

͵Z

7000

Η´

8

Π´

80

Ω´

800

͵H

8000

Θ´

9

Ϟ´

90

Ϡ´

900

͵Θ

9000

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for “5″, “10″, “100″, “1000″, and “10,000″. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss.

The (Ionian) Greek system of enumeration was a little more sophisticated than the Egyptian though it was non-positional. Like the Attic and Egyptian systems it was also decimal. Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception.

A vast knowledge locked-coded into words because of mathematical values they have. One of the pioneers on the matter was maximum Pythagoras.

The numbers, shapes, harmony and the stars have something in common, so respectively mathematics (numbers) geometry (shape), harmony (music) and astro-nomy (one star = a-choris- bracket + natural nomoipou govern ) were sisters sciences by Pythagoras, which in this series we discussed was the ladder to development (= ex -tou- helix, DNA) of mind-soul to the Creator.

A Creator who created based on these four disciplines. 27 symbols-figures in numerical value make up the Greek Alphabet, 3 groups of 9 numbers-symbols each group, totaling each group 45, 450, 4,500.
ALPHA = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

To be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of words of ancient Greek tongue should first know a little about the actual Greek language.

The ancient Greek language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that will try to approach.

The beginning of everything is the same as the Greek alphabet (which of course we did not get it from someone else as we shall see, because factually not possible). The letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole was 33 and as many vertebrae, the last five vertebrae (playing the role of the antenna) directly related to the brain and corresponding to the last 5 ineffable letters which only the priests knew * one of them It was the right (or Gammadion) which in Latin became swstika and the Nazis stole and name Swastika. This symbol is the life-giving Sun (Apollo), the Nazis reversed it to symbolize the opposite of life-giving Sun, ie dark death.

There were also some letters which over time abolished as Digamma (F), Qoppa (Q), stigma (S ‘), Saba (ϡ)
Pythagoras inform us about the 3 levels of Greek language which are:

963
1. Talking
2. Signifier (a. Signal b. Signified)
3. caches (a. Time b. Vibration c. Lexarithmos d. Tonarithmos)
-The First is the speech
-The Second is the relationship between the mark and the signified that we will analyze below
-The Third is the interval (distance & time), vibration (which awakens the brain through resonance frequencies of the pulses dimiourgithentes – Pallas Athena) the lexarithmos (relation of letters and words with numbers) and tonarithmos (relation of letters and words of tunes )

Each letter corresponding to a number, and a musical tone so letter = number = tone (musician), which shows that in our language behind letters-words are numbers (lexarithmoi) and musical sounds (tonarithmoi).

The four sisters sciences by Pythagoras were:
1. Numbers (mathematics)
2. Shapes (Geometry)
3. Music (Harmony)
4. Astronomy

The sciences are interrelated and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.

1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony), shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
2.The Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.

The enormous importance of music for the Pythagoreans

 <<<<<<<<PYTHAGORAS AND MUSIC>>>>>>>
                                                                                                            
So it said that Pythagoras, and practice once, with the help spondiakou State played a piper, extinguished the rage of an intoxicated young Tafromenitou, who during the night attacked with loud voices against his mistress at the door of his rival by drawing to set fire to the house. And so, being in a tizzy and he is steady due to the Phrygian melody lumen. This passion has rapidly healed Pythagoras, who happened at that moment, at an inappropriate time, to deal with the laws governing the stars. Then said the piper to turn the Phrygian melody spondaic, with which the young man, having calmed down, returned immediately and decency in his house, and just now not only tolerated by Pythagoras or admonition, but with fury and insults He had refused to meet him.


That is not the Alphabet is copied from elsewhere seen in that in the year 2300 BC (Studies of Tziropoulou other and not 800 BC) by Homer already at the disposal of 6,500,000 primary words (first person singular present tense &) which if you multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.
The Greek language is the only one that can be used for H / Y due mathimatikotitas and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS: Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc etc if now these words the English translation is completely unrelated.

If we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth the year 100,000 BC; 500,000 BC; who knows …
But the ultimate proof is the same of the mathimatikotita, which does not exist in any other language of the world. Do not even forget that the Creator uses math to create, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1).

But before the “crypt” is the “Signifier”, ie the connection of words with meanings. He said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that such and such a subject would call it “X”, which makes the languages sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.

How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? let alone the multiple aspects of this? It can not be So why all started here. It means therefore is connecting the signal to the signified, that the word itself is generated in such a manner that describes the meaning esokleinei instruments.

Example: The naming of the word curry (Walnut), as we read in thesecretrealtruth, from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with ker.ata their sounds “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name of the State or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.

The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe respective concepts which come from the observation of nature ie of Creation so by extension of the same Creator, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers, yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones into their hide Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?

Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “wisdom Authority names visitation”

De Groot (Netherlands Homeric texts professor at the University of Montreal)

“The Greek language has continuity and teaches to be ownerless and got a glory, that an opinion. In this language there is no orthodoxy. So even if the education system wants people law-abiding – a mold – the spirit of ancient texts and language in learning to be a boss. “
James Joyce (Famous Irish author, 1882-1941)

“Almost afraid to touch the Odyssey, the oppressive beauty is unbearable.”
The great French writer Jacques Lakarrier said:

“In Greek there is a vertigo of words, because only she explored, recorded and analyzed the innermost processes of speech and language, more than any other language.”
The great French enlightener Voltaire had said

“May the Greek language to become common all peoples.”
The French professor at the Sorbonne said Charles Foriel

“The Greek has homogeneity as the German, but richer than that. He has the clarity of the French, but it has greater precision. It is more flexible than the Italian and much more harmonious than the Spanish. Is that what it takes to be considered the most beautiful language of Europe. “
Marianna McDonald, professor of the University of California and Head of TLG said

“Knowledge of Greek is essential foundation of high cultural cultivation.”
The blind American writer Helen Keller had told

“If the violin is the most perfect musical instrument, the Greek language is the violin of human thought.”
John Goethe (The greatest poet of Germany, 1749-1832)

“I listened to St. Peter’s in Rome the Gospel in all languages. The Greek resonated star glowing in the night. “
Dialogue of Goethe with his disciples:

-Daskale What to read to become wise as you?

-the Greek classics.

-And When we finish the Greek classics what to read?

-Old Greek classics.
George Bernard Shaw (Great Irish playwright, 1856-1950)

“If the library of your home you do not have the works of ancient Greek authors, then you live in a house without light.”
Mark Tillios Cicero (the foremost man of ancient Rome, 106-43 BC)

“If the gods speak, then certainly use the language of the Greeks.”
Humphrey Kitty (English professor at the University of Bristol, 1968)

“It’s the nature of the Greek language is clean, precise and complex. The ambiguity and lack of direct enoraseos featuring sometimes English and German, is completely foreign to the Greek language. “
Irina Kovaleva (Modern Russian professor at the University Lomonosov, 1995)

“The Greek language is beautiful like heaven to the stars.”
RH Robins (Contemporary English linguist, professor at the University of London)

“Of course not only in linguistics where Greeks were pioneers in Europe. Overall Europe’s spiritual life goes back to the work of Greek thinkers.

Even today we return unceasingly in Greek heritage to find stimulation and encouragement. “
Frederick Sagkredo (Basque linguistics professor – Chairman of the Greek Academy of Vaskonias)

“The Greek language is the best legacy that has been available to the man on the evolution of the brain. Against all Greek and insist all languages are inadequate. “

“The ancient Greek language should become the second language of all Europeans, especially the cultured people.”

“The Greek language is of divine essence.”
Heinrich Schliemann (Renowned amateur archaeologist, 1822-1890)

“Everything I wanted passionately to learn Greek. I did not do it because I was afraid that the deep charm of this magnificent language would absorb so much that would have removed my other activities. “(The Schliemann spoke 18 languages seamlessly. For two years did nothing other than the studying 2 poems of Homer).
Ibn Khaldoun (Largest Arab historian)

“Where is the secretariat of the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians? All mankind has inherited the secretariat of the Greeks alone. “
Will Durant (American historian and philosopher, professor at the University of Columbia)

“Our alphabet came from Greece by Kimi and Rome. Our language is littered Greek words. Our science esfyrilatise Mian international language by the Greek terms. Our grammar and our rhetoric, even the punctuation and the division areas paragraphs … is Greek inventions. Our genres are Greeks – the lyric, the ode, the romance, the novel, the essay, the prosfonisis, biography, history and above all the vision. And almost all of these words are Greek. “
Jacqueline de Romigy (Modern French Academician and author)

“Ancient Greece offers us a language, which will say that it is universal.”

“Everyone needs to learn Greek, because the Greek language helps us first of all to understand our own language.”
Bruno Snell (Distinguished Professor at the University of Hamburg)

“The Greek language is the past of the Europeans.”
Frangkiskos Ligkora (Modern Italian university professor and president of the International Academy for the dissemination of culture)

“Greeks can be proud to speak the Greek language alive and the mother of all other languages. Do not neglect, since this is one of the few goods we have left and also your passport to the world civilization. “
The. Vantrouska (Professor of Linguistics at the University of Vienna)

“For a Japanese or Turkish, all European languages are not seen as separate but as dialects of one and the same language, Greek.”
Peter Jones (PhD – Professor at Oxford University who drafted lessons of ancient Greek WITH readership, for publication in the newspaper «DailyTelegraph»)

The Greeks of Athens in the 5th and 4th century had reached the language to the point that with her to explore ideas such as democracy and the origins of the universe, concepts such as sulfur and law. It is a wonderful and great language. “
Gilbert Murray (Professor, University of Oxford)

“The Greek is the perfect language. Often one finds that a thought can be expressed with ease and grace in Greek, and becomes difficult and severe in Latin, English, French or German. It is the perfect language, because it expresses the thoughts most perfect people. “
Max Von Laye (Nobel Prize in Physics)

“I Graces in divine providence, because it pleased to teach ancient Greek, who helped me to penetrate deeper into the meaning of science.”
E, Norden (the great German philologist)

“In addition to Chinese and Japanese, all other languages were formed under the influence of Greek, from which they took, besides many words, rules and grammar.”
Martin Heidegger (German philosopher, of the main representatives of existentialism in the 20th century)

“The ancient Greek language belongs to the standards through which showcase the spiritual forces of creative genius, because with respect to the possibilities provided in thought, is the most powerful and yet the most witty of all languages of the world.”
David Crystal (Aka English professor, author of the Encyclopedia of Cambridge for the English)

“It’s amazing to see how much more we rely on the Greek, to talk about entities and events at the heart of modern life.”
Michael Ventris (The man who deciphered the Linear B)

“The ancient Greek language was and is higher all the old and new languages.”
R.H. Robins (Linguist and author)

“The Greek triumph in the spiritual culture is that gave so much to so many sectors […]. Their achievements in the field of linguistics which was extremely strong, ie the theory of grammar and grammatical description of the language is strong enough to merit and to withstand criticism. Also be such as to inspire gratitude and our admiration. “
Luis José Navarro (Deputy to the educational program “Evroklassika” of the EU)

“The Greek language for me is like cosmogony. It is not just a language … “
Juan Jose Puhana Arza (Basque Hellenist and politician)

“We must proclaim that there has been in the world a language which can be compared to the classical Greek.”
D’Eichtal (French author)

“The Greek language is a language which has all the features, all the conditions of an international tongue … touches these same beginnings of civilization … which not only there was no stranger to none of the major events of the human spirit, religion, in politics, in literature, the arts, the sciences, but was also the first tool – to scan all these – so to speak, the womb … Language logic while euphonic, among all the other … “
Theodore F. Brunner (TLG founder and director until 1997)

“Anyone who wonder why so many millions of dollars spent on the hoarding of Greek words, we reply: But this is the language of our ancestors and contact with them will improve our culture.”
Jacques Lang (French Ministry of Education)

“I would like to see to learn Ancient Greek, with the same zeal that we demonstrate, and Greek schools.”
In his work “A Brief History of the Greek Language” by the famous linguist A.. Meillet, supported strongly the superiority of Greek over other languages.

WHAT THE WORD ETYMOLOGY MEANS

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.

Let’s deal with the etymo words.

  1. an undeniable kinship relation to: ΜΕΤΟΠΗ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΚΥΚΛΩΨ, ΜΥΩΠΙΑ.
    ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ. (EUROPE, CYCLOPS, METOPI, EUROPE, MYOPIA, CALLIOPE)

We read of the “Works and Days” of Hesiod verses 168-201, where the poet mentions the mythological version of the genesis of “Iron genus” of people, the fifth in the order of creation. In this integrating and people of his time. And obviously in that we also belong, and since we are an unbroken continuity of that generation.

After enjoying the vivid Hesiodic narration from the original, but more than the most easily understood translations, we stand in certain words of the text, which in one way or another to survive until today, even if they look at first glance perhaps incomprehensible.

The isolated word is  “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” that perform as the “Pantepoptes”. Trace the aitiologisis of any translation: the evryopas (or evryops) is a composite ευρύς + όψ – (=word – wide + brave opening) . The first of these two words are easy to understand, which is why we focus on two:

the brave opening όψ

 – the flesh = όψ – genetivus: οπός=όψις, όρασις, οφθαλμός – opsis(=the view), orasis(=the up vision), ophthalmos (=the eye). Moving to a deeper investigation, we start from the root of the word is op- from which are also produced: op-O-p-s, opsomai (op-p-inbred), OMMA (op-ma), view (op -cis), eye (ori-chamber), hole (hole in the roof as a chimney, opening that enables that vision, and then each hole).

From these basic derivatives root -op find that rescued already aftousios words: view, eye, hole, spoiled the word OMMA> ommation> eye.

We now return to λέξις – LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, the Pantepoptes.

But then the associations recall to our memory a multitude of everyday words, such as: suspect – suspect – suspicious // Synopsis-efsynoptos-this-baked – autopsy – autopsy scout // – // katoptefsis on-optefo – Supervisors-Registry – on-baked – inhab-view – Flat-optron.

The word bore us directly refers to the “ROOTS” of the churches, which are among the long holes that let the beams of the roof, which was later covered with embossed plates, while concealing the edge of the beams were placed Triglyphs plates, but in between two holes (eyes) field. This second word but derived from a further Word root -op:

The ops of opos wherein extent of op- to op-.

the LEΞΙΣ –  Lexie this encounter eg in verse 158 C of the Iliad, where Homer, speaking of the beauty of Helen, says (Doric dialect): “αινώς αθανάτοισοι θεής εις ώπα έοικεν” – “Hainaus athanatoisoi theis at opa eoiken”(= ultimate immortal gods has same appearance)

From the LEΞΙΣ – Lexie(=Word) ops comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (=Europe = wide), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – stenopos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon= person, ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, which means “cytomegalovirus” as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “evryopa” we saw in the beginning.

 

In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.

And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the LEΞΙΣ-Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς = a(=γέρον=geron=elder ) + ωψ-ops  [=bud, up vision)] = one who suffers from πρεσβυωπία-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).

The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

Other finally myo derivative is myeo (= enter the sacraments, catechize, instruct, but murmured, secretly). And from this comes: myisis, mystic, mystery.

One of the nine Muses, who was distinguished for her beautiful voice, Named-hole as having Καλλι-όπη – “καλήν όπα” “Kalin opa”. Indeed, Calliope was considered the protector of the human voice products, such as rhetoric and, above all, the epic poetry. That is why the word brave opening οψ-ops (=φωνή-phoni=voice) differs from the assonance of brave opening οψ (= up vision) not only semantically but etymologically because produced by root (where epic = ratio), changing qualitatively in op- .

Agathocles = good + glory-Αγαθοκλής = αγαθός + κλέος (the owner good reputation)
Alexander-a αλέξω: απομακρύνω + ανήρ = ALEX: man + Remove the repeller men, the brave, etymologically means “push people (enemies)
Ariadne = Atoll: very+pure-πολύ + αγνή

 Aglaia Aglaia: bright, shiny- αγλαός
Alcmene = Alki: spurn + wrath: moon (αλκή + μήνη)

Αριστοτέλης (Aristoteles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from άριστος (aristos) “best” and τέλος (telos) “purpose, aim”. This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.
Anastasios = + per istimi: stand (ανα + ίστημι) ana+istimi
George = from the farmers (land + work) From: γεωργώ (γη or γαια-gaia+ έργον)
Dimitrios = H (Dorian type of Earth) + mother  Δη (δωρικός τύπος του Γη or γαια) + μήτηρ
Demosthenes = municipality + valence (people power) δήμος + σθένος-demos+sthenos
Diogenes = Zeus + genus (the begotten) Ζευς + γένος
Eleni = ELE: come upon, conquer (candle) ελέ
Irene=Peace-Ειρήνη = είρω- (I speak ) + νους nous-  = eiro (opt) + mind
Epaminondas = on + ameinon, progressive
Erato = Question: I love (the adorable)
Eteocles ETEC =: true glory + (having the true glory).
Evangelos = ef + advert (bearing the good messages)
Evdokia = ef + doko: I view
Evdoxia = ef + Glory (having the good reputation)
Eftychios = ef + luck
Euphemia = ef + Fimios
Electra = Helector: the radiating sun (radiation from grace)
Thalleia = million thallium (I’m full)
Thucydides = + kydos God: glory (the praise God)
Jason = Iasis: treatment (the therapist)
Jocasta = + ion kazo: perk
Iphigenia = ifi: powerful + gignomai
Calliope = beauty + ops: bud
Cleopatra = + Patria glory (the glory of the fatherland) – Κλεοπάτρα = κλέος + πάτρη – kleos + patri
Laertes = people + weigh: Elected
Leonidas = people + one thing I know: I know (Λεωνίδας = λαός + οίδα) laos+oida
Lito = Stranded
Lysistrata = unfasten Army +
Cloud = mists: pour water
Xenophon = stranger + voices Ξενοφών = ξένος + φωνέω – xeno + phoneo


 Ulysses

In Greek mythology Champs Elyseesare part of Hades. It is the final destination of the soul of heroes and virtuous. The Champs Elysees prevails eternally spring and sources of Lethe gush nectar that makes souls to forget all earthly tears and hardships. There lies in the legend Menelaus and Helen, and Cadmus and other Thebans heroes. Under the shadow Myrties practice in riding and arena or playing dice and music. Minos, brother Rhadamanthus reigns on the plain of arrival, where they had brought the sleeper Saturn that being intoxicated by drinking honey, was captured and tied by Zeus. According to the Orphic, Saturn reigned there having queen Rhea. References to the Champs Elysees in Ancient Secretariat until -4o century is rare. In Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) appear only two: There is one in the Odyssey (Odyssey 4.556) and a mention of Aristotle in that passage of Homer: Odyssey:


Oedipus = ydis + foot (the owner swollen feet) Οιδίπους = ύδης + πους – ydis + pus
Olympus = ex shine from: Όλυμπος =  λάμπω – lambo
Pausanias = ex cease
Pericles = on + glory (glorious) (Περικλής = περί + κλέος)
Penelope = pini: woof + lepo: uncoil – Πηνελόπη = πήνη + λέπω – pini + lepo
Poseidon = Drink: River + eido: I am responsible – Ποσειδών = πόσις: ποταμός + είδω – potamos + ido
Prometheus = pre + mithos: attention (the prudent) – Προμηθέας = προ + μήθος
Rea = ex Raos (ready) – Ρέα = from:ράο – rao
Socrates save + state =
Telemachus = Tele+machi = fight away – Τηλέμαχος = τήλε + μάχομαι Ex: Andromache (= battle against man), – one of the doughters of Priamus of Troja or Ilion. Ex Telepathy, etc.
Phoebus = faos: bright – Φοίβος = φάος-phaos
Christopher + = Christ fetch – Χριστόφορος = Χριστός + φέρω -christos + fero..Ex Metaphoric, periphoric etc.

Equally great interest and various names sites.
Asia = ase: surfeit (wealthy country) or by program (large area)
Attic = Atta: attaiki (very old)
Achaean = a (purpose.) + Earth = native
Europe = + broad ops (ευρύς + ωψ – eurys + ops-genetivus: optikou etc) = large eyed
Evrotas = ef + roos
Thessaly = position + als: sea (Θεσσαλία = θέσις + αλς:θάλασσα)
Thrace = from:Θράκη = θράσσω-THRASSOU= destroy
Kallirroi well = + flow (Καλλιρρόη = καλώς + ρέω)
Laconian = la (purpose.) + Akeon==oligomilitos=short speaking one) Λάκων = λα + ακέων
Macedon = makednos: high, long Μακεδών = μακεδνός
Salamina als = (rpm) + Minion: small (located near the shore)
Slav = tumult + vao (Wajda) Σλάβος = σάλος + βάω (βαίνω)
Sparta = sow
The etymology of the word Anthropos=Man by Socrates (Η ετυμολογία της λέξης Άνθρωπος κατα τον Σωκράτη)

The Greek language is the only conceptual language of the land, ie the only language in which the signifier (name) contains absolutely no misunderstanding and the signified (meaning). That today are given by each of lexin Greek colloquial various interpretations, that’s evidence had the loss of wisdom, which is inherent in our language, by current users of this, ie from us today Greeks.

But on this issue, there is a real treasure of the Greek Secretariat, which should all Greeks to study him.It is the Platonic dialogue “KRATYLOS”, which refers precisely to the history, philosophy and etymology of the Greek language names. Especially those possessed by Etymologicum our language estrus, we will be necessary to carefully read this dialogue.

Etymology

WHAT THE WORD ETYMOLOGY MEANS

The word “etymology” is found in the ancient Greek language as etymology (ἐτυμολογία) from: ἔτυμον + -λογία, = ‘study’  the word ratio, or the true meaning. The Greek poet Pindaros (522 B.C.) employed creative etymologies to flatter his sponsors. Plutarch employed etymologies that were based on vague similarities fantastic sounds. The work of Isidore of Seville Etymologiae was an encyclopedic detect “first concepts” that remained uncritically in use in Europe until the 16th century. But the Etymologicum genuinum is a grammatical encyclopedia edited in Constantinople in the 9th AD century, a project among many similar in Byzantium. The Legenda Aurea 14th century begins the narration of the life of each saint with an imaginative reference to the form of etymology.

This is moreover one in which meets the concept of the word “etymos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία”  – “etymology” –  “ετυμολογικό = etymological”), which go be said: True, real.

Let’s deal with the etymo words.

  1. An undeniable kinship relation to: ΜΕΤΟΠΗ, ΕΥΡΩΠΗ, ΚΥΚΛΩΨ, ΜΥΩΠΙΑ, ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ. (EUROPE, CYCLOPS, METOPI, EUROPE, MYOPIA, CALLIOPE)

  2. The Brave opening: όψ (Ops) – the flesh = όψ – genetivus: οπός=όψις, – opsis(=the view or optic), orasis(=the up vision), όρασις, οφθαλμός (ophthalmos =the eye..ex: Ophalmiatros=eyehealer or doctor)). Moving to a deeper investigation, we start from the root of the word is op- from which are also produced: op-O-p-s, opsomai (op-p-inbred), OMMA (op-ma), view (op -cis), eye (ori-chamber), hole (hole in the roof as a chimney, opening that enables that vision, and then each hole).From these basic derivatives root -op find that rescued already aftousios words: view, eye, hole, spoiled the word OMMA- ommation – eye.

  3. The isolated word is  “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, that perform as the “Pantepoptes”(=Total controlers)..

  4. ..THEN one knows..What the word ΕΥΡΩΠΗ (EUROPE)Europa …means…Here:Europa being abducted by Zeus disguised as a bull, detail from an Attic (Attica was – & still is the county of Athens) krater(, 5th century; in the Tarquinia National Museum

  5. From LEΞΙΣ –  ops comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (=Europe = wide), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – stenopos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon= person, ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

  6. Trace the aitiologisis (=reason) of any translation: the evryopas (or evryops) is a composite ευρύς + όψ – (=word – wide + brave opening) . The first of these two words are easy to understand, which is why we focus on two: We read of the “Works and Days” of Hesiod verses 168-201, where the poet mentions the mythological version of the genesis of “Iron genus” of people, the fifth in the order of creation. In this integrating and people of his time. And obviously in that we also belong, and since we are an unbroken continuity of that generation.

  7. In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.

    And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the LEΞΙΣ-Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς = a(=γέρον=geron=elder ) + ωψ-ops  [=bud, up vision)] = one who suffers from πρεσβυωπία-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).

After enjoying the vivid Hesiodic narration from the original, but more than the most easily understood translations, we stand in certain words of the text, which in one way or another to survive until today, even if they look at first glance perhaps incomprehensible.

But then the associations recall to our memory a multitude of everyday words, such as: suspect – suspect – suspicious // Synopsis-efsynoptos-this-baked – autopsy – autopsy scout // – // katoptefsis on-optefo – Supervisors-Registry – on-baked – inhab-view – Flat-optron.

The word bore us directly refers to the “ROOTS” of the churches, which are among the long holes that let the beams of the roof, which was later covered with embossed plates, while concealing the edge of the beams were placed Triglyphs plates, but in between two holes (eyes) field.

The ops of opos wherein extent of op- to op-.

the LEΞΙΣ –  Lexie this encounter eg in verse 158 C of the Iliad, where Homer, speaking of the beauty of Helen, says (Doric dialect): “αινώς αθανάτοισοι θεής εις ώπα έοικεν” – “Hainaus athanatoisoi theis at opa eoiken”(= ultimate immortal gods has same appearance)

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, which means “cytomegalovirus” as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “evryopa” we saw in the beginning.

 The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

Other finally myo derivative is myeo (= enter the sacraments, catechize, instruct, but murmured, secretly). And from this comes: myisis, mystic, mystery.

One of the nine Muses, who was distinguished for her beautiful voice, Named-hole as having Καλλι-όπη – “καλήν όπα” “Kalin opa”. Indeed, Calliope was considered the protector of the human voice products, such as rhetoric and, above all, the epic poetry. That is why the word brave opening οψ-ops (=φωνή-phoni=voice) differs from the assonance of brave opening οψ (= up vision) not only semantically but etymologically because produced by root (where epic = ratio), changing qualitatively in op-

Guide to words translation.

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

Α´

1

Ι´

10

Ρ´

100

͵Α

1000

Β´

2

Κ´

20

Σ´

200

͵Β

2000

Γ´

3

Λ´

30

Τ´

300

͵Γ

3000

Δ´

4

Μ´

40

Υ´

400

͵Δ

4000

Ε´

5

Ν´

50

Φ´

500

͵Ε

5000

Ϛ´

6

Ξ´

60

Χ´

600

͵Ϛ

6000

Ζ´

7

Ο´

70

Ψ´

700

͵Z

7000

Η´

8

Π´

80

Ω´

800

͵H

8000

Θ´

9

Ϟ´

90

Ϡ´

900

͵Θ

9000

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for “5″, “10″, “100″, “1000″, and “10,000″. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss.

Agathocles = good + glory-Αγαθοκλής = αγαθός + κλέος (the owner good reputation)
Alexander-a αλέξω: απομακρύνω + ανήρ = ALEX: man + Remove the repeller men, the brave, etymologically means “push people (enemies)
Ariadne = Atoll: very+pure-πολύ + αγνή

 Aglaia Aglaia: bright, shiny- αγλαός
Alcmene = Alki: spurn + wrath: moon (αλκή + μήνη)
Anastasios = + per istimi: stand (ανα + ίστημι) ana+istimi
George = from the farmers (land + work) From: γεωργώ (γη or γαια-gaia+ έργον)
Dimitrios = H (Dorian type of Earth) + mother  Δη (δωρικός τύπος του Γη or γαια) + μήτηρ
Demosthenes = municipality + valence (people power) δήμος + σθένος-demos+sthenos
Diogenes = Zeus + genus (the begotten) Ζευς + γένος
Eleni = ELE: come upon, conquer (candle) ελέ
Irene=Peace-Ειρήνη = είρω- (I speak ) + νους nous-  = eiro (opt) + mind
Epaminondas = on + ameinon, progressive
Erato = Question: I love (the adorable)
Eteocles ETEC =: true glory + (having the true glory).
Evangelos = ef + advert (bearing the good messages)
Evdokia = ef + doko: I view
Evdoxia = ef + Glory (having the good reputation)
Eftychios = ef + luck
Euphemia = ef + Fimios
Electra = Helector: the radiating sun (radiation from grace)
Thalleia = million thallium (I’m full)
Thucydides = + kydos God: glory (the praise God)
Jason = Iasis: treatment (the therapist)
Jocasta = + ion kazo: perk
Iphigenia = ifi: powerful + gignomai
Calliope = beauty + ops: bud
Cleopatra = + Patria glory (the glory of the fatherland) – Κλεοπάτρα = κλέος + πάτρη – kleos + patri
Laertes = people + weigh: Elected
Leonidas = people + one thing I know: I know (Λεωνίδας = λαός + οίδα) laos+oida
Lito = Stranded
Lysistrata = unfasten Army +
Cloud = mists: pour water
Xenophon = stranger + voices Ξενοφών = ξένος + φωνέω – xeno + phoneo

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ

ΑΞΊΑ

Α´

1

Ι´

10

Ρ´

100

͵Α

1000

Β´

2

Κ´

20

Σ´

200

͵Β

2000

Γ´

3

Λ´

30

Τ´

300

͵Γ

3000

Δ´

4

Μ´

40

Υ´

400

͵Δ

4000

Ε´

5

Ν´

50

Φ´

500

͵Ε

5000

Ϛ´

6

Ξ´

60

Χ´

600

͵Ϛ

6000

Ζ´

7

Ο´

70

Ψ´

700

͵Z

7000

Η´

8

Π´

80

Ω´

800

͵H

8000

Θ´

9

Ϟ´

90

Ϡ´

900

͵Θ

9000

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for “5″, “10″, “100″, “1000″, and “10,000″. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss.

The (Ionian) Greek system of enumeration was a little more sophisticated than the Egyptian though it was non-positional. Like the Attic and Egyptian systems it was also decimal. Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception.

A vast knowledge locked-coded into words because of mathematical values they have. One of the pioneers on the matter was maximum Pythagoras.

The numbers, shapes, harmony and the stars have something in common, so respectively mathematics (numbers) geometry (shape), harmony (music) and astro-nomy (one star = a-choris- bracket + natural nomoipou govern ) were sisters sciences by Pythagoras, which in this series we discussed was the ladder to development (= ex -tou- helix, DNA) of mind-soul to the Creator.

A Creator who created based on these four disciplines. 27 symbols-figures in numerical value make up the Greek Alphabet, 3 groups of 9 numbers-symbols each group, totaling each group 45, 450, 4,500.
ALPHA = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

To be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of words of ancient Greek tongue should first know a little about the actual Greek language.

The ancient Greek language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that will try to approach.

The beginning of everything is the same as the Greek alphabet (which of course we did not get it from someone else as we shall see, because factually not possible). The letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole was 33 and as many vertebrae, the last five vertebrae (playing the role of the antenna) directly related to the brain and corresponding to the last 5 ineffable letters which only the priests knew * one of them It was the right (or Gammadion) which in Latin became swstika and the Nazis stole and name Swastika. This symbol is the life-giving Sun (Apollo), the Nazis reversed it to symbolize the opposite of life-giving Sun, ie dark death.

There were also some letters which over time abolished as Digamma (F), Qoppa (Q), stigma (S ‘), Saba (ϡ)
Pythagoras inform us about the 3 levels of Greek language which are:

963
1. Talking
2. Signifier (a. Signal b. Signified)
3. caches (a. Time b. Vibration c. Lexarithmos d. Tonarithmos)
-The First is the speech
-The Second is the relationship between the mark and the signified that we will analyze below
-The Third is the interval (distance & time), vibration (which awakens the brain through resonance frequencies of the pulses dimiourgithentes – Pallas Athena) the lexarithmos (relation of letters and words with numbers) and tonarithmos (relation of letters and words of tunes )

Each letter corresponding to a number, and a musical tone so letter = number = tone (musician), which shows that in our language behind letters-words are numbers (lexarithmoi) and musical sounds (tonarithmoi).

The four sisters sciences by Pythagoras were:
1. Numbers (mathematics)
2. Shapes (Geometry)
3. Music (Harmony)
4. Astronomy

The sciences are interrelated and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.

1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony), shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
2.The Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.

The enormous importance of music for the Pythagoreans

 <<<<<<<<PYTHAGORAS AND MUSIC>>>>>>>
                                                                                                            
So it said that Pythagoras, and practice once, with the help spondiakou State played a piper, extinguished the rage of an intoxicated young Tafromenitou, who during the night attacked with loud voices against his mistress at the door of his rival by drawing to set fire to the house. And so, being in a tizzy and he is steady due to the Phrygian melody lumen. This passion has rapidly healed Pythagoras, who happened at that moment, at an inappropriate time, to deal with the laws governing the stars. Then said the piper to turn the Phrygian melody spondaic, with which the young man, having calmed down, returned immediately and decency in his house, and just now not only tolerated by Pythagoras or admonition, but with fury and insults He had refused to meet him.


That is not the Alphabet is copied from elsewhere seen in that in the year 2300 BC (Studies of Tziropoulou other and not 800 BC) by Homer already at the disposal of 6,500,000 primary words (first person singular present tense &) which if you multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.
The Greek language is the only one that can be used for H / Y due mathimatikotitas and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS: Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc etc if now these words the English translation is completely unrelated.

If we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth the year 100,000 BC; 500,000 BC; who knows …
But the ultimate proof is the same of the mathimatikotita, which does not exist in any other language of the world. Do not even forget that the Creator uses math to create, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1).

But before the “crypt” is the “Signifier”, ie the connection of words with meanings. He said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that such and such a subject would call it “X”, which makes the languages sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.

How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? let alone the multiple aspects of this? It can not be So why all started here. It means therefore is connecting the signal to the signified, that the word itself is generated in such a manner that describes the meaning esokleinei instruments.

Example: The naming of the word curry (Walnut), as we read in thesecretrealtruth, from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with ker.ata their sounds “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name of the State or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.

The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe respective concepts which come from the observation of nature ie of Creation so by extension of the same Creator, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers, yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones into their hide Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?

Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “wisdom Authority names visitation”

De Groot (Netherlands Homeric texts professor at the University of Montreal)

“The Greek language has continuity and teaches to be ownerless and got a glory, that an opinion. In this language there is no orthodoxy. So even if the education system wants people law-abiding – a mold – the spirit of ancient texts and language in learning to be a boss. “
James Joyce (Famous Irish author, 1882-1941)

“Almost afraid to touch the Odyssey, the oppressive beauty is unbearable.”
The great French writer Jacques Lakarrier said:

“In Greek there is a vertigo of words, because only she explored, recorded and analyzed the innermost processes of speech and language, more than any other language.”
The great French enlightener Voltaire had said

“May the Greek language to become common all peoples.”
The French professor at the Sorbonne said Charles Foriel

“The Greek has homogeneity as the German, but richer than that. He has the clarity of the French, but it has greater precision. It is more flexible than the Italian and much more harmonious than the Spanish. Is that what it takes to be considered the most beautiful language of Europe. “
Marianna McDonald, professor of the University of California and Head of TLG said

“Knowledge of Greek is essential foundation of high cultural cultivation.”
The blind American writer Helen Keller had told

“If the violin is the most perfect musical instrument, the Greek language is the violin of human thought.”
John Goethe (The greatest poet of Germany, 1749-1832)

“I listened to St. Peter’s in Rome the Gospel in all languages. The Greek resonated star glowing in the night. “
Dialogue of Goethe with his disciples:

-Daskale What to read to become wise as you?

-the Greek classics.

-And When we finish the Greek classics what to read?

-Old Greek classics.
George Bernard Shaw (Great Irish playwright, 1856-1950)

“If the library of your home you do not have the works of ancient Greek authors, then you live in a house without light.”
Mark Tillios Cicero (the foremost man of ancient Rome, 106-43 BC)

“If the gods speak, then certainly use the language of the Greeks.”
Humphrey Kitty (English professor at the University of Bristol, 1968)

“It’s the nature of the Greek language is clean, precise and complex. The ambiguity and lack of direct enoraseos featuring sometimes English and German, is completely foreign to the Greek language. “
Irina Kovaleva (Modern Russian professor at the University Lomonosov, 1995)

“The Greek language is beautiful like heaven to the stars.”
RH Robins (Contemporary English linguist, professor at the University of London)

“Of course not only in linguistics where Greeks were pioneers in Europe. Overall Europe’s spiritual life goes back to the work of Greek thinkers.

Even today we return unceasingly in Greek heritage to find stimulation and encouragement. “
Frederick Sagkredo (Basque linguistics professor – Chairman of the Greek Academy of Vaskonias)

“The Greek language is the best legacy that has been available to the man on the evolution of the brain. Against all Greek and insist all languages are inadequate. “

“The ancient Greek language should become the second language of all Europeans, especially the cultured people.”

“The Greek language is of divine essence.”
Heinrich Schliemann (Renowned amateur archaeologist, 1822-1890)

“Everything I wanted passionately to learn Greek. I did not do it because I was afraid that the deep charm of this magnificent language would absorb so much that would have removed my other activities. “(The Schliemann spoke 18 languages seamlessly. For two years did nothing other than the studying 2 poems of Homer).
Ibn Khaldoun (Largest Arab historian)

“Where is the secretariat of the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians? All mankind has inherited the secretariat of the Greeks alone. “
Will Durant (American historian and philosopher, professor at the University of Columbia)

“Our alphabet came from Greece by Kimi and Rome. Our language is littered Greek words. Our science esfyrilatise Mian international language by the Greek terms. Our grammar and our rhetoric, even the punctuation and the division areas paragraphs … is Greek inventions. Our genres are Greeks – the lyric, the ode, the romance, the novel, the essay, the prosfonisis, biography, history and above all the vision. And almost all of these words are Greek. “
Jacqueline de Romigy (Modern French Academician and author)

“Ancient Greece offers us a language, which will say that it is universal.”

“Everyone needs to learn Greek, because the Greek language helps us first of all to understand our own language.”
Bruno Snell (Distinguished Professor at the University of Hamburg)

“The Greek language is the past of the Europeans.”
Frangkiskos Ligkora (Modern Italian university professor and president of the International Academy for the dissemination of culture)

“Greeks can be proud to speak the Greek language alive and the mother of all other languages. Do not neglect, since this is one of the few goods we have left and also your passport to the world civilization. “
The. Vantrouska (Professor of Linguistics at the University of Vienna)

“For a Japanese or Turkish, all European languages are not seen as separate but as dialects of one and the same language, Greek.”
Peter Jones (PhD – Professor at Oxford University who drafted lessons of ancient Greek WITH readership, for publication in the newspaper «DailyTelegraph»)

The Greeks of Athens in the 5th and 4th century had reached the language to the point that with her to explore ideas such as democracy and the origins of the universe, concepts such as sulfur and law. It is a wonderful and great language. “
Gilbert Murray (Professor, University of Oxford)

“The Greek is the perfect language. Often one finds that a thought can be expressed with ease and grace in Greek, and becomes difficult and severe in Latin, English, French or German. It is the perfect language, because it expresses the thoughts most perfect people. “
Max Von Laye (Nobel Prize in Physics)

“I Graces in divine providence, because it pleased to teach ancient Greek, who helped me to penetrate deeper into the meaning of science.”
E, Norden (the great German philologist)

“In addition to Chinese and Japanese, all other languages were formed under the influence of Greek, from which they took, besides many words, rules and grammar.”
Martin Heidegger (German philosopher, of the main representatives of existentialism in the 20th century)

“The ancient Greek language belongs to the standards through which showcase the spiritual forces of creative genius, because with respect to the possibilities provided in thought, is the most powerful and yet the most witty of all languages of the world.”
David Crystal (Aka English professor, author of the Encyclopedia of Cambridge for the English)

“It’s amazing to see how much more we rely on the Greek, to talk about entities and events at the heart of modern life.”
Michael Ventris (The man who deciphered the Linear B)

“The ancient Greek language was and is higher all the old and new languages.”
R.H. Robins (Linguist and author)

“The Greek triumph in the spiritual culture is that gave so much to so many sectors […]. Their achievements in the field of linguistics which was extremely strong, ie the theory of grammar and grammatical description of the language is strong enough to merit and to withstand criticism. Also be such as to inspire gratitude and our admiration. “
Luis José Navarro (Deputy to the educational program “Evroklassika” of the EU)

“The Greek language for me is like cosmogony. It is not just a language … “
Juan Jose Puhana Arza (Basque Hellenist and politician)

“We must proclaim that there has been in the world a language which can be compared to the classical Greek.”
D’Eichtal (French author)

“The Greek language is a language which has all the features, all the conditions of an international tongue … touches these same beginnings of civilization … which not only there was no stranger to none of the major events of the human spirit, religion, in politics, in literature, the arts, the sciences, but was also the first tool – to scan all these – so to speak, the womb … Language logic while euphonic, among all the other … “
Theodore F. Brunner (TLG founder and director until 1997)

“Anyone who wonder why so many millions of dollars spent on the hoarding of Greek words, we reply: But this is the language of our ancestors and contact with them will improve our culture.”
Jacques Lang (French Ministry of Education)

“I would like to see to learn Ancient Greek, with the same zeal that we demonstrate, and Greek schools.”
In his work “A Brief History of the Greek Language” by the famous linguist A.. Meillet, supported strongly the superiority of Greek over other languages.

The name of Apollo itself—though not Paean, a possible name of a precursor god to or epithet of him—is generally considered to be absent from the Linear B (Mycenean Greek) texts although it is possible that the name is in fact attested in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo-[ (Linear B: ]-[) on the KN E 842 tablet.The spelling Ἀπόλλων (pronounced [a.pól.lɔːn] in Classical Attic) had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form Apellon (Ἀπέλλων), is more archaic, derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων. It probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios (Ἀπελλαῖος), and the offerings apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai (ἀπέλλαι).According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella (ἀπέλλα), which originally meant “wall,” “fence for animals” and later “assembly within the limits of the square.”[ Apella (Ἀπέλλα) is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta,[9] corresponding to the ecclesia (ἐκκλησία). R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun.Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo’s name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), “to destroy”. Plato in Cratylus connects the name withἀπόλυσις (apolysis), “redeem”, with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), “purification”, and with ἁπλοῦν ([h]aploun), “simple”, in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀειβάλλων (aeiballon), “ever-shooting”. Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα (apella), which means “assembly”, so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos), “fold”, in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the Ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means “stone,” and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα (Pella,[14] the capital of Ancient Macedonia) and Πελλήνη(Pellēnē/Pallene)

Language

7270-year-old Tablet Found in Kastoria Calls into Question History of Writing

Back in 1993, in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in the Kastoria Prefecture, professor George Hourmouziadis and his team unearthed the Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or the Dispilio Disk), a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata) that has been carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP (5260 BC).

In February 2004, during the announcement of the Tablet’s discovery to the world, Hourmouziadis claimed that the text with the markings could not be easily publicized because it would ultimately change the current historical background concerning the origins of writing and articulate speech depicted with letters instead of ideograms within the borders of the ancient Greek world and by extension, the broader European one.

According to the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the markings suggested that the current theory proposing that the ancient Greeks received their alphabet from the ancient civilizations of the Middle East (Babylonians, Sumerians and Phoenicians etc)fails to close the historic gap of some 4,000 years. This gap translates into the following facts:  while ancient eastern civilizations would use ideograms to express themselves, the ancient Greeks were using syllables in a similar manner like we use today.

The currently accepted historic theory taught around the world suggests that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. However, a question emerges among scholars: how is it possible for the Greek language to have 800,000 word entries, ranking first among all known languages in the world, while the second next has only 250,000 word entries? How is it possible for the Homeric Poems to have been produced at about 800 BC, which is just when the ancient Greeks learned to write? It would be impossible for the ancient Greeks to write these poetic works without having had a history of writing of at least 10,000 years back, according to a US linguistic research.

The tablet is 2,000 years older than the written findings from the Sumerian era and 4,000 years older than the Cretan-Mycenean linear types of writing.

The markings on the tablet did not resemble the human figures, the sun and moon or other figures ideograms usually depict. They actually showed signs of advanced apheresis, which indicates they are the result of cognitive processes.

The tablet was partially damaged when it was exposed to the oxygen-rich environment outside of the mud and water in which it was immersed for a long period of time, and it is now under conservation. The full academic publication of the tablet apparently awaits the completion of the work of conservation

– See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/07/16/7270-year-old-tablet-found-in-kastoria-calls-into-question-history-of-writing/#sthash.o0yDtSd4.dpuf

Main article: Ancient Macedonian language

The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.

PHOENICIAN “ALPHABET”:  AN HISTORICAL DECEPTION

This theory:

1. Completely rejects the theorem that the Greek language came from another language (the so-called “Indo-European”!!!), since it is proven to be the only non-conventional language of the world. In other words, the only language where a relationship betweenthe “word” (as a form) and the “meaning of the word” is established.

2. Consequently, it is proven that Greek is the first and only created language of the human species which provided the basis for all “conventional” languages, as are all the other languages of the world (where there is no causative relationship between the form and the meaning). These other languages are a corrupt form of Greek.

3. This theory proves, without a doubt, that the alphabet was created by the Greeks so that the 24 or 27 code letters would aid in attributing the meanings of the Greek words (and only of these).

4. Comparatively, this theory shows that the symbols of the Phoenician writings andtheir nouns, e.g., “alef” =ox, “beth” = hut, “gimel = camel, etc., not only do not containcoded meaning, but are also associated or refer to [the] primitive animal conditions[one would expect in a culturally backward society].

Overwhelming evidence that one of the most important discoveries in the history of civilization is Greek ,a deception that usurps and distorts Greek History and Civilization. It is of utmost importance that the truth be restored not only for modern Greece, but also for thewhole of humanity.The deception that alphabetical script was discovered by the Phoenicians is a long-lived one.For the past 14 years [the Greek scholarly magazine] Davlos has published numerous articleson this problem. This prompted K. Katis to ask that we submit a relevant article for hismainstream daily so that this important issue would become known to a wider audience.

This article summarizes the strong evidence against the “Phoenician Deception,” and proves that the greatest discovery in the history of civilization is Greek. We believe it necessary to republish this article in [this issue of] Davlos exactly as it appeared in the daily.

A SCIENTIFIC MONSTROSITY.

According to linguistic theory, an “alphabet” is defined as “the sum of symbols following a specific sequence and order used to ascribe the essential utterances of a language, under thecondition that each utterance represents only one symbol and vice-versa”. Consequently, in alphabetical script (as an example, in the writings of the people of Europe, America,Australian, as well as the other parts of the world) each letter represents one essential sound.This is not true for the imperfect alphabets expressed through syllables where each symbolrepresents a syllable (with two or more voiced sounds). For example, in Greek Linear A andB, there is a symbol that represents the syllable ko (k + o), a symbol that represents the syllable po (p + o), etc. In Phoenician writing (which has only consonants and no vowels), this situation is even worse, as far as we can tell from the small amount of existing samples.

In Phoenician, each symbol is not equivalent to one specific syllable, but to a variety of syllables, and thus the reader can use his imagination when attempting to decipher the sounds. For example, there are consonants which can be read as either ba, bou, be, bi, bo, etc. Others  is not an alphabet, it is a less advanced form of writingthat can be read as gou, ga, ge, go, and so on. Consequently, Phoenician script does not constitute an alphabet, and is not even an advanced form of syllabic script nearing the perfection of the equivalent Greek syllabic writings. It is truly amazing to think that, in the academic world of the past 150 years, the almost contradictory term of “Phoenician alphabet” has been established, which, in reality refers to a type of writing that has nothing to do with an alphabet. It is even more unbelievable to think that the scientific dogma that Greek came from Phoenician has been enforced. Not only the Phoenician is not an alphabet, it is a less advanced form of writing than Greek Linear A and B.

So, professor G. Babiniotis’ statement that “Phoenician writing is something like a syllabic alphabet” must be rejected and replaced with the correct characterization of Phoenician as a “purely concise syllable system of writing,” as stated by the former president of the Greek Society of Philologists, Pan. Georgountzos (see “The Alphabet: A Greek Discovery” by Pan. Georgountzos, Davlos, issue 142, October 1993, page 8242).

GREEKNESS OF THE ALPHABET

a) Archaeological Evidence The theory that the alphabet is a Phoenician discovery has been maintained through the argument, among other things, that certain symbols of Phoenician writing are similar to the letters of the alphabet. For example, the Phoenician alef is the reverse or sideways Greek “A.” This argument was a strong one until about 100 years ago, when linguists and historians still maintained that the Greeks did not know how to write before 800 B. C.! Around 1900 A.D., however, Arthur Evans excavated the Greek Minoan Crete and discovered the Greek Linear writings, whose symbols corresponded to 17 of the 24 letters of the Greek Alphabet. Given that (A), the most ancient evidence of the Greek scripts (Linear A and Linear B) that were later discovered in Pylos, Mycenae, Menidi and Thebes — but also in more northern areas up to the Danube river as well — were dated to before 1500 B.C. And (B), that the Phoenicians and their writings appear in history no earlier than 1300 BC, Evans was the first person to express doubts about the theory that the Greeks received their script from the Phoenicians. He put forward the scientific suspicion that it was probably the other way round. The doubts pertaining as to who was first — the Phoenicians or the Greeks — in discovering writing, became a certainty when French professor, Paul Fore, an internationally acclaimed specialist on Prehistoric Archaeology, published a report in Nestor (an American Archaeological Journal of the University of Indiana — 16th year, 1989, page 2288). In this report, he submits and deciphers plates with Greek Linear writing found at the cyclopean wall of Pilikates, in Ithaca, dated, through the use of modern scientific methods, back to 2700 B.C., The language of these plates was Greek, and the decoding by professor Fore resulted in the following syllabic text, expressed phonetically: A]RE-DA-TI. DA-MI-U-A-.A-TE-NA-KA-NA-RE (ija)-TE. The phonetic equivalent of this is translated, always according to the professor, as: “Ιδού τι εγώ η Αρεδάτις δίδω εις την ανασσαν, την θεάν Ρέαν: 100 αίγας, 10 πρόβατα, 3 χοίρους” [Here is what I, Aredatis, gives to the queen- goddess Rea, 100 goats, 10 sheep, 3 pigs]. (See, “Davlos” magazine, issue 107, November 1990, page 6103). Thus, Fore proved that the Greeks were writing and speaking Greek at least 1400 years before the appearance of the Phoenicians and their script in history. But, the archaeological excavations in Greece during the last 15 years have given us many more great surprises: The Greeks were writing using not only Linear A and B, but also a type of writing identical to that of the alphabet since at least 6000 B.C. In fact, at Dispilio, in the lake of Kastoria, in northern Greece, professor G. Houmouziadis discovered a plate with writing very similar to that of the alphabet, which was dated, using radioactive Carbon- 14 and visual photothermal methodology, back to 5250 B.C. (see Davlos, issue 147). Three years later, N. Samson, a curator of the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Department, discovered shards of vases (“ostraka”) with letters identical to the present Greek alphabet while excavating at the “Cyclop’s Cave,” on the deserted island of Yioura, near the inhabited island of Alonnissos, in the Northern Sporades island complex. These vases were dated to5,500 to 6,000 B.C. with the same methods (see “Davlos,” issue 185, May 1997). The same archaeologist, while performing excavations on the island of Milos, discovered vessels of the proto-cycladic period (mid-3rd millennium B.C.) with letters identical to the Greek letters:

“X,” “N,” “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi],”Π” [p], “Ο,” & “Ε.” (See N. Samson’s interview in Davlos,issue 204, December 1998, page 12749.)

It is apparent that these archaeological discoveries have given a “comical’ character to the so-called “Phoenician Theory” on the discovery of writing. In addition, these archaeological discoveries have revolutionized chronological dating of Greek history as it is taught today, as well as the world history of civilization itself. (See also the book by Con. Koutrouvelli, “Re- establishing the Chronology of Prehistoric Times based primarily on astronomical information from Ancient Writers,” Davlos Publishing, 1999.)

b) The somewhat mathematical proof

While the house-of-cards which provided “proof”‘ of the so-called “Phoenician alphabet” was being torn down by archaeological discoveries, another overwhelming piece of evidence surfaced. This evidence was offered to us by the 20-year long discreet and timid research of the Greek Language and Writing by a great researcher, Elias Tsatsomoiros. Unfortunately E.Tsatsomoiros passed away on December 19th 1991, after having, however, completed his revolutionary work, History of the Genesis of the Greek Language-from the hunter-gatherer to the time of Zeus-the Deciphering of the Greek Alphabet. The undersigned [writer of this article] had the honor of publishing and editing this work (Davlos Publishing, 1991), but also the honor of having worked closely with the researcher for more than a decade. We had long discussions on the numerous problems arising from the research, and we had published a series of articles in Davlos magazine. This memorable researcher proved in a remarkable way that every letter of the Greek alphabet contained a consistent code meaning, which is literally introduced either exactly or metaphorically within the general meaning of the Greek word it belongs to, as a partial meaning. Consequently, every (ancient) Greek word is basically an acronym (similar to D(imosia) E (picheirisi) H(lektrismou) [=ΔΕΗ in Greek, or as U(nited) N(ations), in English], where every letter provides a significant or less significant notional element, and then, they all together provide the logical definition of the meaning expressed bythe word. The “significant difference” of each word’s meaning is usually provided by the firstletter. Obviously, there is not enough space in this article to present the code meaning of the letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole, as they are analyzed in this revolutionary volume of research in the field of human speech. As an example, I will choose only one of the now days 24 letters (orinaly 27) of the Hellenic alphabet, “Ypsilon” = “Y” or, small case, “u” (pronounced, long-e “eepsilon,” the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet, and familiar to us as “Y” in the so-called “Latin” alphabet– which is nothing more than a variationof the Greek “Chalcidean” alphabet). Ypsilon, therefore, as its shape indicates, has the code meaning of “a cavity” οr, if reversed, of a “convexity.” This meaning is introduced into the words containing this letter, and sometimes, by extension into the meaning of liquids (which, through their natural flow end up filling the “cavity”). I will quickly mention some of the names of vessels and liquids (such as the amphiconical κ-Υ-πελλο which is dated back to 2700 B.C. and is displayed at the Heraklion Museum). One may add to the words mentioned there, many others, such as kot-Y-li, go-Y-ttos, tr-Y-blion, p-Y-xis, amphore-Y-s, b-Y-tion, l-Y-chnos, procho-Y-s, ske-Y-os, etc, all having the meaning of a curvedobject. Also, some other words such as k-Y-hsis (rounding of the stomach ofan eng-Y-os [pregnant] woman); k-Y-ma (curving on the surface of the ocean); cr-Y-pti (curving of the ground); the preposition [h-Y-po] Y-po (meaning under a certain level); h-Y-per (preposition meaning above acertain level); Y-psos =height; and all of the hundreds of words that have h-Y-po or h-Y-per as a prefix, as well as thousands of others. This discovery, which unfortunately has been officially ignored, is a continuation of the forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of language (see Plato’s Cratylus ).

THE HERODOTUS EXTRACT

All the Greek writers who mention the alphabet (they called it “grammata”) consider it a very ancient Greek invention (by Prometheus, Palamedes, Linus, etc). The theory of the Phoenician alphabet was always, and is still, based on an exception to this general rule. Thisexception is an excerpt from Herodotus, that he himself presents as his ‘personal opinion’ (“ως εμοι δοκεει” = “as it seems to me”). This opinion was formed based on the sayings of others, as he himself mentions in the previous paragraphs (“αναπυνθανομενος” = taking information from others). Let us have a look at the Herodotus’ excerpt (History, E 58): [58. As far as the Phoenicians, they, who arrived with Cadmus, including the Gefiraioi, had lived in many other places and introduced also arts (new and unknown) to the Greeks; in fact, and also (some) writing, whichhad not been known to the Greeks before that, as I think, first this writing which was used by all the Phoenicians. With the passing of time, however, the Phoenicians changed this type of writing along with their language.]

The most important thing about this excerpt is that in the critical phrase “… ama tin foni metevallon kai ton rhithmon ton grammaton,” it is disclosed that the Phoenicians-Gefiraioi that went to Viotia with Cadmus brought some form of writing with them. But, as the Phoenicians “changed their language” (they learned Greek, in other words), they also changed their writing (they started writing, therefore, with the existing ancient Greek writing that already existed in Viotia). Although this statement was made by Herodotus, the translators, subsequently, provided the translation [meaning] that the local Greek Viotes and not the Phoenician emigrants changed their language and writing and adopted the Phoenician! This generally incoherent reference to the alphabet, as it has been saved, has been obviously altered and meddled with, who knows by whom and when. Let us look at the suspicious continuation of the text, as it has arrived to us:

Around them (the Phoenicians) lived at that place during that year (year of Cadmus) Ionian Greeks, who received through contact or through teachings by the Phoenicians their writings, changing their own writing which they used little. When using this writing and since this writing had been introduced to Greece by Phoenicians, they called it Phoenician.

Ionian Greeks living around the Phoenicians received the Phoenician writing and, using a few of its letters, since they had altered them and since it was just, they called it Phoenician-to pay tribute to the people who brought it to Greece, is a striking contradiction. Consequently, one can assume that this is a forged paragraph, hypothetically explanatory, which aims to reduce the previous statement “…as they changed their language, they changed their writing,” to an unimportant statement. This is how the “Phoenician Theory” was substantiated and is maintained as an obvious forgery.

IN ADDITION

The “Phoenician Theory” was established in Europe during a time, when, as the renowned British classical scholar, S. G. Rembroke (The Legacy of Greece, Oxford University Press, 1984) wrote, “The Phoenicians were given an intermediary role “that is not based on any historical information”. A role, in other words, of the transporter of wisdom and civilization from the “chosen” people of Israel to the “uncivilized” nations, and specifically the Greeks. This, of course, could be forgiven, since this was established around the end of the Medieval Ages, when religious fanaticism and backwardness had reached such a point that the daughter of Agamemnon, Iphigenia, is presented as the daughter of Iephtha; Deukalion is presented as

Noah; Appis is a consul of Joseph; Apollo, Priam, Tiresias, and Orpheus are corrupted personae of Moses; the story of the Argonauts is the crossing of the Israelites from Egypt to Palestine, and other similar distortions. The above are noted by Rembroke.

And we conclude: At the time, Hellenism was in comatose spiritual condition regarding national and historical awareness, and therefore totally unable to defend its history and civilization, and for this reason could not react and did not react. Today, it is with ourtolerance that our language is deemed “Indo-European,” and our writing “Phoenician,” our Athena and our Socrates are presented as “Blacks,” and our civilization as “African.” What spiritual situation are we in now? [i.e., What’s our excuse this time?]

Notes: On page 13745 of this article, is a picture of a piece of shard [pottery] dated to 6,000 B.C., found on the islet of Youra of the North Sporades island complex with Greek alphabetical writings. One can see the letters “A,” “Y,” & “D” [alpha, eepsilon, and delta ], almost identical to the Greek letters of the classical alphabets. This finding proves that the Greek alphabet is older than the Greek Linear writings. This finding also completely and definitely disproves the false theory that the Greeks got their alphabet from the Phoenicians, who made their historical appearance around 1300 B.C., in other words about 4,500 to 5,000 years after the creation of this plaque at Youra. On page 13747 are shown letter-symbols from the Proto-cycladic vessels of Milos (mid-third millennium B.C.). One can distinguish the [letter] “X” [chi] to the left and the [letter] “N” to the right. These letters are written just as the letters of the Greek alphabet are written today.

Other vessels were also found with “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi], “Π” [p], “O,” and “E.” Source.

About the name “man”, given by Socrates in “Cratylus” the following etymological interpretation (to quote here in translation):

[…… SOCRATES: I think the name of the people of these lesions suffered, and this became the name while ago was expression. With the removal of the Alpha program and the variation tone expiring from acute in heavier.

ERMOGENIS: What do you mean?

SOCRATES: Here’s what I mean: The name “man” means that while other animals nothing from what they see do not study, do not contemplate and do not say anything … anathroun not watch out … not the man once seen something – once and say “opope‘something – and anathrei and ponders what opope. It follows that man properly called “man”, because it is the only animal, which “anathrei s opope” observes that very carefully what is seen ….].

So periphrastic adjective “anathron s opope” was composed the word to “anathropos”, followed by removing the letter “a” between the notes “n” and “i” and the transfer of tuna to first syllavin of the word,was formulated the word “man”!

It should be stressed that the Greek language is unique, which characterizes man in mental abilities.All other Romance dialects characterize the man only by the ylikin ypostasin, the choikin, the dirt (homo, human, home, etc.). Be does this random, because the definition of a Greek lexin taken, or does the Greek language is unique, which highlights the priority which should focus the attention of man ;!

An adventure in the vast world of words is finishing here. And to think that we stood in a single row and a single Lexie this!

However, we believe that the results of this periplaniseos significantly both in terms of quality (depth) and quantity (width), to facilitate the possibility of “choice of words”, which is the first (of two) Asking for accurate and nice find. The second is the correct positioning of the words. Furthermore we think that was a visual way an example of the unity of the Greek language from antiquity to today.

From Slovenian blog http://vardaraxios.wordpress.com

The translation from google, (with known weaknesses of them).

KINGS OF Macedonian AND DIADOCHI

1. Ancient Greek Alexander (ALEXANDER Latinized)
Pronounced: al-eg-Jean-dur
From the Greek name Alexandros, meaning “defense men from the Greek alexein» for the defense, protection, help “and Aner» man «(general Andros). Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia, is the most famous bearer of the name. In the 4th century BC, built a vast empire from Greece, Egypt, Persia and parts of India. His name was borne by five kings of Macedonia.

2. PHILIPPOS Ancient Greek (PHILIP Latinized)
Intense: FIL-ip
From the Greek name meaning Philip “friend of horses”, composed of the elements Philos friend “and hippos ‘horse’. His name was borne by five kings of Macedon, including, Philip the father of Alexander the Great.

2. AEROPOS Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Male form Aerope in Greek mythology was the wife of King Atreus of Mycenae. Aeropos was the son Aerope, daughter Kepheus: «Mars, Tegeans say with Aerope underestimated daughter Kepheus (king of Tegea), the son of Aleos. He died in giving birth to a child, Aeropos, who clung to his mother, even when she was dead, and sucked great abundance of milk from the breast. Now this was the will of Mars. “(Pausanias, 8:44). His name was taken from two kings of Macedonia.

4. ALKETAS m Ancient Greek (Alkaios Latinized)
Pronounced: al-SEE-us
Alke derived from the Greek meaning “strength”. This was the name of the 7th century BC lyric poet from the island of Lesbos.

5. Amynta Ancient Greek
Amyntor derived from the Greek meaning “defender”. His name was borne by three kings of Macedonia.

6. Antigonus Ancient Greek (Latinized antigen)
Pronounced: A-TIG-o-nus
Media “as the ancestor” from the Greek anti “like” and goneus «ancestor». This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After Alexander died, he took control of the greater part of Asia Minor. He was known as Antigonus ‘Monophthalmos »(« the One-Eyed’). Antigonus II (ruled 277-239 BC) was known as «Gonatos» («knee kneel”).

7. Antipater Ancient Greek (Latinized Antipater)
Pronounced: A-TI-pa-tur
From the Greek name of Antipater, meaning “like his father” from Greek anti “like his father” Father “. This was the name of an officer of Alexander the Great, who became the curator of Alexander Macedon during his absence.

8. ARCHELAOS Ancient Greek (ARCHELAUS Latinized)
Intense: ar-KEE-LAY-us
Latinized form of the Greek Archelaos name, which means “master of the people” by Arche «master» Laos and the “man.” He was also named the 7th Spartan king came to the throne of Sparta in 886 BC, long before the creation of the Macedonian state.

9. ARGAIOS m Greek Mythology (ARGUS Latinized)
Argos derived from the Greek meaning “glistening, shining”. In Greek legend this name belongs to both the man who built the Argo and a man with a hundred eyes. His name was borne by three kings of Macedonia.

10. Ancient Greek Demetrios (Demetriou Latinized)
Latin form of the Greek name Demetrios, derived from the name of Greek goddess Demeter. Kings of Macedonia and the Seleucid kingdom had that name. Dimitrios he (ruled 309-301 BC) was known as the “besieger” (the «Beseiger»).

11. KARANOS Ancient Greek (CARANUS Latinized)
It comes from the archaic Greek word «koiranos» or «karanon», which means “king”, “leader” or “king.” Both words come from the same root archaic Dorica «Kara” meaning head, hence leader, royal governor. The word «koiranos» already had the concept of the ruler or king of Homer. Karanos is the name of the founder of Dynasty Argead Macedonian Kings.

12. Kassandros Greek Mythology (Latinized Cassander)
Intense: ka-SAN-droši
Possibly means “shines over man,” derived from the Greek kekasmai «shine” and Aner «man» (general Andros). In Greek myth Cassandra was a Trojan princess, his daughter and priame Hecuba. He was given the gift of prophecy Apollo, but when she spurned the advances cursed that no one will believe it prophecies. The name of the king of Macedonia.

13. KOINOS Ancient Greek
Koinos derived from the Greek meaning “usual, common.” A Argead king of the Macedonians in the 8th BC century.

14. LYSIMACHOS Ancient Greek (LYSIMACHUS Latinized)
Through “a relaxation of the battle” by Greek solution “relaxation liberalization” and Mach «battle». This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander Lysimachus took control of Thrace.

15. SELEUKOS Ancient Greek (SELEUCUS Latinized)
Through “to be light,” “be white”, derived from the Greek word meaning White ‘white, bright “. This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander argued that most of the countries of Asia and founded the Seleucid dynasty after Alexander’s death in Babylon.

16. ARRIDHAIOS Ancient Greek
Son of Philip and later king of Macedonia. The etymology is Greek Ari (= very) + ADJ Daios (= scary). The meaning is “very scary.” The type Aeolian Arribaeos.

17. Orestes Greek Mythology
Intense: o-RES-teez
Orestais derived from the Greek meaning “mountain.” In Greek myth was the son of Agamemnon. Killed his mother after Clytemnestra who killed his father. The name of the king of Macedonia (ruled 399-396 BC).

18. Pausanias Ancient Greek
King of Macedon in 393 BC .. Pausanias was also the name of the king of Sparta at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC, and the name of the Greek traveler, geographer and writer whose most famous work is ” Description of Greece “, and also the name of the man who assassinated Philip II of Macedonia in 336 BC ..

19. PERDIKKAS Ancient Greek (Latinized Perdiccas)
Partridge derived from the Greek meaning “Partritz”. Perdikkas I presented as the founder of the kingdom of Macedon in Herodotus 8137. The name was borne by three kings of Macedonia.

20. Greek Mythology Perseus
Intense: PUR-see-us
From pertho Greek verb meaning “to destroy, to conquer.” The meaning is the “conqueror”. Perseus was the hero of Greek legend. Kill Medusa, who was so ugly that anyone who gazed upon was the stone, by looking in the reflection and the shield of slaying in sleep. The name of the king of Macedonia (ruled 179-168 BC).

21. PTOLEMEOS Ancient Greek (Ptolemy Latinized)
Intense: TAWL-e-mee
Polemeios derived from the Greek meaning “aggressive” or “War”. Ptolemy was the name of a Greek-Egyptian rulers of Egypt, all descendants of Ptolemy I, one of Alexander’s generals. That was the name of a Greek astronomer. Ptolemy ‘Keraunos’ (ruled 281-279 BC) is named after the lighting bolt thrown by Jupiter.

22. TYRIMMAS Greek Mythology
Tyrimmas, a Argead king of Macedon and son of Coenus. Also known as Temenus. In Greek mythology, Temenus son of Aristomaches and great-great grandson of Hercules. He became king of Argos. Tyrimmas was also a man from Epirus and his father Evippe, who consorted with Ulysses (Parthenius of Nicaea, Love romance, 3.1). The meaning is “one who loves cheese.”

Queens AND ROYAL FAMILY

23. EURYDIKE Greek Mythology (EURYDICE Latinized)
Through all righteousness “by Greek eurys» wide «embankment and” justice “. In Greek myth, she was the wife of Orpheus. Her husband tried to rescue from Hades, but failed when disobeyed provided they do not look back on their way and out. Name of the mother of Philip II of Macedon.

24. Bernice f Ancient Greek (BERENICE Latinized)
Intense: BER-e-NIE-see
Through ‘victory’ by pherein »to« win and “win”. This name was a joint decision between the Ptolemies of Egypt family.

25. Cleopatra f Ancient Greek (Latinized Cleopatra)
Intense: Klee-o-PAT-ra
Through “glory of the father” from Greek kleos «glory» in conjunction with patros’ his father. ” In the Iliad, the name of the wife of Meleager Aetolia. That was the name of the Queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After the defeat by Augustus who committed suicide by allowing herself to bittet by asp. Also, the name of the bride of Philip II of Macedon.

26. St. CYNNA Ancient Greek
Half-sister of Alexander the Great. Its name comes from the ADJ. Dorica dialect Cyna (= hard).

27. THESSALONIKI f Ancient Greek
Through ‘victory over the Thessalians’, named after the region of Thessaly and order, which means “victory”. Name of Alexander the Great step sister and Thessaloniki which takes its name from the 315 BC ..

Generals, soldiers, philosophers and OTHERS

28. Parmenion ancient Greek
The most famous general of Philip and Alexander the great. Another famous bearer of this name was the Olympic Parmenion Mytilene. Its name comes from the name Parmenon + end-ion used to note descendancy. This means the «descedant of Parmenon».

29. PEUKESTAS Ancient Greek
Alexander the Great is stored in India. One of the most famous Macedonians. Its name comes from pine (= acute) + the ending Dorica-TB. The meaning is the one that is sharp “.

30. Aristophanes Ancient Greek
It comes from the Greek elements Aristos ‘better’ and phanes «show». The name of one of Alexander the Great at the personal body guard who was present during the murder of Clayton. (Plutarch, Alexander, “The life of the Noble Grecians and Romans”). That was the name of the 5th century BC Athenian playwright.

31. KORRAGOS Ancient Greek
The Macedonian disputed a race Olympic Dioxippos and lost. Its name comes from Koira (= army) + ago (= result). Korragos has the meaning of “the army chief.”

32. ARISTON Ancient Greek
Aristos derived from the Greek meaning “the best”. The name of the Macedonian with the officer campaign of Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book II, 9 and Book III, 11, 14).

33. KLEITUS Ancient Greek (Latinized Clayton)
Through ‘calling immediately “or” summoned “to Greek. A phalanx battalion commander of the army of Alexander the Great at the Battle of Hydaspes. Also the name of Alexander the nurse of his brother, who cut his arm Persian Spithridates at the Battle of Granicus.

34. Hephaistion Greek Mythology
Derived from Hephaistos («Hephaestus’ Latinized) which in Greek mythology was the god of fire and forging and one of the twelve Olympian deities. Hephaistos in Greek means “oven” or “volcano”. Hephaistion was the closest friend and companion of Alexander the Great. He was also known as «Philalexandros» («friend of Alexander).

35. HERAKLEIDES Ancient Greek (HERACLEIDES Latinized)
Maybe it means “key” Hera “from the name of the goddess Hera combined with Greek kleis» key “or kleidon» small key. ” The name of two Macedonian soldiers on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I, 2, Book III, 11, and Book VII, 16).

36. Krateros Ancient Greek (CRATERUS Latinized)
It comes from the Greek ADJ. Krateros (= strong). This was the name of one of the generals of Alexander the Great. A friend of Alexander the Great, was also known as «Philobasileus» («friend of the King”).

37. Neoptolemos Greek Mythology (NEOPTOLEMUS Latinized)
Through “new war”, derived from the Greek NEW “new” and WAR “war”. In Greek myth, this was the name of his son Achilles, who arrive in the Trojan War because it was prophesied the Greeks could not win if it was not present. After the war was killed by Orestes by marriage with Hermione. Neoptolemus is believed to be the ancestor of Alexander the Great for her mother (Olympias) side (Plutarch). The names of two soldiers during the Macedonian campaigns of Alexander (Arrian, Anabasis, Book I and Book II, 6, 27).

38. Filota Ancient Greek
From Greek philotes meaning “friendship”. Son of Parmenion and the captain of Alexander’s Companion cavalry.

39. PHILOXENOS Ancient Greek
Meaning “friend strangers” coming from the Greek meaning Philos Friend and Stranger meaning “foreigner, stranger. The name of a campaign for Macedonian soldier with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book III, 6).

40. MENELAOS Greek Mythology (Menelaus Latinized)
Through withstand people “from Greek meno ‘at the end to withstand’ and Laos’ people.” In Greek legend was king of Sparta and husband of Helen. When his wife was taken from Paris, the Greeks besieged the city of Troy in an effort to get back. After the war Menelaus and Helen moved to a happy life. Macedonian naval commander during the wars of the Diadochi and brother Ptolemy Lagos.

41. LAOMEDON ancient Greek
Friend from childhood of Alexander and later Satrapi. The name derives from the Greek noun laos (people = «people» + medon (medo = “He who governs”)

42. POLYPERCHON Ancient Greek
Macedonian, Son of Simmias Its name comes from the Greek word “very” (= very) + spercho (= rush).

43. HEGELOCHOS (HEGELOCHUS Latinized)
Known as a conspirator. Its name comes from the Greek verb (igeomai = “walking forward” + noun = Greek company “set up an ambush).

44. POLEMON ancient Greek
From his home Andromenes. Brother Attalos. Within the Greek “he who fights and war.”

45. AUTODIKOS ancient Greek
Somatophylax of Philip III. Its name in Greek means “one who takes the law into his (own) hands”

46. BALAKROS ancient Greek
Son of Nicanor. We already know Macedonians usually used a “beta” instead of «Phi» used by the Athenians (eg «belekys» instead of «pelekys», «balakros» instead of «falakros). «Falakros» has the meaning of “soon”.

47. NIKANOR (Nikanor ancient Greek, Latin: Nicanor) means «Victor» – from Nike (Victory), which means “victory”.
Nicanor was Balakras father’s name. He was a prominent Macedonian during the reign of Philip II.
Another Nicanor son of Parmenion and brother Philotas. He was a distinguished officer (commander Hypaspists) on Alexander the Great service. He died of illness in Bactria in 330 BC ..

48. LEONNATOS ancient Greek
One of the somatophylakes Alexander. Its name derives from Leon (= Lion) + the root Nat substantive nator (= brash). The meaning is “impetuous as a lion.”

49. KRITOLAOS ancient Greek
He was a potter from Pella. His name was in amphorae discovered during the 1980 to 1987 in Pella. Its name comes from Critics (= the chosen) + population (= people). The meaning is “chosen by the people.”

50. ZOILOS ancient Greek
Father Myleas from Veria – Since zo-e (Life) saying “live”, “blithe”. Hence the Italian «Zoilo»

51. ZEUXIS ancient Greek
Name of the Macedonian ruler of Lydia at the time of Antigonus III and also the name of one of Painter Heraclea – from ‘zeugnumi «=» to commit “,” together “

52. LEOCHARIS ancient Greek
Sculptor – under ‘Leon’ = ‘lion’ and ‘Harry’ = ‘grace’. Literally meaning the “lion of grace.”

53. DEINOKRATIS ancient Greek
Alexander helped the creation of Alexandria in Egypt.
From ‘deinow’ = ‘to make terrible »and« kratein «=» judge “
Obviously, indicating a “terrible ruler ‘

54. ADMETOS (Admetus) Ancient Greek
comes from the word a + damaw (damazw) and means tameless, obstreperous.Damazw means Chastel, prevails

55. ANDROTIMOS (Androtimos) Ancient Greek
arising from andreios words (brave, brave) and timitis (honest, upright)

56. PEITHON Ancient Greek
It means “the one who convinces”. It was a common name of the Macedonians and the most famous names of the holders were Peithon, son Sosicles, responsible for the royal pages Peithon, son Krateuas, a messenger of Alexander the Great.

57. SOSTRATOS Ancient Greek
Derived from the Greek words “Sauce (= safe) + Army (= army).” He was the son of Amyntas and executed as a conspirator.

58. DIMNOS Ancient Greek
It comes from the Greek verb “deimaino (= I fear). One of the conspirators.

59. TIMANDROS Ancient Greek
Concept «Man of honor.” From the Greek words “price (= price) + Man (= man). One of the commanders of the regular Hypaspistes.

60. TLEPOLEMOS (Tlepolemos) Ancient Greek
It comes from Greek words “tlimon (= brave) + War (= war).” In Greek mythology Tlepolemos was the son of Hercules. In alexanders time appointed Tlepolemos Satrapi of Carmania by Alexander the Great.

61. Axios (Worthy) Ancient Greek
Meaning “capable”. His name was found in an inscription, together with the patronymic ‘Worthy Antigonus of Macedon. “

62. THEOXENOS (THEOXENIA) Ancient Greek
It comes from Greek words “god (= god) + stranger (= stranger). His name appears as donator temple of Apollo, along with the city and patronymic origin (THEOXENIA Aeschrionia Kassandria).

63. Mitron (womb) Ancient Greek

Ancient Macedonians

Αρχαίοι Μακεδόνες

Deer hunt mosaic from Pella.jpg

Languages

Ancient Macedonian,

then Attic Greek, and later Koine Greek

Religion

Greek Polytheism

The route of the Argeads from Argos,Peloponneseto Macedonia

The Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες,Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula. Macedonians  was anancient Greek people.They gradually expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon valley on the northern edge of the Greek world, absorbing or driving out neighbouring tribes, primarily Thracian and Illyrian.

Although composed of various clans, the Kingdom of Macedon established around the 8th century BC is mostly associated with the Argead dynasty, and the tribe named after it. Traditionally ruled by independent families, the Macedonians seem to have accepted Argead rule by the time of King Alexander I (r. 498–454 BC). Under King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC), they are credited with numerous military innovations, which enlarged their territory and increased their control over other areas, leading to the exploits of Alexander the Great, the establishment of several realms from the Diadochi, and the inauguration of the Hellenistic civilization.

The Ancient Macedonian Testimonies (Literary Sources) Firstly we intend to examine the ancient evidence on the way the Ancient Macedonians were defining themselves in reference to their own identity.b Concerning their own beliefs about themselves we shall review the available evidence coming from sources, both Literary and Archaeological.

A. The Literary Evidence

The first available  evidence comes from the Macedonian king Alexander, during hisspeech to Atheneans. Essentially we have a clear confession that Alexander considers himself

-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I

should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by

descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would

not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If

you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my

freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of

zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘1

Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander I

was proud of his

Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:

Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of

the Macedonians (ανηρ Ελλην υπαρχος Μακεδονων – “anêr Hellên

– Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably… “

Early history

The expansion of the Macedonian kingdom has been described as a three-stage process. Macedonia then led a pan-Hellenic military force against their primary objective—theconquest of Persia—which they achieved with remarkable ease.

Prehistoric homeland

In Greek mythology, Makedon is the eponymous hero of Macedonia and is mentioned in Hesiod‘s Catalogue of Women.

Temenids and Argeads

The route of the Argeads from Argos,Peloponneseto Macedonia(=High Land)

The Macedonian expansion is said to have been led by the ruling Temenid dynasty, known as “Argeads” or “Argives”. Herodotus said thatPerdiccas, the dynasty’s founder, was descended from the HeraclidTemenus. 

He left Argos with his two older brothers Aeropus andGayanes, and travelled via Illyria to Lebaea.

ETYMOLOGY OF ANCIENT MACEDONIAN NAMES.

Φίλιππος (Philippos) which means “friend of horses”, composed of the elements φίλος (philos) “friend” and ίππος (hippos) “horse”. This was the name of five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great. The name appears in the New Testament belonging to two people who are regarded as saints. First, one of the twelve apostles, and second, an early figure in the Christian church known as Philip the Deacon.

ALEXANDER
Latinized form of the Greek name Αλέξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant “defending men” from Greek αλεξω (alexo) “to defend, help” and ανήρ (aner) “man” (genitive ανδρός). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.

AMYNTAS
Derived from αμύντωρ (amyntor) meaning “defender”. This was the name of several kings of Macedon.

ANTIGONUS
From: Αντίγονος (Antigonos) which meant “against the ancestor”, from αντί (anti) “against” and γονεύς (goneus) “ancestor”. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander died, he took control of most of Asia Minor.

ARCHELAUS
Latinized form of the Greek name Αρχέλαος (Archelaos), which meant “master of the people” from άρχος (archos) “master” and λαος (laos) “people”. This was the name of a son of Herod the Great. He ruled over Judea, Samaria and Idumea.

ARISTOTLE
From Αριστοτέλης (Aristo+teles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from άριστος (aristos) – (aristoctat, Aristophanes etc)=”best” or NOBLEST and τέλος-(telos) =”purpose, aim”(ie: Praxiteles the famous sculptur-artist). This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.

KLEITOS
Means “splendid, famous” in Greek. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals.

CLEOPATRA
Κλεοπάτρα (Kleopatra) which means “glory of the father”, derived from κλέος (kleos) “glory” combined with πατρός (patros) “of the father”. This was the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Shakespeare’s tragedy ‘Antony and Cleopatra’ (1606) is based on her.

The Macedonian name Περδίκκας – (Perdikas) obviusly means “famously just” [περ(ί)- + δίκαιος=just] , but to accept it we must “prove” somehow the doubling of the letter “k” in the theme “δίκη” , meaning “justice”. Interestingly our “proof” comes from the female Acarnanian name “Δικκώ”.

The earliest sources, Herodotus and Thucydides, called the royal family “Temenidae”. In later sources (Strabo, Appian,Pausanias) the term “Argeadae” was introduced . However,Appian said that the term Argeadae referred to a leading Macedonian tribe rather than the name of the ruling dynasty . The words “Argead” and “Argive” derive viaLatin Argīvus from the Greek Ἀργεῖος (Argeios), meaning “of or from Argos” and is first attested in Homer, where it was also used as a collective designation for the Greeks (“Ἀργείων Δαναῶν”, ArgiveDanaans). . A figure, Argeas, is mentioned in the Iliad (16.417),therefore it is possible that there may have been an even earlier tradition deriving the genealogy of the Macedonian kings from the heroes of theTrojan Cycle, which was popular in neighbouring Epirus.

Expansion from the core

Expulsion of the Pieres from the region of Olympus to the region ofPangaion by the Macedonians

Both Strabo and Thucydides said that Emathia andPieria were mostly occupied by Thracians (Pierians,Paeonians) and Bottiaeans, as well as some Illyrian and Epirote tribes.

But the country along the sea which is now called Macedonia, was first acquired and made a kingdom by Alexander [I], father of Perdiccas [II] and his forefathers, who were originally Temenidae from Argos. They defeated and expelled from Pieria the Pierians … and also expelled the Bottiaeans from Bottiaea … they acquired as well a narrow strip of Paeonia extending along the Axios river from the interior to Pella and the sea. Beyond the Axios they possess the territory as far as the Strymon called Mygdonia, having driven out the Edoni. Moreover, they expelled from the district now called Eordaea the Eordi … The Macedonians also made themselves rulers of certain places … namely Anthemus, Grestonia, and a large part of Macedonia proper.

Ethnogenesis 

The entrance to the “Great Tumulus” Museum at Vergina

An atrium with a pebble-mosaic paving in Pella, the Macedonian capital

The process of state formation in Macedonia was similar to that of its neighbours in Epirus, Illyria,Thraceand Thessaly, whereby regional elites could mobilize disparate communities for the purpose of organizing land and resources. Local notables were often based in urban-like settlements, although contemporaneous historians often did not recognize them aspoleisbecause they were not self-ruled but under the rule of a “king”. From the mid-6th century, there appears a series of exceptionally rich burials throughout the region—inTrebenista,Vergina, Sindos,Agia Paraskevi, Pella-Archontiko, Aiani,Gevgelija,Amphipolis—sharing a similar burial rite and grave accompaniments, interpreted to represent the rise of a new regional ruling class sharing a common ideology, customs and religious beliefs. A common geography, mode of existence, and defensive interests might have necessitated the creation of a political confederacy among otherwise ethno-linguistically diverse communities, which led to the consolidation of a new Macedonian ethnic identity.

Mosaic of Ancient Macedonians hunting down a lion. Archaeological Museum of Pella, Macedonia

 Non-Argead centres increasingly became dependent allies, allowing the Argeads to gradually assert and secure their control over the lower and eastern territories of Macedonia.This control was fully consolidated byPhillip II.

Culture

The Golden Larnax, at the Museum of Vergina, which contains the possible remains of King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC).

Macedonian coinage and medallions, depicting Alexander the Great andPhilip II

The inscriptions demonstrate that Hellenism in Upper Macedonia was at a high economic, artistic, and cultural level by the 6th century BC—overturning the notion that Upper Macedonia was culturally and socially isolated from the rest of ancient Greece.

Society

Aristotle, a philosopher from the Macedonian town of Stageira, tutoring young Alexander in the Royal Palace of Pella. The Macedonian Kings often sought the best education possible for their heirs. Artwork by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris.

.

An important aspect of Macedonian social life were court symposia, which were characterized by heavy drinking (of apparently unmixed wine), feasting, and general debauchery. Symposia had several functions, amongst which was providing relief from the hardship of battle and marching. 

Athenian playwrights such as Euripides and Agathonand the famous painter Zeuxis, all were influential in the early kingdom. Euripides wrote his last two tragedies at Archelaos’s(= people`s leader) court.

Religio

Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the Ancient Macedonians.

The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus,Artemis, Heracles, andDionysus.As all the  Ancient Greeks regarded it as an essential element of Hellenic identity to share common religious beliefs and to come together at regular intervals at Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia,Delphi,Nemea/Argos, etc.) in order to celebrate Panhellenic festivals. Most of the gods who were worshipped in southern Greece can also be found in the Macedonian pantheon and the names of the most important Macedonian religious festivals are also typically Greek. Evidence of this worship exists from the beginning of the 4th century BC onwards, but little evidence of Macedonian religious practices from earlier times exists. From an early period, Zeus was the single most important deity in the Macedonian pantheon. Makedon, the mythical ancestor of the Macedonians, was held to be a son of Zeus, and Zeus features prominently in Macedonian coinage.The most important centre of worship of Zeus was at Dion inPieria, the spiritual centre of the Macedonians, where beginning in 400 BC King Archelaos established an annual festival, which in honour of Zeus featured lavish sacrifices and athletic contests. Worship of Zeus’s son Heracles was also prominent; coins featuring Heracles appear from the 5th century BC onwards. This was in large part because the Argead kings of Macedon traced their lineage to Heracles, making sacrifices to him in the Macedonian capitals of Vergina and Pella. Numerous votive reliefs and dedications also attest to the importance of the worship of Artemis. Artemis was often depicted as a huntress and served as a tutelary goddess for young girls entering the coming-of-age process, much asHeracles Kynagidas (Hunter) did for young men who had completed it.

Entrance to the tomb of King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC)

Banquet, tomb of Agios Athanasios, fresco, detail

Language

7270-year-old Tablet Found in Kastoria Calls into Question History of Writing

Back in 1993, in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in the Kastoria Prefecture, professor George Hourmouziadis and his team unearthed the Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or the Dispilio Disk), a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata) that has been carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP (5260 BC).

In February 2004, during the announcement of the Tablet’s discovery to the world, Hourmouziadis claimed that the text with the markings could not be easily publicized because it would ultimately change the current historical background concerning the origins of writing and articulate speech depicted with letters instead of ideograms within the borders of the ancient Greek world and by extension, the broader European one.

According to the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the markings suggested that the current theory proposing that the ancient Greeks received their alphabet from the ancient civilizations of the Middle East (Babylonians, Sumerians and Phoenicians etc)fails to close the historic gap of some 4,000 years. This gap translates into the following facts:  while ancient eastern civilizations would use ideograms to express themselves, the ancient Greeks were using syllables in a similar manner like we use today.

The currently accepted historic theory taught around the world suggests that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. However, a question emerges among scholars: how is it possible for the Greek language to have 800,000 word entries, ranking first among all known languages in the world, while the second next has only 250,000 word entries? How is it possible for the Homeric Poems to have been produced at about 800 BC, which is just when the ancient Greeks learned to write? It would be impossible for the ancient Greeks to write these poetic works without having had a history of writing of at least 10,000 years back, according to a US linguistic research.

The tablet is 2,000 years older than the written findings from the Sumerian era and 4,000 years older than the Cretan-Mycenean linear types of writing.

The markings on the tablet did not resemble the human figures, the sun and moon or other figures ideograms usually depict. They actually showed signs of advanced apheresis, which indicates they are the result of cognitive processes.

The tablet was partially damaged when it was exposed to the oxygen-rich environment outside of the mud and water in which it was immersed for a long period of time, and it is now under conservation. The full academic publication of the tablet apparently awaits the completion of the work of conservation

– See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/07/16/7270-year-old-tablet-found-in-kastoria-calls-into-question-history-of-writing/#sthash.o0yDtSd4.dpuf

Main article: Ancient Macedonian language

In Macedonian onomastics, most personal names are recognizably Greek (e.g. Alexandros, Philippos, Dionysios, Apollonios, Demetrios), with some dating back to Homeric (e.g. Ptolemaeos) or Mycenean times.

Identity

The Vergina Sun – beeing allready PANHELLENIC Symbol, has been proposed as a symbol of ancient Macedonia or of the Argead dynasty by archeologists.

The emphasis on the Heraclean ancestry of the Argeads served to heroicize the royal family and to provide a sacred genealogy which established a “divine right to rule” over their subjects.The Macedonian royal family, like those of Epirus, emphasized “blood and kinship in order to construct for themselves a heroic genealogy that sometimes also functioned as a Hellenic genealogy”.

Macedonian staterfeaturing Alexander the Great and the goddess Athena on the obverse.

The Persians referred to the Macedonians as “Yaunã Takabara” (“Greeks with hats that look like shields”).   Yauna (“Ionians”(minor Asia Greeks their term for “Greeks”- but they were Doric dialects in Minor Asia, as well, likein Pergamo and other cities, but mainly Ionic), though they distinguished the “Yauna by the sea and across the sea” from the Yaunã Takabaraor “Greeks with hats that look like shields”, possibly referring to the Macedoniankausia hat. Yauna and its various attributes possibly referred to regions to the north and west of Asia Minor..”Worthington concludes that “there is still more than enough evidence and reasoned theory to suggest that the Macedonians were racially Greek.

Heroes
1. worship some unknown elsewhere local hero, the Ippalkmou, an embossed plate associated found near the junction of Egnatia and Plato and dated to the late Hellenistic period. In the performance depicted hunting the bull. A rider on the left with a short chiton and mantle, donning, with a raised right hand which holds a spear, facing the menacing bull rushes with raised front legs. Moreover, frequent in works of art the presence of the hero-horseman or knight-hunter, who is associated with the worship of the dead, which prodilonetai either by the presence of the snake, or the horse itself. The horse was long associated with the underworld, or in relation to a god of the underworld, either independently as a demon of death temporarily only harnessed by mortal heroes, like Bellerophon from Macedonia  or Adrastus, who however later they led to the death of these horses. Even Phaethon driving the chariot of the Sun loses sometime control horses sunk him. These myths were a very good way to show the temporary domination of man over death. An example hero-horseman in the area of Macedonia is the case of Hephaistion, who after his death was worshiped as a hero. Testified in a relief the last fifteen years of the 4th century. BC, the era that Cassander, from Pella (located at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki), dedicated by someone Diogenes the hero Hephaestion (Hephaistion heroine DIOGENIS). The Hephaestion pictured right, rather in front of the cave, as a rider, young, beardless, with short hair, and left standing daughter jug in his right hand, which spendei. But who is he Hephaestion(=Vulcano)? Undoubtedly is the close associate and friend of Alexander, his son Proponents of Pella (cf. The place of finding the relief), who was worshiped as afiroismenos dead by Alexander initiative a few years after his untimely death. The worship could not be established in Athens (Hypereides, Epitaph 21), because the power and the cult of heroes, unlike the gods, were confined to the family, the team, his city. Hephaestion then worshiped as afiroismenos dead, who, like his ilk, has a closer and more personal relationship with people, protective works and conciliators between the worlds of mortals and gods. Like the other heroes, standing closer to the chthonic deities, and therefore represented in front of caves and cave s general gaps land considered entry places in the underworld; and there were offerings to the underworld, the dead and the gods.
As for dedicator only speculations can be made based on existing evidence. Lucian eg (On the non radios believing slander 17-18) reports that many of the veterans partners turned in Macedonia in the years after 321 BC they dedicated themselves and their weapons to Hephaestion. It is not excluded, therefore Diogenes was one of them.
2. Silver tray with mythological scenes and the inscription PAFSYLYPOU THESSALONIKI found buried along with many other utensils (plates, bowls, plates, cups, spoons), at Kaiseraugst, Switzerland. [Macedonia 03] They were objects used by the upper classes of the time of M. Kon / mind and his successors. The disc (dated to the mid 4th century AD.), A work Pafsylypou, depicted in eleven scenes life of Achilles(the ideal hero idol of Alexander the Great); from birth and bath in the waters of the Styx and Kokytos as its discovery by Odysseus in palace of Lycomedes and his departure for Troy. If we consider the relationship of Temenid with Aiakides, we can perhaps find and meaning of representations at a time when the old religion objected to the new religion its own theopaida (Achilles, Alexander).
This is why the horse is often found in tombs as funerary while in pottery since the geometric art accompanying the funeral procession of the dead (eg the amphora of Dipylon).
Cleisthenes when he created the ten tribes of Athens, founded ten memorials Market and each tribe took its name from one of the ten heroes. Introducing So the cult of a new hero, and even from Macedonia, it was natural cause serious and strong reactions.
Votive reliefs of the 4th century. BC from different places, different and far apart, to indicate the interface of these heroic cults around the Greek area.

Bellerophon upon Pegasus kills Chimaera
Mosaic of Olynthos, headquarters of Chalkidean League

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The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in the Caduceus of Mercury. Legend says that Mercury once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around her and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – Hermeneutis = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted Asclepius and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated in the sense of koutalini snake control rod to the
spine, the energy of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.

So, like Hermes, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
Hercules, from infancy he managed to drown two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the Champs Elysees ( “Ylisia pedia”Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of Hercules, let it also leaked and that, as Pais of Zeus, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given to him against the Offit Atlanteans, those we call Satan today.
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“Green Gourmet” (at Swedish Vegetarian Sociaty`s H.Q.)
Konstantin & Ewa Sangwal tasting Raw Pineapple & Cocos Ice cream Piroge at the office.- Autumn 1996 – Tjärhovsgatan – Södermalm/Stockholm

Allt om Mat 1996

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Fån Vänster: Petra, Konstantin, Rose-Marie, Patrick Wahlberg “Green Gourmet” 1995 at Swedish Vegetarian Society H.Q. Tjärhovsgatan Stockholm

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Till minnet av underbara pionjären inom “Grön festmat”mm Anna-Lisa Stenudd (nedre bild) styrelseledamot på Sv.V.F. & Hälsofrämjandet.

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                  FERMENTED KALE CHIPS

1) 250 gr. Kale leaf.

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4) Half Red Onion (grated) 2 slices of pressed garlic and 2 teaspoons Butane Lemon Pepper “Sishuan”

5) 3 tablespoons umeshu-shiso vinegar & one dl. gluten-free Tamari.

6) 2 dl. “Beast” (cultivated yeast flakes).

       Do this:

First, mix the ingredients from 2an, 3an, 4an and 5an, in a bowl.

Then you put in the kale leaves, “massage” them and let the leaves absorb for at least 15 minutes.

Last you put in “Bjästen”!

Flatten out on baking paper and into the drying cabinet (at 38 ° C) for about 12 hours.

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Anton & Monika Gutenberg
Curriculum led by Konstantin (arranged by Hälsofrämjaren & Svenska Veg. Föreningen – summer -97)

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Ingredients: 2 tablespoons raw yeast flakes, 200 gr.Cashew pine nuts and butter (to make the food processor), 2 grated fresh garlic cloves, 3 teaspoons of Birch Smoked volcanic Icelandic salt, 2 tablespoons of “Aegean” – Echo – olive oil, ½ teaspoon pepper Chilie, 2 MskProbioform. about 500 gr.ligth beetroot slices.

Mix together in the food processor all ingredients except the Beetroot discs, which will be mixed together, when the mix is ready.

Apply on  Back Scaffolding papers in the drying oven (it should not exceed 37 degrees C), about 16 hours. Good Luck & Mary Christmas!

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Taoism is China’s oldest philosophy and spiritual övningars systems. The energy that is when we are born from the earth, the stars and elements. Modern man has p. G., For some reason forgotten its place in nature, from there she will. We need to learn to take advantage of our legacy of nature, because we are her children and the way to follow the laws of nature is called the Tao.

The way to get to grips with our highest potential forces, by living in harmony with the natural order and energy is also called Tao. Life is a process by itself, similar to a dance. The body is integrated as a whole and all the body parts are connected and interacting with one another, exactly as the universe is integrated as a whole. Our existence depends on these unique forces that are around and within us. The way to live in this interaction with our internal and external environment is to breathe naturally, eat right, think clean, behave fairly and respectfully. It is the way to our optimal spiritual, mental, psychological and social development, then there is health, harmony and happiness of man. To find ourselves in balance, we must first understand the contrasts principle. (ATP) Life energy, called “Qi” in Chinese or “qi” Japanese, are involved from the beginning with us, even at the fetal stage in the umbilical cord and of the other bodies, but also in water, air, food and the universe.

The “Qi”, which we get from the mother earth is yin, while the sky is yang – Hot and cold, night and day, black and white, light and dark, good and evil, health and sickness, life and death … the same principle prevails in all. Without the cooperation of these contrasts, would not himself the universe exist. Just as the world structure is built on the principles of yin and yan is everything else. The same balance should be found even in the food, the acid and base balance is the critical biological factor, even for body, spirit and soul.

The body is a temple, where the idea is cultivated and spiritual forces is achieved. Balance must prevail in all our internal organs, the five elements balance through proper nutrition and positive thought. Our way of thinking is what determines how our lives will be. In this book, we will focus us on the food. According to the Taoists, the green leafy vegetables are the source of the richest food, because they have taken in the sunlight directly in their cells.

Hippocrates (460 f. Kr.), The father of medicine and physiology, among other things, advocating live food in balance with the four elements basically confirmed stubbornly, as was mentioned long before him, by Hesiod (Hellenisk poet, who wrote, among other things. A . “kosmogonia” = människlighe-tence and gods birth about 730 f.Kr.): “Noos hygiis a Somati hygies” = healthy mind in healthy body “. Living food diet consists of fresh berries, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, seaweed and herbs, combined with fermentation (mjölksyring) and germ cultivation. n today’s modern society, Live feed, which still life, has gone to excess, because there are no important knowledge, which deals precisely balance, taking into account the seasons and other factors.

From: 

The Tao of “Green Gourmet” (Edition 1993)

            By Constantin Schönros

The Ultimate Raw Jam of “PIERIAS – Livs-Inspirations Källa”, Royal Jelly & Raw Lactosfree Yougurt

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The Ultimate Raw Jam (Godji, Physallis, Hippophaes Aramoeides, Raw Manuka Honey, Manuka Berries, Ananas, Vanilla, Fresh Ginger, Lemon grated peel. “Benazir”=the Persian word for “Unique” – Saffron)  – ALL Organic

 ALL the above ingredients, as the rest of the recipes  below, are available

at the well-stocked Holistic Shop (Establ.1973).

“PIERIA`S LIVS – INSPIRATIONS KÄLLA”

HÖTORGSHALLEN – STOCKHOLM – SWEDEN

Photo: Konstantin

(Dr.Emoto`s Hand Made Crystal Carafe…warming up at Max 39 Celcius) – Hippocrates Spirt…: -2 B Continued!!…This is the basic for making the Ultimate Godji – Saffron – Jam, by leting the Manuka & Godjii Berries AFTER the rest has been warmed up!!

 

 

The queen bee nutrition in the form of royal jelly results in a life is 5-8 years in comparison with the working bins 45-60 days.
Royal jelly includes:
Natural collagen
18 different enzymes
19 amino acids
Rich in pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
Acetylcholine – a substance that helps in the transmission of nerve signals between cells of the body.
Vitamins / minerals and trace elements
Royal jelly is rich in proteins and contains natural collagen is a protein which builds up among others skin tissue. As we age, the skin’s ability to regenerate collagen, so royal jelly is an excellent addition for those who want to keep skin young, soft and smooth. Furthermore, royal jelly is rich in pantothenic acid which is beneficial for the skin, nails and hair growth.
Traditional use of royal jelly:
Contributes to healthy and young skin.
Supports hormonal balance, (infertility, PMS, menopause)
General tonic because of its rich nutritional content.
Supports the body when fatigue and lack of energy.
Traditionally, royal jelly used by Chinese women to promote feminiteten, to support hormone regulation and in menopausal symptoms, mood swings, PMS and menstrual pain. Royal jelly is was very well known in ancient Greece, particulary (at Asklipios schools, as: in Knidos, Ephessus, Alicarnassos, Thessaly & Kos. It was a very important ingredient, at various Therapeutic, Medical  Pharmacological remendies and Healings. It was also recommended by traditionally oriented Chinese doctors to promote fertility.
Source: VogelWild Raw Honey & Royal Jelly fram the Monastery of mountain province in Greece – wild bees & wild fauna flowerS.Limited production specialy “Pieria’s Livs-Inspirations Källa” 

Pierias Livs - Stockholm, Sverige

Wild Raw Honey & Royal Jelly fram the Monastery of Tricorrpon of Fokis Phovince – Limited production for Pieria’s Livs

 

LACTOSFREE RAW YOUGURT

INGREDIENTS:

One (1) DL. coconut milk.

50 gr. of cacao butter. (In a water bath, until the butter melts at 40°C).

Then along with Natural Vanilla, Pineapple, Goji berries & Strawberries (sufficient, and all must be organic)

Then put the milk into the blender. (preferably “Vitamix”).

When the `ready to put it in a glass Jarr by completing two (2) tablespoons” PROBIOFORM “. (Raw Manuka Honey can be ended if one so wish.)

Let the pretty warm, dark place for 24 hours.

Before moving it in the fridge – the end if you want it thicker Psyllium flakes (on TBS).

 

Tempesto – & Allium ursinum (Ramslök, Wild garlic)

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“TEMPESTO”
100g Tempeh (eco)
100g fresh or 60(when is dry) Ramson leaves (wild garlic Leaves)
200g basil leaves
50g Pumpkin seeds 
200g Pine nuts
50g walnuts.

Olive oil, seasoning Umesu
Take a large handful of fresh, young Ramson leaves and wash thoroughly. Take a handful of fresh basil and place both in a blender. Cover with olive oil and mix until smooth. Add 200g finely grated pesto and stir until it is evenly mixed in. Add some coarsely ground pine, wainuts nuts & pumpkin seeds

This pesto is very versatile – you can move it in freshly cooked pasta,for home made ravioli, stir in a mixture of “Bio Cottage cheese” &Tempesto” c to create a tasty bread spread, or whatever you want .

 

Ramsons (Allium ursinum) 

umInline image 1Inline image 2

 

Domain: eucaryotes
The word formed from the Greek εὖ (EU, “good”, “true”) and κάρυον (Karyon, `Head`, `main ‘,` walnut’, `beloved ‘, core ‘) which refers to the cell nucleus-

Known sice the anciet times from both Hippogrates & later Dioskuridis (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naples)
Family: Amaryllidaceae.
Studies have shown that aqueous extracts of wild garlic has a strong antibacterial activity and is considered as a natural antibiotic. Usage is to cure colds, prevention of atherosclerosis, as a means against flatulence and the countering of blood clots. Use plant part is the whole plant.

Wild garlic has a very strong flavor, which is why it is best to mix it with other herb. Basil works well, because the two complement each other well. Other herbs that you can use is chickweed, dandelion leaves or lamb quarters. Oil Marinated dried tomatoes also makes an excellent addition to this pesto recipe.is a drug and dietary plant species with a long tradition of use. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge of Phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of this valuable plant, with particular emphasis on antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant and cardio-protective effects.

 But studies on its composition and pharmacological activity is quite recent and scarce. The purpose of this review was to summarize the most important aspects related to A. ursinum and gives an overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this relatively poorly known plant species in the Allium genus.

Trancedermal Nutrition Therapy(TNT) & Nutritional Cosmetics – Masticosmetics – Antiarthritic Remendies

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 “Masticare” –

(See at: Mastic of Chios & Collagen – Hippophaphaes..)

 Propotions

A)  Intake:  1): Mastic 40%, Seabuck thorn 20%, Inulin 5%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 10%, Sunseed Lecitine 5%, Allohe Vera 5% Probiform 10%; in Double as much destilled water volume

2) Ultimate Therapeuphtic Smoothies: One liter Cocos & Rice Milk, One Table spoon of Goji Berries, One tablesp. of Raw Cacao powder, one Tea sp. of Mastic powder, One Tablesp., of Seabuckthorn, One Table spoon of Astragalous, One Tbl-sp. of Probiform, 1/2 tea spoon of Fresh ginger, 1/2 Tea spoon of Vanila powder & One Table spoon of Alohe Vera.

 B) Beauty (& Antiarthretic) Application: Mastic 8%, Seabuck Thorn Cold Pressed oil 10%, RoyalJelly 10%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 5%, Sunflowerseed-Lecitine 5%, Vanilla poweder 5%, Cold Pressed Coco`s oil 10%, Manuka honey 5%,  Sear Butter 7%, Hyaluronic Acid 20% &  Aloe-Vera 10%. Our skin is the biggest organ in our Body. Clean Spring Living Water even externally.

The ULTIMATE method is :

  1. )To distill the tap water: 

  2. ) to Vortex it in a magnetic field (of 15thn Gaus for approx: 9 minutes/ NIKKEN “Pig Mag” is recommended) . Image result for PiMag nikken

  3. )to Loadit with Oz3 Image may contain: indoor

  4. ) Put in Masaru Emoto´s into Fibonacci  carafes – Knowledge based on PYTHAGORAS. Image may contain: indoor

  5. )To enrich it with minerals

Mastic 8%, Seabuck Thorn Cold Pressed oil 15%, RoyalJelly 10%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 5%, Sunflowerseed-Lecitine 10%, Vanilla poweder 5%, Cold Pressed Coco`s oil 15%, Manuka honey 22%, Probiform 5%.

C) Beauty (& Antiarthretic) Application:

 Mastic 8%, Seabuck Thorn Cold Pressed oil 10%, RoyalJelly 10%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 5%, Sunflowerseed-Lecitine 5%, Vanilla poweder 5%, Cold Pressed Coco`s oil 10%, Manuka honey 5%,  Sear Butter 7%, Hyaluronic Acid 20% &  Aloe-Vera 10%.

 INFO:

Mastic of Chios

Konstantin

Μαστίχα Χίου: οι θεραπευτικές της ιδιότητες.

                               

The word mastic is derived from the Greek verb, (μαστιχεινmastihein = “to gnash the teeth”), which is the source of the English word masticate.[1] The word mastic is a synonym for gum in many languages.

Imitations and substitutes

The rarity of mastic and the difficulty of its production make it expensive. As a result, imitations in the form of other resins appear in the market, sold as “mastic,” such as Boswellia or gum arabic. Other trees, such as Pistacia palaestina, can also produce a resin similar to mastic. Yet other substances, such as pine tree resin and almond tree resin, are sometimes used in place of mastic.

Mastic is a natural resin that comes from the trunk of the mastic tree. The color is whitish – yellowish and translucent transparent up. The mastic tree grows only in southern Chios. It takes the full development of 40-50 years and lives about 100 from the 5th to the 6th year gives the resin after the 15th produces 60-250gr and in rare cases 400g. The exclusive production of the island of Chios due in accordance with temperate climate theories in the area and underwater volcanoes and limestone soil. Attempts have been made to cultivate the mastic mastic tree and in other parts of Greece and other countries, but without success.

The properties of mastic had been discovered since ancient times. The first reports from Herodotus in the 5th century BC .. Many ancient authors refer to the therapeutic properties of mastic as Pliny, Theophrastos, Dioscorides and Galenos. The medicinal properties were known toHippocrates. In ancient Rome they used toothpicks of mastic to whiten their teeth. In ancient Greece chewed the dried resinous liquid that flowed from the bark of the mastic tree. Also found prescriptions which seems mastic used in various diseases. The mastic production is from June to September. The flavor of gum chewing in the beginning is rather bitter but then disappears and the special scent adds a special flavor. The hardness is due to many factors such as temperature, exposure time of mastic and size of your tear.

Cosmetics:

researches alleged that Chios mastic extract reduces the disintegration of collagen.

  What Does Collagen Do?

May help to maintain Arthros & joints problems, healthy hair, skin and nails.It is thought that from the age of 25, your body loses collagen at a rate of 1.5% per annum, so by the age of 35, your body will have lost 15% and by 45, 30%. This is when you really start to notice a change in your skin’s elasticity and texture. 

Collagen naturally contains glucosamine and chondroitin which may help to support healthy joints by attracting fluid back into the joint space to cushion the bone and by rebuilding cartilage.

  • Kollagen är den viktigaste struktursubstansen i bindväven och därmed viktig för hudens elasticitet och densitet, men är även av avgörande betydelse för ledfunktionen. Antioxidativ, naturlig vitamin C från Acai & Camu-camu bär skyddar cellerna mot skador från oxidativ stress.

Medicine:People in the Mediterranean region have used mastic as a medicine for gastrointestinal ailments for several thousand years. The first-century Greek physician and botanistDioscorides, wrote about the medicinal properties of mastic in his classic treatise De Materia Medica (“About Medical Substances”).Consumption of mastic has been proven to absorb cholesterol, thus easing high blood pressure and reducing the risk of heart attacks. Mastic oil also has antibacterial and antifungal properties, and as such is widely used in the preparation of ointments for skin disorders and afflictions. It is also used in the manufacture of plasters.In recent years, university researchers have provided the scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of mastic. A 1985 study by the University of Thessaloniki and by the Meikai University discovered that mastic can reduce bacterial plaque in the mouth by 41.5%. A 1998 study by the University of Athens found that mastic oil has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Another 1998 University of Nottingham study, claims that mastic can heal peptic ulcers by killing Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcersgastritis, and duodenitis. Some in vivo studies have shown that mastic gum has no effect on H. pylori when taken for short periods of time. However, a recent and more extensive study showed that mastic gum reduced H. pylori populations after an insoluble and sticky polymer (poly-β-myrcene) constituent of mastic gum was removed and taken for a longer period of time. Further analysis showed the acid fraction was the most active antibacterial extract, and the most active pure compound was isomasticadienolic acid.Mastic is a natural resin that comes from the trunk of the mastic tree. The color is whitish – yellowish and translucent transparent up. The mastic tree grows only in southern Chios. It takes the full development of 40-50 years and lives about 100 from the 5th to the 6th year gives the resin after the 15th produces 60-250gr and in rare cases 400g. The exclusive production of the island of Chios due in accordance with temperate climate theories in the area and underwater volcanoes and limestone soil. Attempts have been made to cultivate the mastic mastic tree and in other parts of Greece and other countries, but without success.

                          “Masticare”

 Propotions

A) Intake: 

Mastic 60%, Inulin 5%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 10%, Sunseed Lecitine 5%, Allohe Vera 5% Probiform 10%; in Double as much destilled water volume

B) Application:

Mastic 8%, Seabuck Thorn Cold Pressed oil 15%, RoyalJelly 10%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 5%, Sunflowerseed-Lecitine 10%, Vanilla poweder 5%, Cold Pressed Coco`s oil 15%, Manuka honey 22%, Probiform 5%.

Dioscorides (1st century AD.) “Father of pharmacology”, physician and botanist from Cilicia, had a pharmacy for 35 years and classify drugs into 5 categories. His work “De Materia Medica” I did not overcome until the 16th century. Dioscorides praises the healing properties of Chios Mastic indicating that helps in cases of indigestion, the reproduction of blood in chronic cough, while acting as a sedative drug. It also found that chewing mastic than oral hygiene and gives pure and fresh breath. In another reference to the fact he speaks of a mastic, the essential oil of mastic, which as stated variously applied for diseases of the uterus, as mild heating, astringent and emollient agent. Chios Mastic (natural rubber)

·                          Chios Mastiha

What is Mastiha?  Mastiha is the natural and rare tree resin of the pistacia lentiscus var Chia tree. Scientific research has shown that this resin has anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory qualities.  It has been documented from antiquity for its health benefits, its use as the first natural chewing gum and as a cooking spice. Today, it is still chewed as well as used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in the culinary world.  Chios Mastiha contributes to a healthy gastrointestinal system and has beneficial effects for both oral hygiene and skin care. Chios Mastiha is protected by the European Union as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) product.  This distincion recognizes the name of a specific region or country where a specific agricultural product originates exclusively due to the geographical environment.  This includes the natural and human factors and production, alteration and processes which take place in the delineated geographical area.  All PDO products bear the EU symbol designating them as such. Chewing Chios Mastiha is a truly unique experience.  To create your own natural piece of gum, select a few medium pieces of the resin, or combine a small piece with a large one.  The larger pieces tend to be softer than the small ones, so it is recommended that one chew a mixture rather than chew only the small, hard pieces.  Before chewing, let the pieces moisten in your mouth. Mastiha may taste a bit bitter at first, but that taste fades into a light herbal flavor.  Begin chewing and Mastiha becomes a white silky color.  The resin keeps its hard texture indefinitely and this is precisely why it is recommended for gum health and amazingly clean teeth!  Keep chewing the gum for a half hour in order to gain all the therapeutic benefits. For more information on Chios Mastiha, click on the informational brochures below. Chios Mastiha Overview Chios Mastiha Medical and Scientific Reports Chios Mastiha Guide to Beauty Care De första rapporterna om mastix och mastix identifierats i antiken och i huvudsak härrör från Herodotos (484-420 f.Kr.), som skall anges att i det antika Grekland tuggade det torkade hartsartade vätska som strömmar från barken av mastix . I medicinska texter sen antiken fann rikedom recept, viktigaste ingrediensen kitt, vilket är till gagn för människors hälsa och tillskrivs många egenskaper. Vanligtvis används i kombination med andra naturmaterial för att behandla många sjukdomar. I själva verket, på grund av den starka inverkan av antiflegmonodous eleanolikou och oleanolic acid (3-oxotriterpenio) fungerar mastix getväppling lyse inflammation start från specifika organ periodontit, esofagit, gastrit, duodenalsår och kolit tills hemorrojder. Förhindrar också stagnation inom dessa områden förebygga symtom som matsmältningsbesvär eller gasbildning. Dessutom är uppslutnings underlättas genom reflex utsöndring av saliv och magsaft genom tuggummi. Faktum är att mastixen som fortfarande används idag för att mjuka tumörer i anus, bröst, lever, öronspott, mjälte, mage, tarm och matstrupe, även för diarré hos barn. Dessutom anses det vara ett smärtstillande, hostdämpande, orexigenic, afrodisiakum, sammandragande, erytropoes, urindrivande, slemlösande och blodstillande. Mastix nämns som den traditionella motgift mot bölder, acne, cancer, sår och tumörer, maligna vesikler kardiodynias, vårtor, tröghet, gingivit, dålig andedräkt, vita flytningar, mastit, spetsar och åderförkalkning. Senaste medicinska studier vid universitetet i Nottingham sade att även i minimala doser (1 mg dagligen i 2 veckor), kan kitt läka magsår, som är ansvarig för bakterien Helicobacter Pylori, på grund av dess antimikrobiella åtgärder, samtidigt som viktiga och dess effekt på leverfunktionen, och aktiverar avgiftande aktivitet. På detta sätt absorberas kolesterol, är vars koncentration i blodet minskar, vilket minskar risken för hjärt-och kärlsjukdomar. Fortfarande, out och diuretiska egenskaper, medan viktig är inhiberingen av leukotriensyntes genom verkan av mastix. Annan modern vetenskaplig forskning som lett till isolering och identifiering av ursolic och oleanolic syra, avslöjade och bekräftade att många av de läkemedelsverksamhet kitt, såsom cancer, leverskyddande, anti-inflammatorisk, antiulcer, antimikrobiell (mot många patogener såsom Staphylococcus och salmonella) anti-hyperlipidemi och antivirala åtgärder, förklaras främst att ursolsyra, och isomeren, oleanolic syra. Den näst vanligaste användningen av mastix i samband med vård av munhålan. Den är lämplig för att göra tandkräm (Epitomae 2,26), tillhandahålla rent andning och släppa överflödig fukt i munnen (Aëtius 3.141). I själva verket har det visat sig att tillsats av naturligt gummi pasta i tandkräm, tvättlösningar och frisk andedräkt leder till att stärka immunförsvaret av vävnad mellan tänderna och tandköttet, vilket verkar mot bildandet av plack och andra parodontala sjukdomar. Verkningsmekanismen involverar reaktionen av komponenterna i tandköttet polymorfa cellkärnor i området för den orala håligheten och orsakar ansamling av vita blodkroppar. Av särskilt intresse är det faktum att mastixen som används för trimning. Den fungerade som solskydd mot brännskador från solen (Oribasius, Ad Eustathium 6,53), medan en viktig ingrediens i tillverkningen av tvål och skönhetskräm (Aëtius 8,14). I moderna kosmetika, kitt, på grund av ursolsyra och dess isomer, oleanolic syra, används i preparat som är avsedda att förbättra hårväxten och skydd mot irritation i hårbotten. Dessutom är företagens kosmetika och parfymer med hjälp mastix, såsom eterisk olja vid framställning av parfymer och ansiktskrämer, som ursolsyra, bland annat fastställs strukturerna för kollagen och elasticitet i huden och därigenom minska åldringstiden. Ändå, det kitt som används i konfektyrer som tillsats vid framställning av stora mängder godis, sötsaker och bageri smak medan matlagning lägger en distinkt smak till kött, ost eller som krydda. Inom dryckesindustrin, tjänar till att framställa likör ouzo, såsom genom tillsats av gummi dryck får sin smak och minskar skadliga effekterna av alkohol. Slutligen är det kitt en idealisk mat konserveringsmedel, eftersom den förhindrar tillväxten av skadliga mikroorganismer i dem, såsom Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudo fragi, Candida albicans, osv. Den biologiska aktiviteten hos Chios mastix tuggummi har utvärderats i flera in vitro-studier relaterade till förmågan att hämma oxidation av LDL (det onda kolesterolet), där den har den högsta antioxidant aktivitet jämfört med andra plaster och gummin, och därmed ökat skydd för det kardiovaskulära systemet. Harts av mastix Chiou innehåller avsevärda mängder av olika polyfenoler jämfört med andra naturliga produkter, i kombination med andra komponenter (t.ex. terpenoids) förvärvar positiva hälsoegenskaper. Bland dessa egenskaper, har en viktig roll som spelas av den allmänna antioxidant. Antioxiderande aktivitet Skydd av LDL (det onda kolesterolet) genom oxidation som leder till en minskning av kolesterol deponeras i vävnader och därmed en minskning av produktionstakten av aterosklerotiska plack, vilket minskar risken för hjärtsjukdomar och vissa cancerformer. Dessutom polyfenoler utställning och andra skyddsåtgärder-fysiologiska effekter, bra för hälsan, den viktigaste av dessa kan sammanfattas enligt följande:

  • Minska blodsocker och blodkolesterol

  • Skydd av epitelceller i andningsorganen

  • Öka nivåerna av HDL (det goda kolesterolet) och lägre nivåer av LDL (dåligt kolesterol)

  • Antitumöraktivitet (i tjocktarmscancer cell apoptos)

  • Antimikrobiell och antibakteriell aktivitet

  • Antiallergiska egenskaper (hämning av trombocytaggregation)

Sammanfattningsvis vill vi säga att de dagliga tuggummi Chios, främst i råformat (kristaller eller “tårar” kitt) och finkornig, godis (tuggummi) eller Mastich olja, förutom vackra naturliga smak och färskhet attribut, har betydligt resulterar i att skydda och bevara vår hälsa, genom olika effekter på vår kropp. Slutligen, är det underförstått att det kitt produkt är unik, både för sina egenskaper och för den exklusiva ursprung, eftersom det kitt trädet växer bara på ön Chios. http://www.gummastic.gr/index.php?contentid=73&langflag=_en  http://www.fytokomia.gr/permalink/4150.html   Hem »Hälsa» Den helande egenskaper kitt   De helande egenskaper kitt mastix. Sedan antiken redan var känd välgörande egenskaper kitt och mastix olja för hälsan.   Mastix kallas aromatisk harts, som utvinns ur kitt eller mastix träd, som endast växer på ön Chios och i ingen annan del av världen, eftersom alla ansträngningar, växternas tillväxt i andra delar av Grekland och därefter, misslyckades .   Minsta regn, mycket sol och kalkrik jordart är den perfekta miljön för framgång av anläggningen. Det kitt anses vara en produkt med riktigt fantastiska funktioner för medicinsk, konfekt, ortodonti, etc.   Undersökningar visar att mastixen har antiseptisk och antiinflammatorisk effekt. Mastic fungerar healing, inflammation botar specifika sjukdomar, som: parodontit, esofagit, gastrit, sår i tolvfingertarmen, kolit och hemorrojder.   Kliniskt har mastix accepteras särskilt fördelaktigt för behandling av duodenalsår, eftersom det kan inhibera tillväxten av Helicobacter pylori, som lever under den gastrointestinala slemhinnan i 90% av patienterna med duodenalsår och 60% av patienterna som lider av magsår, vilket orsakar förändringar av cellens struktur.   Nyligen genomförda studier har påvisat närvaron av polyfenoliska föreningar som är kända för deras starka antioxidant aktivitet, och skydda vävnader och celler av organismen i närvaro av fria radikaler.   Andra positiva egenskaper av mastix, som mednutrition.gr, är som följer:   Sänkning blodsocker-och kolesterolnivåer. Skydd av epitelceller i luftvägarna. Ökande halter av HDL (det goda kolesterolet) och minska nivåerna av 
 LDL (det onda kolesterolet). Antikarkiniki åtgärden (i colon cancer cell apoptos). Antimikrobiell och antibakteriell aktivitet. Antiallergiska egenskaper. As mentioned above the aromatic resinous substance derived from the trunk and branches of the mastic tree. Its use is known from ancient times. It has been used in traditional and practical therapeutic for various conditions such as abdominal pain, dyspepsia and peptic ulcers. In modern times the scientific community, in a correct and scientific way, is to document the beneficial properties of Chios mastic. Be noted here that the systematic use of chewing can cause significant inhibition of bacterial growth in the oral cavity, while reducing the formation of plaque on teeth. Chewing also helps dressage gum, with all its beneficial effects on the health of teeth and because of the special taste and hardness, causes secretion saloiy, resulting in a feeling of freshness and cleanliness. It is 100% natural product and for this reason may contain a very small percentage of impurities. It consists further washing with water. POWDER MASTIC CHIOY (food preparation) Nutritional composition with Chios mastic powder and inulin, a unique combination that helps KALLI functioning and healthy digestive system. Inulin is a natural fiber that is isolated from horseradish roots and demonstrably contribute to the growth of beneficial gut bacteria (bifidus). It is proposed that additional preparation in the daily diet, once daily at a dose of 3.2 g (teaspoon each) mixed with water or beverage, preferably before breakfast. Please note that the product is partially soluble in water (suitable for diabetics). Mastic (natural aqueous gum flavor) It is naturally flavored water that carries the authentic flavor mastic and some of its beneficial properties. Is 100% natural extract containing a low amount of the essential oil of mastic while transporting all of the soluble components that exhibit beneficial properties. The Mastic, taken from the mastic, through simple distillation with steam, so synapostazei with mastic oil (essential oil), and then separated from it by the simple process of phase separation. Use morning and night as a moisturizer and toner offering freshness and natural glow to the skin. Same time can be used for deep cleaning and perfuming the skin of the body. Kosmitologikes studies suggest that extracts Chios Mastic reduce apoiodomisi collagen. The mastic is dermatologically tested. In clinical trials conducted at University Avenue, proved that the mastic is safe for the skin, as contact with the skin of healthy volunteers induced no irritation problems. SCENTED OIL SOAP Mastic The soap combines the beneficial properties of olive oil with antibacterial and regenerative properties of Chios mastic and mastic oil. Produced from 100% natural ingredients with no chemical additives and pigments. In this soap has enhanced feature, fragrant aroma of Chios mastic. Spread HONEY Mastic Unique in flavor and quality honey pine scented Mastic Chios. The fir honey is considered one of the best and aromatikoteres honey varieties. Is particularly thick and due to the high concentration of trace elements has high nutritional and biological value. The mastic is known for its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and is beneficial to the health of the digestive system. The spread with honey mastic is the ideal combination of two natural products that promote health and ideally complements a healthy and balanced diet. (ideal for the energy they need in their breakfast children) CHEWING GUM IN TABLETS WITHOUT SUGAR 15% Chios MASTIC. It is the innovative new gum of Chios Mastic Growers Association in tablet form. Produced by a novel technique involving proporiaki simply compressing the ingredients in tablet form. By avoids heat or other stresses incurred most of the chewing gum commercial. Safeguarded so the utmost naturalness and properties of mastic and transported safely to the consumer the benefit of actions. Unlike common chewing gum, contributes to the soothing treatment of xerostomia, and due to her particular taste and causes greater relative hardness drooling, resulting freshness and cleanliness. Made from pure, natural materials and thus the taste, appearance and mouthfeel may differ. Read also: Mastic, its role in our health and mastic, culture

Sea Buckthorn (“ιπποφαες αραμοειδης” Hippophaes Aramoeides= Shining Horses)

Konstantin

  • On July 5, 2014
  • https://euphoriatric.com

Hippophae rhamnoides(alias Havtorn från: ιππος + φως = häst + ljus ”de lysande hästarna”). (ραμνοειδες = bär).

Alexander den Store (Αλεξανδρος αλεξω + ανηρ-ανδρος = beskydare från man) livnärde detta till sina soldater och hästar för att öka sin styrka och uthållighet och gör sina rockar glänsa.

Krigarna åt även denna växt ljusa orange bär för att ge sig själva styrka för strid och använde dem för att behandla sina sår som gav dem bättre uthållighet och snabbare återhämtning gånger än sina fiender.

Forskare återupptäckte “sällsynt” naturliga hud mjukgörande som bokstavligen stoppar hela kroppen torkar ut … från insidan … och smälter bort synliga tecken på åldrande genom att … öka produktionen av kollagen, som finns det just iMasticha från Chios (www.euphoriatric.com)

 Förbättrar:

*villkoret av hår, hud och naglar

*hudens förmåga att behålla fukt

*Restorerar ungdomlig spänst och fyllighet till åldrande hud celler och membran

*Lindring av symptom på klimakteriet

*Omega 7 är den enda, som reparerar skadade slemhinnorna:

Ögon, näsa, hals, lungor, urogenital-tarmkanalen och många andra delar av kroppen.

Fria radikaler … oxidativ stress som orsakas av avfallsprodukter som produceras av kroppen.

Alla dessa har en skadlig, åldrande effekt på kroppen … speciellt på huden.

Men hålla tätt för att du är på väg att upptäcka den mest fantastiska motgift som har förblivit en hemlighet i århundraden, men som nu orsakar spänning bland anti-aging forskare över hela världen

Och det är först nu – århundraden senare – att forskarna börjar att till fullo förstå föryngrande egenskaper av Havtorn.

Forskning har visat att det ger protein (viktigt för vegetarianer och veganer), plus över 100 näringsämnen, inklusive spårämnen av järn, koppar, mangan och selen.

Till exempel, dess gyllene-orange bär ger en av de rikaste källorna till vitaminer och näringsämnen, inklusive vitamin C och E, folsyra, betakaroten, lykopen och zeaxantin. . . som alla har visat i senaste forskningen som skyddar mot kroniska sjukdomar som cancer och hjärtsjukdomar.

Kallpressad Olja från växtens frön är också fylld av fettsyror som oljesyra, linolsyra och alfa-linolensyra, som har visat sig bidra till att minska rynkor och bevarar hudens fuktighet, hjälper till att göra det känns mjukare och smidigare .. .

Dessa essentiella fettsyror som inte bara utgör viktiga byggstenar som främjar frisk hud, hår och naglar, men de är också kända för att främja hudens läkning och lindra en mängd olika hudåkommor såsom eksem.

*Dessutom kan de också påskynda läkningen av sår och brännskador.

I en studie var havtorn utsäde olja som används med framgång vid behandling av atopisk (allergisk) dermatit och främja regenerering av skadad vävnad (Dermatology 1995, 48 (3): 30-33).

Ingredienserna i oljan har också förmågan att skydda huden mot skador från skadlig ultraviolett (UV) strålning från solen.

Men, kanske viktigast av allt, är havtorn, rikaste källan till omega-7 fettsyror på planeten …

Omega-7: En av de mest sällsynta näringsämnen på planeten

Nu har du säkert redan hört talas om omega-3, -5, -6 och -9 fettsyror, huvudsakligen härrör från fiskolja, och hur viktigt det är för en god hälsa.

Men väldigt lite har någonsin känt om omega-7 – förrän nu det är.

Omega-7 (palmitoleinsyra och vaccensyra) är en av de mest sällsynta näringsämnen eftersom det bara förekommer i livsmedel som macademia nötter, kallt vatten fisk …. och havtorn!

Och samtidigt som du måste äta massor av fisk och nötter för att komma någonstans nära terapeutiska nivåer av omega-7 i kroppen, är det olja från havtorn frön och bär så potent att du bara behöver regelbundna små mängder för att börja se fantastiska resultat.

 

Och trots att kliniska tester på sina medicinska användningsområden först genomförts i Ryssland under 1950-talet, forskarna fortfarande bara börjat att helt avslöja havtorn utestående egenskaper som en anti-inflammatorisk, anti-mikrobiella, smärtstillande, och mycket, mycket mer .

Havtornsolja har också visat sig vara en anmärkningsvärt effektiv naturlig botemedel för hälsoproblem relaterade till skadade slemhinnor – särskilt i mag-tarmkanalen, inklusive följande utbredda villkor:

*Munsår (afte, eller kräfta sår)

*Halsont och streptokocker i halsen

*Esofagit (inflammation i matstrupen) och Barretts esofagus

*Sura uppstötningar

*Terapiresistent magsår och kronisk erosiv gastrit

*Ulcerös kolit (inflammation och sår i tjocktarmsslemhinnan)

*Crohns sjukdom

*Tarmfickor och divertikulit

Om Havtorn s lista med fördelar slutade där, jag tror att du håller med om att de redan skulle vara imponerande nog på egen hand …

Men det är inte där historien slutar …. inte på långa vägar! … Eftersom havtorn …

. . . Fyller, lugnar och helar åldrande och skadad hud

Havtornsolja är extremt effektiv vid behandling av hudsjukdomar, såsom sår och brännskador.

Anledningen till detta är på grund av dess höga halter av palmitoleinsyra. Denna fettsyra är en naturlig komponent i huden och verkar som ett uppmjukande medel … befrämja sårläkning och skyddar huden mot långvarig solexponering.

Fabrikens hud-skyddande fördelar härrör också från det faktum att det är en kraftfull antioxidant – tack vare sin höga C-vitamin, karotenoider, och fenolhalt. Detta gör det effektivt mot för tidigt åldrande av huden och effekter av miljöföroreningar.

Dessutom har det nu blivit vetenskapligt godkänd av forskare som har funnit att extrakt av havtorn kan påskynda läkningen av brännskador och skydda den omgivande huden från fria radikaler (Mol Cell Biochem 2006 Apr 22,. Epub ahead of print).

I en annan studie, kinesiska forskare från Burns och plastikkirurgi avdelningen, Shenzhen Buji folkets sjukhus, i Shenzhen, använt Havtorn olja på såren av 151 patienter med brännskador. Dessa patienter jämfördes med en annan grupp av brännskador patienter som endast behandlats med vaselin gasväv.

De havtorn patienter Sea visade en snabbare takt av förbättring och healing, med mindre svullnad och mindre smärta. Forskarna drog slutsatsen att:

“Som en värdefull växtolja med breda användningsområden inom medicin, Hippophae rhamnoides (Havtorn) olja för extern applikation har klara effekter på läkningen av brännskador” (Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue 2006, 26 (1):. 124 – 5).

. . Fuktar din kropp naturligt och hjälper

Med Intim Torrhet

Havtorn fröolja har visat sig innehålla de högsta kända nivåerna av en sällsynt omega-7 fettsyror som kallas palmitoleinsyra, som har visat sig hjälpa återfukta slemhinnorna i hela kroppen.

Det har använts med framgång vid behandling av Sjögrens syndrom (en autoimmun sjukdom där slemhinnorna blir torra) och vaginal torrhet under klimakteriet (Proceedings of the 97th Annual Meeting & Expo i American Oil Chemists ‘Society, april-maj 2006 St Louis, USA).

. . . Bidrar till att stärka ditt immunförsvar att skydda dig mot sjukdom

Forskare från Immunomodulering Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, i Stockholm har funnit att havtorn skyddar också immunförsvaret mot gifter och miljögifter (såsom krom)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fungerar som en kraftfull anti-inflammatorisk För att skydda dig mot hjärtsjukdomar

Cancer, hjärtsjukdomar och kroniska sjukdomar i allmänhet, tros orsakas av bakomliggande inflammation i vävnader. Tack och lov har havtorn visat sig minska alla typer av inflammation och det har redan varit en hel del forskning som utförs på havtorn anti-cancerpotential, och flera vetenskapliga institutioner över ordet har nyligen meddelat genombrott inom detta område.

I en färsk rapport som fokuserade på de senaste forskningsrönen i sina anti-cancer fördelar, forskare från Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, i Pakistan kommenterade:

“De kliniska prövningar och vetenskapliga studier under 20-talet bekräftar den medicinska och näringsvärdet i havtorn, och den viktigaste av dem är dess anti-cancer egenskaper. Vår forskning är inriktad på den anti-cancer potential lipider från denna anläggning” (asiatiska Pac J Cancer Föreg 2006,. 7 (1) :32-5).

Indiska forskare från Immuno-module Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, i Stockholm har nyligen rapporterat att havtornsextrakt arbetar i hjärtat av den inflammatoriska processen, minskar kväveoxid, en giftig biprodukt av din dagliga ämnesomsättning som initierar inflammation.

De rapporterade att:

“Föreslår Vår studie att havtorn bladextraktet har betydande anti-inflammatorisk aktivitet och har potential för behandling av inflammatoriska sjukdomar” (Int Immunopharmacol 2006,. 6 (1) :46-52).

. . . Skyddar din lever och sänker högt blodtryck

De senaste resultaten från en klinisk studie 2003 visade att ett extrakt av havtorn ges till patienter med levercirros bidragit till att normalisera leverenzymer, serum gallsyror och immunsystemförändringar kopplade till leverinflammation och degeneration (Gastroenterology 2003, 9 (7) : 1615-1617)

Trots att ytterligare kliniska studier behövs, forskarna som utför den senaste studien tror att havtorn bladextraktet kan vara effektiv som ett komplement för att förebygga och behandla leversjukdomar.

En annan nyligen publicerad studie, den här gången från Kina, undersökte förmågan hos naturliga föreningar i havtorn frön, som kallas flavoner, för att sänka blodtrycket (J Ethnopharmacol 2008, 117 (2): 325-33).

Utfodring en hög sockerdiet till råttor pressas upp sitt blodtryck med 25 procent, blodfetter med 85 procent och insulinnivåer med en massiv 114 procent. När dessa djur fick en havtorn utsäde extrakt, var alla tre förhöjda nivåer betydligt.

Havtorn verkar fungera genom att förbättra insulinkänsligheten (cellernas förmåga att ta upp glukos som svar på hormonet insulin) och genom att blockera effekten av angiotensin (ett hormon som gör att blodkärlen drar ihop sig, så driver upp blodtrycket). Forskarna tror att havtorn kan vara användbart vid behandling av kardiovaskulär sjukdom kopplad till höga insulinnivåer.

. . . Sänker kolesterol och C-reaktivt protein

I en finsk studie som anges för att fastställa om 28 g av havtorn bär puré varje dag minskade incidensen av förkylningar i friska frivilliga (vilket det inte gjorde), ett oväntat fynd var en nedgång i sina blodnivåer av C-reaktivt protein (CRP). (Eur J Clin Nutr, e-pub ahead of print: 27 Juli 2007).

Detta är en substans som produceras i levern och i samband med inflammation och med en ökad risk för både hjärt-kärlsjukdom och typ-2 diabetes.

I djurstudier förefaller havtorn också för att hjälpa hjärthälsa genom att minska kolesterolnivåer. När forskarna gav havtorn fröolja till kaniner som hade utfodrats antingen en normal kost eller en funktion som hämtar upp sina kolesterolvärden, fann de betydande minskningar av totalt kolesterol och förhållandet mellan LDL till HDL-kolesterol (Phytomedicine 2007, 14 (11 ): 770-777).

Ännu bättre, i djur vars artärerna blivit härdade, havtorn fröolja återställt sin elasticitet till normala nivåer.

 

 

 

 

 

Läker och förhindrar Magsår

Havtorn hälsofördelar verkar inte slut där. En av dess många traditionella användningsområden är behandling av magsår och laboratoriestudier har visat att den reglerar magsyraproduktion och styr

utsöndringen av ämnen som främjar inflammation (φυτοθεραπεια) = Fitoterapia 2002, 73 (7-8): 644-650).

I en kinesisk klinisk studie med trettio fall av magsår, tog patienterna tolv havtorn olja kapslar dagligen i en månad. Vid slutet av studien hade sår botats i tre fjärdedelar av patienterna (Hippophaë 1997, 10 (4): 39-41).

. . . Löser upp blodproppar och djup ventrombos (DVT)

Säkrare än aspirin, men lika effektivt för att förebygga blodproppar, havtorn höga innehåll av flavonoider – naturligt förekommande växtkemikalier – har visat sig ge allvarliga skydd mot blodproppar och DVT.

Dessa flavonoider har visat sig minska trombocytaggregation – vidhäftning av blodkroppar, vilket kan resultera i att blodproppar om de lämnas därhän.

Japanska forskare jämfördes effekten av flavonoider i havtorn mot acetylsalicylsyra – läkare rekommenderar ofta en aspirin om dagen för att hjälpa blodförtunnande, särskilt före flyget, för att hjälpa till att förhindra DVT.

Forskarna fann att båda behandlingarna hade mycket liknande positiva effekter mot trombos och trombocytaggregation (Life Sci 2003 4 april,. 72 (20) :2263-71). Däremot har havtornsolja fördelen av att vara säkrare än aspirin, vilket kan orsaka biverkningar som mag-tarmproblem och hudutslag.

Och i en annan studie, finska forskare från Åbo universitet jämförde effekterna av havtorn olja mot kokosolja på en grupp manliga deltagare löper risk att utveckla blodproppar. Forskarna fann att havtornsolja förhindrade signifikant trombocytaggregation – och därmed minska risken för koagulering – jämfört med kokosolja (J Nutr Biochem oktober 2000 11 (10) från 491 till 495).

Med så mycket att gå för havtorn kommer du förmodligen bli förvånad över att det fortfarande är en relativt okänd mängd i hälsotillskott marknaden.

Det beror på att havtorn är notoriskt svåra att skörda. De är inneslutna i taggiga grenar, vilket innebär att bären måste handen skördas ….

Det är en mödosam process och kan vara smärtsamt för någon annan än de mest kompetenta skördare!

Och på grund av detta, avkastningen från skördarna är låga – vilket gör havtorn ett oattraktivt förslag för hög volym, bulk tillverkare som är mer intresserade av att tjäna pengar än att föra en exceptionell produkt på marknaden …

Men denna brist är goda nyheter för oss konsumenter – eftersom det innebär att den globala skörden av havtorn inte att uppslukas av stora multinationella kosmetika och toalett konglomerat som bara vill blanda det i sina syntetiska krämer och lotion.

Istället innebär det att kostnaden för havtorn är fortfarande relativt billigt. . . och att små, specialiserade nutritionsbolag kan koncentrera sig på att se till att endast den allra högsta kvaliteten havtornsolja framställs för konsumentbruk.

www.euphoriatric.com

Pieria`s Livs Hötorgshallen.

Tel: 80/214384 ask for mr. Lennart

 

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Asklipios his Daughters, meaning etc

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The daughters of Asclepius
 Ipioni: the Wife of  Asclepius. And this daughters:  HYGEIA(=Health), EGLI(=Glamour),
IASO, AKES, Panacea. (Dictionary Suidas)


 Ipioni was secondary deity Asclepius wife, daughter Merope personification of gentleness. It was deity with healing properties, mainly dealing with obstetrics. Its name recalls the “ipion Pharmacy” was simultaneously comrade and wife of Asclepius, the ancient god of medicine.


His name is not suspected of Asklepios from July the Epidafrio that produced the name “glory” (Aogla) and in our opinion it is consistent and lexicographer Hesychius.
The etymology of the name from “Asklin”, the Corinthian King, whom he healed, or the “Asgelatan” epithet of Apollo, or “Aglaopin” seems rather popular origin. The second component of the name is “mild” that adds to the “glory” shine and gentleness ….
The earliest scholars produced the name from “Ashkelon”. Asclepius is the ideal conception of healing power of nature as now perceived by people, who acts in “soft” seasons in the hills and in the fresh air under the soft glow and heat of the sun, the points gush cool springs and tall trees surrounding clean atmosphere.
Such was exactly the environment of places of worship and this conception strengthened the various legends of his birth and origin.
Along with Ipioni acquired these daughters:
The first two probably represent different stages of treatment, while the third medication.
The IASO or Iiso (in the Ionian dialect) is an ancient Greek ideal, anthropomorphic, secondary attached deity Asclepius intertwined with the “sacred” concept of Healing (treatment).
Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis, sister goddesses healthy Akesos, Panacea and Aegle or daughter Amphiaraos.
 As a derivative of the verb iaomai (= heal) Place names: Iasis (Healing) – Jason – Iassos – Iatir – JATO – Doctor – Iator and the Cure as a means of therapy
 Pausanias reports that the Amphiaraeion Oropos altar, one of the five parts of which was dedicated to Aphrodite, the Panacea, the IASO, Health and Peony Athena.
 Also worshiped in Epidaurus and Athens.
  

The fund has worshiped at Epidaurus, as sisters, as a deity.
Her name is rooted in the ancient A and verb, meaning treat.
It was considered as the goddess of the healing process.

The Panacea was anthropomorphic secondary deity of Greek mythology intertwined with the concept of treatment (or herbal medicine) for Pasha disease. Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis sister goddess Health, Iassos of Machaona and Podaleirios, Doctors of the Trojan War in Homer.
Worshiped mainly in Oropos, Attica, Kalymnos, Kos, etc .. The form of the present and the Asklepieion of Athens.
As goddess seen as able to cure every disease, its name quickly spread to all the Greek cities, particularly drugs capable of curing if not all diseases at least most of them.

The Egli.
It is said to have derived its name “Glow,” radiators, brilliant fame, grandeur, or “Splendour,” or by the beauty of the human body when it is in good health, or the price paid in the medical profession.

Health was the ancient Greek goddess, personification of Health of body and soul.
As the oldest center of worship of Titane refers to Sicyon, where were the sanctuary of Asclepius and Hygeia. According to ancient Greek tradition Arifron Sikyonios wrote the hymn to the goddess, whose cult was spread in Athens about 420 BC ..
In Greek mythology holds a prominent place in worship of her father. However, while Asclepius directly related to the treatment of diseases, the goddess associated with preventing disease and maintaining health status.
Apart from Athens, worshiped in other cities, such as Thespies in Elatia, Megara, Corinth and Argos.
The Orphic hymn health shows the importance attached by the ancient Greeks on health: “Imeroesa, Erato, polythalmie, pamvasileia, klythi marlin healthy ferolvie, mother collected works …”

The artists portrayed him from 5th century. BC as a young woman, later adopted as a symbol of the serpent.
Health others want her husband and other daughter of Asclepius.
It was probably a very ancient divinity, who is identified when the Asclepius, sometimes with Amphiaraos and when with Athena. Bronze statue of Athena Health stood on the Acropolis near ancient altar, immediately after entering the Propylaea.
Carved figures of Asclepius and Hygeia save many.
Here’s Hymn to Health, the Arifrona from Sikyon:

“Health most venerable among the blessed,
let us dwell with you the rest of my life,
let’s you my willing chug rather than wealth or grace parents.
Whether the royal power, which is equal to the gods to humans,
or cravings with hidden Venus nets.
Hunting, or other pleasure or the pain relief Gods show to people,
in with you, blissfully Health, all thallium and Graces shining spring without you no one was prosperous “

Sea Buckthorn (“ιπποφαες αραμοειδης” Hippophaes Aramoeides= Shining Horses)

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Hippophae rhamnoides(alias Sea buck thorn from: ιππος + φως = horse + light ”The shining Horses”). (ραμνοειδες – ramnoeides = berry).

Alexander the Great (Αλεξανδρος αλεξω + ανηρ-ανδρος = protector from man), fed it to his soldiers and horses to increase their strength and endurance, and makes their coats shine.

 The Warriors also ate this plant bright orange berries to give themselves strength for battle and used them to treat their wounds which gave them greater endurance and faster recovery times than their enemies.Researchers rediscovered “rare” natural skin moisturizers that literally stops the body dries out … from the inside … and melts away the visible signs of aging by … increasing the production of collagen, which is found precisely in Masticha from Chios (www .euphoriatric.com) In antiquity large consumption had an orange fruit, the Buckthorn.

It Contains 192 vitamins and  are all absorbable by the body.

In his campaigns, Alexander the Great remarked, that the sick and injured horses were cured by eating the leaves and fruit of the plant and began to polish their hair, from this observation was the name of the HIPPOPHAES (= shining horse) 

 

So they started using it and his soldiers with him to be stronger in the campaigns. There are also reports that he used in his campaigns and Genghis Khan.

 Hippophaes mentioned by Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle – Aristotelis (=who ever finishes excellent its objectives). FROM: αριστο(Aristophanes, Aristarhos etc..) + τελω (= top notch, excellent + mastering), but mainly by Dioscorides of Anazarbus, father of pharmacology.

 References to Buckthorn exist in Tibetan and Chinese medicine. Since 1929, when it was first performed biochemical analysis of the plant’s fruit, knowledge about the medicinal properties of the plant are increasing. Plus there documented knowledge (Greece, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Finland, England, Sweden, etc.) for the sea buckthorn and are dedicated for this five conferences.

COLLAGEN

The fruit that grows from sea buckthorn plants provide (per 100 grams) 600 mg of vitamin C, 180 mg of vitamin E, 80 mcg of folic acid, 35 mg of carotenoids (beta carotene, lycopene, etc.), 6 – 11% omega fatty acids, and up to 1% of flavonoids. What does all that mean from a beauty perspective? Wrinkle and hyperpigmentation reduction, protection against photoaging, collagen stimulation and more. Apparently, palmitoleic acid, an ingredient in the oils from the fruits’ seeds, nourishes skin with antioxidants. Sea buckthorn oil may also protect you from UV rays and serve as an emollient. Finally, the fruit may benefit your hair; hippophae is Greek for “shiny horse,” which refers to the shiny coats of the horses that ate sea buckthorns.The effects of both sea buckthorn oral supplements and topical oil application on skin aging, the plant works as a skin hydrator, an anti-wrinkle serum, and as a collagen promoter.

The plant oil produced from fruits by the method of expression, without chemical or other additives.

 Improves:

 * The condition of hair, skin and nails

* Skin’s ability to retain moisture

 * Rest rants youthful elasticity and fullness to aging skin cells and membranes

 * Relief of symptoms of menopause

 * Omega 7 is the only one that repairs damaged mucosa:

 Eyes, nose, throat, lung, genitourinary tract, and many other parts of the body.

 Free radicals … oxidative stress caused by waste products produced by the body.

 

All of these have a harmful, aging effect on the body … especially on the skin.

 

But hold tight because you’re about to discover the most amazing antidote which has remained a secret for centuries, but now causing excitement among anti-aging scientists worldwide

 

And it is only now – centuries later – that researchers begin to fully understand the rejuvenating properties of seabuckthorn.

 

Research has shown that it allows the protein (important for vegetarians and vegans), plus 100 of nutrients, including trace elements of iron, copper, manganese and selenium.

 

For example, its golden-orange berries provide one of the richest sources of vitamins and nutrients, including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. . . all of which have been shown in recent research that protects against chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease.

 

Cold Pressed Oil from the seeds of the plant are also filled with fatty acids oleic acid, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, which has been shown to help reduce wrinkles and maintain skin moisture, helps to make it feel softer and smoother …

 

These essential fatty acids that not only are important building blocks that promotes healthy skin, hair and nails, but they are also known to promote skin healing and relieve a variety of skin conditions such as eczema.

 

* In addition, they also accelerate the healing of wounds and burns.

 

In one study, sea buckthorn seed oil used successfully in the treatment of atopic (allergic) dermatitis, and promote the regeneration of damaged tissue (Dermatology 1995; 48 (3): 30-33).

 

The ingredients of the oil also has the ability to protect the skin against damage from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

 

But, perhaps most importantly, the buckthorn, richest source of omega-7 fatty acids on the planet …

 

Omega-7: One of the most rare nutrients on the planet

 

Now you have probably already heard about omega-3, -5, -6, and -9 fatty acids, mainly derived from fish oil, and how important it is for a good health.

 

But very little has ever known whether omega-7 – until now that is.

 

Omega-7 (palmitoleic acid and vaccenic acid) is one of the rarest nutrients because it only occurs in foods macademia nuts, cold water fish …. and sea buckthorn!

 

And while you have to eat lots of fish and nuts to get anywhere close to therapeutic levels of omega-7 in the body, it is oil from sea buckthorn seeds and berries so potent that you only need regular small amounts to start seeing amazing results.

 

 

 

And despite the fact that clinical tests on its medical uses first implemented in Russia during the 1950s, scientists still only beginning to fully disclose buckthorn outstanding properties as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and much, much more.

 

Sea buckthorn oil has also been shown to be a remarkably effective natural remedies for health problems related to the damaged mucous membranes – especially in the gastrointestinal tract, including widespread following conditions:

 

* Mouth ulcers (aphthae, or canker sores)

 

* Sore throat and strep throat

 

* Esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus) and Barrett’s esophagus

 

* Acid reflux

 

* Therapy Resistant ulcers and chronic erosive gastritis

 

* Ulcerative colitis (inflammation and ulceration of the colon mucosa)

 

* Crohn’s disease

 

* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis

 

If Buckthorn’s list of benefits ended there, I think you would agree that they would already be impressive enough on its own …

 

But that’s not where the story ends …. not by a long shot! … Since buckthorn …

 

. . . Fills, soothes and heals aging and damaged skin

 

Sea buckthorn oil is extremely effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as wounds and burns.

 

The reason for this is because of its high levels of palmitoleic acid. This fatty acid is a natural component of skin and acts as an emollient … promote wound healing and protects skin from prolonged sun exposure.

 

Factory skin-protective benefits stem from the fact that it is a powerful antioxidant – thanks to its high vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic content. This makes it effective against premature aging of the skin and effects of environmental pollutants.

 

Moreover, it has now been scientifically approved by researchers who have found that extracts of sea buckthorn may speed healing of burns and protect the surrounding skin from free radicals (Mol Cell Biochem 2006 April 22 ,. Epub ahead of print).

 

In another study, Chinese researchers from Burns and Plastic Surgery Department, Shenzhen Buji People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, used seabuckthorn oil on the wounds of 151 patients with burns. These patients were compared with another group of burns patients treated only with petrolatum gauze.

 

The sea buckthorn Sea patients showed a faster rate of improvement and healing, with less swelling and less pain. The researchers concluded that:

 

“As a valuable plant oil with wide uses in medicine, Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) oil for external application has clear effects on the healing of burns” (Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue 2006, 26 (1) :. 124-5).

 

. . . Hydrates your body naturally and helps

 

With Intimate Dryness

 

Sea buckthorn seed oil has been shown to contain the highest known levels of a rare omega-7 fatty acids known as palmitoleic acid, which has shown to help hydrate the mucous membranes of the body.

 

It has been used successfully in the treatment of Sjogren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disease in which the mucous membranes become dry) and vaginal dryness during menopause (Proceedings of the 97th Annual Meeting & Expo of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Apr-May 2006 St Louis, USA).

 

. . . Helps strengthen your immune system to protect you against disease

 

Researchers from Immunomodulation Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences in Stockholm have found that sea buckthorn also protects the immune system against toxins and pollutants (such as chromium)

 

 Acts as a powerful anti-inflammatory to help protect you against heart disease

 

Cancer, heart disease and chronic diseases in general, thought to be caused by underlying inflammation in the tissues. Thankfully, sea buckthorn shown to reduce all types of inflammation and it has already been a lot of research carried out at sea buckthorn anti-cancer potential, and several scientific institutions of the word has recently announced breakthroughs in this area.

 

In a recent report, which focused on the latest research findings in its anti-cancer benefits, researchers from the Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan commented:

 

“The clinical trials and scientific studies in the 20th century confirm the medical and nutritional value of sea buckthorn, and the most important of them is its anti-cancer properties. Our research focuses on the anti-cancer potential of lipids from this plant” (Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2006 ,. 7 (1): 32-5).

 

Indian scientists from the Immuno-module Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences in Stockholm has recently reported that sea buckthorn extract works in the heart of the inflammatory process, reduces nitric oxide, a toxic byproduct of your daily metabolism that initiate inflammation.

 

They reported that:

 

“Our study suggest that sea buckthorn leaf extract has significant anti-inflammatory activity and has potential for treatment of inflammatory diseases” (Int Immunopharmacol 2006 ,. 6 (1): 46-52).

 

. . . Protects your liver and lowers high blood pressure

 

The latest results of a clinical study in 2003 showed that an extract of sea buckthorn given to patients with liver cirrhosis helped to normalize liver enzymes, serum bile acids and immune system changes linked to liver inflammation and degeneration (Gastroenterology 2003; 9 (7): 1615-1617)

 

Although further clinical studies are needed, the researchers conducting the latest study believe that sea buckthorn leaf extract may be effective as a supplement to prevent and treat liver diseases.

 

Another recently published study, this time from China, investigated the ability of natural compounds in sea buckthorn seeds, called flavones, to lower blood pressure (J Ethnopharmacol 2008, 117 (2): 325-33).

 

Feeding a high sugar diet to rats pressed up their blood pressure by 25 per cent, blood lipids by 85 percent and insulin levels with a massive 114 per cent. When these animals were given a sea buckthorn seed extract, all three were elevated significantly.

 

Sea buckthorn seems to work by improving insulin sensitivity (the ability of cells to take up glucose in response to insulin hormone) and by blocking the action of angiotensin (a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict, so drives up blood pressure). Scientists believe that sea buckthorn can be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular disease associated with high insulin levels.

 

. . . Lowers cholesterol and C-reactive protein

 

In a Finnish study set out to determine if 28 g of sea buckthorn berry puree every day reduced the incidence of colds in healthy volunteers (which it did), an unexpected finding was a decline in their blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). (Eur J Clin Nutr, e-pub ahead of print: 27 July 2007).

 

This is a substance produced in the liver during inflammation and with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes.

 

In animal studies, the sea buckthorn also used to help heart health by reducing cholesterol levels. When the researchers gave buckthorn seed oil to rabbits that were fed either a normal diet or a function that retrieves up their cholesterol levels, they found significant reductions in total cholesterol and the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol (Phytomedicine 2007; 14 (11): 770-777 ).

 

Even better, in animals whose arteries become hardened, sea buckthorn seed oil recovered its elasticity to normal levels.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heals and prevents Ulcers

 

Seabuckthorn health benefits seem not end there. One of its many traditional uses include treatment of ulcers and laboratory studies have shown that it regulates gastric acid production and control

 

secretion of substances that promote inflammation (φυτοθεραπεια) = Fitoterapia 2002, 73 (7-8): 644-650).

 

In a Chinese clinical study of thirty cases of gastric ulcer, patients took twelve sea buckthorn oil capsules daily for one month. At the end of the study had ulcers healed in three quarters of patients (Hippophaë 1997; 10 (4): 39-41).

 

. . . Dissolve blood clots and deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

 

Safer than aspirin, but just as effective in preventing blood clots, buckthorn high content of flavonoids – naturally occurring plant chemicals – has proved to have serious protection against blood clots and DVT.

 

These flavonoids have been shown to reduce platelet aggregation – the adhesion of blood cells, which can result in blood clots if left unchecked.

 

Japanese researchers compared the effects of flavonoids in sea buckthorn to aspirin – doctors often recommend an aspirin a day to help thin the blood, especially before the flight, to help prevent DVT.

 

The researchers found that both treatments had very similar positive effects on thrombosis and platelet aggregation (Life Sci 2003 April 4 ,. 72 (20): 2263-71). In contrast, sea buckthorn oil the advantage of being safer than aspirin, which can cause side effects such as gastrointestinal problems and skin rashes.

 

And in another study, Finnish researchers from the University of Turku compared the effects of sea buckthorn oil with coconut oil on a group of male students at risk of developing blood clots. The researchers found that sea buckthorn oil significantly prevented platelet aggregation – and thus reduce the risk of clotting – in comparison with coconut oil (J Nutr Biochem October 2000 11 (10) 491-495).

 

With so much going for sea buckthorn you will probably be surprised that it is still a relatively unknown quantity in the health supplement market.

 

This is because the sea buckthorn are notoriously difficult to harvest. They are encased in thorny branches, which means that the berries must be hand harvested ….

 

It’s a tedious process and can be painful for anyone but the most skilled harvester!

 

And because of this, the yield of crop yields are low – which makes buckthorn an unattractive proposal for high volume, bulk manufacturers who are more interested in making money than bringing an exceptional product on the market …

 

But this lack is good news for us consumers – because it means that the global harvest of sea buckthorn not be swallowed up by large multinational cosmetics and toilet conglomerates who only want to mix it in their synthetic creams and lotions.

 

Instead it means that the cost of sea buckthorn is still relatively inexpensive. . . and that small, specialized nutrition companies can concentrate on making sure that only the highest-quality sea buckthorn oil is produced for consumer use.

 www.euphoriatric.com

 Pieria`s Life Hotorgshallen.   Tel: 80/214384

Mastic of Chios

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Μαστίχα Χίου: οι θεραπευτικές της ιδιότητες.

                               

The word mastic is derived from the Greek verb, (μαστιχειν –mastihein = “to gnash the teeth”, which is the source of the English word masticate.[1] The word masticis a synonym for gum in many languages.

Imitations and substitutes

The rarity of mastic and the difficulty of its production make it expensive. As a result, imitations in the form of other resins appear in the market, sold as “mastic,” such as Boswellia or gum arabic. Other trees, such as Pistacia palaestina, can also produce a resin similar to mastic. Yet other substances, such as pine tree resin and almond tree resin, are sometimes used in place of mastic.

Mastic is a natural resin that comes from the trunk of the mastic tree. The color is whitish – yellowish and translucent transparent up. The mastic tree grows only in southern Chios. It takes the full development of 40-50 years and lives about 100 from the 5th to the 6th year gives the resin after the 15th produces 60-250gr and in rare cases 400g. The exclusive production of the island of Chios due in accordance with temperate climate theories in the area and underwater volcanoes and limestone soil. Attempts have been made to cultivate the mastic mastic tree and in other parts of Greece and other countries, but without success.

The properties of mastic had been discovered since ancient times. The first reports from Herodotus in the 5th century BC .. Many ancient authors refer to the therapeutic properties of mastic as Pliny, Theophrastos, Dioscorides and Galenos. The medicinal properties were known to Hippocrates. In ancient Rome they used toothpicks of mastic to whiten their teeth. In ancient Greece chewed the dried resinous liquid that flowed from the bark of the mastic tree. Also found prescriptions which seems mastic used in various diseases. The mastic production is from June to September. The flavor of gum chewing in the beginning is rather bitter but then disappears and the special scent adds a special flavor. The hardness is due to many factors such as temperature, exposure time of mastic and size of your tear.

Cosmetics:

researches alleged that Chios mastic extract reduces the disintegration of collagen.

  What Does Collagen Do?

May help to maintain Arthros & joints problems, healthy hair, skin and nails.It is thought that from the age of 25, your body loses collagen at a rate of 1.5% per annum, so by the age of 35, your body will have lost 15% and by 45, 30%. This is when you really start to notice a change in your skin’s elasticity and texture. 

Collagen naturally contains glucosamine and chondroitin which may help to support healthy joints by attracting fluid back into the joint space to cushion the bone and by rebuilding cartilage.

  • Kollagen är den viktigaste struktursubstansen i bindväven och därmed viktig för hudens elasticitet och densitet, men är även av avgörande betydelse för ledfunktionen. Antioxidativ, naturlig vitamin C från Acai & Camu-camu bär skyddar cellerna mot skador från oxidativ stress.

Medicine:People in the Mediterranean region have used mastic as a medicine for gastrointestinal ailments for several thousand years. The first-century Greek physician and botanistDioscorides, wrote about the medicinal properties of mastic in his classic treatise De Materia Medica (“About Medical Substances”).Consumption of mastic has been proven to absorb cholesterol, thus easing high blood pressure and reducing the risk of heart attacks. Mastic oil also has antibacterial and antifungal properties, and as such is widely used in the preparation of ointments for skin disorders and afflictions. It is also used in the manufacture of plasters.In recent years, university researchers have provided the scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of mastic. A 1985 study by the University of Thessaloniki and by the Meikai University discovered that mastic can reduce bacterial plaque in the mouth by 41.5%. A 1998 study by the University of Athens found that mastic oil has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Another 1998 University of Nottingham study, claims that mastic can heal peptic ulcers by killing Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcersgastritis, and duodenitis. Some in vivo studies have shown that mastic gum has no effect on H. pylori when taken for short periods of time. However, a recent and more extensive study showed that mastic gum reduced H. pylori populations after an insoluble and sticky polymer (poly-β-myrcene) constituent of mastic gum was removed and taken for a longer period of time. Further analysis showed the acid fraction was the most active antibacterial extract, and the most active pure compound was isomasticadienolic acid.Mastic is a natural resin that comes from the trunk of the mastic tree. The color is whitish – yellowish and translucent transparent up. The mastic tree grows only in southern Chios. It takes the full development of 40-50 years and lives about 100 from the 5th to the 6th year gives the resin after the 15th produces 60-250gr and in rare cases 400g. The exclusive production of the island of Chios due in accordance with temperate climate theories in the area and underwater volcanoes and limestone soil. Attempts have been made to cultivate the mastic mastic tree and in other parts of Greece and other countries, but without success.

                          “Masticare”

 Propotions

A) Intake: 

Mastic 60%, Inulin 5%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 10%, Sunseed Lecitine 5%, Allohe Vera 5% Probiform 10%; in Double as much destilled water volume

B) Application:

Mastic 8%, Seabuck Thorn Cold Pressed oil 15%, RoyalJelly 10%, Camu-camu 5%, MSM 5%, Sunflowerseed-Lecitine 10%, Vanilla poweder 5%, Cold Pressed Coco`s oil 15%, Manuka honey 22%, Probiform 5%.

Dioscorides (1st century AD.) “Father of pharmacology”, physician and botanist from Cilicia, had a pharmacy for 35 years and classify drugs into 5 categories. His work “De Materia Medica” I did not overcome until the 16th century. Dioscorides praises the healing properties of Chios Mastic indicating that helps in cases of indigestion, the reproduction of blood in chronic cough, while acting as a sedative drug. It also found that chewing mastic than oral hygiene and gives pure and fresh breath. In another reference to the fact he speaks of a mastic, the essential oil of mastic, which as stated variously applied for diseases of the uterus, as mild heating, astringent and emollient agent. Chios Mastic (natural rubber)

·                          Chios Mastiha

What is Mastiha?  Mastiha is the natural and rare tree resin of the pistacia lentiscus var Chia tree. Scientific research has shown that this resin has anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory qualities.  It has been documented from antiquity for its health benefits, its use as the first natural chewing gum and as a cooking spice. Today, it is still chewed as well as used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in the culinary world.  Chios Mastiha contributes to a healthy gastrointestinal system and has beneficial effects for both oral hygiene and skin care. Chios Mastiha is protected by the European Union as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) product.  This distincion recognizes the name of a specific region or country where a specific agricultural product originates exclusively due to the geographical environment.  This includes the natural and human factors and production, alteration and processes which take place in the delineated geographical area.  All PDO products bear the EU symbol designating them as such. Chewing Chios Mastiha is a truly unique experience.  To create your own natural piece of gum, select a few medium pieces of the resin, or combine a small piece with a large one.  The larger pieces tend to be softer than the small ones, so it is recommended that one chew a mixture rather than chew only the small, hard pieces.  Before chewing, let the pieces moisten in your mouth. Mastiha may taste a bit bitter at first, but that taste fades into a light herbal flavor.  Begin chewing and Mastiha becomes a white silky color.  The resin keeps its hard texture indefinitely and this is precisely why it is recommended for gum health and amazingly clean teeth!  Keep chewing the gum for a half hour in order to gain all the therapeutic benefits. For more information on Chios Mastiha, click on the informational brochures below. Chios Mastiha Overview Chios Mastiha Medical and Scientific Reports Chios Mastiha Guide to Beauty Care De första rapporterna om mastix och mastix identifierats i antiken och i huvudsak härrör från Herodotos (484-420 f.Kr.), som skall anges att i det antika Grekland tuggade det torkade hartsartade vätska som strömmar från barken av mastix . I medicinska texter sen antiken fann rikedom recept, viktigaste ingrediensen kitt, vilket är till gagn för människors hälsa och tillskrivs många egenskaper. Vanligtvis används i kombination med andra naturmaterial för att behandla många sjukdomar. I själva verket, på grund av den starka inverkan av antiflegmonodous eleanolikou och oleanolic acid (3-oxotriterpenio) fungerar mastix getväppling lyse inflammation start från specifika organ periodontit, esofagit, gastrit, duodenalsår och kolit tills hemorrojder. Förhindrar också stagnation inom dessa områden förebygga symtom som matsmältningsbesvär eller gasbildning. Dessutom är uppslutnings underlättas genom reflex utsöndring av saliv och magsaft genom tuggummi. Faktum är att mastixen som fortfarande används idag för att mjuka tumörer i anus, bröst, lever, öronspott, mjälte, mage, tarm och matstrupe, även för diarré hos barn. Dessutom anses det vara ett smärtstillande, hostdämpande, orexigenic, afrodisiakum, sammandragande, erytropoes, urindrivande, slemlösande och blodstillande. Mastix nämns som den traditionella motgift mot bölder, acne, cancer, sår och tumörer, maligna vesikler kardiodynias, vårtor, tröghet, gingivit, dålig andedräkt, vita flytningar, mastit, spetsar och åderförkalkning. Senaste medicinska studier vid universitetet i Nottingham sade att även i minimala doser (1 mg dagligen i 2 veckor), kan kitt läka magsår, som är ansvarig för bakterien Helicobacter Pylori, på grund av dess antimikrobiella åtgärder, samtidigt som viktiga och dess effekt på leverfunktionen, och aktiverar avgiftande aktivitet. På detta sätt absorberas kolesterol, är vars koncentration i blodet minskar, vilket minskar risken för hjärt-och kärlsjukdomar. Fortfarande, out och diuretiska egenskaper, medan viktig är inhiberingen av leukotriensyntes genom verkan av mastix. Annan modern vetenskaplig forskning som lett till isolering och identifiering av ursolic och oleanolic syra, avslöjade och bekräftade att många av de läkemedelsverksamhet kitt, såsom cancer, leverskyddande, anti-inflammatorisk, antiulcer, antimikrobiell (mot många patogener såsom Staphylococcus och salmonella) anti-hyperlipidemi och antivirala åtgärder, förklaras främst att ursolsyra, och isomeren, oleanolic syra. Den näst vanligaste användningen av mastix i samband med vård av munhålan. Den är lämplig för att göra tandkräm (Epitomae 2,26), tillhandahålla rent andning och släppa överflödig fukt i munnen (Aëtius 3.141). I själva verket har det visat sig att tillsats av naturligt gummi pasta i tandkräm, tvättlösningar och frisk andedräkt leder till att stärka immunförsvaret av vävnad mellan tänderna och tandköttet, vilket verkar mot bildandet av plack och andra parodontala sjukdomar. Verkningsmekanismen involverar reaktionen av komponenterna i tandköttet polymorfa cellkärnor i området för den orala håligheten och orsakar ansamling av vita blodkroppar. Av särskilt intresse är det faktum att mastixen som används för trimning. Den fungerade som solskydd mot brännskador från solen (Oribasius, Ad Eustathium 6,53), medan en viktig ingrediens i tillverkningen av tvål och skönhetskräm (Aëtius 8,14). I moderna kosmetika, kitt, på grund av ursolsyra och dess isomer, oleanolic syra, används i preparat som är avsedda att förbättra hårväxten och skydd mot irritation i hårbotten. Dessutom är företagens kosmetika och parfymer med hjälp mastix, såsom eterisk olja vid framställning av parfymer och ansiktskrämer, som ursolsyra, bland annat fastställs strukturerna för kollagen och elasticitet i huden och därigenom minska åldringstiden. Ändå, det kitt som används i konfektyrer som tillsats vid framställning av stora mängder godis, sötsaker och bageri smak medan matlagning lägger en distinkt smak till kött, ost eller som krydda. Inom dryckesindustrin, tjänar till att framställa likör ouzo, såsom genom tillsats av gummi dryck får sin smak och minskar skadliga effekterna av alkohol. Slutligen är det kitt en idealisk mat konserveringsmedel, eftersom den förhindrar tillväxten av skadliga mikroorganismer i dem, såsom Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudo fragi, Candida albicans, osv. Den biologiska aktiviteten hos Chios mastix tuggummi har utvärderats i flera in vitro-studier relaterade till förmågan att hämma oxidation av LDL (det onda kolesterolet), där den har den högsta antioxidant aktivitet jämfört med andra plaster och gummin, och därmed ökat skydd för det kardiovaskulära systemet. Harts av mastix Chiou innehåller avsevärda mängder av olika polyfenoler jämfört med andra naturliga produkter, i kombination med andra komponenter (t.ex. terpenoids) förvärvar positiva hälsoegenskaper. Bland dessa egenskaper, har en viktig roll som spelas av den allmänna antioxidant. Antioxiderande aktivitet Skydd av LDL (det onda kolesterolet) genom oxidation som leder till en minskning av kolesterol deponeras i vävnader och därmed en minskning av produktionstakten av aterosklerotiska plack, vilket minskar risken för hjärtsjukdomar och vissa cancerformer. Dessutom polyfenoler utställning och andra skyddsåtgärder-fysiologiska effekter, bra för hälsan, den viktigaste av dessa kan sammanfattas enligt följande:

  • Minska blodsocker och blodkolesterol

  • Skydd av epitelceller i andningsorganen

  • Öka nivåerna av HDL (det goda kolesterolet) och lägre nivåer av LDL (dåligt kolesterol)

  • Antitumöraktivitet (i tjocktarmscancer cell apoptos)

  • Antimikrobiell och antibakteriell aktivitet

  • Antiallergiska egenskaper (hämning av trombocytaggregation)

Sammanfattningsvis vill vi säga att de dagliga tuggummi Chios, främst i råformat (kristaller eller “tårar” kitt) och finkornig, godis (tuggummi) eller Mastich olja, förutom vackra naturliga smak och färskhet attribut, har betydligt resulterar i att skydda och bevara vår hälsa, genom olika effekter på vår kropp. Slutligen, är det underförstått att det kitt produkt är unik, både för sina egenskaper och för den exklusiva ursprung, eftersom det kitt trädet växer bara på ön Chios. http://www.gummastic.gr/index.php?contentid=73&langflag=_en   http://www.fytokomia.gr/permalink/4150.html   Hem »Hälsa» Den helande egenskaper kitt   De helande egenskaper kitt mastix. Sedan antiken redan var känd välgörande egenskaper kitt och mastix olja för hälsan.   Mastix kallas aromatisk harts, som utvinns ur kitt eller mastix träd, som endast växer på ön Chios och i ingen annan del av världen, eftersom alla ansträngningar, växternas tillväxt i andra delar av Grekland och därefter, misslyckades .   Minsta regn, mycket sol och kalkrik jordart är den perfekta miljön för framgång av anläggningen. Det kitt anses vara en produkt med riktigt fantastiska funktioner för medicinsk, konfekt, ortodonti, etc.   Undersökningar visar att mastixen har antiseptisk och antiinflammatorisk effekt. Mastic fungerar healing, inflammation botar specifika sjukdomar, som: parodontit, esofagit, gastrit, sår i tolvfingertarmen, kolit och hemorrojder.   Kliniskt har mastix accepteras särskilt fördelaktigt för behandling av duodenalsår, eftersom det kan inhibera tillväxten av Helicobacter pylori, som lever under den gastrointestinala slemhinnan i 90% av patienterna med duodenalsår och 60% av patienterna som lider av magsår, vilket orsakar förändringar av cellens struktur.   Nyligen genomförda studier har påvisat närvaron av polyfenoliska föreningar som är kända för deras starka antioxidant aktivitet, och skydda vävnader och celler av organismen i närvaro av fria radikaler.   Andra positiva egenskaper av mastix, som mednutrition.gr, är som följer:   Sänkning blodsocker-och kolesterolnivåer. Skydd av epitelceller i luftvägarna. Ökande halter av HDL (det goda kolesterolet) och minska nivåerna av 
 LDL (det onda kolesterolet). Antikarkiniki åtgärden (i colon cancer cell apoptos). Antimikrobiell och antibakteriell aktivitet. Antiallergiska egenskaper. As mentioned above the aromatic resinous substance derived from the trunk and branches of the mastic tree. Its use is known from ancient times. It has been used in traditional and practical therapeutic for various conditions such as abdominal pain, dyspepsia and peptic ulcers. In modern times the scientific community, in a correct and scientific way, is to document the beneficial properties of Chios mastic. Be noted here that the systematic use of chewing can cause significant inhibition of bacterial growth in the oral cavity, while reducing the formation of plaque on teeth. Chewing also helps dressage gum, with all its beneficial effects on the health of teeth and because of the special taste and hardness, causes secretion saloiy, resulting in a feeling of freshness and cleanliness. It is 100% natural product and for this reason may contain a very small percentage of impurities. It consists further washing with water. POWDER MASTIC CHIOY (food preparation) Nutritional composition with Chios mastic powder and inulin, a unique combination that helps KALLI functioning and healthy digestive system. Inulin is a natural fiber that is isolated from horseradish roots and demonstrably contribute to the growth of beneficial gut bacteria (bifidus). It is proposed that additional preparation in the daily diet, once daily at a dose of 3.2 g (teaspoon each) mixed with water or beverage, preferably before breakfast. Please note that the product is partially soluble in water (suitable for diabetics). Mastic (natural aqueous gum flavor) It is naturally flavored water that carries the authentic flavor mastic and some of its beneficial properties. Is 100% natural extract containing a low amount of the essential oil of mastic while transporting all of the soluble components that exhibit beneficial properties. The Mastic, taken from the mastic, through simple distillation with steam, so synapostazei with mastic oil (essential oil), and then separated from it by the simple process of phase separation. Use morning and night as a moisturizer and toner offering freshness and natural glow to the skin. Same time can be used for deep cleaning and perfuming the skin of the body. Kosmitologikes studies suggest that extracts Chios Mastic reduce apoiodomisi collagen. The mastic is dermatologically tested. In clinical trials conducted at University Avenue, proved that the mastic is safe for the skin, as contact with the skin of healthy volunteers induced no irritation problems. SCENTED OIL SOAP Mastic The soap combines the beneficial properties of olive oil with antibacterial and regenerative properties of Chios mastic and mastic oil. Produced from 100% natural ingredients with no chemical additives and pigments. In this soap has enhanced feature, fragrant aroma of Chios mastic. Spread HONEY Mastic Unique in flavor and quality honey pine scented Mastic Chios. The fir honey is considered one of the best and aromatikoteres honey varieties. Is particularly thick and due to the high concentration of trace elements has high nutritional and biological value. The mastic is known for its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and is beneficial to the health of the digestive system. The spread with honey mastic is the ideal combination of two natural products that promote health and ideally complements a healthy and balanced diet. (ideal for the energy they need in their breakfast children) CHEWING GUM IN TABLETS WITHOUT SUGAR 15% Chios MASTIC. It is the innovative new gum of Chios Mastic Growers Association in tablet form. Produced by a novel technique involving proporiaki simply compressing the ingredients in tablet form. By avoids heat or other stresses incurred most of the chewing gum commercial. Safeguarded so the utmost naturalness and properties of mastic and transported safely to the consumer the benefit of actions. Unlike common chewing gum, contributes to the soothing treatment of xerostomia, and due to her particular taste and causes greater relative hardness drooling, resulting freshness and cleanliness. Made from pure, natural materials and thus the taste, appearance and mouthfeel may differ. Read also: Mastic, its role in our health and mastic, culture

BIO COTTAGE CHEESE -93 GREEN GOURMET (Since -93)

Featured

          BIO COTTAGE CHEESE -93 GREEN GOURMET

Ingredients(ALL organic): pine-seeds, cashew nuts, almonds, garlic, fresh horseradish, fresh ginger, umeshu, shisho-flower, mirin, herbs de provence, tamari, cayenne, cold pressed cocο nut oil, cold pressed pumpcin oil, cold pressed olive oil.

First Moment: Soak in a spring or coconut water for 36-48 hours: 40% of the Pine seeds, 40% of the Cashew nut & 20% of the Almonds.

(Obs!!: the water must be c:a 2 cm above the surface of the (rince allready seeds). In each liter or Kg, you end 2-3 table spoons of PROBOFORM; in room temperature.

 Second Moment: – Mix into your (preferably slow friction one!) food processor all the rest of the above ingredients and when is ready put it into a jar in the fridge.

 

 P.S: ..one can end sliced mushrooms, as Shitake, or Porcini etc, before puting in it into the fridge!

You are going to notice, that the older the cottage cheese is getting the more tasty becomes..

ENJOY!

GREEN GOURMET Year 1995
From the Left: Petra, Konstantin, R-Marie & Patrick – “Green Gourmet” (at the Swedish Vegetarian Society H.Q), 
Södermalm – Stockholm

Non Dairy Roquefort Cheese

Featured

www.rbclife.eu/11535

Ingredients (All organic):
A) Cashew nuts, pili-pili nuts, one L.of Coconut milk, one Dl.cocnut oil(Cold pressed), three Dl. of extra virgine olive oil, two Dl. umeshu vinegar, 1/2 table spoon fresh horseradish, 1/2 fresh ginger, 50 gr. fresh shitake mushrooms, one tea spoon oregano, four clovevs grated garlic, little chili.

B) one and a half cups of PROBIFORM juice, one table spoon pump seeds, one spoon of spirulina powder, two tea spoons of Maldon sea salt, one table spoon chia seed, one tsp.
of psylium seeds.

C) walnuts

HOW:

1) First rinse in a colander the cashew & pilipli nuts. (500 Gr.).
Then let them be soaked into the coconut milk & the PROBIFORM for two days.
2) Put all ingredients of part A) into the food prcessor and let it go untill is very
creamy.
3) Put half of it , as the FIRST layer on the baking paper.
4) After you finish ready in your blender with the ingr. of the number: B)., then you
add in form of stripes on the FIRST layer, together with the walnuts.
5) Cover with rest of nr.A).
Let it into the drying oven (37C.) for 14 hours..enjoy!

******* T P O I A ******Ι Λ Λ Ι Ο Ν***** “T R O Y”

Trojan (alias Ilion) Historical facts vs. “Acces”, Pseudohistorians-“Scholars” etc..

H E R E: http://ebooks.edu.gr/ebooks/v/html/8547/1999/Istoria_G-Dimotikou_html-empl/index1_5.html

**** THIS CIVIlL WAR BETWEEN THE GREEKS IS ROMANTICIZED DUE TO THE ABDUCTION OF HELENA OF SPARTA

The Achaeans and Danaens, who lived, in West Greece at that time, united and with their ships and army went to conquer Troy.
Thus began the Trojan War which lasted ten years. It was the greatest war of antiquity and led to the death of countless Trojans and Achaeans. The occasion was a woman, the beautiful Helen, the queen of Sparta.
Many great lads fought in this war. Achilles, the son of Thetis, Hector, the leader of the Trojans, the fearless Diomedes, the strong Aedas, Menelaus, the husband of Helen, his brother Agamemnon, who was the leader of the Achaeans, the versatile Odysseus and many others. . We will meet
all of them in the following lessons. Also, we will meet Andromache, Hector’s beautiful wife, his respected parents, Hecabe and Priam, and many others!
What should one remember first of all that happened. The myths that mention them are so charming, that it is worth reading them and remembering them forever.

http://www.hellinon.net/NeesSelides/Trojan War.htm

1. The apple of ERIS
Many years ago , in ancient times, when the twelve gods lived in Olympus, Zeus decided to marry the king of Phthia, Peleus, to a sea fairy, Thetis, the daughter of Nereus. The wedding took place in Pelion and all the gods and goddesses were invited. Only Eris , the goddess of strife, was not invited, because wherever she went she sowed hatred and quarrels. She got very angry and went to the wedding unseen and left an all-gold apple on the table, on which she had written: “to the most beautiful”. Immediately Hera, Athena and Aphrodite began to argue about who was the most beautiful who would get the apple. They also asked Zeus, but he did not want to upset any of the three goddesses. That is why he told them to go to the mountain Ida, next to Troy, where Paris, the son of King Priam, was grazing his flock on a slope, so that he could choose the most beautiful goddess. So the three goddesses, together with Hermes, flew to Ida and stood in front of the startled king. Hermes told him the will of Zeus and gave him the golden apple of Eris. Then Hera ordered him to make him the greatest king, Athena the bravest and wisest warrior and Aphrodite to find him the most beautiful woman to marry. Paris, after thinking about it, gave the golden apple to Aphrodite. Hera and Athena left angry, while Aphrodite revealed to Paris that the beautiful Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the king of Sparta, was the most beautiful in the world and advised him to go and get her.

The Paris crisis. On the right is Paris, in the center the god Hermes, followed by the three goddesses:
Aphrodite, Athena, Hera. From an ancient Greek vase

The beautiful helen

. Paris prepared a fast boat and left for Sparta. He arrived at Menelaus’ palace bearing rich gifts. There everyone welcomed him and hosted him, as befits the king of Troy. However, Paris, with the help of Aphrodite, outwitted Helen and convinced her to follow him. And one day when Menelaus was away, they left for Troy.The abduction of Helen by Paris. Among them is the winged god Eros.
From an ancient Greek vase.

When Menelaus heard the news, that Paris took Helen from him, and he wanted to take revenge on him and bring her backhe left Crete and went straight to Mycenae to his brother Agamemnon. Then, together with the wise Nestor the king of Pylos, they decided to send an invitation to all the kings and heroes in every part of Greece, to take part in this campaign which was a matter of honor. The rapist had to be punished, or no one could henceforth be sure of his wife, when the sacred institutions of hospitality were thus violated. It was therefore necessary for everyone to consider the insult that Paris did to Menelaus as personal. However, the fates and the oracles of the oracles played their role here as well: those who knew their destiny, hardly decided to follow the campaign. Odysseus, the resourceful and brave son of Laertes and king of Ithaca, knew from then on that it would be twenty years before he would see his people again, so he pretended to be mad when Agamemnon and Palamedes went to call him. He was newly married and had just had a son, Telemachus. So, dressed funny and acting crazy they found him plowing his field. The cunning Palamedes revealed his pretense by placing the young Telemachus before the plough, Naturally, Odysseus did not step over the child’s body, but stopped ploughing. There went the old Nestor, the king of Pylos, Idomeneus from Crete, Aeandas from Salamis, the other Aeandas from Locris, Diomedes from Argos, Philoctetes, the friend of Herakles, from Magnesia, the Odysseus from Ithaca and Achilles, the son of Peleus and Thetis from Phthia with his friend Patroclus and the brave Myrmidons. They chose Agamemnon as their leader.

*******’*************T H E T R O J A N S = OI Τ Ρ Ω Ε Σ

The fortress of Troy was located on the Ida mountain, beyond the Hellespont. Poseidon and Apollo had built it for Laomedon. At the time when the events that will be mentioned next took place, Laomedon’s son Priam, who had Hekabe as his wife, reigned in Troy. Priam was originally called Podarkis (good-footed) and was the brother of Isione who had followed Telamon to Salamis, married him and gave birth to Teucros and Aedes who both took part in the Trojan War. Achaeans and Trojans seem to have been members NOT only of the SAME branch of Greeks race (same language, religion and customs) BUT ALSO THE SAME FAMILY In the fortress of Troy Priam raised a royal family with so many children that no other like it is mentioned. He gave birth to fifty sons, besides daughters. The first-born was Hector, followed by Paris, Diiphobus, Helen, Polydoros, Troilus, etc. Of the daughters, the most famous are Kreusa, Laodiki, Polyxeni and Cassandra who had fortune-telling abilities.

Troy, the hero who gave his name to the Trojan people, is the son of Erichthonius, the grandson of Dardanus, and his mother was Astyochus. He married Callirroi, daughter of Scamandros and had a daughter Cleopatra (the name Cleopatra is Greek) and three sons: Ilos who founded the citadel of Ilium, Assarakos and Ganymede whom Zeus loved.

.Priam had originally married Arisbe from whom he had fathered Aesacus. He then abandoned her and proceeded to marry Hekavi. Hekabi was extremely fertile. Although ancient writers do not agree on the number of children she bore, the family she raised with Priam was very large.Hector, King Priam and Queen Hecuba – Trojan War – Red Figure AmphoraPriam had originally married Arisbe from whom he had fathered Aesacus. He then abandoned her and proceeded to marry Hekavi. Hekabi was extremely fertile. Although ancient writers do not agree on the number of children she bore, the family she raised with Priam was very large.

Opposite page: Peleus assigns the Centaur Chiron to educate the young Achilles. (Black-figure lekythos around 500 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum).

.

Sitting on their throne, Priam and Hecabe accept with lively gestures the sad news of the murder of their son Troilus. (Clazomenian hydria shell, around 540 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum)
Paris and Helen of Menelau
s

AgamemnonThe king of Mycenae, had married Clytemnestra and Menelaus had married Helen. Menelaus reigned in Sparta and there he received Paris and his entourage when he visited, bringing with him rich gifts. When Paris saw Helen, he was dazzled by her beauty. Menelaus honored the foreign king according to the customs of hospitality, but on the tenth day he was forced to leave for Crete. Then Paris found the opportunity and approached Helen who could not resist the power of Aphrodite. So she accepted the treasures that Paris gave her and followed him at night. The couple left secretly and arrived in Troy where their wedding was celebrated. Then Iris, the messenger of the gods, brought the news to Menelaus who was in Crete.

Helen and Paris in a design by the French Nadar.

The Achaean campaign in Troy Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world at that time was desired by all the princes of Greece. Tyndareus, her father, had a hard time deciding. Then, according to Odysseus’ idea, Tyndareus decided to bind all prospective grooms with an oath, that they would accept the election of Helen herself and that they would rush to help if the honor of the husband happened to be threatened. This oath was invoked by the Atreides in requesting the participation of so many heroes in the campaign. On the subject of Helen the Fair, Euripides wrote in 412 BC. the tragedy “Helen”. The Italian neoclassical sculptor Antonio Canova created the “Helen of Troy” statue.

But also the brave Achilles, the greatest figure of this war, was sent by his mother to hide in the palace of the king of Skyros, Lycomedes, dressed as a woman, among his cousins. This was revealed by the trick of Odysseus, who went with women’s dresses and ornaments to the palace, gifts for the king’s daughters among whom were hidden a spear and a shield. As Odysseus showed the lyuses to the maidens, he caused the war trumpet to sound the sound of battle. Then Achilles, unrestrained, grabbed the weapons he had been wandering around before and prepared for an attack. This is how the expeditionary force was revealed and followed to Avlida. It took ten years for the flower of valor and martial art to be concentrated in the port of Avlida at that time. Among the heroes were the king of Pylos the wise Nestor, Diomedes the hero of Aetolia, Aedas the son of Telamon, Aedas the Locros, Idas, the king of Crete Idomeneas and others.

Achilles prepares for the great Trojan campaign: he wears his shins and Thetis holds his spear and shield. (Black-figure plaque, 560 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum).

Hephaestus, who made Achilles’ weapons, gives them to Thetis.

A sign of the goddess’s favor, was sacrificed amid the cheers of the troops. Immediately the winds blew the sails of the ships and the Greek fleet set sail from Avlida bound for Troy to wash away Helen’s shame.

Menelaus against Paris. Paris, Louvre

Trojan War – Iliad

The Achaeans, faithful to their religion and traditions, made a sacrifice before the start of the Trojan war so that the gods would reveal signs about the future and its outcome. During the sacrifice, a snake was presented whose spine was red as blood. This snake came out of the altar and climbed the plane tree that was nearby. On the highest branch was a sparrow with her young. The snake swallowed the eight sparrows in turn and then their mother. Once he had swallowed all nine birds, he was turned into stone, by Zeus. The seer Calchus interpreted this unnatural event as follows: the siege of Troy would last nine years and in the tenth it would fall.

Troy or Ilion was the site of these deadly battles, protected by Apollo with the silver bow. The first dead of the war was Protesilaus, on the side of the Achaeans, to whom they erected a monument and honored him. The goddesses Athena and Hera helped the Achaean troops. In Homer’s epic, the Iliad, many of the events that took place in the Trojan War are mentioned. The most important of these have as their protagonist the brave Achilles whose fame of exploits has spread far and wide.

Protesilaos, the first casualty of the Trojan War, was a Thessalian and indeed one of Helen’s potential suitors. He took part in the war with a fleet of forty ships. While jumping off the ship, he was struck by Hector.

ACHILEUS and AJAX.-NEPHEW OF PRIAM) Two heroes with a lot in common, in morals, bravery and mental cultivation. The great Heracles once passed through the kingdom of Telamon and begged Zeus to make invulnerable the new-born AJAX he had wrapped with his lioness. AJAX indeed became invulnerable except for the shoulder, the ribs and the armpit, that is, the points corresponding to those covered by the quiver on the body of Hercules.

Zeus was warned of a prophecy that Thetis would have a son who would grow up to be greater than his father. Worried by this, Zeus arranged for Thetis to marry a mortal man so that her child couldn’t challenge his power. In another version of the story, Thetis rejects Zeus’s advances and a furious Zeus decrees that she will never marry a god. Either way, Thetis ends up married to the mortal Peleus and Achilles is born.
Standing figure of woman with man and lion either side pressing against her
Terracotta relief showing Peleus and Thetis, c. 490–470 BC. Thetis tries to resist marriage to Peleus by transforming her body into powerful elements such as fire and wild beasts, here a lion

Thetis attempts to make the baby Achilles immortal, by dipping him in the River Styx (the river that runs through the underworld), while holding him by his heel. The one part of his body left untouched by the waters becomes his only point of weakness, hence the phrase ‘Achilles heel.

The learned centaur Chiron instructs the boy Achilles in the playing of the lyre. He rests upon his equine haunch and wears an animal-skin cloak and wreath of laurel.

Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game
540-530 BCE.
Terracotta amphora. Height 2 feet
(Musei Vaticani, Rome). ARCHAIC BLACK-FIGURE POTTERY
Exekias
Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game
540-530 BCE.
Terracotta amphora. Height 2 feet

(Musei Vaticani, Rome)
An example of black-figure painting is Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game on an amphora signed by Exekias as both potter and painter (at left is written: Exekias epoiesen = ΕΞΕΚΊΑΣ ΕΠΟΊΗΣΕΝ =
“Exekias made [me or it].” At right is also written, less relevantly, O Netorides kalos = Ο ΝΕΤΟΡIΔHΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ =
“Onetorides is beautiful”).
The central image is a narrative scene, with geometric patterns subsumed into border devices. In the panel framed by a lustrous black “glaze,” Ajax (Aiantos = “of Ajax [Aias]”) and Achilles (Akhileos = “of Akhilleus”) are depicted playing a board game during a lull in the Trojan War. In a symmetrical and deceptively tranquil scene, the Homeric heroes bend over a table and call out the scores of the game (which are written before their lips – tesara = 4, for Achilles, tria = 3, for Ajax) 


Achilles prepares for the great Trojan campaign: he wears his shins and Thetis holds his spear and shield. (Black-figure plaque, 560 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum).

Hephaestus, who made Achilles’ weapons, gives them to Thetisa doe, a sign of the goddess’s favor, was sacrificed amid the cheers of the troops. Immediately the winds blew the sails of the ships and the Greek fleet set sail from Avlida bound for Troy to wash away Helen’s shame.

The father Peleus advises his son, Achilles,
as he leaves for war.

“Aien exceletuein…”, that is,
“always be first and surpass all in battle”
.

Peleus, because Achilles was still very young, sent with him and his teacher, the Phoenix, to advise him:

“Be able in words and worthy in deeds” /Homer, Iliad

Achilles.From an ancient Greekvase.

And the gods looked on from Olympus. Poseidon, Hera, Athena were with the Achaeans. Ares,

Aphrodite, Apollo with the Trojans. And Zeus sometimes with the Achaeans and sometimes with the Trojans.
In the last year of the war, when food was scarce and the army was starving, Agamemnon sent a ship to bring the Oenotropics to Troy. They, however, leaving Delos, begged the god Dionysus to help them. And Dionysus turned them into doves and they flew away and returned to DELOS

 The father of the Oinotropes, Anios.
From an ancient Greek vase.

 The Achaeans reach Troy
Traveling to Troy, the Achaeans passed through Delos. There, in the temple of Apollo, Anios was a priest who had three daughters, the Oinotropes. The soil that Spermo touched became wheat. The soil touched by Oino became wine and the soil touched by Elaida became oil. Anius, who was also a soothsayer, told the Achaeans that in ten years they would take Troy and invited them to stay nine years in Delos and in the tenth year to go to Troy. However, they did not accept.
So the Achaeans left Delos and in a few days they reached Troy. There reigned Priam and Hecabe who had fifty sons and many daughters. One of their daughters was Cassandra who was a fortune teller. However, Apollo had punished her and no one believed her words.
The Trojans, seeing the countless ships of the Achaeans, took their weapons and ran to the shore to fight them. Their leader was Priam’s eldest son, Hector, the brother of Paris. None of the Achaeans dared to set foot on land. Thetis had told them that the first one to set foot on Troy’s soil would fall dead. Then Odysseus threw his shield on the land and with one leap stood on it. Fooled by his trick, Protesilaos jumped second and stepped on the ground. And immediately he fell dead from Hector’s pole. Then began a terrible battle. The Trojans were defeated and shut up in the city walls. The Achaeans pulled their ships ashore and made a camp which they closed with a wooden wall, because they understood that it would take a long time before they could conquer Troy
The anger of Achilles
For nine years the Achaeans fought in Troy, but Priam’s castle was unoccupied and the Trojans, led by Hector, defended it bravely. In the tenth year , however, Achilles and Agamemnon quarreled over two beautiful slaves, Chrysis and Briseis. This brought many calamities to the Achaeans. Chrysis was Agamemnon’s slave . Chrysis`s father, who was a priest of Apollo, came supplicating to the Achaean camp, bearing rich gifts, the golden rod and the god’s sacred wreaths. He fell at Agamemnon’s feet and begged him to give Chrysis back to him. Agamemnon did not respect the old man and angrily kicked him out. Chrysis then begged Apollo to punish the Achaeans severely. Apollo heard him from Olympus and immediately took his bow and went to the camp of the Achaeans . He sat aside and, unseen, he shot animals and people with his arrows. Then a terrible disease fell among them and the Achaeans died, one after the other.

. Apollo shoots his arrows. From an ancient Greek vase.

The evil lasted nine days . On the tenth day the kings asked the soothsayer Calchas to tell them why such calamity befell them. He said that Apollo was angry because Agamemnon did not respect Chrysis. To stop the evil, Agamemnon sent Chryseis back to her father. However,Chrysis, her father, who was a priest of Apollo, came supplicating to the Achaean camp, bearing rich gifts, the golden rod and the god’s sacred wreaths. He fell at Agamemnon’s feet and begged him to give Chryseis back to him. Agamemnon did not respect the old man and angrily kicked him out. Chrysis then begged Apollo to punish the Achaeans severely. Apollo heard him from Olympus and immediately took his bow and went to the camp of the Achaeans . He sat aside and, unseen, he shot animals and people with his arrows. Then a terrible disease fell among them and the Achaeans died, one after the other he ordered Achilles’ slave, Briseis, to be brought to his tent. Achilles became very angry, hatred and rage filled his soul. He wanted to kill Agamemnon for insulting him, but the goddess Athena ran and restrained him. However, embittered, he closed himself in his tent and swore never to fight again.

Chrysis leaves Achilles’ tent to surrender to Agamemnon.
The seated figure on the right is Achilles. From an ancient Greek vase.









The death of Patroclus
Achilles was no longer fighting and the Trojans took courage. Fierce battles took place outside Troy’s walls and countless Achaeans fell dead.
Desperate then, Agamemnon sent to Achilles the old Phoenicus, Achilles’ teacher, Aiades, the strongest warrior of the Achaeans, and the versatile Odysseus, to beg him to return to the battle and would give him back Brisida and countless gifts. But Achilles did not accept and said that he would fight only if the Trojans reached his ships.
The fighting continued more fiercely. The Trojans chased the Achaeans to their camp. Hector smashed the wooden gate of the camp with a huge stone and the Trojans rushed in and set fire to a ship. The Achaeans were saved by Aedas, who wounded Hector and the battle stopped for a while.
Seeing the suffering of the Achaeans, Patroclus went to his friend Achilles. “Achilles,” he said to him, “the Trojans are burning our ships. Since you do not fight, they fear no one. Give me your armour, your chariot with your immortal horses and your brave Myrmidons, that I may fight in your place.’
Achilles agreed and advised him to drive the Trojans out of the camp and turn back.

Patroclus rushed with the brave Myrmidons into battle. The Trojans, whethey saw him, thought it was Achilles and ran away towards Troy.  Achilles tends tthe wounded Patroclus.
From an ancient Greek vase.

Patroclus forgot Achilles’ advice and chased the Trojans to the walls of Troy. But Hector met him there, he went close and they started to fight.
Then Apollo struck Patroclus on the back. He fell down and Hector killed him and took Achilles’ divine weapons from him.
There was a fight around the dead body. The immortal horses of Achilles, Xanthus and Valios, which Poseidon had given him, as if they saw Patroklos dead, bowed their heads and wet the earth with their tears. The Achaeans took the dead Patroclus and brought him to the ships. Achilles, seeing his friend dead, burst into lamentation. His mother Thetis heard him and came out of the sea to comfort him. And she herself went to Olympus and brought him new armor, which Hephaestus had made for him.

The Lament of Achilles
The news of Patroclus’ death was brought to Achilles by Nestor’s son, Antilochus.”Patroklos has fallen, and his turn for the dead is beaten,naked, because Hector has taken his chariots!”.
On hearing this, Achilles’ pain bursts forth wildly: without hesitation the hero pours black ash on his head with both hands, and then, with his beautiful face strained, his divine robe soiled, he falls and lies on the ground, pulling and tearing out his hair. For fear, lest in his despair he draw his sword and be killed, Antilochus is forced to hold his hands. Achilles does not speak, only moans loudly. Homer, Iliad S 20-35

The shield of Achilles
Hephaestus puts all his art into making Achilles’ new armor. But mostly he worked on the round shield. In the picture we see him handing it over to Thetis.
 He puts first the earth, the sea and the sky with the sun, the moon and all the stars. And then he starts drawing two states side by side. In the first, people have peace. They marry their children with songs and joys and settle their differences with judges. In the other state they have a war. Inside the city the women, children and old men have stayed, while outside the walls two armies have fallen into battle. The wounded and the dead lie all around. So Hephaestus tells the story of the joys of peace and the miseries of war. Then he puts the farmers plowing their fields, the laborers harvesting with sickles, he puts vines laden with grapes and people who harvested them while singing, he puts shepherds tending their flocks , features dancing boys and girls with flowers in their hair. And all around he makes the vast Ocean sparkle. And when he is done, he stands to look at her. He knows that if people notice the beauty of the shield, they will no longer want to fight. They will want to dance and sing, plow their fields, harvest their vines and tend their flocks. They will want to live in peace. And this shield of Achilles is the first, the only weapon ever made that invites not war but peace.

Rage and despair together filled the heart of Achilles after the death of Patroclus and he wanted to take revenge on Hector, who killed his fraternal friend. The next day he put on his new armor, harnessed his immortal horses to his chariot, and with his Myrmidons went to war.
I

 Hector bids farewell to Andromache and Astyanaktas.
From an ancient Greek vase.

Inside the castle of Troy, Hector said goodbye to Andromache, his wife, took in his arms for the last time his little son, Astyanactus, and he too went out to fight. The Trojans were outside their walls ready for battle. However, seeing Achilles arriving, they were frightened. Half ran inside the walls to save themselves and the other half ran to the plain. Achilles chased them and a fierce battle ensued. The Trojans fell dead one after the other. Priam, who was watching the battle from the walls, ordered and the gates were opened for the army to enter to save itself. Only the brave Hector did not shut himself up in the walls, but remained to face the enemy. Priam and Hecabe, his mother, and the beautiful Andromachi high above the walls. At some point Achilles saw him and rushed at him like a beast. Hector lost it and started running. Three times he ran around the city and Achilles chased him. At last Hector stopped running and stood to face him. Achilles rushed at him and the fight began.
They fought hard, for both were brave lads. Finally, Achilles struck Hector in the neck with his pole and threw him to the ground. Troy’s bravest warrior was now dead. High from the walls the Trojans looked and mourned. But Priam and Hecabe, his mother, and the beautiful Andromache mourned more.

Achilles-Hector duel. From an ancient Greek vase

Immediately Achilles took the dead man’s weapons, tied his legs with leather straps from the chariot and let his head drag on the ground. Then he struck his horses and they galloped towards the ships, dragging the dead Hector with them.
The next day the Achaeans burned the dead Patroclus. Achilles cut his long hair and put it in Patroclus’ hands, to be burned with him. He washed his bones with wine and placed them in a golden vessel, which his mother Thetis had given him.
The dead Hector remained unburied for eleven days, until Priam went to Achilles, fell at his feet and begged him to give him the body of his child to bury. Achilles was moved. He ordered the dead body to be washed and adorned, and gave it to the old king, to be taken to Troy. And he ordered the war to cease for eleven days, so that the Trojans could mourn and burn the dead, as was their custom.

Priam comes bearing gifts to Achilles’ tent and begs him. From an ancient Achaean vase.

Parents’ dreams for their children
Hector, before clashing with Achilles, enters the castle of Troy and bids farewell to his family. There he meets his wife Andromache and his young son Astyanaktas.As soon as he opened his arms to his son, the little one was frightened by the weapons and helmet and pulled away. Then Hector and Andromache laughed. He took off the brilliant helmet and laid it on the ground.
He then took the son, kissed him, danced with him in his arms,
and so he prayed to Zeus and to the other gods:
“Father Zeus and you other gods, give this one,
my son, as I shine among the Trojans to become
a strong man, and to rule Troy with great power.
and one should say: “much better than this one’s parent,”
as if he were returning from the war with bloody spoils of
an enemy he had killed, and his mother would be deeply rejoicing.”/ Homer, Iliad G 474-481
,

Games to honor Patroklos
Achilles, after the burial of Patroklos, organizes games to honor his dead friend. The competitions are many: chariot racing, boxing, wrestling, road, armed combat, discus, archery, javelin. All the Achaean lads took part in the games and won great prizes from the hands of Achilles. Spectators participate by shouting and placing bets. In the last race, Achilles gives Agamemnon the first prize without letting him compete, since everyone knew that he was the first among the Greeks both in strength and in chariots. Thus the two rivals reconcile, after the destruction caused by their conflict. Patroclus was honored like no other hero. Everyone will remember his power and want to be like him. This was also the purpose of the epitaph matches.// Homer, Iliad Ps 258-897 (adaptation
).

Winners and losers cry together
And as both of them remembered their pain, Priam wept the manly Hector, huddled before Achilles’ feet, and Achilles wept with his father and Patroclus, and the lamentations echoed all around.

Homer, Iliad Ω 509-512 (free translation by G. Economides).

The end of Achilles
After Hector’s burial , the war outside Troy’s walls resumed. Achilles killed the Trojan warriors one after another. One day, however, when he was outside the Shadow Gates, the largest gate of the castle of Troy, Apollo saw him and advised Paris to shoot him with his arrows in his right heel. His
mother , Thetis, when he was young, had made him immortal by immersing him in the enchanted waters of Lake Styx. However, his right heel was not wet, because it was holding him back from there. So Paris marked Achilles and stuck a medicated arrow in his right heel. Groaning, the hero knelt on the ground. With pained cries he tried to pull the arrow from his heel. After a while he collapsed dead. A fierce battle took place around his dead body . The Trojans were fighting to take him. However, Odysseus and Aedas grabbed him and brought him to the ships. All the Achaeans mourned the loss of the hero. Suddenly there was a terrible roar from the sea and out of the waves came Thetis and the Nereids, her sisters. They all stood around the dead body. For seventeen days they cried and cursed him. Then they burned his body, put his bones in the same pot as those of Patroclus, and, to honor him, held games. After a few days Paris was also killed. He was killed by Philoctetes with one of the poisoned arrows that Herakles had given him.

 The death of Achilles.
Modern sculpture.

ACHILLES AT THE COURT OF KING LYCOMEDES (rear end panel of sarcophagus).
MARBLE. Ca 240 CE.
Inv. No. Ma 2120.
PARIS, LOUVRE MUSEUM .
PRIVATE COLLECTION, BORGHESE.
ORIGIN: BY ATHENIAN ATHENODOROS.
*** ROME./ FROM ATHENS WORKSHOP.
THE SARCOPHAGI HAD BEEN SAW ED UP TO FOUR PLATS WHICH WERE INSTALLED INTO THE FACADE OF VILLA BORGHESE. THE PLATES HAD BEEN MOVED TO THE LOUVRE, WHERE THE SARCOPHAGOS WAS RECONSTITUTED IN INTEGRITY
.

Data: museum annotation

Burial customs
They wash the dead body, anoint it with oil, wrap it in a white sheet and decorate it. He is laid on the funeral bed and mourned by relatives and friends. Close friends and relatives cut their hair to show their mourning. They raise a wooden structure from logs and dry branches. They place the deceased on top with many of his personal items (kterismas). After the fire is lit and burns people, slaughtered animals and objects, they put it out and carefully collect the bones of the deceased. They wash them, place them in a vase and finally raise a mound of earth and stones covering all the remains. In the end they all eat together. Homer, Iliad (adaptation

Achaeans despaired. They did not believe that they would succeed in conquering Troy. Then Odysseus, the resourceful, thought that Troy would not fall by arms but by cunning. So he advised the Achaeans to make a large wooden horse, hollow inside, the Trojan horse. So the Achaeans
made it and wrote on it: “Gift of the Achaeans to Athena”. And one dark night Odysseus, Menelaus, Diomedes, Neoptolemus, who was the son of Achilles, and some other brave Achaeans got into the horse. Agamemnon with the rest of the army, after burning the camp, got into the ships and went and hid behind Tenedos.
In the morning the Trojans, looking from the walls, could not believe their eyes. The Achaeans had left and left behind only a large wooden horse by the shore! So they came out of the walls, approached it and saw that it was a dedication to Athena. Many said that they had to raise it on the citadel of Troy, so that the goddess would protect them. Cassandra was unfair , shouting that Achaeans were hidden inside his belly. No one believed her. And a Trojan, Laocoondas, who was a priest of Apollo, said: ” “Fear the Achaeans even if they bring you gifts.

Immediately two huge snakes sent by Poseidon came out of the sea and drowned Laocoon with his children.
Seeing this miracle, the Trojans were frightened and dragged the horse into the city. In order to enter, they also demolished a part of its walls. Then they ate, drank and feasted happily all day. At night they fell asleep tired from dancing and drinking.
At midnight the Achaeans emerged from the horse’s belly. They ran and lit fires high on the walls and opened the gates. Soon the army returned from Tenedo. All the Achaeans entered Troy, killed the warriors and took the children and women as slaves. Menelaus ran to Priam’s palace and took Helen back. Then they set fire and burned the city, not even respecting the temples of the gods.
In the morning they loaded their ships with booty and set off to return home.

 Laocoon and his two sons.
Ancient Greek sculpture.

NEOPTOLEMOS IS KILLING PRIAMOS

Neoptolemus was the son of the hero Achilles and the princess Deidamia .Achilles’ mother, the goddess Thetis, had foreseen that her son would die in a great war; afraid for him, she took him to the court of King Lycomedes at the island of Scyros, and disguised him as a woman. While there, Achilles had an affair with the princess Deidamia; from this union, Neoptolemus was born.

Helenus, a Trojan seer, was captured by the Achaeans and was forced to tell them that Troy would fall if the Achaeans acquired the arrows of Heracles and the Palladium, and if they also convinced Neoptolemus to join the war. After acquiring the two artifacts, the Achaeans sent Odysseus to get the young Neoptolemus, who eventually joined the war. During the Trojan War, Neoptolemus turned out to be a brutal person, who killed Priam, Eurypylus, Polites and Astyanax, among others; he also made Andromache his concubine. After the end of the war, Neoptolemus took Andromache and Helenus and went to Epirus, where he became the king. With Andromache, Neoptolemus had a son, Molossus.

When he attempted to take Hermione from Orestes; the latter killed him.

Scene from the tragedy Andromache by EuripidesOrestes kills Neoptolemus at the altar of Apollo in Delphi. Despairing Hermione, wife of Neoptolemus but previously promised to Orestes, kneels at the foot of the altar.Greek fresco in Pompeii

Upon returning to main land of West Greece, Orestes reclaimed the throne of his father, becoming the ruler of Mycenae. He died after being bitten by a snake in Arcadia.


AJAX(=ΑΙΑΣ) CARRYING THE BODY OF ACHILLES. Amphora Vase Ancient Greek Pottery by EXEKIAS

May be an image of text

From an ancient Greek vase.

How did the news of the destruction of Troy reach MycenaeWhen Troy fell to the Achaeans, Agamemnon notified Clytemnestra overnight. His men lit a great fire on the top of Ida, in Troy, and many fires, one after the other, carried the message from mountain to mountain to Mycenae:Ida -> Lemnos -> Athos -> Evia -> Kithairon -> Mycenae.

Aeschylus, Agamemnon, verses 280 – 316 (arrangement)So we see that the people of that time had discovered a very fast means of communication, sending their messages with fire. In the hills and mountains near the cities, there were specific people who were responsible for lighting the fires, in order to communicate.

5. The sufferings of warThe Trojan War, which had lasted ten whole years, was over. However, he left behind dead people, destroyed houses, widows and orphans. Like any war. The ancient poet Euripides in his work “Troades” talks about the suffering and pain that war brings to people:Queen Hekave and the captive Trojan women mourn what they have lost and worry about the suffering they have to endure hereafter. Cassandra becomes Agamemnon’s slave. Andromache falls into the hands of Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. Her son, Astyanaktas, was thrown from the walls of Troy, so that he would not seek revenge later.The poet does not miss the opportunity to emphasize the miseries that await the victors on the return journey. Because whoever destroys states and does not respect the temples of the gods, it will not be long before disaster strikes.

Euripides, Troas (arrangement)

THE GOLDEN MASK OF AGAMEMNON, THE KING OF MYCENAE: THE MASK OF AGAMEMNON IS AN ARTIFACT DISCOVERED IN MYCENAE IN 1876 BY THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGISTS HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN.
THIS MASK IS MADE OF GOLD AND IS A FUNERAL MASK FOUND OVER THE FACE OF A DEAD BODY IN A BURIAL PLACE AT MYCENAE. SCHLIEMANN THOUGHT, THAT THE BODY AND THE MASK ARE OF THE LEGENDARY KING AGAMEMNON.
THIS MASK IS CRAFTED OUT OF PURE GOLD AND SUCH MASKS WERE PUT ON THE FACE OF DECEASED KINGS AND ROYAL PEOPLE. 
AGAMEMNON WAS THE SON OF KING ATREUS OF MYCENAE AND QUEEN AEROPE. HE WAS THE LEADER OF THE ACHAEANS-DANAOI OF WEST GREEKS DURING THE CIVIL WAR WITH TROES (TROJANS), AS MYCENAE WAS THE MOST POWERFUL WEST GREEK TOWN AT THAT TIME. HE WAS ALSO THE BROTHER OF MEN ELAUS AND THE HUSBAND OF CLYTEMNESTRA. AGAMEMNON HAD THREE DAUGHTERS AND ONE SON . – (ONE OF HIS DAUGHTERS, IPHIGENIA, WAS THE PROTAGONIST IN EURIPIDES PLAY-DRAMA). WHEN AGAMEMNON RETURNED TO HIS KINGDOM, AFTER THE END OF THE TROJAN WAR, HE WAS MURDERED BY HIS WIFE CLYTEMNESTRA AND HER LOVER AEGISTHUS.

THE AUTHENTICITY OVER THIS MASK REMAIN TILL TODAY. THIS GOLDEN EXHIBIT IS CURRENTLY ON DISPLAY AT THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM IN ATHENS. IN SPITE OF ALL THE DOUBTS, THIS DISTINGUISHED MASK OF GOLD, WHICH IS ABOUT 12 INCHES IN HEIGHT IS STILL KNOWN, AS THE MASK OF AGAMEMNON AND IS ONE OF THE MOST PRIZED DISCOVERIES FROM THE ANCIENT MYCENAEAN AGES

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Electra, daughter of King Agamemnon, wants to avenge her father’s death. After his return from the Trojan War, he was murdered by his wife Klytaimnestra and her lover Aigisthos. Elektra is waiting for one day to get her revenge and for her brother Orestes, sent away to be raised elsewhere, to come home and help her.

IN THE ROYAL PALACE IN MYCENE
Clytaimnestra’s handmaidens talk about Elektra. They think she behaves frighteningly and dangerously. The youngest of them defends Elektra and the others beat her. Elektra becomes lonely. She remembers her father, relives the murder and imagines the rites of dance and blood sacrifice when the father is once avenged.

Her younger sister Chrysothemis warns her about the mother who wants to have Elektra thrown in prison. Chrysothemis can’t stand the confined life in the palace anymore. She wants to be human and woman. Alarms from inside the house announce the arrival of Klytaimnestra. Elektra wants to talk to her.

Clytaimnestra is tormented by dreams. She asks Elektra for advice. Klytaimnestra’s confidants warn her about her daughter. Elektra, first introduces herself and speaks kindly to the mother. Finally, she loses control and declares that the only cure for the anxiety dreams is the death of Klytaimnestra. Then someone whispers a message to Klytaimnestra. Her death throes turn into triumph.

Chrysothemis returns and tells her that two strangers have come with the message that Orestes is dead. Elektra can’t believe it at first. A servant sets off to break the news to Aigisthos. Elektra realizes that she must complete the revenge herself and tries to convince her sister to kill Klytaimnestra and Aigisthos with her that same night. But she fails to break Chrysothemi’s resistance. Elektra has hidden away the ax with which her father was murdered. Now she picks it up.

Shortly thereafter, a stranger arrives. He tells of the death of Orestes – but it is Orestes himself. The siblings recognize each other; he has come to Mycenae to avenge his father’s death. Orestes’ companions remind that Klytaimnestra is waiting for them in the palace. Orestes enters. Elektra breathlessly follows the events from outside. Klytaimnestra’s death scream is heard.

Orestes was the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra , who was hunted by the Erinyes after he killed his mother.

The story of Orestes is the main topic of various ancient Greek plays. After the Trojan War, Orestes’ father, Agamemnon, returned to Mycenae (or Argos), along with his prize, the Trojan princess Cassandra. Cassandra had the gift of foretelling the future, but was also cursed not to be believed by anyone. Despite Cassandra’s warnings about what was about to happen, Agamemnon entered his palace, only to be murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus, who was Agamemnon’s cousin. Orestes, a young boy at the time, was not present at the palace, but had run away with his sister Electra and found refuge at the court of Athens.

When Orestes became an adult, he was urged by his sister and the god Apollo to avenge their father’s death; Orestes, assisted by his friend Pylades, returned to the city, and murdered his mother and her lover. However, committing matricide was a horrible act that brought the fury of the Erinyes upon him. He was driven mad and was pursued by them.

Orestes sought refuge at the temple of Apollo, but even the god was powerless to stop the Erinyes. In the end, Athena accepted his pleas and organised a formal trial to be held before twelve judges. The Erinyes asked that the perpetrator be punished, while Orestes said that he followed Apollo’s orders. When the judges voted, the result was a tie; however, Athena’s vote, who was the chief justice, broke ties, leading to Orestes’ acquittal. Grateful, Orestes dedicated an altar to Athena, while the Erinyes were appeased by getting a new ritual, during which they were worshipped as the Venerable Ones.

According to a different source, while Orestes was still pursued by the Erinyes, Apollo told him to go to the land of Tauris and bring back a statue of Artemis, which had fallen from the sky. Orestes agreed and went to Tauris, accompanied by his friend Pylades. There, they were captured by the cult of Artemis, who was told to sacrifice all Greeks to the goddess. When the priestess of Artemis heard that two Greeks had been captured, she offered to help one of them escape if they would agree to carry a letter to her brother; Orestes demanded that Pylades should go, while Orestes would stay behind to be slain. Pylades reluctantly agreed, but when he received the letter, he realised who the priestess really was. All three of them eventually escaped, carrying with them the statue of Artemis. Aegisthus being murdered by Orestes and Pylades – The Louvre

Aigisthos arrives and meets Elektra outside the palace gate. Elektra’s terrifying supervision and unexpected kindness scares him. On his way in, he is murdered by Orestes.

Chrysothemis joyfully recounts the battle between Aigisthos’s friends and those who sided with Orestes. The brother has won. Elektra has achieved her goal in life. Vengeance has been exacted. She begins her ritual dance and sinks dead to the ground.

Alexander the Great laid the foundations for scientific mapping. A pioneer explorer, who laid the foundations of scientific mapping, was Alexander the Great. With his campaign in the East, he inspired his contemporaries and later cartographers to record in detail the areas through which he passed. The cartographic and exploratory work of the army of Alexander the Great and his descendants was studied by 15th century explorers, who sought to discover new worlds. Savvas Demertzis, a map collector and historian, spoke about its importance at an event at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. “Alexander the Great’s campaign not only had a military dimension, but also included an important task of searching for and recording new information. “The Macedonian king arrived in unknown countries at that time and played a very decisive role in their mapping,” Savvas Demertzis told “Demokratia” during the event. Teachings The contribution of Alexander the Great to cartography comes from Aristotle, who taught him to love knowledge. In his campaign he was accompanied by Eumenes, also a student of Aristotle, who was the first person to make real geographical measurements with the help of the body of “walkers”, which he recommended. “These were educated young people, who with a special technical regulation of breathing walked a lot of kilometers and so Eumenes calculated the distances” explains Mr. Demertzis. Eumenes mapped the areas where Alexander the Great arrived, while his work was continued by descendants of the Macedonian mercenary. The Seleucid and Egyptian contributions were important in the mapping, as they bordered areas that were unexplored. An additional important role in the development of cartography was played by the creation of large libraries in Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamon and Pella. “15th century explorers studied maps of the descendants of Alexander the Great, who had mapped areas beyond India and Africa. They helped them in their exploratory work and so they reached America “, adds Mr. Demertzis. No maps have survived from the time of Alexander the Great. They were destroyed when the library of Alexandria burned down. However, there are copies that give important information about the exploratory work of the great recruiter.

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Akragas. Anfora attica a figure nere del Pittore Taleides: Teseo uccide il Minotauro; intorno si trovano due coppie, con uomini nudi e armati di lancia e donne interamente vestite. Scoperto ad Agrigento e infine pervenuto al MET Museum di New York, il vaso presenta la firma di Taleides e la scritta “Klitarchos kalos” (Klitarchos bello). 540-530 a.C.

THE H A R P HISTORICAL FACTS..

Dedicated to God Apollo

HARP = AΡΠΑ: symphonic stringed musical instrument. It comes from the ancient Greek verb άρπω/arpo and
ΑΡΠΑΖΩ/ARPAZO(=SNATCH)
and in
ἍΡΠΗ/ARPE = a kind of bird of prey, as it was considered that the instrument is played with the use of all the fingers imitating a bird of prey.
The oldest Greek musical instruments are avloi (lyre), which is dating back to the Neolithic Age. The three civilizations of the Aegean, which are the Cycladic, the Minoan and the Mycenaean, provide evidence of the importance of music in their cultures such as Cycladic marble figures representing lyre players.

The harp has legendary origins: in Greek mythology, it was invented by the god Apollo. Charmed by the sound of Artemi’s bow, he gave her strings to attach to the weapon, creating a new instrument. The harp, played by angels and by kings, amazes us with its delicate and crystalline sound.

Orpheus, the son of Apollo, whose “rich clear words and the silvery notes from his harp were so enchanting that they … had a magical effect on everything around him. His songs could charm even rocks and rivers as well as humans and animals.

Hermes is said to have created the lyre. As the story goes, Hermes used the instrument to steal 50 of Apollo’s prize cattle, offering up the lyre to the latter when Apollo became angry. Thus, the lyre is now a historic attribute to the god of music and prophecy, symbolizing wisdom and moderation.

The Aeolian harp has a long history of being associated with the numinous, perhaps for its vibrant timbres that produce an ethereal sound. Homer relates that Hermes invented the lyre from dried sinews stretched over a tortoise shell. It was able to be played by the wind.
In Later centuries came The psalterion (Greek ψαλτήριον) is a stringed, plucked instrument, an ancient Greek harp. Psalterion was a general word for harps in the latter j part of the 4th century B.C. It meant “plucking instrument”.

An early ancestor to the harp appeared Greece, and later in spread in India , China and Burma. During the Middle Ages, it was played all over Europe and became very popular in the Celtic nations. The harp was the instrument of the troubadours, and accompanied their narratives throughout their journeys.

Monarchs have also played the harp, from Sapho, Queen Marie Antoinette, as well as innumerable poets. Often richly decorated, it can be as much a statement of wealth as a musical instrument. But the palette of sounds that the harp produces gives it true status. Refined, sparkling, and subtle, the sound of the harp is dreamy and enchanting.

Ancient Greek warrior playing the Salpygum (Salpyx) , late 6th–early 5th century BC, Melanomorph vase at Lykythos.

In the 6th century e.g. music becomes the object of a systematic theoretical approach by philosophers, although at first their interest is indirect. The first mentioned is Pythagoras from Samos and his students, who lived in Magna Graecia Croton in Lower Italy. Believing that the world is made of whole numbers, the Pythagoreans described the harmonious sound of a melody and its effect on the human soul as a result of numerical proportions. They even reduced musical harmony to a theoretical model of the general harmony of the universe and performed acoustic experiments. [20] Their texts, however, like the texts of Lasso from Hermione , who taught music in Athens and is said to have written the first treatise on music, have not survived. Their views are fragmentarily known from vague information that reached later writers. Music must have had a similarly important place in the philosophical work of Philolaus from Croton , Damon from the municipality of Oa in Attica and Democritus from Abdira , but their relevant works have not survived. Finally, the presence of music in the extant work of PLATO and ARISTOTLE is prominent , although neither of the two great philosophers wrote a treatise exclusively dedicated to music.
The ancient Greek term music (inv. art ) appeared to initially declare instrumental music ( κροῦσις ), song ( ᾠδὴ ), speech (λεξις) and rhythmic movement ( ὄρχησις ) as an inseparable performance unity, but also in general education, spiritual cultivation and eloquence, which were under the protection of the Muses . Musician as an adjective meant “cultivated”. Already in the Homeric Epics , the practice of music symbolizes the peaceful life and culture of an organized society in contrast to the brutality of wa.

How can we understand the present if we don’t look at the past? says a proverb. And very wisely he says, because we must always look back, to our roots, so that we can excel in the future and never make the same mistakes as our ancestors in the present, creating an eternal chain of repetition. So with music. We should look back to see the musical history of our people as well as the world musical history, to perceive on the one hand the beginning of music and its evolution but also on the other to be able to have the knowledge to spread the musical feats of our ancestors.

Regarding the etymology of the word music : the word, according to the writings of the ancient Greek poets and philosophers, is derived from the word muse . The word muse, again, is derived from maousha = muse. ” ma ” is the root of the verb mao-mo which means to devise or search or ask mentally . (In the Doric dialect, the word ” muse ” is ” moses “).

Lyres appear in Greek mythology as an instrument played by the gods Hermes and Apollo, and by the Greek hero Orpheus. All three were famous as superb lyre players.

Orpheus played the lyre, a harplike instrument that had been given to him by the god Apollo. Most legends relate that Orpheus’ mother was one of the Muses; most often she is said to be Calliope, the patron of epic poetry

The nine muses. Originally these deities were mountain and water nymphs. Hesiod in Theogony recounts: ” Memory slept in Pieria with the son of Cronus and gave birth to these virgins . “

An important point in world music history is the flourishing period of ancient Greek music. When geometry and mathematics contributed to the study of music but also to the construction of the first musical instruments, instrumental music began to develop in ancient Greece, since until the 6th century we have mainly vocal music as a means of expression. This shift towards instrumental music is confirmed by the work ” Pythic Law “, which is the most important court law of the music of ancient Greece and described the fight between Apollo and the dragon Python . It was Sakada ‘s invention , and perhaps the first example of purely programmatic (descriptive) music.

The amount of information that has survived to this day about ancient Greek music allows us a systematic classification of the sources, which applies not only to Greek antiquity but to the history of music in general. The first and basic category of sources are written sources and they are divided into two separate categories, practical and theoretical . Practical sources are called surviving fragments of music in musical notation. From these sources mainly hymns have survived in fragments and have been transcribed into today’s musical writing (two Delphic hymns of Apollo , the Epitaph of Sicily, etc.). These passages about ancient Greek music are few (about 50 in total) and above all short and often with gaps and deficiencies in the notation. Texts about music are called theoretical sources. Theoretical sources include, in addition to special treatises on music theory, the numerous references to music and musical life contained in literary, philosophical and historical works. Theoretical sources of this category are often called here philological sources . The theoretical, as opposed to the practical, are numerous and contain valuable and often extensive information on many issues, yet there are gaps and difficulties in understanding them. The main works are those of Aristoxenus , Euclid , Nicomachus and Alypius , who gives us detailed tables of ancient Greek musical writing.

The lyre represents the peace of Elysium, the paradise where heroes were sent after they were appointed immortality by the gods. As for Orpheus, he acquired the lyre from his father, Apollo, who taught Orpheus how to play

In addition to written sources, another very important category of sources is pictorial testimonies or pictorial sources (depictions of scenes of musical life on vases), as well as the remains of musical instruments found in excavations . The number of pictorial testimonies is great and this fact in itself is testimony to the importance of music in the daily life of the ancient Greeks.
Lyra: the most widespread stringed instrument of ancient Greece, a musical instrument particularly popular since it was not necessarily an instrument of professionals. A symbol of Apollo, the lyre was not used in public events, while it was the instrument par excellence for training the young. It can be characterized as the national organ of the ancient Greeks.
 

A typical example is the Harpist in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, a marble statue of Proto-Cycladic art (2800 – 2300 BC) that represents a seated harpist playing a type of harp.

Lyres are found in the palace of Pylos and in Crete (1400 BC). The lyre was identified with Apollo. According to mythology, Hermes invented it: When Apollo (Fig.) discovered that Hermes had stolen his oxen, he chased him. Running to hide, he accidentally stepped on a turtle shell. Noticing that the raven made the sound louder, he made the first lyre and gave it to Apollo, appeasing his anger.
The flute, the diaulos, the askalos, the syrigus of Pan, the salpyx, the drum and the rattle, the cymbals, the rattles, the seistro, the croupezio, the whisper and the chalkeophone are some of the wind and percussion instruments.

Lyra: the most widespread stringed instrument of ancient Greece, a musical instrument particularly popular since it was not necessarily an instrument of professionals. A symbol of Apollo, the lyre was not used in public events, while it was the instrument par excellence for training the young. It can be characterized as the national organ of the ancient Greeks. The lyre was the civilised instrument of the cultured Apollo, while the pipe or flute was used by the wilder, nature-dwelling deities. On one occasion the god Pan, boasting of his mastery of the pipes, was foolish enough to challenge Apollo to a contest.

Apollo the Guitarist” seated on a rock, holding his lyre and key. (Detail from the sides).
Roman copy of a Greek original of the 4th BC. h. The work can be dated to the late Hadrian-Antonine period (mid 2nd century AD). It is possible that it was placed in a temple as a gift from the emperor, the only one who could dispose of such a precious material in large quantities as porphyry or porphyry.
Purchased by the Farnese from the Sassi family, it was located in the Palazzo in Campo dei Fiori. The earliest Farnese catalogs specify the “metal or bronze” construction of the head, arms and legs. These parts were removed and replaced by what is visible today in white marble, the work of Carlo Albacini (1734-1813), on the occasion of the sculpture’s transfer to Naples in 1805. Napoli Museo Nazionale – Piano Terra – Collezione Farnese – sala I .
The god, clothed in a long tunic of purple porphyry, held by a belt below the breast, sits on a rock holding the lyre in the left hand and the key in the right (in white marble, inserted by Albacini). His costume, which resembles a woman’s, is the festive costume of the Pythians, worn by the performers taking part in the music competition.
From 1850 BC at Minoan Knossos large column bases of some variety of porphyry are found. And the ancient Egyptians used varieties of this stone in their constructions. It is a volcanic rock that forms when magma cools slowly below the earth’s surface. It has a unique texture and “luxurious” color, which was especially valued during the Roman period to satisfy the love of luxury of the Roman elite. It was red-brown to red-purple in color, like the color dyed with the material from the rare sea snails with the ancient Greek name “porphyres”, hence its name. The purple porphyry was also called “imperial” and had been discovered in an isolated location in Egypt in 18 AD by a Roman legionnaire, according to Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, 23-79), in his “Natural History” (Naturalis Historia) . Like the purple cloth, it was characteristic of the emperors (e.g. their “tongas” were made from it in their busts). But also later, it was used by the emperors of the Eastern Roman state, called Byzantium by the historians, in their sarcophagi and in Byzantine imperial monuments.This stone is also valued for its versatility.It can be cut and carved into various shapes and sizes , making it ideal for a range of applications.Its use continues later, in the constructions of Western European emperors and kings.

The harp has legendary origins: in Greek mythology, it was invented by the god Apollo. Charmed by the sound of Artemi’s bow, he gave her strings to attach to the weapon, creating a new instrument. The harp, played by angels and by kings, amazes us with its delicate and crystalline sound.

FRENCH INNOVATIONS
The first pedals were the invention of the Bavarian luthier Hochbrücker at the beginning of the 18th century. Several instrument makers in France developed new innovations and patents, including one by the writer, watchmaker, diplomat and businessman Pierre Beaumarchais. The famous piano maker Sebastien Érard gave the harp seven pedals in the 19th century, one per note of the scale
.

In the 20th century, the innovations continued. At the beginning of the century, the Pleyel House patented a harp without pedals, called the chromatic harp, at the request of several musicians. This harp was used in a composition by Claude Debussy, the Sacred Dance and Secular Dance. Although it was not a commercial success, the piece is very interesting for the history of music and is a masterpiece of chamber music.

Ravel
Maurice Ravel with the harpist Lily Laskine at a performance of Ravel’s Introduction et allegro in 1935.
French involvement in the development of this instrument is still strong today! The French harpist Anja Linder, who was paralyzed following an accident, invented the “Anjamatic”, an electro-pneumatic harp without pedals. Anja teaches the “Anjamatic” at the Strasbourg Conservatory. She was named a Knight of the National Order of Merit in 2016.

The history and development of the harp is bursting with as many notes, high and low, as the instrument itself is capable of. The most exciting part of the harp’s history is what’s still to come for this ancient instrument.

The word music, according to the writings of the ancient Greek poets and philosophers, is derived from “Musa”. Musa again, is produced from maousa = Musa. “ma” is the root of the verb mao-mo = to devise or search or ask mentally. (In the Doric dialect the word “Muse” is “Moses”).

The word music The word music, in today’s time, means the art of sounds, unlike the ancient Greeks who gave the word music a different meaning, they meant the indissoluble unity of sound and speech, something that does not exist nowadays.

With sport the body is exercised, while with music the spirit.

Music, the gift of the Muses, in ancient Greece, defined and characterized the man who acts, thinks and feels. Thus, as a means of spiritual maturation, the word that would characterize ancient Greek music is not the word “art” but the words education and power. This can also be seen from the fact that the one who played the flute e.g. he was called a piper and not a musician, i.e. he was considered a simple performer. But after the separation of music from speech, language, which happened shortly after Plato, we see the use of the concept musician. This change was to be the birth of an autonomous art which, as mentioned above, was embedded within discourse.

Ancient Greek Music

Ancient Greek music holds a special place among the musical cultures of Antiquity. The main reason for this is certainly the fact that the historical evidence and sources for the study of ancient Greek musical culture are more than for any other musical culture of antiquity. However, apart from this, and perhaps thanks to this, the ancient Greek musical culture exerted a great influence on later musical cultures in Europe and also in the Middle East, mainly on the Arab musical culture. This effect concerns, at least in the case of European music, the aesthetics of music, music creation, music education and more generally the place of music in education, music theory and other fields, which are today, as well as the former subject of musicology.

The influence of ancient Greek music on later musical cultures is not only due to any historical testimonies and sources regarding it. It is due, and in fact to a large extent, to the overall effect of the ancient Greek and Roman civilization on modern Europe, especially during the Renaissance years, but not only then. Ancient Greek music became for the humanists, but often also for the musicians of the Renaissance, the ideal model of music. Thus, as often happens in similar cases, a myth was created around ancient Greek music, based more on the musical reality of later times and on historical fallacies, than on the positive knowledge of the sources that survived. This myth was certainly productive for the development of modern music, as it shows e.g. the genesis of opera. However, for the knowledge of ancient Greek music itself, it had several negative consequences, which musicological research began to overcome from the middle of the 19th century. and so on. From this time, a systematic research of ancient Greek music, freed from the distorting lenses of later periods, began.

SOURSES

The abundance of surviving information on ancient Greek music allows a systematic classification of sources, which is not only valid for Greek antiquity, but for the history of music in general and is used to classify sources at least until the end of the Middle Ages.

The first and basic category of sources are written sources. Written sources are divided into two separate categories, practical and theoretical sources.

Practical sources are called surviving fragments of music in musical notation. From the practical sources mainly hymns survived in fragments and have been transcribed into today’s musical writing (two Delphic hymns of Apollo, the epitaph of Sicily, etc.). These passages about ancient Greek music are few (about 50 in total) and above all short and often with gaps and deficiencies in the notation.

Texts about music are called theoretical sources. Theoretical sources include, in addition to special treatises on music theory, the numerous references to music and musical life contained in literary, philosophical and historical works. Theoretical sources of this category are often called here philological sources. The theoretical as opposed to the practical are many and contain valuable and often extensive information on many issues, yet there are gaps and difficulties in understanding them. The main works are by Aristoxenus, Euclid, Nicomachus and Alypius (who gives us detailed tables of ancient Greek musical writing).

In addition to written sources, another very important category of sources is pictorial evidence or pictorial sources (depictions of scenes of musical life on vases), as well as the remains of musical instruments found in excavations. The number of pictorial testimonies is great and this fact in itself is testimony to the importance of music in the daily life of the ancient Greeks.

Historical Overview

It is difficult for anyone to determine the temporal and geographical boundaries of the musical culture of ancient Greece. A key difficulty is the dissociation between the temporal origins of different kinds of sources. Thus, the surviving theoretical sources, as well as the surviving nuggets of practical sources, date almost exclusively to the first post-Christian centuries. On the contrary, the philological and pictorial sources are abundant already from the period of greatest flowering of this culture – that is, from the 7th to the 4th BC. century or so. therefore, following a demarcation that is more or less generally accepted and corresponds in general terms to the geographical and temporal demarcation of the period of birth and heyday of the ancient Greek culture, we can say that ancient Greek music covers a period of time that begins in the last centuries of 2nd millennium BC and ends at the end of the 4th century BC. (i.e. at the beginning of the Hellenistic Period), and developed mainly in the main part of Greece and in the Greek cities of Asia Minor and Lower Italy. The period of more than a thousand years determined by the above time limits corresponds to various periods of ancient Greek history. Thus the history of ancient Greek music can be subdivided into two major periods:

Aphrodite is , as well associated with the harp. Though she wasn’t an actual goddess, Calliope is often depicted with one. The character of Orpheus, again not regarded as a god, was a harpist (or probably more accurately, the lyre)

Orpheus, ancient Greek from Thraca legendary hero endowed with superhuman musical skills. He became the patron of a religious movement based on sacred writings said to be his own. Traditionally, Orpheus was the son of a Muse (probably Calliope, the patron of epic poetry) and Oeagrus, a king of Thrace (other versions give Apollo). Apollo, as the god of music, gave Orpheus a golden lyre and taught him to play it. Orpheus’s mother taught him to make verses for singing. (Orpheus name derives fro the verb root *h₃erbʰ- ‘to change allegiance, status, ownership’. Cognates could include Greek: ὄρφνη (órphnē; ‘darkness’) and ὀρφανός (orphanós; ‘fatherless, orphan’) from which comes English ‘orphan’ through Latin.

The story of Orpheus has resonated through the millennia and has been a popular subject of art, music and literature for more than 2,500 years. The Greek legend was flourishing by the mid-sixth century B.C., and variations of his story appear in the ancient writings of Aristophanes, Plato, Aristotle, Apollodorus, Virgil and Ovid. According to one version of the myth, Orpheus was the son of the muse Calliope. Given a lyre (a form of ancient harp) by the god Apollo and instructed in its use by the Muses, he became so skilled at creating music with it that he was able to charm and placate elements of both the natural and supernatural world. Animals, trees, rocks and even some of the gods themselves were moved by the music from his golden harp, and ancient images of him often depict scenes in which Orpheus is surrounded by a variety of tranquil creatures, both real and mythical.

Abode
SymbolLYRE
Personal information
BornPIMPEIAPIERIA
DiedPangaion HillsOdomantice
ParentsOeagrus and Calliope
SpouseEURYDIKE
ChildrenMUSAEUS
Orpheus and Eurydice in Palais GarnierParis. ΟΡΦΕΥΣ (Orpheus) and ΕΥΡΥΔΙΚΗ (Eurydice).

The power of Orpheus’s music led Jason and his fellow Argonauts to seek his aid on their quest for the Golden Fleece, but the primary story associated with Orpheus concerns his wife, a nymph named Eurydice. According to legend, she was killed after being bitten by a poisonous snake. Devastated by her death and determined to recover his lost love, Orpheus descends into the underworld, where he uses the power of his music to charm Charon, the ferryman who brings the dead across the River Styx, in order to gain passage to the underworld. As he continues, he also enchants the monstrous guardian of the gates to the underworld, the three-headed dog Cerberus.

Glancing back however is often a symbol of a reluctance to look forward, to be distracted, dwell on the past and remain static. To the ancient Greeks, Orpheus was a legendary prophet, poet and musician. Because the moral behind both stories is “Don’t look back.” Orpheus wanted to bring his wife, Eurydice, back to life and was told not to look back or he would lose everything. Lot was told by God that he must not look back or he would turn to ashes. Of course his wife didn’t listen and she became a pile of ash/salt

His music and grief so moves Queen Persephone that she pleads with her grim consort, Hades, to release Eurydice and allow Orpheus to bring his wife out of the underworld. The god of the underworld grants this request, but only on the condition that Orpheus trust that Eurydice is following him; he must not look back at her until they pass beyond the realm of Hades’ domain and into the world of the living. Their escape is depicted in Sir Edward John Poynter’s dramatic 1862 oil-on-canvas Orpheus and Eurydice. At the last moment, Orpheus is unable to resist looking back at his love, and thus he is forced to watch as she is once again transported back to the world of the dead..

*******A R I O N

Arion was a lyric poet from Mithymna (Molyvos) in Lesvos. We do not even know the year of his birth and death. The information about him and his life comes mainly from the historian Herodotus. He left Lesbos early and lived near the tyrant of Corinth Periandros (625 – 585 BC).

He was the best guitar player of his time and contributed to the development of the dithyramb, the hymn of Dionysian worship, which was the forerunner of tragedy. Arion was the first to compose a dithyramb, gave it a lyrical form and narrative content and presented it at the court of the art-loving tyrant Periander, in Corinth. Arion presented the dancers disguised as Satyrs, i.e. with characteristics of goats, which is why he was called the “inventor of the tragic way”. As a poet and composer, he wrote chants (hymns) and preludes (guitar rules), of which not a single verse has survived. According to Herodotus Arion had won a musical competition in Sicily.

Arion, playing his kithara and riding dolphins. Sculpture by Jean Raon (Grove of the Domes [fr], Gardens of Versailles)

There is a story about his life, which is more like a fairy tale, and it was bequeathed to us by Herodotus. Once, Arion decided to travel to Sicily for a living. There, after having collected a lot of money and wealth through his art, he started the return journey in a Corinthian ship. During the voyage the sailors decided to rob him and throw him overboard. Arion offered to give them money to save his life, but in vain. Then, he begged them to do him one last favor. To let him sing before his death. The sailors accepted. Arion, having put on his good clothes, took the guitar in his hands, stood on the prow of the ship and sang the “standing law”, a hymn to Standing Artemis and others a hymn to Apollo the god of music. His song attracted dolphins around the ship. At the end of the song he threw himself into the sea. A dolphin enchanted by his song took him on its back and took him out to Cape Tainaro. From there, Arion went on foot to Corinth, where he reported everything to Periander, the tyrant of Corinth. He ordered the sailors, who had meanwhile returned to Corinth, to be arrested and put to death.

Arion, riding a dolphin; from the statue by Ernest-Eugene Hiolle. Illustration for The Chefs-D’Oeuvre d’Art of the International Exhibition, 1878, edited by Edward Straham (Gebbie & Barrie, c 1878).

Greek mythology is intended to serve as an education for the people of Ancient Greece, and with the Myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, they are taught two things. First, you need to stay true to your word. And, second, always be respectful to the gods.

He was the best guitar player of his time and contributed to the development of the dithyramb, the hymn of Dionysian worship, which was the forerunner of tragedy. Arion was the first to compose a dithyramb, gave it a lyrical form and narrative content and presented it at the court of the art-loving tyrant Periander, in Corinth. Arion presented the dancers disguised as Satyrs, i.e. with characteristics of goats, which is why he was called the “inventor of the tragic way”. As a poet and composer, he wrote chants (hymns) and preludes (guitar rules), of which not a single verse has survived. According to Herodotus Arion had won a musical competition in Sicily.

There is a story about his life, which is more like a fairy tale, and it was bequeathed to us by Herodotus. Once, Arion decided to travel to Sicily for a living. There, after having collected a lot of money and wealth through his art, he started the return journey in a Corinthian ship. During the voyage the sailors decided to rob him and throw him overboard. Arion offered to give them money to save his life, but in vain. Then, he begged them to do him one last favor. To let him sing before his death. The sailors accepted. Arion, having put on his good clothes, took the guitar in his hands, stood on the prow of the ship and sang the “standing law”, a hymn to Standing Artemis and others a hymn to Apollo the god of music. His song attracted dolphins around the ship. At the end of the song he threw himself into the sea. A dolphin enchanted by his song took him on its back and took him out to Cape Tainaro. From there, Arion went on foot to Corinth, where he reported everything to Periander, the tyrant of Corinth. He ordered the sailors, who had meanwhile returned to Corinth, to be arrested and put to death.

THE O A T T H OF HIPPOCRATES

One of the oldest binding documents in history, the Oath written by Hippocrates is still held sacred by physicians: to treat the ill to the best of one’s ability, to preserve a patient’s privacy, to teach the secrets of medicine to the next generation, and so on.There are many versions of the Hippocratic Oath. We here present two versions. First, the “classic” version (or more precisely, one translation of the original oath). And then, following it, is presented one of the fine “modern” versions of the Hippocratic Oath.

 Ο Όρκος του Ιπποκράτη (The Oath of Hippocrates)

ὌΜΝΥΜΙ ἈΠΌΛΛΩΝΑ ἸΗΤΡΌΝ ΚΑΊ ἈΣΚΛΗΠΙΌΝ ΚΑΊ ὙΓΕΊΑΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΝΆΚΕΙΑΝ ΚΑΊ ΘΕΟΎΣ ΠΆΝΤΑΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΆΣΑΣ, ἽΣΤΟΡΑΣ ΠΟΙΕΎΜΕΝΟΣ, ἘΠΙΤΕΛΈΑ ΠΟΙΉΣΕΙΝ ΚΑΤΆ ΔΎΝΑΜΙΝ ΚΑΊ ΚΡΊΣΙΝ ἘΜΉΝ ὍΡΚΟΝ ΤΌΝΔΕ ΚΑΊ ΞΥΓΓΡΑΦΉΝ ΤΉΝΔΕ.ἩΓΉΣΕΣΘΑΙ ΜΈΝ ΤΌΝ ΔΙΔΆΞΑΝΤΆ ΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΤΈΧΝΗΝ ΤΑΎΤΗΝ ἼΣΑ ΓΕΝΈΤΗΙΣΙΝ ἘΜΟΙ͂ΣΙ, ΚΑΊ ΒΊΟΥ ΚΟΙΝΏΣΕΣΘΑΙ, ΚΑΊ ΧΡΕΩ͂Ν ΧΡΗΊΖΟΝΤΙ ΜΕΤΆΔΟΣΙΝ ΠΟΙΉΣΕΣΘΑΙ, ΚΑΊ ΓΈΝΟΣ ΤΌ ἘΞ ΑΥ̓ΤΟΥ͂ ἈΔΕΛΦΕΟΙ͂Σ ἼΣΟΝ ἘΠΙΚΡΙΝΈΕΙΝ ἌΡΡΕΣΙ, ΚΑΊ ΔΙΔΆΞΕΙΝ ΤΉΝ ΤΈΧΝΗΝ ΤΑΎΤΗΝ, ἭΝ ΧΡΗΊΖΩΣΙ ΜΑΝΘΆΝΕΙΝ, ἌΝΕΥ ΜΙΣΘΟΥ͂ ΚΑΊ ΞΥΓΓΡΑΦΗ͂Σ, ΠΑΡΑΓΓΕΛΊΗΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΊ ἈΚΡΟΉΣΙΟΣ ΚΑΊ ΤΗ͂Σ ΛΟΙΠΗ͂Σ ἉΠΆΣΗΣ ΜΑΘΉΣΙΟΣ ΜΕΤΆΔΟΣΙΝ ΠΟΙΉΣΑΣΘΑΙ ΥἹΟΙ͂ΣΙ ΚΑΊ ΤΟΙ͂ΣΙ ΤΟΥ͂ ἘΜΈ ΔΙΔΆΞΑΝΤΟΣ ΚΑΊ ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ͂ΣΙ ΣΥΓΓΕΓΡΑΜΜΈΝΟΙΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΊ ὩΡΚΙΣΜΈΝΟΙΣ ΝΌΜΩΙ ἸΗΤΡΙΚΏ, ἌΛΛΩΙ ΔΈ ΟΥ̓ΔΕΝΊ.ΔΙΑΙΤΉΜΑΣΊ ΤΕ ΧΡΉΣΟΜΑΙ ἘΠ᾿ ὨΦΕΛΕΊΗΙ ΚΑΜΝΌΝΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΆ ΔΎΝΑΜΙΝ ΚΑΊ ΚΡΊΣΙΝ ἘΜΉΝ, ἘΠΊ ΔΗΛΉΣΕΙ ΔΈ ΚΑΊ ἈΔΙΚΊΗΙ ΕἼΡΞΕΙΝ.ΟΥ̓ ΔΏΣΩ ΔΈ ΟΥ̓ΔΈ ΦΆΡΜΑΚΟΝ ΟΥ̓ΔΕΝΊ ΑἸΤΗΘΕΊΣ ΘΑΝΆΣΙΜΟΝ, ΟΥ̓ΔΈ ὙΦΗΓΉΣΟΜΑΙ ΞΥΜΒΟΥΛΊΗΝ ΤΟΙΉΝΔΕ˙ ὉΜΟΊΩΣ ΔΈ ΟΥ̓ΔΈ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΊ ΠΕΣΣΌΝ ΦΘΌΡΙΟΝ ΔΏΣΩ.ἉΓΝΩ͂Σ ΔΕ ΚΑΊ ὉΣΊΩΣ ΔΙΑΤΗΡΉΣΩ ΒΊΟΝ ΤΌΝ ἘΜΌΝ ΚΑΊ ΤΈΧΝΗΝ ΤΉΝ ΕΜΉΝ.ΟΥ̓ ΤΕΜΈΩ ΔΕ ΟΥ̓ΔΈΝ ΜΗΝ ΛΙΘΙΩ͂ΝΤΑΣ, ἘΚΧΩΡΉΣΩ ΔΕ ἘΡΓΆΤΗΙΣΙΝ ἈΝΔΡΆΣΙΝ ΠΡΉΞΙΟΣ ΤΗ͂ΣΔΕ.ἘΣ ΟἸΚΊΑΣ ΔΕ ὉΚΌΣΑΣ ἌΝ ἘΣΊΩ, ἘΣΕΛΕΎΣΟΜΑΙ ἘΠ᾿ ὨΦΕΛΕΊΗΙ ΚΑΜΝΌΝΤΩΝ, ἘΚΤΌΣ ἘΏΝ ΠΆΣΗΣ ἈΔΙΚΊΗΣ ἙΚΟΥΣΊΗΣ ΚΑΊ ΦΘΟΡΊΗΣ ΤΗ͂Σ ΤΕ ἌΛΛΗΣ ΚΑΊ ἈΦΡΟΔΙΣΊΩΝ ἜΡΓΩΝ ἘΠΊ ΤΕ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΊΩΝ ΣΩΜΆΤΩΝ ΚΑΊ ἈΝΔΡΕΊΩΝ, ἘΛΕΥΘΈΡΩΝ ΤΕ ΚΑΊ ΔΟΎΛΩΝ.Ἅ Δ᾿ ἌΝ ἘΝ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΊΗΙ Ἤ ΊΔΩ Ἤ ΑΚΟΎΣΩ, Ἤ ΚΑΊ ἌΝΕΥ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΊΗΣ ΚΑΤΆ ΒΊΟΝ ἈΝΘΡΏΠΩΝ, Ἅ ΜΉ ΧΡΉ ΠΟΤΕ ἘΚΛΑΛΈΕΣΘΑΙ ἜΞΩ, ΣΙΓΉΣΟΜΑΙ, ἌΡΡΗΤΑ ἩΓΕΎΜΕΝΟΣ ΕἾΝΑΙ ΤΆ ΤΟΙΑΥ͂ΤΑ.

Ὅρκον μέν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι καί μή ξυγχέοντι εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καί βίου καί τέχνης, δοξαζομένῳ παρά πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τόν αἰεί χρόνον˙ παραβαίνοντι δέ καί ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τουτέων.

TRANSLATION form ancient Greek:

Hippocratic Oath: 

I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art – if they desire to learn it – without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

Hippocrates

 

Hippocrates: “What keeps health is equitable distribution and precise mixing within body forces (= egalitarianism) of dry, liquid, cold, sweet, bitter, sour and salty. The disease causes the predominance of one (= monarchy). Treatment is accomplished by restoring the disturbed balance, the method of the opposite of excess power. “

These concepts we find intact to Hippocrates. The exact mix, equality before the law, symmetry, harmony, are the basis of the doctrines of the Pythagoreans and Ippokrati.Grafei features Hippocrates: “In man there is the bitter and salty, sweet, sour, astringent and the the bland … and these components when mixed and combined together, neither shown nor affect humans. But when some of all separated and left alone it seems to cause harm “.

If we eat a lot of sweets and hydrocarbons and has become our body chocolate and patisserie, there has been an imbalance. The prevalence of fresh weight of bitter will pay dearly indeed. The volumes are full of zachari.Afto demonstrated the Warburg. In 2001 a medical conference in Karlsruhe, Germany, confirmed the adage: “that is bitter in the mouth, it is good for the stomach.” It was stressed that the bitter substances, contributing decisively to the overall process of digestion.

The movements of the stomach and intestine are intensifying and promoting food accelerating. Stimulate the secretion of bile and pancreatic, improve digestion albums, proteins and lipon.Meionetai sense of blowing and prevented fermentation and decay processes occurring in the intestines. Through B12 absorption improvement, bitter substances supporting blood production, promote the absorption of fat soluble components, like iron. The bitter substances support and creating bases (alkaline high pH) in the body. And act m “thereby against peroxidation

The Law of Hippocrates

1. Medicine is of all the arts the most noble; but, owing to the ignorance of those who practice it, and of those who, inconsiderately, form a judgment of them, it is at present far behind all the other arts. Their mistake appears to me to arise principally from this, that in the cities there is no punishment connected with the practice of medicine (and with it alone) except disgrace, and that does not hurt those who are familiar with it. Such persons are the figures which are introduced in tragedies, for as they have the shape, and dress, and personal appearance of an actor, but are not actors, so also physicians are many in title but very few in reality.

2. Whoever is to acquire a competent knowledge of medicine, ought to be possessed of the following advantages: a natural disposition; instruction; a favorable position for the study; early tuition; love of labor; leisure. First of all, a natural talent is required; for, when Nature leads the way to what is most excellent, instruction in the art takes place, which the student must try to appropriate to himself by reflection, becoming an early pupil in a place well adapted for instruction. He must also bring to the task a love of labor and perseverance, so that the instruction taking root may bring forth proper and abundant fruits.

3. Instruction in medicine is like the culture of the productions of the earth. For our natural disposition, is, as it were, the soil; the tenets of our teacher are, as it were, the seed; instruction in youth is like the planting of the seed in the ground at the proper season; the place where the instruction is communicated is like the food imparted to vegetables by the atmosphere; diligent study is like the cultivation of the fields; and it is time which imparts strength to all things and brings them to maturity.

4. Having brought all these requisites to the study of medicine, and having acquired a true knowledge of it, we shall thus, in traveling through the cities, be esteemed physicians not only in name but in reality. But inexperience is a bad treasure, and a bad fund to those who possess it, whether in opinion or reality, being devoid of self-reliance and contentedness, and the nurse both of timidity and audacity. For timidity betrays a want of powers, and audacity a lack of skill. They are, indeed, two things, knowledge and opinion, of which the one makes its possessor really to know, the other to be ignorant.

5. Those things which are sacred, are to be imparted only to sacred persons; and it is not lawful to impart them to the profane until they have been initiated into the mysteries of the science.

And we will adopt the tactics of the University Hippocrates who told us that we are what we eat … But what happens there nowadays this spate of cancer? Let us know the Hippocratic anticancer defense, which is based on a balance of four basic tastes. The almond oil is obtained from the fruit of the kernel. Rich in vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, B17, and trace elements. Vitamin B17 is vitamin. It is the old name of amygdalin, as we read in an article news portal.

Amygdalin is the bitter component of almonds and a potential toxin as it can release cyanide in the body. The amygdalin is considered to have anticancer properties, but this has not been proven scientifically.

It has been argued that the exclusion of bitter substances – only delight and pleasure in our throat is our motto – we excluded one of the four primary tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet. Many have rejected and sour and have chosen the salty and sweet. So balance (isorropia). Hippocrates emphasized the balance, influenced by the father of Greek medicine doctor Alkmaion.

He is considered the peak of Greek medicine because he first dealt with the anatomy and physiology and formulated as follows perceptions of health and illness, adopted by

Hippocrates:“What kee ps health is equitable distribution and precise mixing within body forces (= egalitarianism) of: dry, liquid, cold, sweet, bitter, sour and salty. The disease causes the predominance of one (= monarchy). Treatment is accomplished by restoring the disturbed balance, the method of the opposite of excess power. “

These concepts we find intact to Hippocrates. The exact mix, equality before the law, symmetry, harmony, are the basis of the doctrines of the Pythagoreans and Ippokrati.Grafei features Hippocrates: “In man there is the bitter and salty, sweet, sour, astringent and the the bland … and these components when mixed and combined together, neither shown nor affect humans. But when some of all separated and left alone it seems to cause harm “.

If we eat a lot of sweets and hydrocarbons and has become our body chocolate and patisserie, there has been an imbalance. The prevalence of fresh weight of bitter will pay dearly indeed. The volumes are full of zachari.Afto demonstrated the Warburg. In 2001 a medical conference in Karlsruhe, Germany, confirmed the adage: “that is bitter in the mouth, it is good for the stomach.” It was stressed that the bitter substances, contributing decisively to the overall process of digestion.

The movements of the stomach and intestine are intensifying and promoting food accelerating. Stimulate the secretion of bile and pancreatic, improve digestion albums, proteins and lipon.Meionetai sense of blowing and prevented fermentation and decay processes occurring in the intestines. Through B12 absorption improvement, bitter substances supporting blood production, promote the absorption of fat soluble components, like iron. The bitter substances support and creating bases (alkaline high pH) in the body. And act m “thereby against peroxidation

Hippocrates was the first who took into account the environment, working conditions and weather. A special place in medicine Hippocrates had nature. When the father of modern medicine, is inherent in man an animal power, which determines the balance of the body and is none other than nature. Therefore, investigating the natural environment of the patient. Residence, the atmosphere in which he lived, and the weather changes its place. Proper nutrition and diet were also key requirements for good human health.

The Hippocratic Oath (Ορκος) is perhaps the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards. It also strongly binds the student to his teacher and the greater community of physicians with responsibilities similar to that of a family member. In fact, the creation of the Oath may have marked the early stages of medical training to those outside the first families of Hippocratic medicine, the Asclepiads of Kos, by requiring strict loyalty.

Over the centuries, it has been rewritten often in order to suit the values of different cultures influenced by Greek medicine. Contrary to popular belief, the Hippocratic Oath is not required by most modern medical schools, although some have adopted modern versions that suit many in the profession in the 21st century. It also does not explicitly contain the phrase, “First, do no harm,” which is commonly attributed to it.

BELOW:

ASKLIPIOS SCHOOL (Est.1200years B.C.) at the island of KOS

The Aphorisms of Hippocrates – Most Important

BEFORE SOMEONE IS BELIEVING THAT (HE OR SHE) KNOWS ABOUT HIPPOCRATES ….

AT FIRST HAS TO STUDY About  ASCLEPIOS , HIPPOCRATES & THIS Aphorisms, his philosophy, the four elementsetc etc!..(Just read more about in this site)

START NOW!!

THE APHORISMS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS. IT WAS THE SUBJECT OF ADMIRATION OF DOCTORS OF ALL TIME AND DISTRIBUTEDO WIDELY OVER THE CENTURIES, WAS COPIED MORE THAN ALL THE OTHER WORKS OF ANCIENT GREEK MEDICAL LITERATURE. IT IS ELEMENTARY EPITOME SEMIOTICS, DIETARY, THERAPEUTIC AND PROGNOSTIC OF KOAN MEDICAL SCHOOL.

 

THE DESIGNER READILY UNDERSTANDS THAT THESE THOUGHTS WISE AND EXPERIENCED PHYSICIAN AND TEACHER, BUT NOT RECORDED BY THE SAME, THEREBY CONTAIN REPETITIONS AND BE UNCLASSIFIED.

 

IT IS LIKELY TO BE A PATTERN USED BY HIPPOCRATES FOR TEACHING. LATER STUDENTS FOUND IT AND INCLUDED IT IN HIS WORKS. SO THIS IS THE AUTHENTIC FATHER OF MEDICINE PROJECT:

 

 

IN THE FIRST PART, CONTAINED IN A SUMMARY MATTERS REGARDING GENERAL MEDICAL AND DIETARY-THERAPEUTIC AND GENERAL ON AUTOMATIC AND EVOKED STOOLS AND NUTRITION. “THE LIFE IS SHORT AND THE ART LONG, AND THE WEATHER SHARP, AND THE EXPERIENCE ERRONEOUS AND THE JUDGMENT TOUGH”. FAMOUS APHORISM THAT HAS BEEN FOREFRONT IN MEDICAL SCHOOLS, MEDICAL EMBLEM ON MANY PROJECTS AND HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF COMMENTS LARGE SAGES OF ANTIQUITY, SUCH AS GALEN, LUCIAN, SENECA AND YOUNGER PHYSICIANS AND PHILOSOPHERS SUCH AS GOETHE, ETC.

 

IN THE SECOND SECTION, INCLUDED APHORISMS RELEVANT TO PROGNOSIS OF DISEASE IN GENERAL. FIRST MENTIONED PREDICTIVE SYMPTOMS FOR SLEEP, WORTHY GREAT CLINICIAN, FOR EXAMPLE HIGH RISK OF DISEASES AGGRAVATED BY SLEEP. WISE ALSO OBSERVATION IS THAT BOTH EXCESSIVE INSOMNIA AND EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS ARE UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS. ALSO SUDDEN FATIGUE HERALDS IASTHENEIA, OBESE ARE MORE AT RISK OF SUDDEN DEATH FROM THE WEAK, THOSE WHO OFTEN FEEL TOO TIRED FOR NO REASON, DYING. THESE ARE ALL WISE PHYSICIAN EXPERIENCED OBSERVATIONS.

 

THE THIRD SECTION REFERS TO THE INFLUENCE THAT THE APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER OF THE DISEASE THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND AGE.

 

IN THE FOURTH SECTION, ON TREATMENT WITH EMETICS AND LAXATIVES AND DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION PARTICULARLY FEBRILE ILLNESSES, INCLUDING BANS RELEVANT TO THE PURGES, INTENTIONAL OR NOT, IN CONNECTION WITH PREGNANCY, SEASONS, THE MAKEUP OF THE INDIVIDUAL, AND NATURE OF THE DISEASE. VERY INTERESTING ARE THE APHORISMS MENTIONED IN FEVERS: SIXTHS, LABORIOUS, FEVERS TWIST NECK, INTERMITTENT, NON-INTERMITTENT, WITH SHIVERING, KAFSODEIS ETC.

 

IN THE FIFTH SECTION INCLUDES APHORISMS ON THE EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD ESPECIALLY IN SURGICAL DISEASES AND GYNECOLOGICAL DISEASES. SOME REFER AND CONVULSIONS, THE TETANIC CONVULSIONS AND EPILEPSY, OTHERS TO BREAST DISEASES. OTHERS RELATE MILK STERILIZATION, DISEASE OF THE UTERUS, MENSTRUATION. IN THIS SECTION ARE THE FAMOUS APHORISMS, UNDER WHICH THE OCCURRENCE OF SEIZURES IN TRAUMA IS FATAL PROGNOSIS, THE TABES AFFECTS PEOPLE AGED 18-35 YEARS, HEMOPTYSIS BLOOD FOAMED FROM LUNG, DIARRHEA IS DEADLY SYMPTOM IN CONSUMPTIVE, SUDDEN SLIMMING BREAST PREGNANT HERALDS SHEDDING ETC.

 

SECTION SIX REFER APHORISMS RELATED TO THE SYMPTOMS OF SURGICAL DISEASES. PRECIOUS ARE THOSE WHO SAID THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER IN THE ELDERLY DIFFICULT TO TREAT, THAT THE INJURIES TO THE BRAIN, BLADDER, INTESTINES, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ABDOMEN AND LIVER ARE FATAL.

 

FINALLY IN THE SEVENTH SECTION ARE MANY REPETITIONS APHORISMS FROM PREVIOUS PARTS. AMONG THE MOST IMPORTANT IS THE ONE THAT STATES THAT THE ENDS OF FREEZING IS DEADLY PROGNOSTIC IN SEVERE FEBRILE ILLNESSES, AS WELL AS DEADLY PREDICTOR IS THE APPEARANCE OF VOMITING, HICCUP, SPASM OR DELIRIUM IN THE ILEUM.

 

FINALLY, THE FOLLOWING APHORISM IS USUALLY MOUNTED IN OPERATING ROOMS:

  « ‘ὈΚΌΣΑ ΦΆΡΜΑΚΑ ΟΥ̓Κ ἸΗΤΑΙ, ΣΊΔΗΡΟΣ ἼΗΤΑΙ, ὍΣΑ ΣΊΔΗΡΟΣ ΟΥ̓Κ ἸΗΤΑΙ, ΠΥ͂Ρ ἼΗΤΑΙ ὍΣΑ ΔΈ ΠΥ͂Ρ ΟΥ̓Κ ἼΗΤΑΙ, ΤΑΥ͂ΤΑ ΧΡΉ ΝΟΜΊΖΕΙΝ ἈΝΊΑΤΑ». – 

 

 

 

APHORISMS SECTION FIRST

 

 1. LIFE IS SHORT BUT THE MEDICAL LONG, OPPORTUNITY FLEETING, EXPERIENCE FALLACIOUS, CORRECT DIFFICULT CRISIS. THE PHYSICIAN MUST THEREFORE NOT ONLY TO OFFER THE SICK THAN APPROPRIATE, BUT HAS ITS OWN HELP, THE HELP OF PEOPLE AROUND HIM AND APPROPRIATE FOR THE OCCASION CONDITIONS.

 

2. DIGESTIVE DISORDERS AND VOMITING THAT OCCUR ON THEIR OWN IF THE PATIENT EXPELS WHAT SHOULD BE EXPELLED, THE STOOLS AND VOMITING ARE USEFUL AND EASILY TOLERATED “DIFFERENT IS THE OPPOSITE. THE SAME APPLIES TO ARTIFICIAL STOOLS VASCULAR AND ORGAN [BLEEDING, INDUCED VOMITING, LAXATIVES ACTIVE]. IF DONE THE RIGHT WAY, THEY ARE USEFUL AND EASILY TOLERATED “DIFFERENT IS THE OPPOSITE. SO TO JUDGE WHETHER THESE STOOLS ARE BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL, WE MUST BE KEPT IN MIND THE PLACE, TIME, AGE AND TYPES OF DISEASES.

 

3. EXCESSIVE WELFARE OF ATHLETES IS DANGEROUS IF EVEN REACHES THE UTMOST LIMITS “STAY IN THE SAME PLACE IS IMPOSSIBLE” SO, SINCE NO ONE STANDING STILL AND NOR IS THERE ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT, THE ONLY QUESTION LEFT IS EPIDEINOISI ‘FOR THESE REASONS ,

 

4. THE AUSTERE AND STRICT DIET IS ALWAYS RISKY AND LENGTHY ILLNESSES AND HEAVY, WHICH IS NOT ACCEPTED. MOREOVER, THE DIET THAT LEADS THE UTMOST SLIMMING LIMITS IS HARMFUL, BECAUSE THE DAMAGE IS CORRECTED WHEN IT HAS REACHED ROCK BOTTOM, IS VERY DIFFICULT.

 

5. WHEN FOLLOWING A STRICT DIET, PATIENTS MAKE MISTAKES AND THEREFORE SUFFER MORE “EVERY MISTAKE, WHATEVER IT IS, BECOMES EVEN MORE SERIOUS THAN WHAT IF IT WERE IN A LESS STRICT DIET. FOR THIS REASON, AND EVEN HEALTHY PEOPLE, THE VERY AUSTERE AND STRICT DIETS THAT ARE GOVERNED BY RULES ARE DOUBTFUL RESULT, BECAUSE EVERY DEVIATION FROM THEM BECOMES MORE DIFFICULT TOLERATED BY THE PATIENT. SO THE SIMPLE AND STRICT DIETS ARE MORE HARMFUL THAN THE LESS STRINGENT.

 

6. IN SEVERE DISEASE, THE ABSOLUTE PRECISION AND REFINEMENT IN THE TREATMENT IS THE BEST METHOD.

 

7. WHEN THE DISEASE IS TOO HEAVY, MANIFESTED IMMEDIATELY MORBID SYMPTOMS IN THE PEAK AND THE NEED TO IMMEDIATELY IMPLEMENT THE MOST STRICT DIET “IF IT DOES NOT, PERMITTED A LESS STRICT” SEVERITY RELAXES, AS THE DISEASE IS MILDER.

 

 

8. WHEN THE DISEASE IS THE MOST CRITICAL POINT, THEN IT MUST BE APPLIED VERY STRICT DIET.

 

9. WE MUST EXAMINE THE PATIENT AND DETERMINE WHETHER IT IS ABLE TO TOLERATE THE DIET UNTIL THE MOST CRITICAL POINT OF THE DISEASE AND WHICH OF THE TWO POSSIBILITIES WILL HAPPEN: IT WILL RUN OUT FIRST AND THE PATIENT WILL NOT BE ABLE TO TOLERATE OR FIRST SUBSIDES DISEASE AND WILL DIMINISH.

 

10. SO WHEN THE ILLNESS REACHES FROM THE START IN THE MOST CRITICAL POINT, WE RECOMMEND AMESOIS UNASSUMING MANNER NUTRITIONAL IF THIS COME LATER, SHOULD THE CRISIS PERIOD OR SHORTLY BEFORE THAT TO REMOVE SOME OF THE FOOD ‘THE PREVIOUS PERIOD BUT HAVE THE DIET SHOULD BE ABUNDANT, TO ENABLE THE PATIENT TO EFFECTIVELY DEAL WITH THE ILLNESS.

 

11. DURING EXACERBATIONS OF THE DISEASE, SHOULD BE REDUCED FOOD, BECAUSE THE INCREASE OF THE SUPPLY OF FOOD HARMS GENERALLY DURING EXACERBATIONS OF ALL DISEASES WHICH PERIODICALLY RECUR, SHOULD CUT THE FOOD.

 

12. EXACERBATIONS AND REMISSIONS DEPEND ON THE TYPE OF DISEASE, THE SEASON OF THE YEAR, THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE VARIOUS PERIODS BETWEEN THEM, WHETHER THEY OCCUR EVERY DAY OR EVERY OTHER DAY OR OVER A LONGER DISTANCE, AS WELL AS FROM SUCH SYMPTOMS, IF THE PLEURAL ELIMINATION OF SPUTUM BEGIN IMMEDIATELY, SHORTENING THE DURATION OF ILLNESS “IF IT STARTS LATER, THE ILLNESS ALSO PARATEINETAI-, URINE, FAECES AND SWEATS ARE, DEPENDING ON THE WAY THEY ARE PRESENTED, AN INDICATION OF WHETHER A DISEASE IT WILL GO HARD OR EASY, THOUGH IT WILL LAST MORE OR LESS.

 

13. THE ELDERLY, MORE EASILY TOLERATE FASTING, HARDEST MATURE MEN, AND FEW YOUNG CHILDREN TOLERATE WITH DIFFICULTY, ESPECIALLY VIVID.

 

14. ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE DEPLOYED INHERENTLY MORE HEAT AND THEREFORE NEED MORE FOOD “OTHERWISE THEIR BODIES WITHER” OLDER PEOPLE NEED SMALL AMOUNT OF FUEL, BECAUSE THEY HAVE LESS HEAT: HIGHER AMOUNT WILL EXTINGUISH. FOR THE SAME REASON FEVERS ARE NOT AS HIGH IN THE ELDERLY BECAUSE THEIR BODIES ARE COLD.

 

15. IN WINTER AND SPRING THE BELLY IS BY NATURE VERY WARM AND SLEEP TAKES TOO LONG “AND SHOULD THEREFORE FOOD IS MORE ABUNDANT, BECAUSE IF WE CONSIDER THAT THE INNATE HEAT IS TOO GREAT, NEEDS MORE FOOD. PROOF YOUNG PEOPLE AND ATHLETES.

 

16. THE LIQUID DIET BENEFITS THOSE WHO DEVELOP FEVER, ESPECIALLY CHILDREN, AND THOSE ACCUSTOMED TO SIMILAR DIETS.

 

17. WE MUST ALSO BE CAREFUL WHEN TO ARE FED ONCE A DAY AND WHEN BOTH, WHEN MORE AND WHEN LESS, OR IN SMALL DOSEIS- ALL THIS MUST BE ADJUSTED ACCORDING TO THE HABITS OF THE PATIENT, TIME, PLACE AND AGE.

 

18. IN THE SUMMER AND AUTUMN, THE FOOD IS HARDLY TOLERABLE “VERY EASILY DONE IN WINTER AND SECONDLY IN THE SPRING.

 

19. DURING EXACERBATIONS PRESENTED AT CERTAIN TIMES SHOULD NOT GIVE ANYTHING UTENA RECOMMEND ANYTHING, BUT IS REMOVABLE PORTION OF THE FOOD THAT WE GAVE BEFORE THE CRISES.

 

20. DISEASES MARCHING SMOOTHLY TO THE CRISIS OR HAVE CONCLUSIVELY DETERMINED NOT TO BE HINDERED IN THEIR COURSE OF INNOVATIVE METHODS NOR WITH LAXATIVES OR OTHER IRRITANTS IN, BUT N ‘LEFT IN THEIR NATURAL DEVELOPMENT.

 

21. THE LIQUID TO BE CLEAN, THERE SHOULD DRIVE THEM WHERE MAINLY INCLINED BY APPROPRIATE ROADS.

 

22. CLEAN AND PUT IN MOTION THE MATURE LIQUID, NOT THE IMMATURE, NOR THE BEGINNING OF THE DISEASE, UNLESS THERE IS IRRITATION, WHICH FOR THE MOST PART DOES NOT EXIST.

 

23. THE DISCHARGED LIQUID SHOULD NOT BE JUDGED BY QUANTITY, BUT BY THE NATURAL OR UNNATURAL MANNER DISCHARGED, AS WELL AS FROM THE EASE WITH WHICH TOLERATED “AND WHEN THE NEED ARISES TO PROMOTE ABORTION TO FAINT, YOU SHOULD NOT HESITATE, WHERE THE PATIENT MAY BE TOLERATED IN THIS TEST.

 

24. IN SEVERE DISEASE ADMINISTER LAXATIVES LITTLE AT THE BEGINNING, AND THIS ONLY AFTER CAREFUL CONSIDERATION.

 

25. IF THE VACANCY IS AS IT SHOULD BE, THEN IT IS BENEFICIAL AND THE PATIENT ACCEPTS WITH RELIEF “OTHERWISE, IS IN PREDICAMENT.

 

 

 

APHORISMS SECOND PART

 

1. IF THE DISEASE CAUSES DISCOMFORT SLEEP, THE DISEASE IS FATAL. IF SLEEP RELIEVES, NOT FATAL.

 

2. IT’S A GOOD SIGN, WHEN SLEEP STOPS DELIRIUM.

 

3. WHEN SLEEP OR INSOMNIA EXCEED MODERATE SYMPTOMS ARE BAD.

 

4. NEITHER HYPERALIMENTATION NEITHER STARVATION NOR ANYTHING ELSE IS FINE IF EXCEED THE NORMAL RANGE.

 

5. FATIGUE MANIFESTED SUDDENLY HERALDS DISEASE.

 

6. THOSE WHO ACHE SOMEWHERE IN THE BODY, BUT DO NOT FEEL PAIN, SUFFER PSYCHOLOGICALLY.

 

7. THE STRENGTHENING OF THE BODY IS WEAKENED IN A LONG TIME SHOULD BE DONE SLOWLY “IN CONTRAST, FAST SHOULD BE THE STIMULATION OF BODIES WEAKEN IN THE SHORT TERM.

 

8. IF A PERSON EATS DURING RECOVERY, BUT STRONGER, IT MEANS THAT THE BODY NEEDS MORE FOOD • IF NOT STRONGER BECAUSE IT HAS NO APPETITE TO EAT, THEN WE MUST HAVE IN MIND THAT YOU NEED A LAXATIVE.

 

9. WHEN WE WANT TO CLEAN THE BODY, WE MUST FACILITATE THE ELIMINATION OF URINE AND STOOL.

 

10. THE MORE WE FEED THE BODY WITHOUT PARALLEL CLEARANCE, THE MORE HARM.

 

11. IT IS EASIER TO STIMULATE THE BODY IN LIQUID RATHER THAN SOLID FOOD.

 

12. WHEN AFTER THE CRISIS REMAIN MORBIDLY DATA, THE DISEASE RECURS.

 

13. THE CRISIS IS CAUSING DISTRESS THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FINAL FRENZY IF THE CRISIS OCCURRED THE NEXT DAY, THE SITUATION IS USUALLY MORE BEARABLE.

 

14. ON DIARRHEA VARIATIONS OF STOOLS OFE AMUSEMENT, THOUGH OF COURSE THESE CHANGES DO NOT GET MALIGNANT FORM.

 

15. WHEN THE NECK HURTS OR RASHES OCCUR IN THE BODY, WE MUST EXAMINE THE STOOLS • IF CHOLODEIS, THE WHOLE BODY IS SICK • IF NORMAL, THEN WE CAN GRANT FEARLESSLY FOOD.

 

16. WHEN FOOD IS LITTLE, WORK SHOULD NOT BE PAINFUL.

 

17. IF YOU EAT MORE THAN YOU ALLOW THE AGENCY WILL GET SICK • IT WILL LOOK AND FROM TREATMENT.

 

18. THOSE WHO EAT VERY QUICKLY AND HAVE FASTER BOWEL MOVEMENTS.

 

19. IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO PREDICT DEATH OR SALVATION OF A PERSON SUFFERING FROM SERIOUS ILLNESS, WITHOUT THE RISK OF MAKING A MISTAKE.

 

20. THOSE EFFECTED EASILY WHEN THEY ARE YOUNG, THEY BECOME CONSTIPATED AS THEIR AGE PROCEEDS • CONVERSELY, THOSE WHO ARE CONSTIPATED YOUNG, ARE EFKOILIOI, AS THE YEARS PASS.

 

21. DRINKING CUTTING HUNGER.

 

22. DISEASES CAUSED BY GASTRIC EMPTYING LOAD TREATED BY THE INTESTINAL TRACT, THOSE CAUSED BY INADEQUATE DIET OVERFED ‘IN GENERAL THE TREATMENT IS TO THE OPPOSITE OF THE ROOT CAUSES OF DISEASE.

 

23. SEVERE ILLNESSES APPEAR WITHIN FOURTEEN DAYS.

 

24. OF THE FIRST SEVEN DAYS OF ILLNESS INDICATIVE OF THE COURSE OF THE FOURTH DAY. INDICATOR IS ALSO THE EIGHTH, THAT THE PRINCIPLE OF THE SECOND WEEK. DURING THE SECOND WEEK, YOU SHOULD BEWARE OF THE ELEVENTH DAY, IT IS THE FOURTH OF THE SECOND WEEK; WE SHOULD ALSO CONSIDER IF THE DISEASE CONTINUES ITS SEVENTEENTH DAY, IT IS THE FOURTH OF THE THIRD AND SEVENTH WEEK AFTER THE ELEVENTH DAY.

 

25. TETARTAIOI FEVERS ARE USUALLY SHORT SUMMER, AUTUMN TETARTAIOI ARE LONG-TERM, ESPECIALLY THOSE THAT OCCUR IN THE WINTER.

 

26. FEVER AFTER SEIZURES ARE BETTER THAN SPASMS AFTER FEVER.

 

27. WE SHOULD NOT TRUST IMPROVE NOT PROGRESSING WELL OR TOO AFRAID ABNORMAL DETERIORATION BECAUSE USUALLY THESE MORBID CONDITIONS ARE UNCERTAIN AND HAVE NO STABILITY AND DURABILITY.

 

28. IN THE NOT TOO SLIGHT FEBRILE UGLY STAYS BODY IN THE SAME STATE WITHOUT LOSS OR EXCESSIVE WEAR • THE FORMER CASE IS INDICATIVE OF THE DURATION OF THE DISEASE AND THE SECOND ATTENUATION OF THE PATIENT.

 

29. IF AT THE BEGINNING OF THE DISEASE IT IS APPROPRIATE TO CHALLENGE MOVEMENT OF JUICE, WE CAN DO IT • BUT WHEN THE DISEASE IS AT ITS PEAK, IT IS PREFERABLE TO LEAVE THE SICK IN PEACE.

 

30. THE MORBID SYMPTOMS ARE ASTHENESTATA AT THE BEGINNING AND END • ALL ARE POWERFUL ACNE DISEASE.

 

31. IF THE PATIENT EATS DURING CONVALESCENCE AND HIS BODY STRONGER, IS UNPLEASANT SYMPTOM.

 

32. AS ALWAYS, ALL THE PATIENTS, WHEN EATING THE TOP OF APPETITE AND DO NOT STRENGTHEN ALL EVENTUALLY LOSE THEIR APPETITE. BUT THOSE WHO IN PRINCIPLE MAKE STRONG DIET AND THEN START AND EAT, HEAL BETTER.

33. IN ANY DISEASE, MENTAL CLARITY AND RETENTION OF APPETITE IS A GOOD SIGN “THE OPPOSITE IS BAD.

 

34. ON VARIOUS DISEASES, THOSE WHO EXPRESS CONDITION THAT SUITS THE NATURE, HABITS, AGE AND SEASON OF THE YEAR, ARE AT LOWER RISK THAN THOSE WHO DO NOT SHOW THIS SIMILARITY.

35. IN ALL DISEASES ARE USEABLE AREA OF ​​THE NAVEL AND THE LOWER ABDOMEN TO MAINTAIN THEIR THICKNESS, AND IS UNCOMFORTABLE THESE REGIONS TOO SLIMMER AND DRY • THIS ALSO IS NOT CONDUCIVE AT ALL AND ADMINISTERING LAXATIVES.

 

36. HEALTHY PEOPLE TAKING LAXATIVES EFFECTED QUICKLY AND FADE DURING THE PERIOD OF STOOLS, AS WELL AS PEOPLE-EATING HARMFUL FOODS.

 

37. THOSE WHO HAVE HEALTHY BODY, HARDLY TOLERATE LAXATIVES.

 

38. PREFERENCE SHOULD BE GIVEN FOOD OR DRINKS WHICH, ALTHOUGH NOT AS GOOD QUALITY, BUT IT IS PLEASANT TO THE TASTE OF DRINKS OR FOOD OF BETTER QUALITY BUT WITH NOT SO PLEASANT TASTE.

 

39. THE ELDERLY USUALLY DO NOT GET SICK AS MUCH AS THE YOUNG, BUT CHRONIC DISEASES THAT OCCUR IN THIS AGE, ARE USUALLY FOLLOWED UNTIL THEIR DEATH.

 

40. BRONCHIAL CATARRH AND CORYZA ARE NOT CURED IN VERY ELDERLY.

 

41. THOSE WHO SUFFER FREQUENT AND SEVERE FAINTING WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, SUDDENLY DIE.

 

42. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO CURE SEVERE STROKE DIFFICULT BUT CURED AND LIGHTLY.

 

43. IF APANCHONISMENOS WHO DOWNLOAD FROM THE GALLOWS HAS NOT YET DIED, NOT SAVED FROM DEATH IF FOAMING AROUND THE MOUTH.

 


MEDICAL APHORISMS OF HIPPOCRATES ~ (MEDICAL ADVICE) SECTION 3 & 4

 

 

THE APHORISMS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS. IT WAS THE SUBJECT OF ADMIRATION OF DOCTORS OF ALL TIME AND KYKLOFOROUMENO WIDELY OVER THE CENTURIES, WAS COPIED MORE THAN ALL THE OTHER WORKS OF ANCIENT GREEK MEDICAL LITERATURE. IT IS ELEMENTARY EPITOME SEMIOTICS, DIETARY, THERAPEUTIC AND PROGNOSTIC OF KOAN MEDICAL SCHOOL.

 

THE DESIGNER READILY UNDERSTANDS THAT THESE THOUGHTS WISE AND EXPERIENCED PHYSICIAN AND TEACHER, BUT NOT RECORDED BY THE SAME, THEREBY CONTAIN REPETITIONS AND BE UNCLASSIFIED.

 

IT IS LIKELY TO BE A PATTERN USED BY HIPPOCRATES FOR TEACHING. LATER STUDENTS FOUND IT AND INCLUDED IT IN HIS WORKS. SO THIS IS THE AUTHENTIC WORK OF THE FATHER OF MEDICINE:

 

 

IN THE FIRST PART, CONTAINED IN A SUMMARY MATTERS REGARDING GENERAL MEDICAL AND DIETARY-THERAPEUTIC AND GENERAL ON AUTOMATIC AND EVOKED STOOLS AND NUTRITION. “THE LIFE IS SHORT AND THE ART MAKRI, AND THE WEATHER SHARP, AND THE EXPERIENCE ERRONEOUS AND THE JUDGMENT: ALEPPO”. FAMOUS APHORISM THAT HAS BEEN FOREFRONT IN MEDICAL SCHOOLS, MEDICAL EMBLEM ON MANY PROJECTS AND HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF COMMENTS LARGE SAGES OF ANTIQUITY, SUCH AS GALEN, LUCIAN, SENECA AND YOUNGER PHYSICIANS AND PHILOSOPHERS SUCH AS GOETHE, ETC.

 

IN THE SECOND SECTION, INCLUDED APHORISMS RELEVANT TO PROGNOSIS OF DISEASE IN GENERAL. FIRST MENTIONED PREDICTIVE SYMPTOMS FOR SLEEP, WORTHY GREAT CLINICIAN, FOR EXAMPLE HIGH RISK OF DISEASES AGGRAVATED BY SLEEP. WISE ALSO OBSERVATION IS THAT BOTH EXCESSIVE INSOMNIA AND EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS ARE UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS. ALSO SUDDEN FATIGUE HERALDS IASTHENEIA, OBESE ARE MORE AT RISK OF SUDDEN DEATH FROM THE WEAK, THOSE WHO OFTEN FEEL TOO TIRED FOR NO REASON, DYING. THESE ARE ALL WISE PHYSICIAN EXPERIENCED OBSERVATIONS.

 

THE THIRD SECTION REFERS TO THE INFLUENCE THAT THE APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER OF THE DISEASE THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND AGE.

 

IN THE FOURTH SECTION, ON TREATMENT WITH EMETICS AND LAXATIVES AND DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION PARTICULARLY FEBRILE ILLNESSES, INCLUDING BANS RELEVANT TO THE PURGES, INTENTIONAL OR NOT, IN CONNECTION WITH PREGNANCY, SEASONS, THE MAKEUP OF THE INDIVIDUAL, AND NATURE OF THE DISEASE. VERY INTERESTING ARE THE APHORISMS MENTIONED IN FEVERS: SIXTHS, LABORIOUS, FEVERS TWIST NECK, INTERMITTENT, NON-INTERMITTENT, WITH SHIVERING, KAFSODEIS ETC.

 

IN THE FIFTH SECTION INCLUDES APHORISMS ON THE EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD ESPECIALLY IN SURGICAL DISEASES AND GYNECOLOGICAL DISEASES. SOME REFER AND CONVULSIONS, THE TETANIC CONVULSIONS AND EPILEPSY, OTHERS TO BREAST DISEASES. OTHERS RELATE MILK STERILIZATION, DISEASE OF THE UTERUS, MENSTRUATION. IN THIS SECTION ARE THE FAMOUS APHORISMS, UNDER WHICH THE OCCURRENCE OF SEIZURES IN TRAUMA IS FATAL PROGNOSIS, THE TABES AFFECTS PEOPLE AGED 18-35 YEARS, HEMOPTYSIS BLOOD FOAMED FROM LUNG, DIARRHEA IS DEADLY SYMPTOM IN CONSUMPTIVE, SUDDEN SLIMMING BREAST PREGNANT HERALDS SHEDDING ETC.

 

SECTION SIX REFER APHORISMS RELATED TO THE SYMPTOMS OF SURGICAL DISEASES. PRECIOUS ARE THOSE WHO SAID THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER IN THE ELDERLY DIFFICULT TO TREAT, THAT THE INJURIES TO THE BRAIN, BLADDER, INTESTINES, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ABDOMEN AND LIVER ARE FATAL.

 

FINALLY IN THE SEVENTH SECTION ARE MANY REPETITIONS APHORISMS FROM PREVIOUS PARTS. AMONG THE MOST IMPORTANT IS THE ONE THAT STATES THAT THE ENDS OF FREEZING IS DEADLY PROGNOSTIC IN SEVERE FEBRILE ILLNESSES, AS WELL AS DEADLY PREDICTOR IS THE APPEARANCE OF VOMITING, HICCUP, SPASM OR DELIRIUM IN THE ILEUM.

 

THE FOLLOWING APHORISM IS USUALLY MOUNTED IN OPERATING ROOMS:

 

” OKOSA DRUGS CDR IITAI, IRON IITAI, WHAT IRON CDR IITAI PY IITAI FIND NOT FIRE CDR IITAI, NO MONEY NOMIZEIN BOREDOM. “

 

 

 

 

APHORISMS THIRD SECTION

 

1. THE DISEASES MAINLY CAUSED BY THE CHANGES OF THE SEASONS AND THE SEASONS, THANKS TO EXTREMES OF COLD AND HEAT. IN OTHER CASES ALSO CAUSED SIMILARLY.

 

2. THE TEMPERAMENTS OF PEOPLE ARE BY NATURE SOMETIMES GOOD, SOMETIMES IN POOR CONDITION IN THE SUMMER, WITH STILL OTHER HAPPENS IN THE WINTER THE SAME.

 

3. SOME DISEASES AND SOME GROUPS IS INHERENTLY GOOD OR BAD SITUATION ONE WAY OR THE OTHER TIME, IN ONE OR ANOTHER PLACE, ACCORDING TO ONE OR THE OTHER LIFESTYLE.

 

4. WHEN THE VARIOUS SEASONS OF THE YEAR WE HAVE THE SAME DAY WHEN HOT, WHEN COLD, MUST WAIT ILLNESSES FALL.

 

5. SOUTHERLY WINDS CAUSE HEARING LOSS, BLACKOUTS, WEIGHT IN THE HEAD, DROWSINESS AND EXHAUSTION OF THE BODY. SUCH MORBID PHENOMENA OCCUR WHEN THESE WINDS PREVAIL. OIVORIADES CAUSE COUGH, SORE THROAT, CONSTIPATION, DYSURIA WITH CHILLS, PAIN IN THE SIDE AND CHEST • PREVAIL THESE WINDS SHOULD EXPECT SUCH MORBID PHENOMENA.

 

6. WHEN SUMMER IS THE SAME AS IN THE SPRING, WE SHOULD EXPECT COPIOUS SWEATS IN FEBRILE ILLNESSES.

 

7. DROUGHT SEASONS MANIFESTED HIGH FEVER • IF THE DROUGHT COVERING MUCH OF THE YEAR, THESE WILL BE THE EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN BODY AND SUCH DISEASES MOSTLY HAVE TO WAIT.

 

8. WHEN THE SEASONS ROTATE SMOOTHLY AND STEADILY MANIFESTED MINOR ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT IS EASY “BUT WHEN THE SWITCH BECOMES ABNORMALLY, DISEASES CAUSED UNEVEN AND REFRACTORY.

 

9. AUTUMN DISEASES MANIFESTED BY ACUTE AND USUALLY FATAL FORM • SPRING IS VERY HEALTHY AGE AND MORTALITY DURING VERY LIMITED.

 

10. AUTUMN IS BAD SEASON FOR CONSUMPTIVE.

 

11. ABOUT SEASONS, ALTHOUGH IN WINTER IT DOES NOT RAIN AND THE WINDS ARE NORTHERLY, WHILE SPRING IS RAINY AND SOUTHERLY WINDS, THE SUMMER WILL OCCUR NECESSARILY HIGH FEVERS, OPHTHALMIA AND DYSENTERY, ESPECIALLY AMONG WOMEN AND MEN WITH LIQUID MAKEUP.

 

12. IF THE WINTER HAS SOUTHERLY WINDS AND RAINY AND MILD, AND COME NEXT SPRING WITHOUT RAIN AND NORTHERLY WINDS, WOMEN TO GIVE BIRTH IN THE SPRING, ELIMINATE THE SLIGHTEST REASON • AS MANY AGAIN LAY NORMALLY GIVE BIRTH TO WEAK AND SICKLY CHILDREN , DYING IMMEDIATELY OR LIVE STUNTED AND WITH WEAK CONSTITUTION • THE REST OF THE POPULATION AFFECTED BY DYSENTERY AND DRY EYES AND ELDERLY FROM CATARRHAL DISEASES RESULTING IN DEATH WITHIN A SHORT TIME.

 

13. IF THE SUMMER DROUGHT TO NORTH WINDS PREVAIL, AND AUTUMN RAINS TO SOUTH, WINTER OCCURRING HEADACHES, COUGH, HOARSE AND CORYZA, AND SOME PEOPLE ARE INFECTED WITH TUBERCULOSIS.

 

14. BUT IF THE AUTUMN WINDS BLOW AND THERE RAIN, BENEFITING LIQUID DIATHESES AND WOMEN S OTHER PEOPLE WILL BE INFECTED WITH DRY EYE, HIGH FEVERS, CORYZA AND SOMETIMES EVEN BY PAROXYSMS OF MELANCHOLY.

 

15. SINCE THE WEATHER YEAR GENERALLY DRY WEATHER HEALTHIER BY LIQUID AND MORTALITY UNDER THESE CONDITIONS ARE MORE LIMITED.

 

16. THE DISEASES MANIFEST THEMSELVES IN RAINY WEATHER ARE FOR THE VERY LONG-TERM FEVERS, GASTRIC CATARRH, SEPSIS, SEIZURES, STROKES, AND DISEASES OF THE THROAT • DROUGHT CAUSES TUBERCULAR CONDITIONS, EYE, ARTHRITIS, STRANGURIA AND DYSENTERY.

 

17. FROM DAILY WEATHER CONDITIONS, WINDS MAKE THE BODY TAUT, GIVE STRENGTH, AGILITY, GOOD COLOR, IMPROVE HEARING, DRY BELLY, IRRITATE EYES AND, IF EXISTED A CHEST PAIN IS BECOMING FIERCER • THE SOUTHERN WET AND DISSOLVE THE BODY, WEAKENS THE HEARING, CAUSE BURDEN ON THE HEAD AND DIZZINESS, DIFFICULT EYE MOVEMENTS AND BODY AND CAUSE CONSTIPATION.

 

18. ABOUT THE SEASONS, SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER, CHILDREN AND PEOPLE WHO ARE CLOSER TO CHILDHOOD, FEEL WONDERFUL AND HAVE GREAT HEALTH ‘SUMMER AND PART OF AUTUMN, SO FEEL THE ELDERLY • REST OF AUTUMN AND WINTER FEEL GOOD MIDDLE AGED.

 

19. ALL DISEASES OCCUR ALL BUT -SOME SEASONS MANIFEST THEMSELVES AND REACH THEIR PAROXYSM IN SOME SEASONS.

 

20. IN THE SPRING PREVAILING MANIA SITUATIONS, MELANCHOLY AND EPILEPSY • BLEEDING, SORE THROAT, RUNNY NOSE, HOARSENESS, COUGH, LEPROSY, LICHENS, ALFOI, MANY RASHES WOUNDS, SWELLING AND ARTHRITIC DISEASES.

 

21. THE PREVAILING SUMMER SOME OF THE PREVIOUS CONDITIONS, PERSISTENT FEVERS, BURNING, MANY TRITAIA FEVERS, VOMITING, DIARRHEA, EYE, PAIN IN THE EARS, MOUTH SORES, ROTTING GENITALS AND SWEAT.

 

22. AUTUMN PREVAILING SUMMER MANY DISEASES TETARTAIOI FEVERS, INTERMITTENT FEVERS, SWOLLEN SPLEEN, GOUTS, TABES, STRANGURIA, LEIENTERIES, DYSENTERY, SCIATICA, ANGINA, ASTHMA, ILEUS, EPILEPSY, MANIA AND MELANCHOLY SITUATIONS.

 

23. IN WINTER PREVAILING PLEURISY, PNEUMONIA, CORYZA, HOARSE COUGHS, CHEST PAINS, RIBS AND WAIST, HEADACHES, DIZZINESS, SEIZURES.

 

24. DEPENDING ON THE AGE, THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS APPEAR: CHILDREN, YOUNG AND INFANTS, THRUSH, VOMITING, COUGH, INSOMNIA, TREMORS, INFLAMMATION NAVEL, SUPPURATION IN THE EARS.

 

25. WHEN APPROACHING THE TIME OF TEETHING, THE GUMS APPEAR IRRITATIONS, FEVERS, CONVULSIONS, DIARRHEA, ESPECIALLY WHEN CANINES GROW, ESPECIALLY IN VERY OBESE CHILDREN AND IN CONSTIPATED.

 

26. IN SOMEWHAT MORE ADVANCED AGE APPEAR TONSILLITIS, DISPLACEMENT FORWARD OF THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA, ASTHMAS, STONES, ROUND INTESTINAL PARASITES, ROUNDWORMS, MOLES, BUMPS NEAR THE EARS, SWELLING OF THE GLANDS OF THE NECK AND OTHER SWELLINGS, BUT MOSTLY EVERYTHING EXPLAINED PREVIOUSLY.

 

27. IN THE MORE ADVANCED AGE, AND THE APPROACHING PUBERTY, APPEAR MANY PREVIOUS ILLNESSES, AND EVEN MAINLY LONG-TERM FEVERS AND EPISTAXIS.

 

28. MOST CHILDHOOD DISEASES ARE CONSIDERED OTHER FORTY DAYS, OTHERS IN SEVEN MONTHS, OTHERS IN SEVEN YEARS AND THE OTHER AS APPROACHING PUBERTY • BUT MANY INSIST AND DO NOT DISAPPEAR IN BOYS DURING PUBERTY IN GIRLS AND AGE OF ONSET OF MENSTRUATION, USUALLY BECOME CHRONIC.

 

29. YOUNG PEOPLE APPEAR HEMOPTYSIS, PHTHISIS, HIGH FEVERS, SEIZURES AND OTHER DISEASES, BUT MOSTLY PAST.

 

30. IN PEOPLE WHO HAVE PASSED THIS AGE, MANIFESTED ASTHMA, PLEURISY, PNEUMONIA, LETHARGY, FRENZY, HEARTBURN, CHRONIC DIARRHEA, CHOLODEIS DIARRHEA, DYSENTERY, LEIENTERIES, HEMORRHOIDS.

 

31. IN OLDER PEOPLE MANIFESTED DYSPNEA, COUGH WITH CATARRH, STRANGURIA, DYSURIA, PAIN IN JOINTS, NEPHRITIS, DIZZINESS, SEIZURES, DEPRESSION, ITCHING ALL OVER THE BODY, INSOMNIA, WETNESS ABDOMEN, EYES AND NOSE, AMBLYOPIA, WATERFALLS, AIDS.

  

  

 

APHORISMS FOURTH CHAMBER

  

1. IF THERE IS ORGASM, PREGNANT WOMEN CAN TAKE MEDICATION [EMETICS AND LAXATIVES] FROM THE FOURTH UNTIL THE SEVENTH MONTH, BUT LESS THIS LATTER • IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE CAREFUL ABOUT GIVING MEDICINES.

 

2. GRANTING OF LAXATIVES SHOULD BE DISCARDED MATERIALS THAT ARE USEFUL AND WHEN DISCHARGED FROM THEM; ALONE MUST STOP MANY HAVE DIAFORETIKOCHARAKTIRA.

 

3. IF THE STOOLS BECOME SO NORMAL, THE PATIENT FEELS BETTER AND EASILY TOLERATES • OTHERWISE FEEL BAD.

 

4. SUMMER ADMINISTERED EMETICS AND LAXATIVES WINTER.

 

5. AT THE TIME OF KINOS BEFORE, LAXATIVES IMPACT DIFFICULT.

 

6. IN LEAN PEOPLE DO VOMIT EASILY BE ADMINISTERED EMETICS • BUT THE CLEARANCE SHOULD BE DONE WITH CAUTION IN WINTER.

 

7. THE MORE OBESE PEOPLE WHO MAKE DIFFICULT VOMITING SHOULD NOT TAKE LAXATIVES AND CLEARANCE MUST BE DONE WITH CAUTION IN SUMMER.

 

8. INDIVIDUALS PREDISPOSED TO TUBERCULOSIS SHOULD USE VERY CAREFULLY EMETIC DRUGS.

 

9. THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM MELANCHOLY SHOULD BE GRANTED EFFECTIVE LAXATIVES FOR THE LOWER PART OF THE INTESTINE AND IN THE SAME PARAGRAPH TO FOLLOW A DIFFERENT PATH FOR THE OPPOSITE CASES.

 

10. IN VERY SEVERE ILLNESSES CLEARANCE MUST BE ON THE SAME DAY, IF THERE IS ORGASM, BECAUSE IT IS VERY DANGEROUS TO PROCRASTINATE IN THESE CASES.

 

11. COLIC, PAIN AROUND THE NAVEL AND LUMBAGO THAT DOES NOT GO WITH EITHER LAXATIVE OR OTHERWISE, ALL OF THEM END UP IN DRY DROPSY (OBVIOUSLY MEANT SWELLING VISCERA, BUT THERE PERITONEAL FLUID).

 

12. IN WINTER THE ADMINISTRATION EMETIC DRUGS HARMS INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING FROM LEIENTERIKES BLUETONGUE.

 

13. WHEN ADMINISTERING THE ELLEVOROU ​​(PLANT USED AS A PURGATIVE, CAUSING VOMITING) MUST, BEFORE GRANTING THE MEDICINE TO WET THE BODY OF PEOPLE WHO FIND IT DIFFICULT TO CLEAN THE MOUTH, SUGGESTING ABUNDANT FOOD AND REST.

 

14. WE RECOMMEND TO THOSE WHO HAVE DRUNK ELLEVORO MOVE MORE, SLEEP AND N ‘RESTED LESS • THE BOAT TRIP THAT REVEALS THE MOVEMENT AGITATES THE VARIOUS ORGANS OF THE BODY.

 

15. WHEN WE WANT TO ACT MORE THE ELLEVOROS RECOMMEND THE PATIENT TO MOVE • WHEN WE WANT TO HALT ITS ACTIVITIES, RECOMMEND SLEEP AND REST.

 

16. ELLEVOROS IS DANGEROUS FOR THOSE WHO HAVE STRONG OWN BRAND, BECAUSE IT CAUSES SPASMS.

 

17. W PERSON IS AFEBRILE, ANOREXIA, HEARTBURN, THE BLACKOUTS, THE BITTERNESS IN THE MOUTH INDICATE THAT ADMINISTRATION EMETIC NECESSARY.

 

18. PAINS ABOVE THE DIAPHRAGM INDICATE THE NEED CLEANSING THE BODY WITH EMETIC • PAINS WHILE BELOW IT, THE NEED FOR CLEANSING WITH A LAXATIVE.

 

19. THOSE WHO DO NOT FEEL THIRST AFTER ADMINISTRATION LAXATIVE SHOULD CONTINUE THE STOOLS UNTIL THIRST.

 

20. IF THERE IS NO FEVER, THE COLIC, WEIGHT KNEE AND BACK PAIN SHOW THAT SHOULD BE GIVEN A LAXATIVE FOR THE LOWER PART OF THE INTESTINE.

 

21. STOOLS DARK AS BLOOD, SHOWN WITHOUT CAUSES DISEASE WITH OR WITHOUT FEVER, IS VERY UNPLEASANT AND • AN INDICATION AS MUCH WORSE ARE THE COLORS, THE MORE UNCOMFORTABLE THE SYMPTOM IS “IF IT OCCURS AFTER TAKING CATHARTIC, THEN SITUATION IS BETTER AND COLOURFULNESS IN THIS CASE DOES NOT INDICATE BAD.

 

22. THE ELIMINATION OF BLACK BILE FROM ABOVE OR BELOW THE TOP OF THE DISEASE IS FATAL INDICATION.

 

23. IF THE PERSON EXHAUSTED FROM A SERIOUS OR CHRONIC ILLNESS, TRAUMA OR ANY OTHER REASON, ELIMINATE BLACK BILE OR BLACK BILE AS BLOOD, DYING THE NEXT DAY.

 

24. DYSENTERY STARTING WITH BLACK BILE, IS LETHAL PROGNOSIS.

 

25. THE EXPULSION OF BLOOD FROM THE MOUTH, FROM OPOIADI EVER REASON, IS UNPLEASANT SIGN • ELIMINATION FROM BELOW, IT’S GOOD, LIKE BLACK STOOLS.

 

26. THE EXPULSION OF FECES, LIKE FLESH FROM SICK SUFFERING FROM DYSENTERY IS DEADLY SYMPTOM.

 

27. WHEN SITUATIONS OCCUR IN FEBRILE COPIOUS BLEEDING FROM ANYWHERE, DURING CONVALESCENCE PATIENTS AFFECTED BY GASTRIC CATARRH.

 

28. CHOLODEIS STOOLS STOP IF MANIFEST DEAFNESS, AND DEAFNESS SUBSIDE, IF THEY OCCUR CHOLODEIS STOOLS.

 

29. IF A FEBRILE ILLNESS OCCUR CHILLS THE SIXTH DAY, THE CRITICAL PHASE OF THE DISEASE WILL BE. BAD.

 

30. ON ILLNESSES MANIFESTING CONVULSIONS, IF THE FRENZY STOPS A CERTAIN TIME AND COME BACK THE NEXT DAY AT THE SAME TIME, THE CRISIS IS DIFFICULT.

 

31. WHEN IN FEBRILE CONDITIONS THERE FEELING TIRED, ABSCESSES ARE FORMED MAINLY IN JOINTS AND NEAR THE JAW.

 

32. IF THE PATIENT STARTS RECOVERING AND FEEL PAIN AT SOME POINT OF THE BODY AT THAT POINT WILL BE FORMED AN ABSCESS.

 

33. HOWEVER, IF SOME POINT ACHED BEFORE THE DISEASE, THERE IS THE FOCUS OF EVIL.

 

34. IF DURING FEVER OCCURS SUDDENLY CHOKING THROAT WITHOUT SWELLING, THE SYMPTOM ARE DEADLY.

 

35. IF DURING FEVER OCCURS SUDDENLY TWIST IN THE NECK, WITHOUT SWELLING AND THE PATIENT FINDS IT DIFFICULT TO SWALLOW, THE SYMPTOM ARE DEADLY.

 

36. ON FEVERISH SITUATIONS SWEATS BENEFIT THE THIRD DAY, FIFTH, SEVENTH, NINTH, ELEVENTH, FOURTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, TWENTY-FIRST, THE TWENTY-SEVENTH, THE THIRTY-FIRST, THIRTY-FOURTH “OF THE SWEATS THOSE JUDGED DISEASES • BUT SWEATS, NOT APPEARING THESE DAYS, HERALD PAIN, PROLONGED SUFFERING AND RELAPSES.

 

37. THE COLD SWEAT WITH A HIGH FEVER HERALDS DEATH • DURING MILDER DISEASE, THE PROLONGED SUFFERING.

 

38. IN POINT OF THE BODY THAT IS MANIFESTED PERSPIRATION, IS ALSO THE GOAL OF DISEASE.

 

39. THE DISEASE IS IN THE BODY THAT IS HOT OR COLD.

 

40. IF CHANGES OCCUR THROUGHOUT THE BODY, THAT IS IF IT FREEZES AND THEN THAWS, OR CHANGES COLOR, IT MEANS THAT WILL EXTEND THE DURATION OF THE DISEASE.

 

41. IF AFTER SLEEPING DISPLAYED ABUNDANT SWEAT WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, IT MEANS THAT THE BODY CONSUMES MORE FOOD [THAN WHAT] • IF THIS HAPPENS TO A PERSON WHO DOES NOT EAT, IT MEANS THAT NEEDS EMPTYING.

 

42. THE ABUNDANT SWEATING, COLD OR HOT, FLOWING INCESSANTLY MEAN HEAVIER OR LIGHTER DISEASE RESPECTIVELY “

 

43. THE CONTINUOUS FEVERS EXHIBIT SEIZURES EVERY THIRD DAY ARE DANGEROUS • FADING OF FEVER, IN WHATEVER FORM, SUGGESTING THAT THE FEVERS SUCH IS HARMLESS.

 

44. THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM LONG-TERM FEVERS, EXHIBIT SWELLING OR PAIN IN THE JOINTS.

 

45. IF THE PERSON AFTER FEVER EDEMA OR JOINT PAINS, RECEIVES EXCESSIVE AMOUNT OF FOOD.

 

46. ​​IF RIGORS OCCUR IN A PATIENT ALREADY EXHAUSTED BY FEVER, NOT MAGAZINE, THIS SYMPTOM IS DEADLY.

 

47. EXPECTORATIONS NON PERIODIC FEVERS, AS TAN, BLOODY, AND SMELLY CHOLODEIS, BAD SIMADI- HOWEVER, IF SPUTUM DISCHARGED SMOOTHLY, INDICATIONS ARE FAVORABLE AS VENTRICULAR STOOLS AND URINE • IF NOT ELIMINATED BUT SOMETHING TO BE EXPELLED FROM THESE POINTS, THIS IS BAD.

 

48. IF THE CONSTANT FEVERS EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE BODY IS COLD AND THE INTERNAL BURNING, YET THE PATIENT IS THIRSTY, SYMPTOM ARE DEADLY.

 

49. IF A NON-PERIODIC FEVER BENT LIP OR EYEBROW, THE EYE OR THE NOSE, OR IF DISTURBED VISION OR HEARING, WHILE THE PATIENT IS EXHAUSTED, DEATH IS NEAR, WHICHEVER IT MAY BE THE SYMPTOM WILL MANIFEST.

 

50. WHEN A NON-PERIODIC FEVER MANIFESTED WHEEZING AND DELUSION, THIS IS DEADLY SIGN.

 

51. FEBRILE ABSCESSES ARE NOT DISSOLVED IN THE FIRST JUDGMENT, INDICATING EXTENSION OF THE DISEASE.

 

52. IT IS WORRYING IF SOMEONE HAS FEVER OR OTHER ILLNESS, WEEPING INTENTIONALLY • BUT MORE WORRYING IF WEEPING UNINTENTIONALLY.

 

53. WHEN THE TEETH FEVERISH CONDITIONS BECOME GREASY, FEVER RISES FURTHER.

 

54. THOSE WHO HAVE FEVERS CAUSTIC AND PERSISTENT HAWK, CAUSING SHORT IRRITATION, NOT TOO HUNGRY.

 

55. FEVERS MANIFESTED BY SWELLING IN THE GROINS ARE ALL BAD, UNLESS LAST ONE DAY.

 

56. WHEN IN FEBRILE DISEASES MANIFESTED SWEATING WITHOUT CONCOMITANT DECLINE OF FEVER, THE SYMPTOM IS UNPLEASANT ILLNESS • PROLONGED AND THIS IS A SIGN OF EXCESSIVE MOISTURE.

 

57. FEVER OCCURS IN SICK AFFLICTED WITH CONVULSIONS OR TETANIC CONTRACTIONS, CURES THE DISEASE.

 

58. IF PATIENT IS SUFFERING FROM HEARTBURN EXPERIENCED CHILLS, CURED.

 

59. THE SMOOTH TERTIAN IS THE MOST IN SEVEN YEARS.

 

60. IF DURING FEBRILE ILLNESS WEAKEN THE HEARING AND PRESENTED EPISTAXIS OR DIARRHEA, ILLNESS CURED.

 

61. IF THE FEVER DOES NOT LEAVE THE SICK IN AN ODD NUMBER OF DAYS, USUALLY RECURS.

 

62. JAUNDICE OCCURRING IN FEVERS BEFORE THE SEVENTH DAY IS A BAD SIGN, UNLESS A MISCARRIAGE FLUID FROM THE ABDOMEN.

 

63. WHO DEVELOP FEVERS CHILLS EVERY DAY ALSO FALL EVERY DAY.

 

64. JAUNDICE OCCURRING IN FEVERS SEVENTH, NINTH, ELEVENTH OR FOURTEENTH DAY IS A GOOD SIGN, AS LONG AS THE RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC NOT BE DIFFERENT HARDNESS, IS NOT GOOD.

 

65. UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE IS THE EXCESSIVE HEAT AROUND THE ABDOMEN AND HEARTBURN.

 

66. SEIZURES AND STRONG PAINS IN THE BOWELS ARE BAD SYMPTOMS IN HIGH FEVERS.

 

67. IN FEVERS UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS ARE TREMORS OR CONVULSIONS AFTER SLEEPING.

 

68. THE DASHED BREATHING DURING FEVERS ARE BAD SIGN BECAUSE IT HERALDS SPASMS.

 

69. WHEN THE PATIENT EXPELS URINE THICK WITH CLOTS AND SCARCE, WITHOUT FEVER, ALTHOUGH FOLLOW LARGE AMOUNT OF DILUTE URINE, RELIEVED • THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE FOR THOSE WHO HAVE THE AUTHORITY, OR SHORTLY SEDIMENT IN URINE.

 

70. THOSE FEVERS TO ELIMINATE CLOUDY URINE, SIMILAR TO THE PACK-ANIMALS, OR WILL DEVELOP HEADACHES.

 

71. IN MANY PEOPLE THE DISEASE IS TO BE JUDGED TINEVDOMI DAY, HAVE THE FOURTH URINE CLOUD, RED AND OTHER SIMILAR SYMPTOMS.

 

72. THE TRANSPARENT, COLORLESS URINE IS BAD • MAINLY OCCUR IN CASES OF FRENZY.

 

73. WHEN A HYPOCHONDRIAC SWELL, APPEAR COOING AND FOLLOW PAIN, OCCURS EFKOILIATITA UNLESS OBSERVED GASES ABUNDANT URINARY EXCRETION OF THESE SYMPTOMS OCCUR IN FEBRILE STATES.

 

74. THOSE EXHIBITING THE LIKELIHOOD OF ABSCESS FORMATION IN THE JOINTS, ARE EXEMPT FROM THE ABSCESS AFTER EXPELLING ABUNDANT AND VERY DENSE AND WHITE URINE AS STARTING FEATURE IN SOME CASES PAINFUL TETARTAION FEVERS IF FURTHER BLOOD RUN FROM THE NOSE, THE ABSCESS SUBSIDES QUICKLY.

 

75. THE EXPULSION OF BLOOD OR PUS IN THE URINE MEANS SORE KIDNEY OR BLADDER.

 

76. WHEN ALONG WITH THICK URINE EXCRETED FINELY FLESH PIECES LIKE HAIR, ELIMINATION FROM THE KIDNEYS.

 

77. WHEN URINE TOGETHER WITH DENSE SEDIMENT DISCHARGED LIKE BRAN, THE CYST IS INFECTED WITH SCABIES.

 

78. SUDDEN BLOOD URINATION INDICATES RUPTURE SMALL VEIN IN THE KIDNEY.

 

79. IF THE URINE SEDIMENT EXHIBIT OF SAND, SUFFERING FROM BLADDER STONES.

 

80. IF THE PERSON URINATES BLOOD CLOTS, HAS STRANGURIA AND FEELS PAIN IN ABDOMEN AND PERINEUM, THERE IS DISEASE IN THE BLADDER AREA.

 

81. WHEN THE URINE IS MIXED WITH BLOOD, PUS, SCALES AND SMELL BAD, SUGGEST THAT THERE IS WOUND IN THE BLADDER.

 

82. IN THOSE MANIFESTED BUMPS URETHRA IF FORMED PUS AND OPEN, THE DISEASE IS CURED.

 

83. THE ABUNDANT NOCTURIA HERALDS FEW ABDOMINAL STOOLS.

 

APHORISMS FIFTH SECTION

 

1. IF THE DOWNLOAD ELLEVOROU ​​(= LAXATIVE HERB) CAUSE CONVULSIONS, THE SYMPTOM IS DEADLY.

 

2. THE APPEARANCE OF CONVULSIONS AFTER INJURY MEANS DEATH.

 

3. THE APPEARANCE OF CONVULSIONS OR HICCUP AFTER PROFUSE BLEEDING, BAD SIGN.

 

4. IF SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH EXCESSIVE DIARRHEA OCCUR SPASMS OR HICCUPS, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR.

 

5. IF A DRUNK SUDDENLY LOST HIS VOICE, DIES IN CONVULSIONS, UNLESS FOLLOW FEVER OR IF THE TIME USUALLY LEAVES DRUNKENNESS REGAIN HIS VOICE.

 

6. THOSE INFECTED WITH TETANUS DIE IN FOUR DAYS • IF YOU EXCEED THE TIME LIMIT, TREATED.

 

7. EPILEPSY MANIFESTED BEFORE TEENS CAN BE CURED • HOWEVER, THIS OCCURS IN THE AGE OF TWENTY FIVE YEARS USUALLY ACCOMPANIES THE SICK UNTIL HIS DEATH.

 

8. IF THE PLEURAL CHEST NOT CLEAN WITH EXPECTORATION WITHIN FOURTEEN DAYS, FORMED EMPYEMA.

 

9. TABES OCCURS MAINLY FROM THE EIGHTEENTH TO THE THIRTY-FIFTH BIRTHDAY.

 

10. THOSE WHO TREAT THE ANGINA AND THE DISEASE TURNS TO THE LUNG, THEY DIE WITHIN SEVEN DAYS • IF YOU PASS THIS TIME, MANIFESTED EMPYEMA.

 

11. IF WE TAKE THE SPUTUM, ELIMINATING ANYONE WHO SUFFERS FROM TUBERCULOSIS, OVER COALS AND FOUND TO HAVE A HEAVY ODOR, WHILE FALL AND HIS HAIR, THE PROGNOSIS IS FATAL.

 

12. CONSUMPTIVE POSING AFFECTED BY HAIR LOSS AND DIARRHEA, THEY DIE.

 

13. THE ELIMINATION OF BLOOD FOAMED ORALLY MEANS THAT THE CAUSE IS THE LUNG.

 

14. IF PRESENT TUBERCULAR DIARRHEA, IS A SIGN OF DEATH.

 

15. THOSE AFTER PLEURISY SHOW EMPYEMA, TREATED IF THEIR BREASTS CLEAN FORTY DAYS AFTER THE RUPTURE OF EMPYEMA • OR, ILLNESS VARIES IN TUBERCULOSIS.

 

16. FREQUENT USE OF HEAT CAUSES THE FOLLOWING DAMAGE: RELAXATION OF THE FLESH, WEAKENING OF NERVE, CLOUDING THE MIND, BLEEDING, FAINTING • ALL LETHAL.

 

17. THE COLD CAUSES SPASMS, TETANIC CONTRACTIONS, BRUISING, FEVER, CHILLS.

 

18. THE COLD IS HOSTILE TO BONES, TEETH, NERVES, BRAIN, SPINAL CORD • CONTRARY HEAT IS BENEFICIAL.

 

19. WE MUST BE HEAT FROSTED PARTS, EXCEPT THOSE WHO ARE BLEEDING OR WILL BLEED.

 

20. IN TRAUMA COLD CAUSES PAIN LIKE BITES, SKIN HARDENS AROUND, BRINGS PAINS THAT DO NOT CAUSE SUPPURATION, BRUISING THE FLESH AND CAUSES FEVER CHILLS, CONVULSIONS, AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS.

 

21. BURLY NEO TETANIC CONTRACTIONS OCCUR WITHOUT TRAUMA DURING THE SUMMER, SO ABUNDANT COLD SHOWER • RESETS THE TEMPERATURE AND HEAT CURE SUCH DISEASES.

 

22. THE HEAT CAUSES SUPPURATION, BUT NOT ALL WOUNDS • WHEN THIS HAPPENS, IT SEEMS A MAJOR TREATMENT INDICATION • SOFTENS THE SKIN WEAKENS, RELIEVES PAIN, SOOTHES CHILLS, CONVULSIONS, AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS • THE SAME EFFECT HAS AND HEAD AND ELIMINATES THE WEIGHT OF “IS EXTREMELY USEFUL IN BONE FRACTURES, PARTICULARLY IN THE STRIPPED AND ESPECIALLY TO WOUNDS OF THE HEAD • BENEFIT TO EVERYTHING THAT CAUSES DEATH OR ULCERS OF THE COLD, THE EXPANSIVE HERPES, ANUS, GERM ORGANS, UTERUS, BLADDER “ALL THAT FAVORS THE HEAT AND CONTRIBUTES TO THE CRISIS AND ILLNESS, WHILE COLD IS HOSTILE AND DEADLY.

 

23. THE COLD SHOULD BE TREATED IN THE FOLLOWING CASES: WHERE THERE IS OR WILL BE MANIFESTED BLEEDING, NOT ON THE SAME POINTS BUT ROUND SPOTS, FROM WHERE THERE IS OVERLAPPING • IN ALL INFLAMMATIONS AND SURFACE INFLAMMATION THAT TEND TO AND ALMOST BLOODY RED COLOR DUE TO RECENT STILL BLOOD, BECAUSE THE COLD BRUISING OF OLD INFECTIONS • TO ANEMOPYROMA WITHOUT TRAUMA BECAUSE THE COLD CERTAINLY HURT THE ANEMOPYROMA TRAUMA.

 

24. GENERALLY COLD, AS SNOW AND ICE, DAMAGING THE CHEST AND CAUSE COUGHING, RUNNY NOSE AND BLEEDING.

 

25. THE SWELLING AND JOINT PAIN WITHOUT TRAUMA, AND GOUT. THE STRAINS OF MUSCLES, USUALLY RELIEVED BY COPIOUS CHILLING, WHICH REDUCE SWELLING AND ALLEVIATE PAIN • MODERATE SEDATION IS ABLE TO TURN AWAY THE PAIN.

 

26. THE WATER HEATS AND COOLS QUICKLY, IS VERY SLIGHT.

 

27. IF THOSE WHO ARE THIRSTY TOO DURING THE NIGHT FEEL THE NEED TO DRINK, AND THEN RETURN TO SLEEP, IS GOOD.

 

28. AROMATIC FUMIGATIONS ARE EMMENAGOGUE AND WOULD BE VERY USEFUL IN OTHER DISEASES, ALTHOUGH NOT CAUSING HEADACHE.

 

29. IF THERE IS ORGASM, PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD TAKE EMETICS AND LAXATIVES FROM THE FOURTH UNTIL THE SEVENTH MONTH, BUT LESS IN THE LAST • INFANTS AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE CAREFUL ABOUT GIVING MEDICINES.

 

30. IF A PREGNANT WOMAN SUFFERING FROM A SERIOUS ILLNESS, THE CONDITION IS FATAL.

 

31. IF IT BLEED A PREGNANT, THE WOMAN EXPELS • THE CHANCES OF MISCARRIAGE IS MORE, THE LARGER THE FETUS.

 

32. A WOMAN DOING HEMOPTYSIS BLOOD STOPS WHEN THE PERIOD DISPLAY.

 

33. IN A WOMAN WHO HAS NO MENSES, THE EMERGENCE OF NOSE BLEEDING ARE GOOD INDICATION.

 

34. IF A PREGNANT WOMAN SUFFERED INTENSE DIARRHEA, COULD BE ELIMINATED.

 

35. IF SNEEZING OCCURS IN WOMAN SUFFERING FROM DISEASES OF THE UTERUS OR DYSTOCIA, A GOOD SIGN.

 

36. MENSTRUAL FLOW INDETERMINATE COLOR, WHICH DOES NOT ALWAYS OCCUR AT REGULAR INTERVALS, INDICATING THAT THE WOMAN IN NEED OF LAXATIVE.

 

37. IF, UDDERS PREGNANT WEAKEN SHARPLY, THE WOMAN EXPELS.

 

38. IF A PREGNANT WITH TWINS WEAKEN EACH BREAST, WILL ELIMINATE ONE OF THE TWO EMBRYOS • THOUGH WEAKENED THE RIGHT BREAST, THE MALE EXPELS • IF THE LEFT, THE FEMALE.

 

39. IF A WOMAN WHO IS EITHER PREGNANT OR HAS GIVEN BIRTH HAS MILK, MEANS THAT MENSTRUATION HAS STOPPED.

 

40. IN WOMEN, BLOOD CONGESTION MASTOUSPROANANGELLEI INSANITY.

 

41. IF YOU WANT TO DETERMINE IF A WOMAN IS PREGNANT, THE TIME YOU GO TO SLEEP WITHOUT DINING, GIVE HER TO DRINK NEROMELO • IF YOU FEEL PAIN IN THE ABDOMEN, ARE PREGNANT, IF NOT, NOT.

 

42. IF A PREGNANT WOMAN IS PREGNANT WITH A BOY, HAS GOOD COLOR • COLOR IS UGLY, IF A PREGNANT GIRL.

 

43. IF A PREGNANT ANEMOPYROMA PRESENT IN THE UTERUS, THE PROGNOSIS IS FATAL.

 

44. IN CASE OF PREGNANCY VERY THIN WOMEN EXPEL IF NOT FATTEN.

 

45. THOSE WOMEN WITH NORMAL PHYSIQUE EXCRETE THE SECOND OR THIRD MONTH WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, THE COTYLEDONS ARE FILLED MUCUS, THEY CAN NOT HOLD THE WEIGHT OF THE FETUS AND BREAK.

 

46. ​​IN OBESE WOMEN WHO ARE UNABLE TO CONCEIVE, OMENTUM PRESSES THE ORIFICE OF THE DIE AND DO NOT POSE ONLY WHERE WEAKEN.

 

47. IF THE MATRIX, BASED ON HIP, DIAPYITHEI, WE MUST USE GAUZE.

 

48. THE MALE FETUSES ARE PROBABLY RIGHT WHILE FEMALES LEFT THE DIE.

 

49. FOR THE EXPULSION OF THE PLACENTA ADMINISTER MEDICATION SNEEZING AND PRESSING SHUT THE NOSTRILS AND MOUTH OF MATERNITY.

 

50. IF WE ARE TO STOP A WOMAN’S PERIOD, PLACE THE BREASTS OF A MAXIMUM POSSIBLE SUCTION CUP.

 

51. DURING PREGNANCY THE ORIFICE OF THE DIE IS CLOSED.

 

52. IF THE BREASTS PREGNANT RUN MILK IN BULK, THIS MEANS THAT THE EMBRYO IS WEAK • IF THE BREASTS ARE TOUGH, MEAN THAT THE FETUS IS IN GOOD CONDITION.

 

53. THE BREASTS OF WOMEN, WHICH ARE TO ELIMINATE, SOFTEN BUT IF XANASKLIRYNOUN, WILL MANIFEST PAIN IN THE BREASTS OR HIPS, EYES OR KNEES, AND THEN IT WILL NOT ELIMINATE.

 

54. WOMEN WHO HAVE HARD ORIFICE DIE NECESSARILY DISABLE THIS ORIFICE.

 

55. IN PREGNANT WOMEN WHO DEVELOP FEVERS AND SLIMMER TOO WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, CHILDBIRTH IS DIFFICULT AND DANGEROUS EPIKINDYNOS- ALSO AND EJECTIONS.

 

56. IF DURING THE MENSTRUAL FLOW OCCUR CONVULSIONS AND BLACKOUTS, THIS IS A BAD SIGN.

 

57. IF THE MENSTRUAL FLOW BECOME ABUNDANT, OCCURRING ILLNESSES • IF THERE IS NO MENSTRUATION, THEN WOMEN’S DISEASES FROM MATRIX.

 

58. WHEN INFLAMMATION OF THE COLON AND UTERUS STRANGURIA OCCURS, AS IN THE PERFUSION OF THE KIDNEYS TO LIVER INFLAMMATION MANIFESTED HICCUP.

 

59. IF A WOMAN CONCEIVES AND WE WANT TO SEE IF YOU CAN CAPTURE, THE WRAP WITH BLANKETS AND BURN BENEATH FRAGRANCES • IF ODOR GIVES THE IMPRESSION THAT PENETRATES THE BODY AND REACHES THE NOSE AND MOUTH, WE KNOW THAT IS NOT STERILE BY OWN FAULT.

 

60. IF A PREGNANT DISPLAY PERIOD, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THAT THE EMBRYO IS HEALTHY.

 

61. IF A WOMAN STOPPED PERIOD WITHOUT SUFFER CHILLS OR FEVER, THOUGH IT ALSO HAS NAUSEA, THEN KEEP IN MIND THAT SHE IS PREGNANT.

 

62. WOMEN WITH COLD AND TIGHT MATRIX DO NOT CAPTURE THE SAME HAPPENS TO WOMEN WHO HAVE A LOT OF FLUID IN THE WOMB BECAUSE THE SPERM IS LOST THERE • NOR CAPTURE THOSE WITH MATRIX RATHER DRY AND VERY WARM, BECAUSE THEN THE SEED IS DESTROYED FROM LACK OF • FERTILE FOOD ARE THOSE THAT HAVE BALANCED CONSTITUTION BETWEEN THE TWO SITUATIONS.

 

63. SIMILAR APPLIES TO MEN OR • DUE TO LOOSENESS OF THE BODY THE AIR EXITS TO THE OUTSIDE AND DOES NOT DIRECT THE SPERM TO THE DESTINATION OR THE BODY IS TIGHT AND SEMINAL FLUID CAN BE PUSHED OUT OR THE BODY IS COLD AND SEMEN IS NOT HEATED ENOUGH TO CONCENTRATE ON THE APPROPRIATE PLACE • THE SAME HAPPENS IF THE BODY IS WARM.

 

64. MILK HURTING THOSE SUFFERING FROM HEADACHE “ALSO HURTS THOSE WHO HAVE FEVER, SWOLLEN AND FULL OF HYPOCHONDRIAC COOING, AND THOSE WHO FEEL THIRST • HURTS EVEN PATIENTS WITH HIGH FEVER EXHIBITING CHOLODI FECES AND THOSE WHO EARN A LOT OF BLOOD UNDERNEATH • MILK BENEFITS THE TUBERCULOUS NOT HAVE HIGH FEVER “IS ALSO USED IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT FEVERS AND LONG TERM WHEN THERE IS NONE OF THE ABOVE SYMPTOMS, BUT ALSO WHEN THEY ARE OVERLY EXHAUSTED.

 

65. THE WOUNDS ACCOMPANIED BY EDEMA, DO NOT EXPOSE THE PATIENT TO THE RISK OF CONVULSIONS OR DELIRIUM • BUT WHEN THESE FALL SHARPLY, IF THAT WERE IN THE BACK PARTS OF THE BODY, MANIFESTED CONVULSIONS AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS • IF YOU WERE IN FRONT, MANIFESTED DELUSIONS, STRONG FLANK PAIN, SUPPURATION OR DYSENTERY, ALTHOUGH SWELLING WAS RATHER KOKKINOCHROMA.

 

66. IF AFTER STRONG AND SERIOUS INJURY NOT APPEAR EDEMA, IS A VERY BAD SIGN.

 

67. THE SOFT LESIONS ARE BENIGN, MALIGNANT HARD.

 

68. THE PAIN IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD IS RELIEVED BY OPENING THE FRONT VERTICAL VEIN.

 

69. IN FEMALES CHILLS STARTING WAIST RATHER ARRIVE AT THE HEAD FROM THE BACK • IN MEN, RATHER THAN THE REAR THAN THE FRONT PARTS OF THE BODY, AS WELL AS FROM THE FOREARMS AND MIROUS- SKIN OF MEN IS LOOSE, AS SEEN FROM THE BRISTLES.

 

70. THOSE AFFECTED BY TETARTAIOUS FEVERS, USUALLY THERE ARE OVERCOME BY CONVULSIONS • IF PREVIOUSLY INFECTED, EXEMPT IF THEY OCCUR LATER QUARTAN.

 

71. PATIENTS WITH SKIN TAUT, DRY AND HARD, DIE WITHOUT SWEAT IF THE SKIN IS SOFT AND LOOSE, DIE WITH PERSPIRATION.

 

72. JAUNDICED NOT USUALLY SUFFER FROM GAS.

 

  

 

APHORISMS PART SIXTH

  

1. WHEN CHRONIC LEIENTERIES MANIFESTED SOUR NOT EXISTED, THE SYMPTOM IS FAVORABLE.

 

2. PERSONS WHO ARE BY NATURE WET NOSE AND DILUTE SEMEN DOES NOT HAVE AS GOOD HEALTH • OTHERWISE, THE WINE IS HEALTHIER.

 

3. LONG DYSENTERY ANOREXIA SYMPTOM IS UNPLEASANT AND EVEN WORSE, WHEN THERE IS FEVER.

 

4. THE WOUNDS AROUND WHICH HAIRS FALL, ARE MALIGNANT.

 

5. WHEN MANIFEST PAIN IN THE RIBS, CHEST, AND ELSEWHERE, WE MUST ASCERTAIN WHETHER THE PATIENTS SHOW LARGE SHIFTS [IN HOURS].

 

6. THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND THE BLADDER DIFFICULT TO TREAT THE ELDERLY.

 

7. SUPERFICIAL PAINS BELLY IS LIGHTER, MORE SERIOUS INTERNAL.

 

8. WOUNDS ARE PRESENTED IN THE BODY OF THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM DROPSY, DIFFICULT TO TREAT.

 

9. WIDE RASHES DO NOT CAUSE A LOT OF ITCHING.

 

10. EVEN THE STRONGEST HEADACHES SUBSIDE, IF RUN PUS, WATER OR BLOOD FROM NOSE, MOUTH OR EARS.

 

11. MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS OR KIDNEY DISEASES, THE OCCURRENCE OF HEMORRHOIDS HAS FAVORABLE IMPLICATIONS.

 

12. IF SOMEONE HEAL FROM CHRONIC HEMORRHOIDS AND THE DOCTOR DID NOT LEAVE A THERE IS A RISK TO MANIFEST DROPSY OR PHTHISIS.

 

13. HICCUP DISAPPEARS WITH SNEEZING.

 

14. DROPSY CURED IF RUN FLUID FROM THE VEINS INTO THE INTESTINES.

 

15. VOMITING THAT SUDDENLY APPEARS IN A PATIENT WITH PROLONGED DIARRHEA CURE THE DISEASE.

 

16. IF A PATIENT WITH PLEURISY OR PNEUMONIA DIARRHEA PRESENT, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR.

 

17. IN A PATIENT SUFFERING FROM AN EYE, THE OCCURRENCE OF DIARRHEA HAS FAVORABLE RESULTS.

 

18. THE WOUNDS OF THE BLADDER, BRAIN, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ONE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, STOMACH OR LIVER IS FATAL.

 

19. IF CUT BONE, CARTILAGE, NERVE, THIN SECTION OF THE JAW OR THE FORESKIN, OR REGENERATION IS NOT ANNEAL.

 

20. IF THE INTESTINES SPILLED UNEXPECTEDLY BLOOD, WILL NECESSARILY CAUSE SUPPURATION.

 

21. THE APPEARANCE OF VARICOSE VEINS OR HEMORRHOIDS CURE THOSE SUFFERING FROM INSANITY.

 

22. BACKACHES TRANSPORTED ELBOWS, TREATED WITH PHLEBOTOMY.

 

23. IF THE FEELINGS OF FEAR OR SADNESS EXTENDED FOR A LONG TIME, THEN TREAT MELANCHOLY.

 

24. IF CUT A PORTION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, NO LONGER JOINED.

 

25. IF ANEMOPYROMA THAT HAS SPREAD OUTSIDE, TURNED INWARDS, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR • IF TURNED INSIDE OUT, THE PROGNOSIS IS GOOD.

 

26. DELIRIUM STOPS THE TREMORS MANIFESTED IN SENSATION.

 

27. EMPYIMATIKOI OR DROPSY WHICH OPERATED ON OR CAUTERIZE CERTAINLY DIE IF THE PUS OR FLUID EXPELLED ALL TOGETHER.

 

28. THE EUNUCHS ARE NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT OR ARE BALD.

 

29. THE WOMAN IS NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT, UNLESS MENSTRUATION TO CEASE.

 

30. THE CHILD SUFFERS GOUT BEFORE COPULATE.

 

31. PAIN IN THE EYE TREATED WITH UNBRIDLED WINE BATH, STEAM ROOM, PHLEBOTOMY OR TAKING LAXATIVE.

 

32. STUTTERER OFTEN AFFECTED BY LONG-TERM DIARRHEA.

 

33. PEOPLE WHO HAVE SOUR, NOT USUALLY ATTACKED BY PLEURISY.

 

34. THE BALD DOES NOT USUALLY FORM LARGE VARICES • IF THIS HAPPENS, BEING RE SHAGGY.

 

35. IF THOSE SUFFERING FROM DROPSY DEVELOP COUGH, THE SYMPTOM IS BAD.

 

36. THE BLEED CURE DYSURIA • SHOULD HOWEVER BE OPENED VEINS TO THE INNER SURFACE OF THE ARM.

 

37. IF ANYONE WHO SUFFERS FROM ANGINA, FORM EXTERNAL SWELLINGS IN THE NECK, THE CONSEQUENCES ARE FAVORABLE.

 

38. IT IS PREFERABLE NOT TO APPLY ANY TREATMENT TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM HIDDEN CANCERS • YOU UNDERGO TREATMENT, THEY WILL DIE QUICKLY • IF LEFT UNTREATED, THEIR LIVES EXTENDED.

 

39. SEIZURES CAUSED OR OVERLOAD THE STOMACH OR EMPTINESS • ITSELF AND HICCUPS.

 

40. WHEN THE AREA OF ​​SUBCHONDRAL HURTS WITHOUT INFLAMMATION, PAIN PASSES IF FEVER OCCURRED.

 

41. IF AT ANY POINT OF THE BODY IS NOT DISCLOSED PUS., THIS IS DUE TO THE THICKNESS OF THE SIGN.

 

42. THE HARDENING OF THE LIVER IN PATIENTS WITH JAUNDICE IS A BAD SIGN.

 

43. IF SUFFERING FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN EXPRESS DYSENTERY, AND WHEN EXTENDED, SHOWN DROPSY OR LEIENTERIA AND PATIENTS DIE.

 

44. PATIENTS AFTER STRANGURIA SUSCEPTIBLE ILEUM DIE WITHIN SEVEN DAYS UNLESS MANIFEST FEVER AND FOLLOW ABUNDANT DIURESIS.

 

45. WHEN THE WOUNDS LAST A YEAR OR LONGER NECESSARILY THE BONE CUT AND SCARS SAG.

 

46. ​​IF SOMEONE SUFFERED KYPHOSIS BEFORE ADOLESCENCE AFTER ASTHMA OR COUGH, DYING.

 

47. INDIVIDUALS WHO BENEFIT FROM PHLEBOTOMY OR LAXATIVE MUST. APPLY THESE TREATMENTS SPRING,

 

48. THE DISPLAY DYSENTERY FAVORS THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN.

 

49. IN PATIENTS WITH GOUTY DISORDERS INFLAMMATION SUBSIDES WITHIN FORTY DAYS AND TREATED.

 

50. THE WOUNDS OF THE BRAIN NECESSARILY ACCOMPANIED BY FEVER AND VOMITING CHOLODI.

 

51. IF HEALTHY PERSON SUDDENLY FEEL HEADACHE, SUDDENLY LOST HIS VOICE AND DROPPED TO RATTLE, DIED WITHIN A WEEK, UNLESS MANIFESTED FEVER.

   

52. IT SHOULD ALSO EXAMINE THE STATUS OF THE EYES AT THE TIME OF YPNOU- IF, AS THE EYELIDS ARE LOWERED, IT SEEMS, AMONG THEM A SHARE OF THE WHITES OF THE EYE, AND THERE EXISTED DIARRHEA OR HAS BEEN CATHARTIC, THE PROGNOSIS IS DEVASTATING AND DEADLY.

 

53. INSANITIES ACCOMPANIED BY LAUGHTER IS NOT AS DANGEROUS AS THOSE THAT OCCUR WITH GLOOM.

 

54. IN SEVERE FEBRILE DISEASE INTERMITTENT BREATHING IS A BAD SIGN.

55. GOUTY DISEASES USUALLY OCCUR IN SPRING AND AUTUMN.

 

56- ON MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS MOVEMENTS JUICE HAZARD FOR STROKE EVENT OR CONVULSIONS OR INSANITY OR BLINDNESS.

 

57. STROKE OCCURS MAINLY AT THE AGE OF FORTY TO SIXTY.

 

58. IF UNSTUCK OMENTUM NECESSARILY WILL ROT.

 

59. PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM SCIATICA, THEY SHIFT THE HIP AND GO BACK INTO POSITION LATER FORMED SLIME.

 

60. THE SHIFTING OF THE HIP IN HUMANS WITH CHRONIC SCIATICA, CAUSES ATROPHY OF LIMB, THEREBY START LIMP UNLESS BE CAUTERIZED.

61. IF A WOMAN STOPPED PERIOD WITHOUT SUFFER CHILLS OR FEVER, THOUGH IT ALSO HAS NAUSEA, THEN KEEP IN MIND THAT SHE IS PREGNANT.

 

62. WOMEN WITH COLD AND TIGHT MATRIX DO NOT CAPTURE THE SAME HAPPENS TO WOMEN WHO HAVE A LOT OF FLUID IN THE WOMB BECAUSE THE SPERM IS LOST THERE • NOR CAPTURE THOSE WITH MATRIX RATHER DRY AND VERY WARM, BECAUSE THEN THE SEED IS DESTROYED FROM LACK OF • FERTILE FOOD ARE THOSE THAT HAVE BALANCED CONSTITUTION BETWEEN THE TWO SITUATIONS.

 

63. SIMILAR APPLIES TO MEN OR • DUE TO LOOSENESS OF THE BODY THE AIR EXITS TO THE OUTSIDE AND DOES NOT DIRECT THE SPERM TO THE DESTINATION OR THE BODY IS TIGHT AND SEMINAL FLUID CAN BE PUSHED OUT OR THE BODY IS COLD AND SEMEN IS NOT HEATED ENOUGH TO CONCENTRATE ON THE APPROPRIATE PLACE • THE SAME HAPPENS IF THE BODY IS WARM.

 

64. MILK HURTING THOSE SUFFERING FROM HEADACHE “ALSO HURTS THOSE WHO HAVE FEVER, SWOLLEN AND FULL OF HYPOCHONDRIAC COOING, AND THOSE WHO FEEL THIRST • HURTS EVEN PATIENTS WITH HIGH FEVER EXHIBITING CHOLODI FECES AND THOSE WHO EARN A LOT OF BLOOD UNDERNEATH • MILK BENEFITS THE TUBERCULOUS NOT HAVE HIGH FEVER “IS ALSO USED IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT FEVERS AND LONG TERM WHEN THERE IS NONE OF THE ABOVE SYMPTOMS, BUT ALSO WHEN THEY ARE OVERLY EXHAUSTED.

 

65. THE WOUNDS ACCOMPANIED BY EDEMA, DO NOT EXPOSE THE PATIENT TO THE RISK OF CONVULSIONS OR DELIRIUM • BUT WHEN THESE FALL SHARPLY, IF THAT WERE IN THE BACK PARTS OF THE BODY, MANIFESTED CONVULSIONS AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS • IF YOU WERE IN FRONT, MANIFESTED DELUSIONS, STRONG FLANK PAIN, SUPPURATION OR DYSENTERY, ALTHOUGH SWELLING WAS RATHER KOKKINOCHROMA.

 

66. IF AFTER STRONG AND SERIOUS INJURY NOT APPEAR EDEMA, IS A VERY BAD SIGN.

 

67. THE SOFT LESIONS ARE BENIGN, MALIGNANT HARD.

 

68. THE PAIN IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD IS RELIEVED BY OPENING THE FRONT VERTICAL VEIN.

 

69. IN FEMALES CHILLS STARTING WAIST RATHER ARRIVE AT THE HEAD FROM THE BACK • IN MEN, RATHER THAN THE REAR THAN THE FRONT PARTS OF THE BODY, AS WELL AS FROM THE FOREARMS AND MIROUS- SKIN OF MEN IS LOOSE, AS SEEN FROM THE BRISTLES.

 

70. THOSE AFFECTED BY TETARTAIOUS FEVERS, USUALLY THERE ARE OVERCOME BY CONVULSIONS • IF PREVIOUSLY INFECTED, EXEMPT IF THEY OCCUR LATER QUARTAN.

 

71. PATIENTS WITH SKIN TAUT, DRY AND HARD, DIE WITHOUT SWEAT IF THE SKIN IS SOFT AND LOOSE, DIE WITH PERSPIRATION.

 

72. JAUNDICED NOT USUALLY SUFFER FROM GAS.

 

  

 

APHORISMS PART SIXTH

  

1. WHEN CHRONIC LEIENTERIES MANIFESTED SOUR NOT EXISTED, THE SYMPTOM IS FAVORABLE.

 

2. PERSONS WHO ARE BY NATURE WET NOSE AND DILUTE SEMEN DOES NOT HAVE AS GOOD HEALTH • OTHERWISE, THE WINE IS HEALTHIER.

 

3. LONG DYSENTERY ANOREXIA SYMPTOM IS UNPLEASANT AND EVEN WORSE, WHEN THERE IS FEVER.

 

4. THE WOUNDS AROUND WHICH HAIRS FALL, ARE MALIGNANT.

 

5. WHEN MANIFEST PAIN IN THE RIBS, CHEST, AND ELSEWHERE, WE MUST ASCERTAIN WHETHER THE PATIENTS SHOW LARGE SHIFTS [IN HOURS].

 

6. THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND THE BLADDER DIFFICULT TO TREAT THE ELDERLY.

 

7. SUPERFICIAL PAINS BELLY IS LIGHTER, MORE SERIOUS INTERNAL.

 

8. WOUNDS ARE PRESENTED IN THE BODY OF THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM DROPSY, DIFFICULT TO TREAT.

 

9. WIDE RASHES DO NOT CAUSE A LOT OF ITCHING.

 

10. EVEN THE STRONGEST HEADACHES SUBSIDE, IF RUN PUS, WATER OR BLOOD FROM NOSE, MOUTH OR EARS.

 

11. MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS OR KIDNEY DISEASES, THE OCCURRENCE OF HEMORRHOIDS HAS FAVORABLE IMPLICATIONS.

 

12. IF SOMEONE HEAL FROM CHRONIC HEMORRHOIDS AND THE DOCTOR DID NOT LEAVE A THERE IS A RISK TO MANIFEST DROPSY OR PHTHISIS.

 

13. HICCUP DISAPPEARS WITH SNEEZING.

 

14. DROPSY CURED IF RUN FLUID FROM THE VEINS INTO THE INTESTINES.

 

15. VOMITING THAT SUDDENLY APPEARS IN A PATIENT WITH PROLONGED DIARRHEA CURE THE DISEASE.

 

16. IF A PATIENT WITH PLEURISY OR PNEUMONIA DIARRHEA PRESENT, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR.

 

17. IN A PATIENT SUFFERING FROM AN EYE, THE OCCURRENCE OF DIARRHEA HAS FAVORABLE RESULTS.

 

18. THE WOUNDS OF THE BLADDER, BRAIN, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ONE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, STOMACH OR LIVER IS FATAL.

 

19. IF CUT BONE, CARTILAGE, NERVE, THIN SECTION OF THE JAW OR THE FORESKIN, OR REGENERATION IS NOT ANNEAL.

 

20. IF THE INTESTINES SPILLED UNEXPECTEDLY BLOOD, WILL NECESSARILY CAUSE SUPPURATION.

 

21. THE APPEARANCE OF VARICOSE VEINS OR HEMORRHOIDS CURE THOSE SUFFERING FROM INSANITY.

 

22. BACKACHES TRANSPORTED ELBOWS, TREATED WITH PHLEBOTOMY.

 

23. IF THE FEELINGS OF FEAR OR SADNESS EXTENDED FOR A LONG TIME, THEN TREAT MELANCHOLY.

 

24. IF CUT A PORTION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, NO LONGER JOINED.

 

25. IF ANEMOPYROMA THAT HAS SPREAD OUTSIDE, TURNED INWARDS, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR • IF TURNED INSIDE OUT, THE PROGNOSIS IS GOOD.

 

26. DELIRIUM STOPS THE TREMORS MANIFESTED IN SENSATION.

 

27. EMPYIMATIKOI OR DROPSY WHICH OPERATED ON OR CAUTERIZE CERTAINLY DIE IF THE PUS OR FLUID EXPELLED ALL TOGETHER.

 

28. THE EUNUCHS ARE NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT OR ARE BALD.

 

29. THE WOMAN IS NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT, UNLESS MENSTRUATION TO CEASE.

 

30. THE CHILD SUFFERS GOUT BEFORE COPULATE.

 

31. PAIN IN THE EYE TREATED WITH UNBRIDLED WINE BATH, STEAM ROOM, PHLEBOTOMY OR TAKING LAXATIVE.

 

32. STUTTERER OFTEN AFFECTED BY LONG-TERM DIARRHEA.

 

33. PEOPLE WHO HAVE SOUR, NOT USUALLY ATTACKED BY PLEURISY.

 

34. THE BALD DOES NOT USUALLY FORM LARGE VARICES • IF THIS HAPPENS, BEING RE SHAGGY.

 

35. IF THOSE SUFFERING FROM DROPSY DEVELOP COUGH, THE SYMPTOM IS BAD.

 

36. THE BLEED CURE DYSURIA • SHOULD HOWEVER BE OPENED VEINS TO THE INNER SURFACE OF THE ARM.

 

37. IF ANYONE WHO SUFFERS FROM ANGINA, FORM EXTERNAL SWELLINGS IN THE NECK, THE CONSEQUENCES ARE FAVORABLE.

 

38. IT IS PREFERABLE NOT TO APPLY ANY TREATMENT TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM HIDDEN CANCERS • YOU UNDERGO TREATMENT, THEY WILL DIE QUICKLY • IF LEFT UNTREATED, THEIR LIVES EXTENDED.

 

39. SEIZURES CAUSED OR OVERLOAD THE STOMACH OR EMPTINESS • ITSELF AND HICCUPS.

 

40. WHEN THE AREA OF ​​SUBCHONDRAL HURTS WITHOUT INFLAMMATION, PAIN PASSES IF FEVER OCCURRED.

 

41. IF AT ANY POINT OF THE BODY IS NOT DISCLOSED PUS., THIS IS DUE TO THE THICKNESS OF THE SIGN.

 

42. THE HARDENING OF THE LIVER IN PATIENTS WITH JAUNDICE IS A BAD SIGN.

 

43. IF SUFFERING FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN EXPRESS DYSENTERY, AND WHEN EXTENDED, SHOWN DROPSY OR LEIENTERIA AND PATIENTS DIE.

 

44. PATIENTS AFTER STRANGURIA SUSCEPTIBLE ILEUM DIE WITHIN SEVEN DAYS UNLESS MANIFEST FEVER AND FOLLOW ABUNDANT DIURESIS.

 

45. WHEN THE WOUNDS LAST A YEAR OR LONGER NECESSARILY THE BONE CUT AND SCARS SAG.

 

46. ​​IF SOMEONE SUFFERED KYPHOSIS BEFORE ADOLESCENCE AFTER ASTHMA OR COUGH, DYING.

 

47. INDIVIDUALS WHO BENEFIT FROM PHLEBOTOMY OR LAXATIVE MUST. APPLY THESE TREATMENTS SPRING,

 

48. THE DISPLAY DYSENTERY FAVORS THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN.

 

49. IN PATIENTS WITH GOUTY DISORDERS INFLAMMATION SUBSIDES WITHIN FORTY DAYS AND TREATED.

 

50. THE WOUNDS OF THE BRAIN NECESSARILY ACCOMPANIED BY FEVER AND VOMITING CHOLODI.

 

51. IF HEALTHY PERSON SUDDENLY FEEL HEADACHE, SUDDENLY LOST HIS VOICE AND DROPPED TO RATTLE, DIED WITHIN A WEEK, UNLESS MANIFESTED FEVER.

   

52. IT SHOULD ALSO EXAMINE THE STATUS OF THE EYES AT THE TIME OF YPNOU- IF, AS THE EYELIDS ARE LOWERED, IT SEEMS, AMONG THEM A SHARE OF THE WHITES OF THE EYE, AND THERE EXISTED DIARRHEA OR HAS BEEN CATHARTIC, THE PROGNOSIS IS DEVASTATING AND DEADLY.

 

53. INSANITIES ACCOMPANIED BY LAUGHTER IS NOT AS DANGEROUS AS THOSE THAT OCCUR WITH GLOOM.

 

54. IN SEVERE FEBRILE DISEASE INTERMITTENT BREATHING IS A BAD SIGN.

55. GOUTY DISEASES USUALLY OCCUR IN SPRING AND AUTUMN.

56- ON MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS MOVEMENTS JUICE HAZARD FOR STROKE EVENT OR CONVULSIONS OR INSANITY OR BLINDNESS.

 

57. STROKE OCCURS MAINLY AT THE AGE OF FORTY TO SIXTY.

 58. IF UNSTUCK OMENTUM NECESSARILY WILL ROT.

 

59. PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM SCIATICA, THEY SHIFT THE HIP AND GO BACK INTO POSITION LATER FORMED SLIME.

 

60. THE SHIFTING OF THE HIP IN HUMANS WITH CHRONIC SCIATICA, CAUSES ATROPHY OF LIMB, THEREBY START LIMP UNLESS BE CAUTERIZED.

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A N A X A G O R A S

 According to Plutarch in his work On exile, Anaxagoras is the first Greek to attempt the problem of squaring the circle, a problem he worked on while in prison. He is considered to be both the geographical and theoretical successor to the earliest Ionian philosophers, particularly Anaximenes. Eventually, Anaxagoras made his way to Athens and he is often credited with making her the home of Western philosophical and physical speculation. 

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Anaxagoras (/ˌænækˈsæɡərəs/; Greek: Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagóras, “lord of the assembly”; c. 500 – c. 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Born in Clazomenae at a time when parts of IONIA(= “Asia Minor”) came under the control of the Persian Empire, untill when later Alexander the Great liberated and became Greek again Anaxagoras came to Athens. Although Anaxagoras lived in Athens when Socrates was a youth and young adult, there are no reports that Anaxagoras and Socrates ever met.

About 480 Anaxagoras moved to Athens, then becoming the centre of Greek culture, and brought from Ionia the new practice of philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry. He was a philosopher of nature remembered for his cosmology and for his discovery of the true cause of eclipses. He was associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles. Although Anaxagoras proposed theories on a variety of subjects, he is most noted for two theories. First, he speculated that in the physical world everything contains a portion of everything else. His observation of how nutrition works in animals led him to conclude that in order for the food an animal eats to turn into bone, hair, flesh, and so forth, it must already contain all of those constituents within it. The second theory of significance is Anaxagoras’ postulation of Mind (Nous) as the initiating and governing principle of the cosmos.

After 30 years’ residence in Athens, he was prosecuted on a charge of impiety for asserting that the Sun is an incandescent stone somewhat larger than the region of the Peloponnese. The attack on him was intended as an indirect blow at Pericles, and, although Pericles managed to save him, Anaxagoras was compelled to leave Athens. He spent his last years in retirement at Lampsacus.

T H A L E S & P Y T H A G O R A S

****************T H A L E S

Thales of Miletus - Wikipedia

Thales of Miletus was a Greek mathematician who lived 2600 years ago. He formulated a theorem with the following meaning: Every triangle inscribed in a circle has a right angle if one of the sides of the triangle is the diameter of the circle. One easy way to construct a right-angled triangle, is to use Thales’ theorem. Thales theorem states that if one of the sides of a triangle is along the diameter of a circle, and if the third vertex also lies on the circle, then the angle at the third vertex is a right angle.The triangle A B C is inscribed in a circle in such a way.

The Pythagorean theorem

pythagoras
Behold! Dynamic proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

For a right-angled triangle with shorter sides a and b, and the hypotenuse c, following holds:

c2=a2+b2�2=�2+�2

Conversely, if three positive numbers abc satisfy c2=a2+b2�2=�2+�2; then the numbers can be the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle.

There are many proofs of the Pythagorean theorem that are based on interpreting the square of a number as the area of a square. You then prove that the area of the two smaller squares in the image below, have the same total area as the large square.

Pythagorean Theorem

One of the easiest proofs is shown in the worksheet above. A more difficult proof where the smaller squares are cut and then put together as a larger square is shown below.

pythagoras
Animated Pythagoras’ Theorem Jigsaw Puzzle. Change the topmost slider to see the translations.

Exercise 1

Use the picture above to prove Thales’ theorem!

Dynamic Pythagoras’ tree

Pythagoras' tree

By using Thales theorem, it is possible to make a dynamic variant of a fractal called Pythagoras tree.

Exercise 2

Pythagoras' tree construction
  • Input two points A� and B� and a slider α� representing an angle. Use the tool icon Regular Polygon to make a square as in the picture above.
  • Use the tool icon Midpoint or Centre to make the midpoint E� between C� and D�. Use the tool icon Rotate, to rotate C� around E� by the angle α�. Move the slider to see the point C′�′ move. Make a triangle as in the picture above. The triangle will be a right-angled triangle due to Thales’ theorem.
  • Pick Tools -> Create New Tool. Make a tool that has the objects C�, C′�′, D�, and the two polygons as output objects. The tool will have A�, B�, and α� as input objects.
  • Build a tree by using the tool. Start by clicking two points, then enter α in the input box that shows up.

You can make variations of Pythagoras’ tree. For some examples see Variations on Pythagoras’ Tree.

Pythagoras' tree variants

Much of our modern science, and astronomy in particular, has roots in the ancient world. In particular, the Greek philosophers studied the cosmos and tried to use the language of mathematics to explain everything. The Greek philosopher Thales was one such man. He was born around 624 BCE,from (Miletus was a Greek island in Ionia Asia Minor, now modern Turkey) and he came from a distinguished family.

It is difficult to write about Thales since none of his own writing survives. He was known to be a prolific writer, but as with so many documents from the ancient world, his vanished through the ages. He is mentioned in other people’s works and seems to have been quite well-known for his time among fellow philosophers and writers. Thales was an engineer, scientist, mathematician, and philosopher interested in nature. He may have been the teacher of Anaximander (611 BC – 545 BCE), another philosopher.

Some researchers think Thales wrote a book on navigation, but there is little evidence of such a tome. In fact, if he wrote any works at all, they did not even survive until the time of Aristotle (384 BCE- 322 BCE). Even though the existence of his book is debatable, it turns out that Thales probably did define the constellation Ursa Minor.

Despite the fact that much of what is known about Thales is mostly hearsay, he was definitely well-respected in ancient Greece. He was the only philosopher before Socrates to be counted among the Seven Sages. These were philosophers in the 6th century BCE who were statesmen and law-givers, and in Thales’s case, a natural philosopher (scientist). 

There are reports that Thales predicted an eclipse of the Sun in 585 BCE. While the 19-year cycle for lunar eclipses was well known by this time, solar eclipses were harder to predict, since they were visible from different locations on Earth and people were not aware of the orbital motions of the Sun, Moon, and Earth that contributed to solar eclipses. Most likely, if he did make such a prediction, it was a lucky guess based on experience saying that another eclipse was due.

After the eclipse on 28 May, 585 BCE, Herodotus wrote, “Day was all of a sudden changed into night. This event had been foretold by Thales, the Milesian, who forewarned the Ionians of it, fixing for it the very year in which it took place. The Medes and Lydians, when they observed the change, ceased fighting, and were alike anxious to have terms of peace agreed on.”

Impressive but Human

Thales is often credited with some impressive work with geometry. It is said he determined the heights of pyramids by measuring their shadows and could deduce the distances of ships from a vantage point onshore.

How much of our knowledge of Thales is accurate is anyone’s guess. Most of what we know is due to Aristotle who wrote in his Metaphysics: “Thales of Miletus taught that ‘all things are water’.” Apparently Thales believed the Earth floated in water and everything came from water.

Like the absent-minded professor stereotype still popular today, Thales has been described in both glowing and derogatory tales. One story, told by Aristotle, says Thales used his skills to predict that the next season’s olive crop would be bountiful. He then purchased all the olive presses and made a fortune when the prediction came true. Plato, on the other hand, told a story of how one night Thales was gazing at the sky as he walked and fell into a ditch. There was a pretty servant girl nearby who came to his rescue, who then said to him “How do you expect to understand what is going on up in the sky if you do not even see what is at your feet?”

Thales died about 547 BCE in his home of Miletus.

Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

D E M O C R I T O S = Δ Η Μ Ο Κ Ρ Ι Τ Ο Σ =”DEMOCRITUS”

Bust of Democritus. Villa of the Papyri.

Born c. 460 BC Abdera, Thrace

Era Pre-Socratic philosophy Region Western philosophy

School Atomism

Main interests Nature

Notable ideas Atoms and the void as the fundamental constituents of the physical world

Democritus (/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/, dim-OCK-rit-əs; Greek: Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning “chosen of the people”; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher from Abdera, primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

FEW of Democritus’ original work has survived, MOST references. Many of these references come from ARISTOTELES, who viewed him as an important rival in the field of natural philosophy

Atomic hypothesis
See also: Atomism
We have various quotes from Democritus on atoms, one of them being:

δοκεῖ δὲ αὐτῶι τάδε· ἀρχὰς εἶναι τῶν ὅλων ἀτόμους καὶ κενόν, τὰ δ’ἀλλα πάντα

Δημόκριτος, DEMOKRITOS, meaning “chosen of the people”; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an ANCIENT-GREEK PRE-SOCRATIC philosopher from THRACE/ABDERA, primarily remembered today for HIS FORMULATION of an atomic theory of the universe.
Democritus knew that if a stone was divided in half, the two halves would have essentially the same properties as the whole.Therefore, he reasoned that if the stone were to be continually cut into smaller and smaller pieces then; at some point, there would be a piece which would be so small as to be indivisible. He called these small pieces of matter “atomos,” the Greek word for indivisible. Democritus, theorized that atoms were specific to the material which they composed. In addition, Democritus believed that the atoms differed in size and shape, were in constant motion in a void, collided with each other; and during these collisions, could rebound or stick together. Therefore, changes in matter were a result of dissociations or combinations of the atoms as they moved throughout the void. Although Democritus’ theory was remarkable, it was rejected by Aristotle, one of the most influential philosophers of Ancient Greece; and the atomic theory was ignored for nearly 2,000 years.

None of Democritus’ original work has survived, except through second-hand references. Many of these references come from Aristotle, who viewed him as an important rival in the field of natural philosophy.

Along with Leucippus the most important representative of the ancient atomic theory (compare atomic theory). According to Democritus and his teacher Leucippus – whose ideas cannot be separated from Democritus – reality consists of an infinite number of indivisible bodies, atoms,

LIFE
Although many anecdotes about Democritus’ life survive, their authenticity cannot be verified and modern scholars doubt their accuracy. Democritus was said to be born in the city of Abdera in Thrace, an Ionian colony of Teos. Ancient accounts of his life have claimed that he lived to a very old age, with some writers claiming that he was over a hundred years old at the time of his death.
Ancient accounts of his life have claimed that he lived to a very old age, with some writers claiming that he was over a hundred years old at the time of his death.

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Christopher Charles Whiston Taylor [de] states that the relation between Democritus and his predecessor Leucippus is not clear; while earlier ancient sources such as Aristotle and Theophrastus credit Leucippus with the invention of atomism and credit its doctrines to both philosophers, later sources credit only Democritus, making definitive identification of specific doctrines difficult.

Atomic hypothesis
See also: Atomism
We have various quotes from Democritus on atoms, one of them being:

δοκεῖ δὲ αὐτῶι τάδε· ἀρχὰς εἶναι τῶν ὅλων ἀτόμους καὶ κενόν, τὰ δ’ἀλλα πάντα νενομίσθαι [δοξάζεσθαι]. (Diogenes Laërtius, Democritus, Vol. IX, 44) Now his principal doctrines were these. That atoms and the vacuum were the beginning of the universe; and that everything else existed only in opinion. (trans. Yonge 1853)

The theory of Democritus held that everything is composed of “atoms,” which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between atoms, there lies empty space; that atoms are indestructible, and have always been and always will be in motion; that there is an infinite number of atoms and of kinds of atoms, which differ in shape and size. Of the mass of atoms, Democritus said, “The more any indivisible exceeds, the heavier it is.” However, his exact position on atomic weight is disputed. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases.

Democritus, along with Leucippus and Epicurus, proposed the earliest views on the shapes and connectivity of atoms. They reasoned that the solidness of the material corresponded to the shape of the atoms involved.Using analogies from humans’ sense experiences, he gave a picture or an image of an atom that distinguished them from each other by their shape, their size, and the arrangement of their parts. Moreover, connections were explained by material links in which single atoms were supplied with attachments: some with hooks and eyes, others with balls and sockets.

The Democritean atom is an inert solid (merely excluding other bodies from its volume) that interacts with other atoms mechanically. In contrast, modern, quantum-mechanical atoms interact via electric and magnetic forces and are dynamic.

Correlation with modern science
The theory of the atomists appears to be more nearly aligned with that of modern science than any other theory of antiquity. However, the similarity with modern concepts of science can be confusing when trying to understand where the hypothesis came from. Classical atomists could not have had an empirical basis for modern concepts of atoms and molecules.

The atomistic void hypothesis was a response to the paradoxes of Parmenides and Zeno, the founders of metaphysical logic, who put forth difficult-to-answer arguments in favor of the idea that there can be no movement. They held that any movement would require a void—which is nothing—but a nothing cannot exist. The Parmenidean position was “You say there is a void; therefore the void is not nothing; therefore there is not the void. The position of Parmenides appeared validated by the observation that where there seems to be nothing there is air, and indeed even where there is not matter there is something, for instance light waves.

The atomists agreed that motion required a void, but simply rejected the argument of Parmenides on the grounds that motion was an observable fact. Therefore, they asserted, there must be a void.

Democritus held that originally the universe was composed of nothing but tiny atoms churning in chaos, until they collided together to form larger units—including the earth and everything on it. He surmised that there are many worlds, some growing, some decaying; some with no sun or moon, some with several. He held that every world has a beginning and an end and that a world could be destroyed by collision with another world.

MATHEMATICS

Democritus argued that the circular cross-section of a cone would need step-like sides, rather than being shaped like a cylinder.
Democritus was also a pioneer of mathematics and geometry in particular. According to Archimedes, Democritus was among the first to observe that a cone and pyramid with the same base area and height has one-third the volume of a cylinder or prism respectively, a result which Archimedes states was later proved by Eudoxus of Cnidus. Plutarch also reports that Democritus worked on a problem involving the cross-section of a cone that Thomas Heath suggests may be an early version of infinitesimal calculus.

ANTHROPOLOGY
Democritus thought that the first humans lived an anarchic and animal sort of life, going out to forage individually and living off the most palatable herbs and the fruit which grew wild on the trees. They were driven together into societies for fear of wild animals, he said. He believed that these early people had no language, but that they gradually began to articulate their expressions, establishing symbols for every sort of object, and in this manner came to understand each other. He says that the earliest men lived laboriously, having none of the utilities of life; clothing, houses, fire, domestication, and farming were unknown to them. Democritus presents the early period of mankind as one of learning by trial and error, and says that each step slowly led to more discoveries; they took refuge in the caves in winter, stored fruits that could be preserved, and through reason and keenness of mind came to build upon each new idea.

ETHICS AND POLITICS
The ethics and politics of Democritus come to us mostly in the form of maxims. As such, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has gone as far as to say that: “despite the large number of ethical sayings, it is difficult to construct a coherent account of Democritus’s ethical views,” noting that there is a “difficulty of deciding which fragments are genuinely Democritean.”

AESTHETICS
Later Greek historians consider Democritus to have established aesthetics as a subject of investigation and study,[8] as he wrote theoretically on poetry and fine art long before authors such as Aristotle. Specifically, Thrasyllus identified six works in the philosopher’s oeuvre which had belonged to aesthetics as a discipline, but only fragments of the relevant works are extant; hence of all Democritus’s writings on these matters, only a small percentage of his thoughts and ideas can be known.

WORKS
Diogenes Laertius attributes several works to Democritus, but none of them have survived in a complete form.
,,That Organisms first came from moist soil.

Everything that exists in man is made up of atoms.

The SOUL=PSYCHE=ΨΥΧΗ consists of very small, smooth, round atoms, like fire.

Spirit, soul, vital heat, vital principle are all one and the same thing.

They are not limited to humans or animals, but are scattered throughout the world.

And in man and other animals, the intellectual atoms, with which we think, are distributed throughout the body.

However, these subtle atoms, which make up the soul, are the noblest and most wonderful part of the body.

The wise man cultivates thought, frees himself from passion, superstition, and fear, and seeks in contemplation and understanding the humble happiness that exists in human life.

Happiness does not come from external goods.

Man must get used to finding within himself the sources of pleasure!!

Cultivation is better than riches.

No power and no treasure can compare with the expansion of our knowledge.

Happiness is fickle and carnal pleasure provides only short-term satisfaction.

We achieve lasting satisfaction by gaining calmness, cheerfulness, mediocrity and some order and symmetry in our lives.

We can learn a lot from animals – spinning from the spider, thrift from the swallow, singing from the nightingale and the swan.

But strength of body is kindness only to beasts of burden, but strength of character is kindness to man.

Like the heretics of Victorian England, Democritus raises above his scandalous metaphysics a very presentable morality.

Good deeds must be done not out of compulsion, but out of conviction, not out of hope of reward, but for their own sake.

Man should feel more shame towards himself when he does evil, than towards the whole world.

Eventually Democritus proved his principles and perhaps vindicated his advice by living to the age of 109.

Diogenes Laertius narrates that when Democritus publicly read his greatest work, the <<Great Diacosmos>>, the city of Abdira gave him a hundred talents!!

But perhaps Abdera had undervalued their currency.

When someone asked him what was the secret of his longevity, he replied that he ate honey daily and bathed his body in olive oil.

Finally, when he lived long enough, he daily reduced his food, determined to die of starvation.

He was very old, Diogenes tells us, and he looked like he was dying.

His sister mourned him because she would die on the feast of Thesmophoria, which would prevent her from fulfilling her duties to the goddess.

He then reassured her and ordered her to bring him daily warm breads or some honey and by bringing these into his nostrils he was kept alive during the holy festival.

But when three days had passed since the feast, he breathed his last without pain, as Hipparchus assures us, having lived 109 years!!!

His city issued him at public expense, and Timon the Athenian praised him.

Democritus did not found a school, but formulated the most famous scientific hypotheses and gave philosophy a system, which, despite being denounced by many, survived everyone and reappears in every generation!!!!

Historical editing: Giorgos Giwrgos Chavales

H I P P A R H O S

 

Bornc. 190 BC
NicaeaKingdom of Bithynia
(modern-day İznik, Bursa, Turkey)
Diedc. 120 BC (around age 70)
Rhodos
Greece
OccupationsAstronomerMathematicianGeographer

Hipparchus (/hɪˈpɑːrkəs/GreekἽππαρχοςHipparkhos; c. 190 – c. 120 BC) was a Greek astronomergeographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discovery of the precession of the equinoxes. Hipparchus was born in NicaeaBithynia, and probably died on the island of Rhodes, Greece. He is known to have been a working astronomer between 162 and 127 BC.

Hipparchus is considered the greatest ancient astronomical observer and, by some, the greatest overall astronomer of antiquity. He was the first whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon survive. For this he certainly made use of the observations and perhaps the mathematical techniques accumulated over centuries by Meton of Athens (fifth century BC), TimocharisAristyllusAristarchus of Samos, and Eratosthenes, among others.

He developed trigonometry and constructed trigonometric tables, and he solved several problems of spherical trigonometry. With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry, he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses.

His other reputed achievements include the discovery and measurement of Earth’s precession, the compilation of the first known comprehensive star catalog from the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, as well as of the armillary sphere that he may have used in creating the star catalogue. Hipparchus is sometimes called the “father of astronomy”, a title conferred on him by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre in 1817]

Life and work

Hipparchus was born in Nicaea (Greek: Νίκαια), in Bithynia. The exact dates of his life are not known, but Ptolemy attributes astronomical observations to him in the period from 147 to 127 BC, and some of these are stated as made in Rhodes; earlier observations since 162 BC might also have been made by him. His birth date (c. 190 BC) was calculated by Delambre based on clues in his work. Hipparchus must have lived some time after 127 BC because he analyzed and published his observations from that year.

In the second and third centuries, coins were made in his honour in Bithynia that bear his name and show him with a globe.

Relatively little of Hipparchus’s direct work survives into modern times. Although he wrote at least fourteen books, only his commentary on the popular astronomical poem by Aratos was preserved by later copyists. Most of what is known about Hipparchus comes from Strabo‘s Geography and Pliny‘s Natural History in the first century; Ptolemy’s second-century Almagest; and additional references to him in the fourth century by Pappus and Theon of Alexandria in their commentaries on the Almagest.

Hipparchus’s only preserved work is Commentary on the Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus (Greek: Τῶν Ἀράτου καὶ Εὐδόξου φαινομένων ἐξήγησις). This is a highly critical commentary in the form of two books on a popular poem by Aratus based on the work by Eudoxos.[Hipparchus also made a list of his major works that apparently mentioned about fourteen books, but which is only known from references by later authors. His famous star catalog was incorporated into the one by Ptolemy and may be almost perfectly reconstructed by subtraction of two and two-thirds degrees from the longitudes of Ptolemy’s stars. The first trigonometric table was apparently compiled by Hipparchus, who is consequently now known as “the father of Trigonometry

 Eudoxus in the 4th century BC and Timocharis and Aristillus in the 3rd century BC already divided the ecliptic in 360 parts (our degrees, Greek: moira) of 60 arcminutes and Hipparchus continued this tradition. It was only in Hipparchus’s time (2nd century BC) when this division was introduced (probably by Hipparchus’s contemporary Hypsikles) for all circles in mathematics. Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), in contrast, used a simpler sexagesimal system dividing a circle into 60 parts. Hipparchus also adopted the Aristarhus astronomical Greek πῆχυς pēchys) that was equivalent to 2° or 2.5° (‘large cubit’).

Hipparchus’s long draconitic lunar period (5,458 months = 5,923 is post-Hipparchus so the direction of transmission is not settled by the tablets.

Geometry, trigonometry and other mathematical techniques

Hipparchus was recognized as the first mathematician known to have possessed a trigonometric table, which he needed when computing the eccentricity of the orbits of the Moon and Sun. He tabulated values for the chord function, which for a central angle in a circle gives the length of the straight line segment between the points where the angle intersects the circle. He may have computed this for a circle with a circumference of 21,600 units and a radius (rounded) of 3,438 units; this circle has a unit length for each arcminute along its perimeter. (This was “proven” by Toomer, but he later “cast doubt“ upon his earlier affirmation. Other authors have argued that a circle of radius 3,600 units may instead have been used by Hipparchus.) He tabulated the chords for angles with increments of 7.5°. In modern terms, the chord subtended by a central angle in a circle of given radius R equals R times twice the sine of half of the angle, i.e.:chord⁡�=2�⋅sin⁡12�{\displaystyle \operatorname {chord} \theta =2R\cdot \sin {\tfrac {1}{2}}\theta }The now-lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria‘s fourth-century commentary on section I.10 Trigonometry was a significant innovation, because it allowed Greek astronomers to solve any triangle, and made it possible to make quantitative astronomical models and predictions using their preferred geometric techniques.

Hipparchus must have used a better approximation for π than the one given by Archimedes of between 3+1071 (≈ 3.1408) and 3+17 (≈ 3.1429). Perhaps he had the approximation later used by Ptolemy, sexagesimal 3;08,30 (≈ 3.1417) (Almagest VI.7).

Hipparchus could have constructed his chord table using the Pythagorean theorem and a theorem known to Archimedes.

The stereographic projection was ambiguously attributed to Hipparchus by Synesios (c. 400 AD), and on that basis Hipparchus is often credited with inventing it or at least knowing of it. However, some scholars believe this conclusion to be unjustified by available evidence.The oldest extant description of the stereographic projection is found in Ptolemy‘s Planisphere (2nd century AD)

There are several indications that Hipparchus knew spherical trigonometry, but the first surviving text discussing it is by Menelaus of Alexandria in the first century, who now, on that basis, commonly is credited with its discovery. (Previous to the finding of the proofs of Menelaus a century ago, Ptolemy was credited with the invention of spherical trigonometry.) Ptolemy later used spherical trigonometry to compute things such as the rising and setting points of the ecliptic, or to take account of the lunar parallax. If he did not use spherical trigonometry, Hipparchus may have used a globe for these tasks, reading values off coordinate grids drawn on it, or he may have made approximations from planar geometry, or perhaps used arithmetical approximations developed by Pythagoras.

The now lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria’s 4th-century commentary on section Trigonometry was a significant innovation, because it allowed Greek astronomers to solve any triangle, and made it possible to make quantitative astronomical models and predictions using their preferred geometric techniques.

Hipparchus must have used a better approximation for π than the one from Archimedes of between ​3 10⁄71 (3.14085) and ​3 1⁄7 (3.14286). Perhaps he had the one later used by Ptolemy: 3;8,30 (sexagesimal)(3.1417) (Almagest VI.7), but it is not known whether he computed an improved value himself.

H I P P O C R A T E S A S C L E P I O S D I O S C U R I D E S

H I P P O C R A T E S AND A S C L E P I O S

Hippocrates (d. 460 BC-360 BC) was a curious Greek physician, the first to systematically classify medicine and attempt a methodical treatment of diseases. He was Koos, Asclepiades by birth and son of Heraklides and Phainaretis or Praxithea daughter of Phainaretis according to others. He was the 20th descendant of Herakles from his mother and the 18th descendant of Asclepius from his father. Initially he was a student of his own father, then of Herodikos, Gorgias, the orator Leontinus and Democritus of Abderitis, although several researchers claim that his relationship with Gorgias and Democritus was a spiritual communication and not a discipleship relationship.

*******Facts and assumptions

2500 YEARS AGO HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED BRAIN AND HEART SURGERY…

DESPITE THE ALMOST NON-EXISTENT MEANS OF HIS TIME, HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED DIFFICULT SURGERIES. HE AND HIS STUDENTS SUCCESSFULLY TREAT ED ORTHOPEDIC, CARDIAC AND BASIC SURGERY CASES. HIPPOCRATES EVEN PERFORMED OPERATIONS ON THE HUMAN SKULL, AS WE READ IN SEVERAL OF HIS WORKS … IN ADDITIO TO THE OPERATION ITSELF, HIPPOCRATES ATTACHED GREAT IMPORTANCE TO THE REPARATION OF THE PATIENT AND THE OPERATING ROOM.

IN THE WORK KAT’IATREION, HE DESCRIBES IN DETAIL HOW THE PATIENT SHOULD BE PREPARED BEFORE THE OPERATION, HOW THE TOOLS ARE STERILIZED, HOW THE SPACE IS SHAPED , BUT ALSO HOW ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL LIGHT IS USED DURING THE OPERATION …

AMERICAN ARCHAEOBOTANISTS WERE ABLE FOR THE FIRST TIME TO STUDY AND ANALYZE THE CONTENTS OF PILLS MADE BY DOCTORS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND WHICH WERE DISCOVERED 20 YEARS AGO, IN A GREEK SHIPWRECK OFF THE COAST OF TUSCANY...

DNA ANALYZES SHOWED, THAT EACH PILL WAS A MIXTURE OF AT LEAST TEN DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS, INCLUDING HIBISKUS AND CELERY. “FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE NOW HAVE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE OF WHAT IS CONTAINED IN THE WRITINGS OF THE ‘ANCIENT GREEK PHYSICIANS DIOSCORIDIS AND GALENOS, CARRIED OUT.

“BALANCING ELECTROMAGNETIC CONVECTION FLUIDS OF THE BODY” TREATMENTS BY REGULATING THE ALKALINITY AND ACIDITY OF THE ORGANS,THAT THEY WERE MAKING CURSE USING “LEFT-HANDED AMINO ACIDS” (ANTIBIOTICS) OBTAINED FROM PLANTS, FULLY KNOWING, THAT ONLY RECENTLY DID MOLEKYLAR BIOLOGY DISCOVER THE ACTION-REACTION OF LEFT-HANDED AMINO ACIDS (ANTIBIOTICS) AMINO ACIDS (ORGANISM PROTEINS).

EVERY SICKNESS START FROM THE PSYCHE(= ΨΥΧΗ=SOUL) AND AFTER FINISH IN THE BODY.
HIPPOCRATES.

The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in the Caduceus of Mercury. Legend says that Mercury once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around her and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes  etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – Hermeneutis = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted Asclepius and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated in the sense of koutalini snake control rod to the spine, the energy of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.

The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in
KHPYKEIO /KIRYKIO (=Messangers rod) The SYMBOL of HERMES κῆρυξ
ΚΗΡΎΚΕΙΟ from the verb: κηρύσσω=I inform, I announce.
KIRYKIO SYMBOL or
(“CADUCEUS” Later in Latin & West later) of HERMES or “MERCURY”LATER in LATIN)>>>>>>>>>>
HERMES once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around it and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – HERMENEUTIS = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted ASCLEPIUS and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated as DNA in the sense of controling the rod to the spine, the genetic energy and of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.
So, like HERMES, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
HERCULES, from INFANT he managed to DROWN two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the CHAMPS ELYSEES ( “Ylisia pedia”Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of HERCULES let it also leaked and that, as Pais of ZEUS, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given.


So, like Hermes, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
Hercules, from infancy he managed to drown two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the Champs Elysees (Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of Hercules, let it also leaked and that, as Pais of Zeus, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given to him against the Offit Atlanteans, those we call Satan today.

THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS BECAME VERY POPULAR AND THE CULT CENTRES (KNOWN AS AN ASCLEPIEION) WERE USED BY PRIESTS TO CURE THE SICK. INVALIDS ALSO CAME TO THE SHRINES OF ASCLEPIUS TO FIND CURES FOR THEIR AILMENTS (IN THE SAME FASHION PILGRIMS VISIT LOURDES TODAY.) THE PROCESS OF HEALING WAS KNOWN AS INCUBATION. THE PATIENT WOULD SPEND THE NIGHT IN A DORMITORY. DURING THE NIGHT THEY WOULD SUPPOSEDLY BE VISITED BY THE GOD IN A DREAM. PRIESTS WOULD INTERPRET THE DREAMS AND THEN RECOMMEND A REMEDY OR GIVE ADVICE ON HOW THEY COULD BE CURED WITH PERHAPS A RECOMMENDED VISIT TO THE BATHS AND GYMNASIUMS. THERE WERE MANY CENTRES AND SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE, FROM TRIKKIS IN THESSALY TO THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS BELIEVED THAT HIPPOCRATES, A GREAT DOCTOR OF ANTIQUITY, PLIED HIS TRADE ON THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS ALSO SAID THAT HIPPOCRATES WAS A DESCENDANT OF ASCLEPIUS.

THE ROMANS ADOPTED THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS, BUT CHANGED HIS NAME TO LATIN; THEY CALLED HIM AESCULAPIUS.

THE  DOUGHTERS & SONS of ASKLIPIOS

.

HYGEIA -ΥΓΕΙΑ =  HEALTH: from: “ygiiros” related to “wet” = hydro. This liquid state, the “ygriis” is healthy. “Healthy esti temperateness of juice in us” … Always health characterized as liquid, juicy, while illness and death have the common characteristic dryness, stiffness.

–  IASO (Ιασώ: from: IAOMAI = I HEAL ιάομαι = θεραπεύω).

–  AKESO (Ακεσώ: from: AKEOMAI = I HEAL with a sharp instrument) ακέομαι

–  PANAKEA (Πανάκεια:Παν+akeia =The Everything Healer)

– AIGLI (Αίγλη) φως ηλίου – phos Heliou -, δόξα ‘ from: Aiso – αϊσσω + λίαν. = the Radiation of the Health.

MAHAON – Μαχάων from: Mahomai=I fight – mahi =battle example: Andromach the doughter of Priamos king of Troja, meaning=the battle against man— mahaira = knife, surgeon (χειρουργός).

PODALEIRIOS  (Ποδαλείριος) FROM: pous = foot – πους + leirion – λείριον (field flower). he had permentaly his feetinto  withwild field flowers – Botanic Doctor. (ιατρός – iatros=doctor + rootcuter ριζοτόμος)”

asklipio_tis_ko.jpg

The two sons of Asclepius, returning unharmed from the Trojan war, continued to travel and, posthumously deified, like his father. Established places of worship and healing, dedicated to Asclepius, named “Asclepiea”. Ancient Asklepion considered that the Trikke in Thessaly, while the most famous was despite Epidaurus. Equally famous was the Asklepion of Kos, which was famous for Asclepiadae and particularly of course, for the father of medicine Hippocrates.

Even mentioned that:

“Animals temples of Asclepius was the serpent (όφις), who symbolizes the periodic of renewal and is an emblem of wisdom, truth and intelligence (ευφυΐα), the cock, symbol of vigilance, the dog, symbol of faith, intelligence and vigilance and whoever in the Asclepiea healed lambent Tina diseased, the Aix (=Goat) which breastfed Asclepius and calculus because tartar became mythological legend that nourished Asclepius in his childhood.

MEDICAL IN ANCIENT GREECE – ASKLIPIOS – HIPPOCRATES – GALENOS – Dioscouridis & More

Asclepius, god of medicine, son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas who lived at the foot of Mount Pelion, brought up by the wise centaur Chiron, is the most famous healer of diseases that plague people in antiquity, and the power arrives by raising the dead … Daughter of course, the Health ..

“Asclepius: God of Medicine, worshiped everywhere in ancient Greece.

The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in the Caduceus of Mercury. Legend says that Mercury once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around her and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes  etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – Hermeneutis = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted Asclepius and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated in the sense of koutalini snake control rod to the spine, the energy of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.


So, like Hermes, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
Hercules, from infancy he managed to drown two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the Champs Elysees (Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of Hercules, let it also leaked and that, as Pais of Zeus, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given to him against the Offit Atlanteans, those we call Satan today.

THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS BECAME VERY POPULAR AND THE CULT CENTRES (KNOWN AS AN ASCLEPIEION) WERE USED BY PRIESTS TO CURE THE SICK. INVALIDS ALSO CAME TO THE SHRINES OF ASCLEPIUS TO FIND CURES FOR THEIR AILMENTS (IN THE SAME FASHION PILGRIMS VISIT LOURDES TODAY.) THE PROCESS OF HEALING WAS KNOWN AS INCUBATION. THE PATIENT WOULD SPEND THE NIGHT IN A DORMITORY. DURING THE NIGHT THEY WOULD SUPPOSEDLY BE VISITED BY THE GOD IN A DREAM. PRIESTS WOULD INTERPRET THE DREAMS AND THEN RECOMMEND A REMEDY OR GIVE ADVICE ON HOW THEY COULD BE CURED WITH PERHAPS A RECOMMENDED VISIT TO THE BATHS AND GYMNASIUMS. THERE WERE MANY CENTRES AND SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE, FROM TRIKKIS IN THESSALY TO THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS BELIEVED THAT HIPPOCRATES, A GREAT DOCTOR OF ANTIQUITY, PLIED HIS TRADE ON THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS ALSO SAID THAT HIPPOCRATES WAS A DESCENDANT OF ASCLEPIUS.

THE ROMANS ADOPTED THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS, BUT CHANGED HIS NAME TO LATIN; THEY CALLED HIM AESCULAPIUS.

THE  DOUGHTERS & SONS of ASKLIPIOS

.

HYGEIA -ΥΓΕΙΑ =  HEALTH: from: “ygiiros” related to “wet” = hydro. This liquid state, the “ygriis” is healthy. “Healthy esti temperateness of juice in us” … Always health characterized as liquid, juicy, while illness and death have the common characteristic dryness, stiffness.

–  IASO (Ιασώ: from: IAOMAI = I HEAL ιάομαι = θεραπεύω).

–  AKESO (Ακεσώ: from: AKEOMAI = I HEAL with a sharp instrument) ακέομαι

–  PANAKEA (Πανάκεια:Παν+akeia =The Everything Healer)

– AIGLI (Αίγλη) φως ηλίου – phos Heliou -, δόξα ‘ from: Aiso – αϊσσω + λίαν. = the Radiation of the Health.

MAHAON – Μαχάων from: Mahomai=I fight – mahi =battle example: Andromach the doughter of Priamos king of Troja, meaning=the battle against man— mahaira = knife, surgeon (χειρουργός).

PODALEIRIOS  (Ποδαλείριος) FROM: pous = foot – πους + leirion – λείριον (field flower). he had permentaly his feetinto  withwild field flowers – Botanic Doctor. (ιατρός – iatros=doctor + rootcuter ριζοτόμος)”

Podaleirios was the son of Asclepius and Ipion. The word “Podaleirios” is a compound consisting of the synthetic words “ποῦς” (=foot) and “leirio” (=lily, narcissus). Therefore, the first name means one who has fine or delicate feet (see also: .

Podaleirius participated in the Trojan War. Together with his brother, Mahaona, during the siege of Troy, they rendered great services to the Achaeans, thanks to their medical knowledge. According to the myth, it was these two brothers who healed Menelaus, when he was wounded by the arrows of Pandarus. It is said that Podaleirius, returning from Troy, was shipwrecked in Caria, where Damethus was king. His daughter, Sirna, was seriously injured falling from the roof of the house. Podaleirius managed to cure her and Damiethos to show his gratitude, gave Podaleirius his daughter as his wife. The couple settled in Kos, where Podalirios founded two cities, one of which he named Sirna, in honor of his wife. Podaleirius and Cyrna had a son, Hippolochus, who was taught the medical art by his father.

Podaleirius and his brother, Mahaon, were worshiped as the patron gods of medicine in various parts of the Greek world.

sources

The two sons of Asclepius, returning unharmed from the Trojan war, continued to travel and, posthumously deified, like his father. Established places of worship and healing, dedicated to Asclepius, named “Asclepiea”. Ancient Asklepion considered that the Trikke in Thessaly, while the most famous was despite Epidaurus. Equally famous was the Asklepion of Kos, which was famous for Asclepiadae and particularly of course, for the father of medicine Hippocrates.

Even mentioned that:

“Animals temples of Asclepius was the serpent (όφις), who symbolizes the periodic of renewal and is an emblem of wisdom, truth and intelligence (ευφυΐα), the cock, symbol of vigilance, the dog, symbol of faith, intelligence and vigilance and whoever in the Asclepiea healed lambent Tina diseased, the Aix (=Goat) which breastfed Asclepius and calculus because tartar became mythological legend that nourished Asclepius in his childhood.

In ancient Greece the god of medicine and health was  Asclepius. (Check up page: Hippocrates – Asclepius school)

MERCURY (HERMES) & MERCHANT APPROACH DISAPPROVING ASCLEPIUS (PHYSICIAN) AND THE NAKED GRACES ( MEDITRINE HYGEIA AND PANACEA )

According to mythology, Asclepius was the son of Apollo and Coronis, daughter of the king of Thessaly, phlegyas. When the Koronis was pregnant, expecting the child of Apollo, he fell in love and married a mortal, the power load. Apollo enraged by this and ordered his sister, the goddess Artemis, to kill Koronis, did. While the dead body of Coronis burning Apollo took the baby from her womb and gave it to the centaur Chiron to grow.

Chiron taught Asclepius medicine and hunting. Asclepius participated later in the Argonauts with Jason and his sons fought in the Trojan war. The ancient Greeks imagined Asclepius as a strong man with beard sitting on a throne. The sacred animal was the snake and the symbol was a stick.

ASKLIPIOS – Ασκληπιός from: ΑΣΚΕΛΗΣ + ΠΙΟΣ (= haggard +  Humble) is the one who”turns the hard & dry illness into healthy mildness stage “.

In Greek mythology there was the face of Machaon. He was the son of the god Asklepios and Epionis and patron of doctors. Today, no doctor in Greece does not know! The Machaon participated, in Homer, the civil between the Greeks Trojan war and took care of the wounded and sick of the  Achaean Greeks.

EPIONE was the goddess of the soothing of pain. She was the wife of the medicine-god Asklepios (Aslcepius) and the mother of the five Asklepiades (Asclepiades)–Hygeia (Good Health), Panakeia (Cure-All), Iaso (Healing), Aigle (Radiance), and Akeso (Curing).

Asklipios Bellow: Asklipios & Epioni on Ivory sculpture

The Greeks had the great temple of Asclepius in Epidaurus and many other churches across the country were called “Asclepieia” (in fact hospitals were) the most important of which was the island Kos. These spaces attending patients. There the god priests gave various herbal medicines and recommend the appropriate diet. Patients purified and having offered their gifts to the temples. After undoing in rooms in which the night was coming, supposedly, the god transformed – usually in snake – and healed them. In fact the treatment was done by the priests who were using natural medicines and often did surgeries !!!

At Epidaurus Asklepios was worshiped from the 16th century BC Originally the god worshiped in the temple of Epidaurus. The Asklepieion of Epidaurus had more religious character, unlike the Asklepieion of Kos had more scientific nature. The Temple of Asclepius in Epidaurus had inside the gold and ivory statue of the god was seated on his throne holding a stick. In Asklepion came sick from all over Greece and after the entire known world. Patients initially made a sacrifice to Asclepius father, Apollo, who also was a doctor. Indeed, Apollo and he was considered god of medicine and a skillful surgeon. In the sanctuary of Asclepius were medical instruments such as scalpels, and there were also medical procedures!

In Asklepion of Epidaurus was a place, the “Abaton”, where the patient is asleep. During sleep the insight given to the way in which they should act so as to cure and heal and others. In the 4th century BC the Asklepieion created spa and patients about the benefits to their health spas, as they do today in spas. At the same time in storey building Asklepios at Epidaurus were built two other floors, to accommodate the dozens of patients who flocked from across the country.

The first established medicine was the philosopher (disciple of Pythagoras) Alkmaion (late 6th – early 5th century BC) of Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy. First he argued that the brain is the center of consciousness and physiological functions. The Alkmaion wrote the first medical book: the “On Nature” (common titles for older philosophers).

The Alkmaion, among others, described the optic nerve and the Eustachian tube in the ear. Also invented surgical instruments and did brain surgery. The Chalkidios featuring Alkmaiona as the father of anatomy, while others describe him as the father of medicine. The writer describes the grandfather of medicine! The Alkmaion established medicine and later Hippocrates of made them a science.

Equally important is the contribution of Empedocles in medicine. Empedocles (494-434 BC) was from Agrigento (Greek colony in Sicily). He dealt with physics, music and medicine. In medicine was the first to speak about the development of the human organism. He said the bodies of man from birth, undergo a process in which progressively developed and refined – as generally all tissues of the human body.

Also important was the contribution of the Diogenis Apoloniates (Apollonia Crete) was a philosopher of the 5th century BC Diogenes lived in Athens as a doctor. Probably went to dissections in corpses, since anatomically describe the circulatory system of man.

In Asklepion Kos before Hippocrates, the great physician, was Aineios (6th-5th century BC).
Hippocrates (460-377 BC) is the father of medicine. He lived on the island Kos. His father was a priest at the Asklepieion of Kos, where patients flocked from all regions of the country. His medical liked so he decided to deal with it. His studies debunking the disease that until then considered as a punishment from God and made a unique issue of Asclepius priests, doctors in training field – scientists.

Aslepius temple in Rome

By Hippocrates the cause of the disease is the very sick and the doctor needs to consider carefully to find it. Hippocrates founded a clinical examination of the patient (overview, percussion, palpation, listening – with ear then) and went on innovative methods of treatment with herbs, herbal teas etc. It was reported elsewhere that this was the first to discover the healing powers of Willow containing acetylsalicylic acid in late 19th century, the German company BAYER manufactured in synthetic form: the known to us all, aspirin! Aspirin is a painkiller, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and protects against heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease (dementia).

Hippocrates dealt with anatomy. Also invented special surgical instruments and proceeded in difficult surgeries. Such were the opening of the chest (thoracotomy), the trepanation of the skull (for cerebral edema or volume) n. A. The surgical instruments used were scalpels, forceps, endoscopes Exclamation mark, cranial tools for cranial surgery, forceps for childbirth and many other tools. Surgical instruments used by the disinfected before surgery, in fire or old wine (rich in alcohol).

The reputation of Hippocrates was huge and influenced all subsequent philosophers and doctors (medical). Hippocrates wrote his famous oath in which even today swear graduates all of the world’s medical schools. Among other oath says:

“… I recommend to my patients diet that science and the crisis I consider more appropriate and will chase away from them any harm and damaging food. I will never give them poison (see. Today euthanasia), nor give them incorrect advice (vl.simera medical errors and medical malpractice). Nor would prevent women from conceiving (in ancient Greece the family and children was something sacred) and will help them to have an abortion (see. Today unwanted pregnancies and abortions). Above all I would keep my life pure and undefiled my art. In that house will go only offer assistance to the sick and will depart every wrongful act and profane contact. And that listen from now on in the exercise of my medical duties on the common life of the people, if I am not allowed, I clam up and keep it secret, closely guarded … “.

With his last words Hippocrates and introduces the concept of medical confidentiality.

Hippocrates had school in Kos, wrote 59 books. First he talked about acute diseases like saying, kill most patients. He spoke about chronic diseases. Also described many diseases and symptoms such as pleurisy, pneumonia, the “frenitin” (fever with delirium), the lethargy, the “heat” (high fever) etc. Hippocrates gave great importance to the prevention of diseases and know the phrase: “Kallion (better) prevention is despite the cure.”

This was the general belief of the ancient Greeks who followed healthier life: the right diet (standard diet, the ancient Greek) and continuous exercise (from childhood). Moreover, few know that Hippocrates even founded homeopathy, centuries before its founder. This was the German physician Samuel Hahnemann started his experiments in 1813, 183 patients with typhus that had success 99. 95% !!!

Hippocrates founded homeopathy with the famous phrase: “like the like eisin remedies’, the same can be treated with the same. It is not unlikely Hippocrates and other doctors of ancient Greece to using homeopathic medicines, ie potent drugs diluted to such an extent that is not toxic but can cause symptoms similar to the disease and the mechanism to heal.

Generally, the ancient Greeks had developed the medicine that has experienced particular growth in the time of Hippocrates. First, first discovered the immunity acquired by the body after the attack from certain infections. This describes Thucydides saying that the plague in Athens in 430 BC, who got sick and survived any disease.

Also, the ancient Greeks used various therapeutic agents, such as bleeding (it might help to pulmonary edema and in some other diseases such as heart disease and kidney disease), medication herbal, administration of infusions, cauterization wounds, proper diet ( which today usually neglected) any illness, surgery – where necessary, as well as baths. In other words, first the ancient Greeks created the holistic medicine and seeing each patient as an individual, as a unique personality. Not see him as a figure, commodity and customer as modern medicine has enslaved to pharmaceutical companies and physicians are professionals …

The ancient Greeks usually die in old age, if we exclude deaths from wars and epidemics. This can determine the reader with the periods that were born the ancient Greeks died listed in this book. Most listed here, died after 70 !!! Unacceptable ‘surveys’ some (non-Greek) “scholars” of envy have supposedly low average life of the ancient Greeks.

The low average age in Greece applicable since the early to mid 20th century AD (Hunger, constant wars). Generally, the Greeks are characterized by their longevity. The current exceptions are due to the adoption of western lifestyle and especially the western diet causes heart disease and cancer. Besides, toxic and carcinogenic substances are everywhere: in the air, in food, in the water we drink, even in breast milk !!! The natural medicines of ancient Greek containing the substances pharmacology later isolated and proceeded to synthetic production.

 Asklepeion

In ancient Greece there were many medical schools such as Kos (Hippocrates) and Knidos (Greek colony in Asia Minor. – Opposite Kos). In Knidos was known physician Eudoxus lived in the 4th century BC There were also many Asclepieia was – as discussed above – temples in honor of the god Asklepios. In essence it was infirmaries and were called as the first hospital !!! We mentioned before the Asklepieion of Epidaurus. Other big Asclepieia was Athens, Kos and Pergamon.

Pergamos was a city in the Middle. Asia during the Hellenistic period became the capital of the kingdom of Pergamon. Medical schools in ancient Greece were in Kos by Hippocrates in Cyrene (Greek colony in Libya) and Croton (Greek colony in southern Italy) – from Alkmaiona. However, it is noted that all the ancient Greeks had medical knowledge and even in Athens and in many other cities and young people were taught the lesson of medicine, as part of their schooling! This unfortunately is not the current school …

Philolaus of Croton

Besides Hippocrates, in the middle of the 5th Philolaos century lived in Croton in southern Italy (Greek colony). Philolaos was Pythagorean philosopher and physician. After the destruction of the School of Pythagoreans in Croton, Filolaos fled to Thebes where he taught. When Filolaou diseases should seek the juices of man, ie blood, bile and phlegm. This accepts modern medicine with blood tests, biochemical tests and sputum (infection or macroscopic cancer or tuberculosis). Philolaos said also that excessive hot or cold, and too much food can cause diseases. As regards overeating known scourge of the western world, obesity. About extreme cold causes frostbite and vulnerability to infection, while excessive hot causes heat stroke.

asklipio_tis_ko.jpg

Even Aristotle had medical knowledge. His parents were Asclepiadae and even his father Nicomachus( =Battle winner) was physician to the court of King of Macedonia Amyntas B. From his father, Aristotle taught medicine which broadcast and Alexander the Great student. Alexander seemed particularly useful medicine in his campaign in Asia and even special diets recommended in patients soldiers.

Herophilus the Chalkidonios

Another great physician, was Herophilus of Chalcedon in Bithynia who lived in the 3rd century BC The Herophilus brought the medicine in Alexandria and was the first anatomist. He cuts rather animal and not human. But perhaps eventually made it to the man, as accused for that. Moreover, it is said that the Ptolemies in Egypt allowed the anatomy to criminals bodies. In general, the anatomy in the human body was prohibited until shortly after the years of the Renaissance. The Herophilus distinguished tendons of the vessels, described the nervous system, stood out the motor from the sensory nerves and said that the seat of the mind is the brain. Also studied the liver, duodenum (that gave the name of the related length), prostate, lung, brain (brain correlated to the nervous system), the lymphatic vessels and liver.

The Herophilus distinguished the optic nerve and studied the eye, naming the retina and cornea. Great importance is given to the proper diet and exercise, which accepts the modern cardiology. The Herophilus and invented an instrument for the study of beats, because he realized the diagnostic and clinical worthy !!!

Erasistratus Ceos

At the same time as Herophilus, ie the 3rd century BC, lived and Erasistratus from Kea (island of Cyclades) made in Alexandria anatomy and research on the heart. Erasistratus considered one of the founders of the anatomy. Note that Bithynia (area in northwestern Asia Minor.) Born Herophilus and generally southwestern Asia and Egypt were then Hellenistic kingdoms founded by Alexander the Great ruled that his successors and many Greeks lived there.

Galenos

After Hippocrates, the greatest physician of antiquity was Claudius Galenos was the founder of experimental physiology and descriptive anatomy. Galenos was a Greek. He was born in 129 or 131 AD Pergamon in Asia Minor. (formerly Hellenistic kingdom passed to the Romans). He was son of Nicias architect. From child Galen frequented the Asklepieion city that the Greeks founded as in other cities in the territory of southwestern Asia. There, patients flocked from around the world. Galenos was attending medical school doctors to practice the medical profession. At age 14 he began philosophy and medicine courses. Note that in ancient medicine was an integral part of philosophy. Teacher was the Satyr, a student of the great anatomist Quintus.

Later, at age 16, Galenos began his medical studies in Pergamum and continued in Smyrna (Greek Ionian colony), Corinth and Alexandria. In Alexandria did anatomy animal. In 161 AD Galenos went to Rome, where he healed the Aristotelian philosopher Eudemus, the moment that no doctor could not cure him. This satisfied both Evdimos set up by Galenos in aristocratic circles and made him famous.

The reputation of Galen came as the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and Lucius-Regent Oniro made Galenos official doctor of the court! Galenos gave many lectures and wrote several books. He died in 199 or 201 AD Unfortunately, his books – which were kept in the Temple of Peace – destroyed by fire. So they will stay hidden forever many of the innovative drugs and surgeries Galenos.

Galenos believed that good health was the result of a balance of four juices of the body: blood, bile, black bile and phlegm. Any disturbance in this balance or poor mixing juice leads to disease. Anatomy first, centuries before Darwin, discovered the similarity between man and ape !!! So used monkeys from northern Africa to anatomical studies (anatomy in humans above that forbidden). He also did anatomy in pigs.

Galenos studied the anatomy of the uterus, eye diseases and the movement of the chest and lungs during breathing. He described the liver and heart valves! Singled arteries from veins and said that the first releases his pure blood. Until then believed that the arteries circulating air. However, this is not a completely wrong and blood gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide – are transported in the blood dissolved. Mostly, however, found in red blood cells which are bound by and are released into the bloodstream.

Galenos reported that more blood is in the aorta. He said that the blood pumped into the aorta from the left ventricle after being passed through the right. Galenos spoke about muscle movement, breathing, semen, lung cancer, tumors, liver cirrhosis, convulsions and epilepsy (the sacred disease of the ancient Greeks), shivering, the delirium tremens, tuberculosis, stones in the bile and spleen ailments. Also dealt with the diet, he built many surgeries and medications.

Specifically manufactured teas, extracts and preparations, for example, drug plants such as opium, henbane and the bulbs squill. The last used them as cordial, diuretic and expectorant drug! Therapeutically used the poison of vipers! Today various poisons such as beeswax, of snakes and other natural substances (trunk fir, sharks and other substance) scientists searching drugs for cancer therapy. Some of them, in laboratory studies, stabilize or reduce tumor size or prevent irrigation with blood.

Dioscorides

IT SHOULD ALSO MENTION THE NAME OF THE PEDANIOU DIOSCORIDES WHO WAS A GREEK PHYSICIAN, BOTANIST AND PHARMACIST OF THE 1ST CENTURY AD BY ANAZARGO OF CILICIA. HE WROTE THE BOOK “ON MEDICAL MATTER” 77 AD.

The Pedanius Dioscorides (40-90 AD) was an important physician, pharmacologist and botanist from Anazarbus of Cilicia, known for his five-volume work “On medical matter”, the most influential in pharmacology until 1600 AD . There are many copies of his work, even in the 5th century. Considered the leading pharmacologist of antiquity, the scientific contribution of which is considered equivalent to that of botany Theophrastus . Manuscripts by Dioscorides treatise, especially the oldest, as the code of the monastery of Great Lavra of Mount Athos, Konstantinoupoulis located in Vienna’s library, Naples and Michigan are of particular interest. In miniature of the 15th century is represented by Sofia shows a plant and a painter to portray who writes it.

Contents [hide]
1 Life
2 Archival material
3 Other works
4 References
4.1 Greek literature
5 References
6 Sources
7 External links
Life [edit | edit source]

Portrait of Dioscorides, Lefnten 1603
He was born around 40 AD the city Anazarbus Cilicia (pt. Northern Turkey) and little information delivered on his youth. Dioscorides was particularly inclined to study plants and herbs from an early age. After finishing medical studies at Tarsus near Supreme Court of Asklipieiadas School served to research the pharmacological properties of many plants, following the Roman army in several Mediterranean countries [5], serving as a doctor and having the responsibility of care for the injured.

His name Pedanius acquirer when it was adopted by the Roman family of Pedanion to acquire Roman citizenship rights.  It was named Pedanius more to be distinguished from the:  poet Dioscorides, and the historian Dioscorides.

He knew the properties of mandrake(μανδραγόρα), the therapeutic value and utility for premedication and sedation [8]. He had also noticed and described the phenomenon of allergic shock from taking drugs [9].

Dioscorides recorded more than 1,000 drugs, the majority of which came from plants. He also described substances that are now known as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory or contraceptives. Copies of the multi-volume work “On medical matter” were in constant circulation and used in practice by the heyday of the Roman Empire.

The first Latin version dates from 1478, a few decades after the invention of printing. The influence of his work spans at least until the Renaissance period and generally estimated tell Dioskourides methods of observation offered a solid foundation for the development of pharmacological science. Apart from its value as a medical textbook, high value is considered the wealth of information that gives the plants and herbs of southeastern Europe.

From Antiquity to the Renaissance, and later with the typography, the “On Ylis Medicine” was writen to all then known languages ​​in the West and in the East, and to the 19th century. He was a model for all medicinal books.

The Arabs called it even Dioscorides “Envoy of God Botanikis” .The most famous and valuable copy that is kept today in the Vienna National Library (Cod med.gr. 1). Copied by “commandment of residents and guilds of Pera in 512 AD and donated to Julian on amic. Other precious copies are the Code of Naples in 512 AD, several Arab codes, and the famous Turkish codes Topkapı Istanbul.

Certainly, Dioscorides not found himself the properties of all these plants. As pointed out by E. Mpaouman in his book “The Greek Flora ‘knowledge about the healing properties of nature are lost in the mists of time, and the first recording of treatment with herbs owe to Theophrastus. But the feat is that Dioscorides had recognized as therapeutic approximately 500 plants from 6000 found in Greece (8%), while today only 5% of the 600,000 plants that grow worldwide has erefnithei.To “Great Safflower”, one of 70 Centaur growing in Greece and still holds the name “Chiron” or “Blood of Hercules”, reminds us that the Centaur Chiron had affixed this herb on the wound that caused him Hercules. O Dioscorides considers herb valuable drug for the treatment of open wounds.

The “Elenion” is rather the “chiffons Cheironion” Theophrastus, the current Inola heleniom. Its roots contain substances Alantolaktoni, Inulin, etc. and used stimulant, a stimulant, such as for the treatment of respiratory diseases or angina. And today is used in chronic cough or chronic duodenal ulcer. In trade we find the name Hanopect or within the elixir Mellissengeist.I Mandrake root of the plant is already used by Homer as hypnotic and / or as a painkiller. The son of Asclepius Machaon had used on the wound of Philoctetes. In other cases they chewed piece for hypnotic. Dioscorides was getting juice from the root of mandrake was making and diluted mixture for controlled dosage, because high doses could be dangerous. The root of the mandrake contains alkaloids like Hyoscyamine, scopolamine and atropine. Still, there are homeopathic medicines prepared from the root of like Anhaloniom, Claoparest etc. But they have been replaced by purely chemical preparations. Being the first known hypnotic, the Mandrake has been chosen as the emblem of Greek Society of Anesthesiologists.

The atropos, the current Atropa belladonna, is a tall shrub toxic properties of which had described Dioscorides. The weight of an ancient drachma could cause fantasies in a double dose fantasies kept four days, and a quadruple dose cause death. Ten or twelve fruits are fatal. Name Belladona (Bella Donna) mean good woman because few drops of the fruit in the eyes causing dilated pupil, which is considered to embellish old women. Atropine is also used in ophthalmology, and against bradycardia and / or as an antidote to poisoning by insecticides or nerve gas.

Pro Dioskourides, otherwise “soul balm” today neat “balm”, used mainly for the treatment of wounds. As tea is considered today the best antidepressant after inhibitors Serotonin. In Europe and in America is known by the name St. John’s Wort or Johanneskraot, not the sales exceed 1 billion. Dollars a year. In Greece grows outside our door and our grandmothers used it as a pain reliever in babies. The antidepressant activity has xechastei.To juice of kafkalithres, the “Iordylion” gave him, mixed with wine, for certain kidney diseases, not the mallow, the “Malachi,” for bites from poisonous snakes, or used the flowers as Tea as today.

But medicinal plants that have survived until today are infinite, and those numerous history and mythology have connected with some treatment, so it is impossible to fit the brief reference to the contribution of Dioscorides. The influence of his work spans at least until the Renaissance period and generally estimated tell Dioskourides methods of observation offered a solid foundation for the development of pharmacological science. Apart from its value as a medical textbook, high value is considered the wealth of information that gives the plants and herbs of southeastern Europe.

Archive material 

Arabic book for simple medications: On medical matter Dioskourides. Cumin and Dill c. 1334. British Museum
 The homepage of the Vienna Dioscorides, Blackberry Artemisia.
 Dioscorides De Materia Medica Spain 12th 13th century.jpg
 Dioscorides writes seated
 Rare copy (515 AD) from the bird collection from Dioscorides, Vienna, Austrian National Gallery
 On medical matter in Byzantine version of the 15th century
 

Manuscript (Wiener Dioskurides)
 

Dioscuri; honor was given the name of a family of monocotyledonous plants (Dioscoreacae)
Other projects [Edit | Code edit]
About poisoning – De Venero
About iovolon- De Venetaris Anibalibus
About peony and what poiein may, Fragmenta 11.2.164 – 11.2.167, Berlin Pyr. 1914
References:
Gunther, R.T., ed. (1933). The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. Oxford University Press.
Isely, Duane (1994). One hundred and one botanists. Iowa State University Press.
Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. Krebs (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Murray, J. (1884). The Academy. Alexander and Shephrard.
Nutton, Vivian (2004). Ancient Medicine. Routledge.
Greek literature [Edit | Code edit]
On medical matter, pub, Georgiadis ISBN 960-316-155-1
About medical material (with translation), ed. Miletus ISBN 960-8033-01-02
On medical matter, five volumes, Cactus versions
On simple medicines (two volumes) ed. Cactus
About poisons and drugs such outpost and treatment etc. ed. Cactus
On medical matter, pub, Zitros, 2006 ISBN 960-8437-61-X
References [change | edit source]
Jump over ↑ TRGunther, The Greek herbal of Dioscorides (1934)
Jump over Dioscorides ↑
Jump over ↑ Encyclopedia Structure, vol. 8os.s 144
Jump over ↑ Introduction, On medical matter, ed. Cactus.
Jump over ↑ J. Mond, Pharm., 2.117 (1958)
Jump over ↑ Dioscorides, the founder of Pharmacology
↑ Jump over Lucian, Timaeus the Athenian 2.9 “under mandrake kathefdeis nor of epiorkounton hears nor adikountas bishop”
Jump over ↑ «on alert and periodynonton (ypervolikos pain) and efon on which House anesthesia intersecting or incinerated poiisai kathefdei agar man ‘
Jump over ↑ «kataferesthai and skotousthai and pnigesthai .. foregone conclusions on the drug.” Dioscorides, On poisons and drugs such outpost and para therapy. 152
Jump over ↑ Huxley (2007), pp. 34
Sources :
E.W. Stieb, Drug Adulterration and its Derectio in the Writings of Theophrastus, Dioscorides and Pliny, 1958
R. Huxley (ed.), The Great Naturalists, Thames & Hudson, London, 2007
Article ef.Kathimerinis
External links [edit | edit source]
Commons logo
The Wikimedia Commons has multimedia on the topic
Dioscorides Pedanius
Translation into German of Materia Medica, 1902

HIPPOCRATES AND MEDICINE OF THE ANCIENT GREEKS

Hippocrates was born in Kos. He came from the family of Asclepius (the primary meaning of the term “Asclepiadae” are those originating from Asclepius, whether doctors or engage in any other activity, according to I.. Tzetzes). Asclepius was lord of Triki in Thessaly, who was famous for his medical knowledge. Homer became a imitheo- therapist. In the end, he exalted into a god doctor.

In the “Symposium” of Plato implied two sons of Aesculapius, the Podalirius and Machaon. Hippocrates is said to belong to Asclepiadae originating from Podalirius. His father was Heraclides and his mother Fainareti. Descendants of Podaleirios were the ones who founded the medical school of Knidos, which might be the oldest medical school of Kos but the latter has gained in reputation because of the birth of Hippocrates.

The first teacher of Hippocrates was his father, after the tradition of Aesculapius wanted transmission of medical knowledge from father to son. Later his teacher was the gymnastis- doctor Irodikos. Also taught philosophy from Democritus and rhetoric of Gorgias the Leontino. After his education he began to practice medicine in his hometown of Kos, where he married and had three children, two sons (Thessalos and Dragon) and a daughter.

After the death of his parents left Kos, wandering across Greece, moreover, were not rare the fact that time someone who practiced the profession of a doctor to leave his place of origin or the place where he trained to continue his career and elsewhere. However there is no precise indication as to when he left the island, maybe that was the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, it seems to coincide and the phase of the edge of his activity. Leaving, then, the island first went to Thessaly and later in Macedonia. He’s also the coast of Asia Minor., Thrace, Athens.

On his departure from Kos, biographers cite various explanations. One of them wants Hippocrates leave the island because they burned the library of Knidos. Another explanation says that Hippocrates burned because he left the Temple of Aesculapius at Kos, after having received the medical content of inscriptions. However, it seems that the most plausible explanation now is that Hippocrates wanted to leave the island to enrich their knowledge and experience with the examination and other regions. Furthermore one of the important ideas of Hippocratic medicine argues that the physical space affects significantly to the health and human disease.

In Thessaly period of his career there were two notable events. A story on King Perdiccas of Macedon in the 2nd, who had been diagnosed with a sexual disease from which cured him. The second event is the help that denied the barbarians and which offered only to the Greeks during an epidemic. More specifically, Artaxerxes the First said he sent envoys to seek the help of Hippocrates to tackle the epidemic which had spread to the army.

Hippocrates was not only refused, despite extremely tempting offers, but asking their envoys on climate conditions and status of the winds in their place, from their replies failed to anticipate the course of the disease in Greece and suggest the appropriate treatment treatment. After a long career that began in Kos, he died in Larissa at an advanced age. It is said that for a long time over his grave there was a swarm of bees honey had healing properties.

The Asklepieion, built on the slopes of a low hill, overgrown with trees and wonderful views of the sea and the coast of Asia Minor, was already in antiquity the most famous monument of Kos.

Hippocrates and the School of Kos

After returning to his homeland, he founded the famous school of Kos. Of course the term “school” at the time, namely the 5th century. We should be understood that a teacher, who was integrated into the broader context of a family tradition centuries, perpetuate this teaching to his sons and to his students.

Hippocrates would come to apotheopoiisei medical and strictly separate the limits of philosophy. When Hippocrates and called Hippocratic doctor ought to reject any kind of superstition, be clean in body and inseparable morality.

Diseases him have reasonable cause and not stem from divine intervention. Thus, the treatment should also be done with reasonable means from direct observation. The disease is considered as a general condition and not localized to any organ. He was the first to speak about the importance and necessity of asepsis and antisepsis. He stressed the need for daily cleaning and hygiene.

He argued that even in the human body are substances which he named blood and mucus, yellow and black bile. On the balance of these substances depends or human health. When there is a balance between these substances then man is healthy, and when the opposite occurs sick physically and psychologically. He believed that even the body resides an animal force, “nature” from which depends the maintenance, development and treatment of the body as resetting the abnormal to normal. Medicines for Hippocratic are aids “nature.”

Hippocrates was not limited to the practical side of medicine, but taught her already. First as stated the family tradition, he reported to his sons. But then, he was the first to broadcast the knowledge of medicine and in people who are not descended from the family of Asclepius. This opening to the season gave him widespread fame in medicine in Kos. With the opening of teaching was the reason be drawn from the large doctor the famous Oath of Medicine.

The oath was only from students who did not belong to the family of Asclepius, before the time that was to start training from the teacher. The decision of the Hippocrates to make affordable medical knowledge and to people outside the narrow bay of the family, due to the very small number of family members who were willing to continue the medical tradition in Kos. For this reason it must be drafted and the Oath. The oath was saved because he has all the attributes of a standard. It is today as in antiquity a type Contract for the ethical practice of medicine.

Ο ΌΡΚΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΙΠΠΟΚΡΆΤΗ (THE OATH OF HIPPOCRATES), IN ANCIENT GREEK (IONIAN)

Ὄμνυμι Ἀπόλλωνα ἰητρόν καί Ἀσκληπιόν καί Ὑγείαν και Πανάκειαν καί θεούς πάντας τε και πάσας, ἵστορας ποιεύμενος, ἐπιτελέα ποιήσειν κατά δύναμιν καί κρίσιν ἐμήν ὅρκον τόνδε καί ξυγγραφήν τήνδε.Ἡγήσεσθαι μέν τόν διδάξαντά με την τέχνην ταύτην ἴσα γενέτῃσιν ἐμοῖσι, καί βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καί χρεῶν χρηίζοντι μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι, καί γένος τό ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἀδελφεοῖς ἴσον ἐπικρινέειν ἄρρεσι, καί διδάξειν τήν τέχνην ταύτην, ἥν χρηίζωσι μανθάνειν, ἄνευ μισθοῦ καί ξυγγραφῆς, παραγγελίης τε καί ἀκροήσιος καί τῆς λοιπῆς ἁπάσης μαθήσιος μετάδοσιν ποιήσασθαι υἱοῖσι καί τοῖσι τοῦ ἐμέ διδάξαντος καί μαθηταῖσι συγγεγραμμένοις τε καί ὡρκισμένοις νόμῳ ἰητρικώ, ἄλλῳ δέ οὐδενί.Διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ᾿ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων κατά δύναμιν καί κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπί δηλήσει δέ καί ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν.Οὐ δώσω δέ οὐδέ φάρμακον οὐδενί αἰτηθείς θανάσιμον, οὐδέ ὑφηγήσομαι ξυμβουλίην τοιήνδε˙ ὁμοίως δέ οὐδέ γυναικί πεσσόν φθόριον δώσω.Ἁγνῶς δε καί ὁσίως διατηρήσω βίον τόν ἐμόν καί τέχνην τήν εμήν.Οὐ τεμέω δε οὐδέν μην λιθιῶντας, ἐκχωρήσω δε ἐργάτῃσιν ἀνδράσιν πρήξιος τῆσδε.Ἐς οἰκίας δε ὁκόσας ἄν ἐσίω, ἐσελεύσομαι ἐπ᾿ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων, ἐκτός ἐών πάσης ἀδικίης ἑκουσίης καί φθορίης τῆς τε ἄλλης καί ἀφροδισίων ἔργων ἐπί τε γυναικείων σωμάτων καί ἀνδρείων, ἐλευθέρων τε καί δούλων.Ἅ δ᾿ ἄν ἐν θεραπείῃ ἤ ίδω ἤ ακούσω, ἤ καί ἄνευ θεραπείης κατά βίον ἀνθρώπων, ἅ μή χρή ποτε ἐκλαλέεσθαι ἔξω, σιγήσομαι, ἄρρητα ἡγεύμενος εἶναι τά τοιαῦτα.Ὅρκον μέν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι καί μή ξυγχέοντι εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καί βίου καί τέχνης, δοξαζομένῳ παρά πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τόν αἰεί χρόνον˙ παραβαίνοντι δέ καί ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τουτέων.

TRANSLATION form ancient Greek: Hippocratic Oath: 

” i swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art – if they desire to learn it – without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

The oath essentially divided into two parts. The first part identifies the obligations newly entered student and offered moral and financial guarantees to the teacher of the medical art. He promises to honor his teacher as parent as will the problems of the teacher and his. He also accepts the commitment to teach himself if need medical art to his sons and to the sons of his teaching.

The second part of the oath is considered the most important as it refers to the moral principles on which to base to practice his profession as a doctor tomorrow. Its primary goal is to bring the art “agnos and purely.” The obligations of this desire is only to seek the good of the patients and never to use lethal medication even if requested. He’ll never help woman to lose her child that carries her. Respects the house in which each patient will come in and will avoid any aphrodisiac contact with the patient and with the members of his family. Finally, he will be trusted and will not reveal the secrets that become known during the course of his work.

Hippocrates and the Hippocratic Collection

Tradition has preserved us in the name of Hippocrates about 60 treatises in Ionic dialect. But already from the Hellenistic and Roman times until today was intense debate about whether the authorship of this project belongs to Hippocrates. It would be unrealistic to believe that all written by Hippocrates himself. These are medical treatises can be guided by the same spirit of a rational medicine free of any magical effect, but the work is not homogeneous. There are differences in vocabulary, in style and content. Some seem to not written by the same teacher, some are of various origins and different date. The truth is that many of the collection works written by students and fans of the great doctor who inspired him.

According to Professor A. Kuzu the Hippocratic Collection in terms of content divided into 12 categories (Maniatis, 2002). These and their respective books are:

§ General (Oath, Law, On ancient medicine About iitrou, On Art, On efschimosynis, Parangeliai, Aphorisms.)

§ Anatomy-Physiology (About Anatomy, On cardio, On flesh, About glands, On bones physio, physio About Human About gonad, On physio children.)

§ Arbitration (On feed, On diet, healthy diet About.)

§ Pathology (About aeron, water, sites, About juice About Crisis, On critical days, On week On whiffer.)
§ Predictive (prognostic, Proritikon, Koakai forecasts.)
§ Special nosology (On Epidemics, On passions, On Noosa, On the inside passions, On Sacred Disease, On the sites of flat man.)
§ Therapeutic (About Diet acids About liquids useful.)
§ Surgery (In practice, On ulcers, hemorrhoids On, On syringes, On of heads eat, On agmon, About Articles embolism, Mochlikos.)
§ Ophthalmology (About sight.)
§ Midwifery (About Virgo, On female physio, On women’s A, B, On touching About epikyiseos, About seven months and eight months, On egkatatomis fetus.)
§ Pediatrics (About odontofyiis.)
§ Various (letters, which, Reasons, The doctrine of the Athenians, Epivomios, Ambassadorial.)

One of the major works of the Collection, which deserves mention and characterized many times as a milestone in the history of European science is “On the sacred disease.”

It is the first expression in the spiritual history of mankind’s ongoing struggle conducted by scientific thinking people against superstition. The theme of the project is the “sacred disease” as used to characterize epilepsy.

The project essentially is fighting with all the “witch-purists” who proclaim that illness is supernatural character. The work of the author himself believes the illness was due to natural causes, like all illnesses, and treatment will be made by physical means. In the opinion of epilepsy begins in the brain.

The Reputation of Hippocrates

Hippocrates was the most important representative not only of the medical school of Kos and medicine in general in antiquity. He had become a mythical person in antiquity. Already from the first phase of his career in Kos had gained great reputation. Biographers report that called by the inhabitants of Abdera to cure Democritus because they believed that he had gone mad. Doctor while he was alive, he took the form of a therapist hero posthumously. The people of Kos on the day of his birth worshiped by sacrifices each year.

This ceremony must have existed in the 1st century p. X when circulating coins depicting the form. It is also said that the Athenians erected a statue of him and proclaimed savior of the city, because he saved the town from plague. His gold crown was given while he was initiated and the Eleusinian mysteries. (J. Jouanna, 199Cool. Information given both in Plato and Aristotle shows that though both lived Hippocrates was reputed great doctor and not only within the boundaries of his homeland. Downstream of great doctors or philosophers (Plato, Aristotle , Galen, Pliny and others) mentioned him as “great” or “divine.”

Hippocrates lived in Greece during the Golden Age of Pericles. A century of intense intellectual reflection that made great men, as it was Sophocles, Socrates and Thucydides. In the 5th century. So was born the rationalism and humanism, provided to give the term the broad meaning of “thinking man for himself.”

Hippocrates founded the school of the time across the country flourished Asclepieia where the main treatment constituted the purification of body and soul, where the disease was considered providential. It was he who revolutionized teaching rational thinking in dealing with diseases. The causes are reasonably require and reasonably therapeutics argued, there is the element of divine intervention. Apotheopoiise medicine and separated from philosophy.

He was first creepy close to humans. Crumbling everything, philosophical theories and ideas. (Www.pneuma.gr). He was the first to systematically classify medicine and ran a methodical treatment of diseases. He made affordable medical knowledge and to students beyond the family of Asklepios, something innovative for its time, since then the tradition prevailed which wanted to broadcast only within the bosom of the family of Asclepius, from father to son (J. Jouanna, 199Cool. He was the creator of the famous Oath of Medicine, an excellent text that introduces and deontologikes- ethical principles of medicine and is spoken today by future doctors.

With this new perspective of medicine introduced by Hippocrates superstition recede slowly pace. The magoi- therapists, who until then had a field day, will be the toughest opponents of Hippocrates. Despite the slander that occasionally made for him, they failed to reduce his reputation as a great doctor. The theories are so accurate that even today some of the medical procedures proposed are still used.

This, then, is the father of medicine. After that follow the doctors of Alexandria. There, in the late 4th century. BC moved the focus of medical science. Separate the medical specialties and the new generation of medicine, based on the theories of the past, build new theoretical structures on the foundations of old.

The MILITARY MEDICINE IN ANCIENT TIMES – Problems of Military Medicine

Man, the basic “cell” of acts of war, the more stable unit that can be used in the analysis of a military operation remains through the centuries largely identical in physiology and needs. The warriors who campaigned in ancient times, since the copper as that of Rome, died of the same causes of decimated and downstream armies, until the “medical revolution” of the 20th century and their weapons can still kill today or cause serious injury to any modern soldier.

Taken purely as mechanical tools for human destruction, weapons of ancient armies, were fatal. Even in the hands of a well trained warrior could become even more deadly. Nowadays it is common for two armies to whom the killing ability of one will be dramatically greater than that of his opponent. In the ancient world but this balance of power between two fighting armies were rare and it meant huge risk involved men.

The armies of Hyksos decimating of clover unfortunate Egyptians, the superiority which gave them the composite bow and agility of the chariots, and the Macedonians of Alexander defeats the Persians at a time despite their numerical inferiority. Unlike the Roman legions were almost equivalent to the army of Hannibal, but whenever the fighting suffered defeats and very heavy.

In the 1st century BC, however, the technological and tactical advantage was passed to the Romans to such an extent that there is no opponent in the Western world that can clash with them. Whenever the superior Roman army was fighting lower organizational strengths, as was common in the 1st century BC, the result was terrible slaughter dimensions. The victory over the Teutonic Marios in Aix-en-Provence (Aix-en-Provence) in 100 BC, resulted in killing more than 90,000 men in a single day.

Death, injuries and infections in Ancient Army

The level of risk faced by the ancient warrior in battle, depended heavily on the army to which they belong and the historical period that happened to live. For example, the Egyptian soldier who was fighting the Hyksos had few chances to avoid the inevitable, while the Roman soldier who faced the Belgians or the Saxons naughty could expect guaranteed survival.

Unlike modern battles, leaving relatively balanced number of deaths and injuries between the two sides, in ancient times losers expect horrific slaughter, while the winners suffered negligible losses. In the battle of Marathon, victorious Athenians had only 192 dead from a force of 10,000 men and at Issus Alexander lost 200 men, causing 50,000 casualties to the Persians! On Kynoskephalai Roman legions caused 8,000 deaths and essentially tore the Macedonian army, with losses of 700 men.

When and how but threatened to kill an ancient warrior? For as long as the columns kept consistent, it was very difficult to occur killing widely. Even the forces of the cavalry were unable to cause significant damage to disciplined formation infantry who held firmly to their positions. Nevertheless in every army of History is a great mass of men who feel a strong urge to escape from danger and motivation is always fear.

The real “killer” in the ancient battlefield was none other than fear. Men who have been involved in combat tend to keep under control the escapism that springs from the instinct of self-preservation, with the help of logic. Increased and prolonged psychological pressure though, dramatically increases the likelihood of finding someone Average rows of warriors who will lose their nerve and run. Sometimes the actions of a single soldier is sufficient to entrain as avalanche entire unit, causing panic explosion. When the homogeneity and consistency of the casting solution, the ancient warrior risked longer be killed or seriously injured.

Usually one phalanx will “break” suddenly and disintegrant rapidly as the original compact war machine transformed in seconds into a disorderly crowd frightened fugitives who struggled alone to escape, running with all their might. Soldiers disperse in every direction, often throwing weapons and their armor in a futile attempt to escape from their persecutors. For quite a long period fleeing save many of the losers, as the armies had few means to carry deadly pursuit.

The appearance but the chariot, edge and horseback archers Assyrian, forever changed this situation, making them easy prey retreating soldiers. In many cases the chariots and cavalry of the winners were driven between and around the disorderly crowd taking such positions to the force to be directed back to the battlefield. There they spent an entire day to the massacre. If the commander triumphs did not stop the carnage to take captives to be sold into slavery, a whole army will be killed without mercy – not a soldier I would not stay alive.

Historical studies show that, on average, the proportion of deaths a defeated army was about 37.7%, more than 1/3 of the total power. Death rates but for the victorious armies were considerably lower, ranging in 5.5% of all involved. Even if an army enjoyed full technological superiority, it was necessary at some point to start killing small distances.

The apparent disproportion between losses and defeated the winners reveals that the greatest slaughter took place during phase one of the two rivals broke their formations under physical or psychological pressure, prompting soldiers to be prosecuted and slaughter with relative ease . However they should be required many hours ceaseless slaughter to destroy a defeated enemy.

There is no evidence on the impact they had these “personal” (from nearby) murders the psyche of the soldier. But it is likely that the practice of the Romans, to expose all classes of citizens from a young age before the hideous face of death in the arena, to later give some advantages on the battlefield, reducing cases of psychological shock.

Typical losses of a Roman Legion at Battle Victorious

Forces involved 6,000 men

Fonefthentes 330 men
Injured 360 men
Deaths from hemorrhagic shock 50 men () 13.8%)
Deaths from tetanus 22 men (5%)
Deaths from gas gangrene 15 men (4%)
Deaths from sepsis five men (1.2%)
Other causes 15 men (4%)
Percentage recovery from injuries 70%

Knowing the total number of men of a defeated army of antiquity and subtracting the number of the dead and those who were taken prisoner to be sold later as slaves, we come in a good approximation of the number of injuries as a finding in such serious condition that it is useless to ‘ commodity “. Approximately 35.4% of the defeated had to wait an injury so severe that involve the abandonment of the battlefield.

When this figure is added to the 37.7% of the dead, it seems that in a typical battle of the ancient world a 73% an army of warriors who have been unsuccessful would end up dead or seriously wounded until dusk. No analog sure way to calculate the wounded winners. Using the statistics give the dead ratios between losers and winners, it seems that a percentage of 5.8% of the army imposed his opponent should have been some form of injury.

An analysis of professor Engels for the army of Alexander concludes that the Macedonians were about five wounded for every dead. So the average percentage of dead (in battle) 0.5% recorded the Macedonians in Granicus, the Issus and Gaugamela, leading probably to a rate of 2.5% wounded. The military medical system of the Romans went into the design of providing a percentage wounded in the battle between 2 and 10%.

The field hospital legion was organized in 64 chambers, each could serve 4-5 men, revealing so that the maximum number of casualties expected by the unit in a jam was 320 people, or 5% of its power.

The nature of the battle from the close quarters in ancient times and the operational characteristics of the weapons were then indicate that the chances of injury to a soldier was much greater than the risk of death. Of the 147 injuries mentioned in the Iliad, 114 (77.7% share) proved fatal. This ratio in Archaic Greece sounds strange when compared to that of the Crimean War (20%) or the American Civil War (13.3%).

The Frolich also notes that of the 31 head injuries mentioned by Homer, everything was deadly. A study of skeletons Egyptian soldiers were killed during a siege in 2000 BC, confirms the high mortality due to cranial trauma. Fifty-nine of the skeletons bore head wounds, of which 49 were found to be caused by stones that were thrown from the walls and the remaining 10 by arrows achieved the victim in the face. A weight 13,6 Kg stone thrown from a height of 12 meters, has kinetic energy 1.588 Joule, able to crush any kind of armor Iron Age.

Arrows are responsible for 10% of the wounds, with a mortality rate of 42%. The ability of ancient armor to withstand blows of arrows seemed characteristically Cunaxa where, says Xenophon, the Greek army was toxefmaton barrage by the Persians for several hours without any significant losses. The arrows of the compound bows were able to pierce the armor, but generally not to such a depth as to cause death.

Typical example is the shield of the Assyrian warriors. It is estimated that the average man had total exposed area of ​​6.832 cm2, ie 0,68 m2. An Assyrian armed for battle expose only 542 square centimeters in the neck and face, 1,103 square centimeters hands, 413 square centimeters in the abdomen and 1,265 square centimeters in the legs. The total surface area was therefore vulnerable 3,323 square centimeters i.e. 49% of the original.

An extensive study of modern scientists anaparestisan ancient tactics, concluded that if a force of 1,000 archers dispute either a broadside of 250 meters, 220 of the arrows would find the target on a solid mass infantry will protected by shields. Of these about 120 will hurt unshielded or other vulnerabilities, namely 18 neck, something that would bring instant death, 13 the abdomen (80% would follow death from infection within three days), 36 arms and 53 legs and thighs.

Less than 2% of the wounds on the ends would prove fatal only if it had hit an artery. Assuming that all wounds would cause the soldier to withdraw from the battle and taken into account that an archer can put five times a minute, five minutes (they needed to reach the two armies) a force of 1,000 archers will defeat 110 soldiers in each of the broadside. Contesting five volleys minute for five minutes, the archers would cause the fantastic number of 2,750 casualties to the enemy before Ms. crossed spears opponents!

The shield acquitted ancient infantry excellent protection as long as the formations kept their coherence. The average surface was 0, 74 m2, enough to cover the entire body of the warrior. The arrow but remained an insidious weapon because, although the wounds brought about finally focusing on the ends, even in cases not find artery often cause deadly infection, which required amputation in 62% of cases – a practice unknown to the ancient physicians up and classical times.

The spears evolved from simple models of 1.8 meters of archaic in terrible Macedonian sarissas 5.5 meters.

The sharp spikes spear allow the spears to pierce or cut the human body and was particularly deadly when damage the trachea or cervical vein. Although it was not easy to challenge directly an armored opponent, could be hurt or throw him to the ground where it would present much easier target, exposing vital body points for the final blow.

The sword was not main battle weapon no army until the advent of Rome. The ancient Greeks faced as an aid and was slightly familiar with its use, without being particularly unfair, since a well-trained fighter in spear advantage in the confrontation with a swordsman. In the hands of Roman legionaries but the legendary gladius cause terror opponents.

The advantage of this sword in a battle from the close quarters was that could cause deep wounds in almost every part of the body. It could also be used to Awesome way in hand, as they used to operate the Romans. If a soldier accept bang, sword easily cripple the State and left the stunned victim defenseless against a second fatal hint in abdomen, neck or face.

Probably the most common injury to the ancient warriors were the fracture. The fact that the Egyptian and Sumerian medical texts deal extensively with broken bone cases reveals that the military doctors of the time were quite familiar with this type of wound. Excluding the skull, there is very little difference in the amount of force required to crush any bone in the human body. Even adult bones of the thigh require little more load to break compared to the thin bones of the arm.

An estimated 91,8 Joule impact energy is enough to blow off any bone in the human body, except for the skull. So blow railed at the sides of an armored warrior from ancient bat (137 Joule), javelin (91 Joule), ax (95,6 Joule), simple sword (105 Joule), piercing ax (105 Joule), gladius (137 Joule ), or a spear (96 Joule), could easily cause fractures. Without doubt the ancient soldier seriously impaired by breakage of bones, trauma would leave him exposed to the next deathblow. It is worth noting that by the disappearance of the horse from the battlefield, in the 20th century, fractures were the main cause of injury, and the horsemen, who often during the battle fell from their horses.

It is considered certain that the frequency and type of wounds in the battles of ancient times varied considerably, depending on the weapons, shields and tactics used in each period. The risk of death varied widely depending on the army in which he served someone. So the Egyptian soldier who fought the Hyksos were completely defenseless against their weapons, while the soldier of the same nationality who was fighting the Hittites after 200 years had many chances to get out of a battle unscathed. Of course analyzes do not apply to armies whose discipline was collapsing and allows a stampede after their men would be vulnerable against any kind of attack from pursuing a strength.

It really is interesting to note that an ancient soldier, from the Bronze Age to the 1st century BC, was in danger of dying from various wound infections are just as with a colleague any other time until the start of World War. Death sneaking victim of the battle in the form of three terrible microbial threats: tetanus, a gas gangrene and septicemia.

TETANUS 

Tetanus was the most common infection. It comes from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani, enters the body through deep cuts in the skin and viscera, and usually accompanies wounds presenting severe tissue damage and necrosis. The tetanus bacterium produces a toxin “travel” as the spinal cord and causing terrible spasms of the skeletal muscles. Seizures they may kill the patient suffocated, as excessive inflate the diaphragm and can be so strong as to destroy the backbone at some point, causing unbearable pain.

An exact description of these symptoms is present in “Aphorisms” of Hippocrates, an indication that the ancient Greeks knew well the consequences of tetanus. The tetanus bacterium is endemic to the soil surface and is mainly found in areas rich in manure, typical of rural societies of the ancient world. Populations are growing where hygiene is low and where there are human or animal feces. Thus each soldier of which the wound would be in contact with the soil, in danger of contamination.

If the wound is not cleaned thoroughly with water or wine and doctors rushed to meet immediately with makeshift bandages without completely clean, contamination from tetanus was sure. The average of such infections was approximately 5.6% and mortality was 80%. Once a soldier defiled, his survival depended on the strength of the immune system of the body.

The gasifiers gangrene caused by six species of bacteria known under the general term Clostridium perfigens, which is also endemic in the anaerobic and cultivated soil. They produce a toxin that kills the muscle tissue by hydrogen bubbles. The area of ​​the wound dies, the infection extends accompanied by terrible stench produced by decaying tissues. The incidence of this kind of infection should be ran at 5%, but we can say with certainty that the mortality among ancient armies did not know the technique of amputation would reach 100%.

Sepsis or blood poisoning, caused when the common bacterium body Staphilococcus bacteri enter the bloodstream. If a main blood vessel and the punctured wound infected secondary infection, can be extended to normal sterile bloodstream. The incidence of such an infection is 1.7% and this occurs mainly in cases of arterial lesions. The mortality in the mid-20th century remained extremely high, until the appearance and diffusion of antibiotics.

One of the four wounded ancient battle was dying from his wounds within 7-10 days of the above three main causes or hemorrhagic shock. It must be emphasized that these four factors remained as basic sick and wounded causes of death until the end of World War II.

Diseases and Implications

The armies of ancient times, as in all armies until-Japanese war of 1905, most soldiers found the death from diseases than from enemy weapons. The diseases in ancient armies appeared much easier whenever a large number of men crowded together for some time in places where there were no elementary conditions of hygiene. With the exception of the armies of Egypt and Rome meticulously observing basic hygiene, checking the suitability of drinking water and food, other armies were not taking absolutely no preventive measures.

THE war considerably reduces resistance to disease soldier, as the diet that was provided was most often insufficient to maintain a high level of defense capability of the organization. The armies were on the move at less risk from the effects of poor hygiene. The most possible points for epidemics there was organized sieges, with huge numbers of warriors gather in little space, often suffering from food shortages.

Most common illness for the ancient was dysentery. Called “expeditionary fever,” is probably the most common illness among soldiers of all time. The first clear description of the symptoms of dysentery noted in Egyptian papyri of 1550 BC, but it must have been known from much earlier periods. Hippocrates mentions in detail in writings. The Roman medical texts have extensively preventive methods.

Dysentery caused by an aquatic bacillus transmitted to the body by contaminated food or water. It happened often in marches, paid an entire army when quenched the thirst of improper source. Although the standard mortality ranged 5%, the occurrence of dysentery akinitopoiouse huge numbers of men for periods of two to three weeks – men who could not at this time be used as a combatant elements in any way.

Typhoid fever, which is derived from the bacterium Salmonella typhi, was another “wound” for the ancient warrior disseminated rapidly flies that infected human food. The Egyptians and Assyrians were quite familiar with the deal, but the Romans were the first to systematically took hygienic measures to limit the disease.

Constructing latrines with a depth of three meters, rinse with water and covered with wooden planks or stones to keep them dark and free from flies. He knew that an army which was at the center an epidemic of typhoid fever, essentially defeat as militant force. Mortality was as high as 10-13%, but the most important was that four weeks were required terrible pain and delirious fever to carry the disease cycle.

The supply of drinking water during a campaign seems pretty occupied ancient armies. The Greek soldier he used to take with him a quantity of wine to help your stomach become familiar with hard water should be drunk in the war. The Roman soldier rarely brought water in his canteen, preferring to consume a type possible, red, sour wine (acetum) suffered prolonged fermentation.

When the Romans conquered the Jews of Palestine, who were accustomed to the local sweet wines, they looked strange conquerors them to drink what they thought vinegar. What is certain is that the consumption of soured wine by the Romans had many medical benefits. Extremely rich in polyphenols, can simultaneously be used by military physicians as an antiseptic and cleansing of wounds, acting as bacteriostatic and bactericidal agent.

The typhus is also one of the deadliest diseases, who have linked their names to the military operations in all the centuries. Due to a microorganism that is something between bacterium and virus and grows in the blood of various animals, including mice, is a disease transmitted to humans by lice (Pediculus humanus), living in the clothes and hair, and manifested very often where large numbers of people are forced to coexist in very small spaces, such as prisons, ships etc. The symptoms of typhoid are high fever, chills, feeling of weakness and pain in the joints accompanied by terrible headaches. Mortality of typhus between 10 and 40% and it is known that at times the disease is wiped armies:

The typhus is a disease of the temperate zone and is likely the armies of ancient Greece and Rome have good knowledge of the consequences of … The armies of Babylon and Egypt faced considerably less incidents because of the warm climate and the tendency to wear less heavy clothing. But when we moved in temperate regions as Lebanon and Armenia, they risked serious infection. Although historians authors do not completely agree, the prevailing view is that the great plague that decimated the Athenian army during the Peloponnesian War was probably a typhus.

Similar risk with typhus were the appearances of smallpox, which was quite common in the ancient world, with a mortality rate which mostly ranged from 20-40%, but could reach 90%. From such epidemic died in 1160 BC and Pharaoh Ramses E, while the great plague that decimated the Antonine Rome in the 2nd century AD probably due to smallpox brought from the eastern provinces recurrent legions.

Retired files the Roman army allow clear knowledge of the severity of the impact of disease on the life of an ancient warrior. In a Roman legion of the 1st century AD, 50% of soldiers who qualify at age 18 were still alive at 42 them to enjoy their retirement. Since 5.8% of soldiers would die in battle and another 8-10% will succumb to war trauma, this means that the remaining 35% of the legionnaires would die from some form of disease, including epidemics. However, despite his involvement in dozens of battles, the legionnaire medium was generally longest in via Roman citizen, and had five times less stomatological problems from him, thus demonstrating the best diet camps.

Factor Injuries and Biological Threat

An army endangered largely accidental. Even a simple movement of a force of 10,000 men is no easy task and the course costs several health and safety of the soldier. The ancient armies used to march in columns, as there were no roads and it was the only way to maintain a minimum check by management. The army of Alexander, with 65,000 pedestrians and 6,000 cavalry, stoichizomenous in column width of 10 men would stretch like a snake along 25 km, without considering transport animals in convoys.

Armies had to move as much as possible like a compact maza- otherwise could not move at all. The air we inhale a soldier at the center of a formation is smelly, dust blocks the nostrils, eyes and irritated lungs strained. As once said Napoleon, “the world of the soldier on the path composed entirely out of sight of the bag in the back of the front.” In a single day the road nosebleeds, eye irritations and respiratory problems caused harm such a level that several soldiers were beginning to fall fainting outside their lines and left behind. In hot climates, the number of casualties increased greatly.

The diet in ancient armies was another major problem. Modern armies calculate that a 73 kg weight soldier carrying a moderate load walking for eight hours, you need 3,402 calories and 70 grams of protein a day. The pressure and overexertion during the battle increase the amount of food required to maintain a healthy and Warrior fighting condition. In deserts and generally in climates with high temperatures and low humidity, the soldier needs at least 8.5 liters of water daily.

The diet was followed in ancient armies were totally inadequate for prolonged operations. It comprised mainly wheat, barley and millet, which milled to prepare bread, biscuits and porridge. The standard portion by each man of between 1 and 1,4 kg of cereal daily, in bread form only provided 2500 calories and 100 grams protein. This is the number of calories was clearly inadequate, even for the best possible campaign conditions that could meet a soldier. A course of three or four days too weakened the army and further aggravate the smaller health problems.

Many times commanders were, after an arduous journey, they regret to have a force that could not fight. On top of the fatigue from the same course, the ancient warrior had to carry and its stores, which in the case of the Macedonians weighed 27 pounds, whereas in the case of the Romans about 25. The weight of the load to make the turn soldier, in hot climates, vulnerability and brought him too close to heat exhaustion and heat stroke. The men then wore during the demonstrations across the harnesses and could imagine the torment that existed when the shield and helmet, exposed as it was in the sun, burned and simple touch.

The soldiers could not protect themselves from sunburn and coat the skin with oil of palm or olive, but there was no indication for this measure before the days of Imperial Rome. A Roman time gives us a graphic example of what can happen to an army that did not care to take measures for the protection from the heat. 24 BC the Aellius Gallus, the Roman governor of Egypt led an army in Arabia, which lost whole without giving a single battle, as the legionnaires have died by the hundreds of thirst and heat stroke. Many survivors suffered permanent damage to their health, to the extent that had to be demobilized.

The heat was not the only “enemy” for an army of antiquity. The warriors of Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome, suffered equally from accidents and haunting contemporary colleagues (falls, bruises, cuts, damage, blisters, sprains and fractures), which may turn a soldier into injured. Most of these occur in the legs, which were generally unprotected.
The soldiers then fighting in cold climates, such as the Assyrians during their invasions in Armenia and Kurdistan. The Romans repeatedly campaigned in Germany, the Alps, eastern Europe and the mountains of Spain, regions where the climatic conditions are a challenge even for modern armies. Xenophon mentions the “Cyrus Ascent” that she almost lost the whole army in the mountain ranges of today’s Turkey when men slept unprotected countryside and awoke alafiasmenoi a snowstorm.

Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush inhospitable starting with 100,000 men and 64,000 ending with the 13th days later! The Hannibal was able to cross the Alps, but with frightening cost in human lives. From the army, which numbered 38,000 pedestrians and 8,000 horsemen, lost 20,000 men until they reach the north Italian plain.
The disadvantages of the ancient soldier compared to the modern descendants extend to different levels. It was an average age of 35 years, significantly longer than the men of today’s armed forces. The average age of American soldiers in World War II was 26 years and the Vietnam War the 22. The same physiology make the ancient warrior more susceptible to frostbite and fatigue.
Generally an ancient army exestratefe was literally a “moving medicine debacle,” he expect to lose 3-4% of its power from exhaustion or sunstroke, 17% from various accidents in rough road and several more men from chronic problems caused stress and poor hygiene. Those who could not follow the mass, leaving their fate in the street or at best the care of the first villagers who would meet the army.

This practice is applicable even where campaigns in hostile territory where the armies abandoned their patients, the wounded and the dying. The Roman army, with mobile ambulances and professional staff that work for medical services, was able to keep with him the lighter wounded all the way, in most armies but patients should be abandoned.

In the ancient battlefield dominated and a wide variety of biological weapons. The “fraudulent” arrows aimed at andranopoiisoun or bring certain death to the victim, was more feared than that of close-quarters fight with spears, swords and clubs. Ancient warriors used to immerse the tips of arrows in natural poisons such as the rhododendron juice and sea urchin emulsion, but the poison of snakes were the most prevalent toxin.

Especially the Scythian archers were famous for their poisonous arrows, which were soaking in a smelly mixture of viper venom (viper) and human blood (also was terribly relevant of distances reached even 550 meters – many skeletons of their victims discovered by archaeologists, they were found with arrows stuck right between the eyes). In 326 BC Macedonians of Alexander the Great encountered in northern India mounted archers fired arrows tremendous efficiency and extremely deadly.

Eventually the Greeks realized that their opponents had infused the dead viper venom, which was left to decompose in the sun until the skin melted and the liquid was coming only from the tissues. The historian Diodorus states that “men were injured by such missiles numb instantly, in a torment from unbearable pains and convulsions that came in waves, and the skin was cold and bruised and xernousan bile.” The Hannibal launched a similarly ‘dirty’ plan, when in a battle against the Pergamum (191 BC) threw on the decks of enemy ships live poisonous snakes!

The Roman historian Appian describes vividly how the besieged residents of Themiskyra, in Bithynia, diverted to flee the Roman army unleashing against swarms of bees, bears and other wild beasts 72 BC Almost three centuries later, citizens’s paper (in today’s Iraq) clay pots filled with poisonous insects and thrown from the battlements of the walls on the fearful legions of Septimius Severus.

In contrast all these “instruments of death” and their effects was the Military Medicine, which at all times was perceived as an attempt to reduce casualties from hostile action. As such included the institution of “reservists” doctor, since most armies until 2000 BC They were set up to enlist. The recruiting men from different walks of presupposed well informed doctors, who knew the level of health of the general population, the diet, mortality and lifespan.

Perhaps the most important role of such a precious special was to ensure sufficient quantities of good quality food and drinking water, both critical factors for the effectiveness of an army in battle. Until the 20th century all armies, with few exceptions, were much more losses from diseases and infections, rather than the ultimate test on the battlefield.

ASKLEPIOS is one of the MOST important HEALING figures in GREEK MYTHAGOGY-MEDICIN and was one of the MOST BELOVED GODS of our ANCIENT ANCESTORS, to whom they resorted to relieve them from PAIN and ILLNESS.
The worship of ASCLEPIUS, either as a GOD or as a DEIFIED HERO, is ANCIENT. The WHOLE of GREEK WORLD HONORED him, while MYTHOGRAPHERS, vase PAINTERS and POETS INCLUDED him AMONG the PIONEERS of ANY GREAT work. 

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HIPPOCRATES: “What keeps health is equitable distribution and precise mixing within body forces 😊 egalitarianism) of dry, liquid, cold, sweet, bitter, sour and salty. The disease causes the predominance of one 😊 monarchy). Treatment is accomplished by restoring the disturbed balance, the method of the opposite of excess power.

These concepts we find intact to Hippocrates. The exact mix, equality before the law, symmetry, harmony, are the basis of the doctrines of the Pythagoreans and Ippokrati.Grafei features Hippocrates: “In man there is the bitter and salty, sweet, sour, astringent and the the bland … and these components when mixed and combined together, neither shown nor affect humans. But when some of all separated and left alone it seems to cause harm “.

After training in medicine he left Kos and successively visited Thessaly, Thassos and Thrace. His fame quickly spread throughout Greece and beyond its borders to mighty Persia. Artaxerxes invited him to his court by sending ambassadors with valuable gifts but he refused to leave his homeland. It is said that he healed the Macedonian king Perdiccas and saved Abdira from plague. Some claim that it was there that he cured the “maniac”, as he was called, Democritus, although later writers have recorded Hippocrates’ admiration for the wise man. As it turns out, this claim is unfounded. He greatly helped the Argives and Athenians, taking preventive measures against the spread of infectious diseases. The latter, as a sign of gratitude, initiated him into the Eleusinian mysteries and proclaimed him a citizen of Athens. They also granted free feeding in the Rectory for him and his descendants, although modern researchers dispute his involvement in the events of the Attic land. He died at about the age of ninety in Larissa and was buried somewhere between Gyrtonos, Tirnavos and Larissa. According to Anthimos Gazis, his tomb was preserved until the second AD. century.

Hippocrates lived in Greece during the Golden Age, which produced great men such as Sophocles, Euripides and Thucydides. He toured, it is said, in Thessaly, Thrace, Thassos, Scythia, and probably also in Middle Egypt. He is the first to establish scientific medicine, as Galen also affirms (he was the first to examine the perfection of Greek medicine. xiv, 676). His works are products of exquisite observation, experience and rare rationality. In fact, they are the biggest milestone in the course of Greek medicine.

The Hippocrates Collection

The works that make up the Hippocratic Collection are 59 in number, written in the Ionic dialect between 440-340 BC. and are the oldest monuments of precise scientific medicine. They are divided into sectors. Of a general nature are: the Oath, the Law, About Ancient Medicine, About the Physician, About Art, About Goodness, Orders and Aphorisms. Anatomical and physiological are: On Anatomy, On Heart, On Muscles, On Glands, On Bone Nature, On Birth, On Child Nature, Dietetics, On Food, On Diet, On Diet Hygiene. Of general pathology are: On Airs, Waters and Lands, On Juices, On Crisis, On Crisis, On Weeks, On Nature. Prognostic medicine includes: Prognostikon, Prorretikon and Koakai Prognosis. In special nosology: On Epidemics, On Diseases, On Diseases, On Internal Diseases, On Sacred Disease and On Types of Humans. In Therapeutics belong: About Diet Acids and About Liquids Chrisios. Surgery includes: Per Doctor, About Ulcers, About Hemorrhoids, About Syringes, About Head Wounds, About Moles, About Joints. Molchico. Ophthalmology includes On Appearance, while obstetrics and gynecology include: On Virgins, On Female Nature, On Women A’, B’, On Aphors, On Pregnancy, On Seven and Eight Months, On Embryo Ecstasy. Finally, Pediatrics includes About Dentistry.

In addition to the above works, 24 Epistles and the Peri Manias Logos are also included, in which Hippocrates’ invitation from the Abderites for the supposed cure of Democritus is described. However, the many adaptations of his works, the addition of pseudo-inscriptions from ancient times led later scholars to the inability to distinguish fake works from genuine ones. After all, the collection in its current form was made around 300 BC, in the Alexandrian times, when Ptolemy ordered the collection of his writings. Thus, it was deemed necessary to include all writings bearing his name, even if there were reasonable suspicions that they were forgeries, as long as they belonged to pre-Aristotelian times.

Of course, the question of authenticity preoccupied researchers for a long time, as a result of which many paradoxical opinions were recorded. Erotianos, for example, admits only 31 writings, while Galen reduces their number to about 13. Among the younger French medical historian Emile Littre, relying on the Ionic dialect filled with the “donations” of Hippocrates, due to his Doric origin of, admits as genuine, besides the Oath and the Law, eleven other works. Dills admits only three et cetera. More important than the editions of his work remains the ten-volume edition by Émile Littre (1829-1861), in Paris, with a Greek text and a French translation. The latest edition of the works belongs to Kulwein (Leipzig 1894 and 1902), but it remained unfinished. Among the Greeks, Adamantios Korais made excellent criticism of his works in On Gaseous Waters and Lands and On Acid Diet and Ancient Medicine.

The Miracle of Medicine

In general, Hippocrates considers that everything comes from the 4 elements, each of which corresponds to the property of cold, dry, hot, liquid. In the solid components of the body the earthy prevails and in the liquids the watery. Cohesive essence of everything is the spirit, innate and warm in man, residing in the heart. Basic body fluids are blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. Health or disease depends on their balance and imbalance.

In the body there is a special animal power, nature. On this power depended the maintenance, development, but also the healing of the body and its restoration from the pathological state to the normal. This is also the most brilliant conception of the mind of Hippocrates, which is justified today by the modern views on health and balance of the bio-energetic potential of the organism. After all, Hippocrates does not locate the disease in the organs. He considers that the organism is sick or cured as a whole and thus the patient is treated with a completely different eye and perspective.

According to Hippocrates and the so-called Hippocratics, the doctor must reject all kinds of superstition, be clean in body and inseparable from morality. His life should be modest and full of silence and he himself should be a philosopher. Rightly, then, Andral saw in the Hippocratics, men deprived of the modern technology of observation, acting by their intellectual power alone, and being led to the same truths or ideas, to which scientists are led today by the slow and laborious work of analysis and observation. For Galen, Hippocrates is “Uncle”, greatest of physicians and first of philosophers. He did not limit himself to simple empiricism, but united it with the intellect in order to know nature.

The figure of Hippocrates as the “Father of Medicine” remains strong not only in the historical circles of antiquity and in modern times, although we are used to seeing him through the eyes of Galen. Galen describes Hippocrates as he would rather describe himself, so he emphasized only the texts that excited him. However, he remains at the same time the connecting link for the dissemination of his teaching, as he transferred his interest to later doctors.

Thus, by copying his texts, the ideas of Hippocrates survived during the Byzantine Empire and were inherited by Renaissance physicians. The collection became the foundation around which the experience of medicine was recorded in order to build the modern edifice of medicine. Except that modern medicine has become so specialized that it has lost the overall structure, the fundamental idea of Hippocrates. Based on the fact that the Hippocratics, apart from being philosophers, were also interested in other fields in order to arrive at their apt and revealing observations, such as ethnography. The breadth of their knowledge led to interpretations that were not only related to the mechanistic view of the human organism, something that should be taken seriously by medical science today, in order to lead to the modern, universal miracle of healing.

****************THE O A T H OF HIPPOCRATES

The Hippocratic Oath is the oath taken by doctors and refers to the ethical practice of medicine. It is believed that the oath was written by Hippocrates in the 4th century BC. or by one of his students, and thus included in the Hippocratic collection.

The oldest partial fragments of the oath date to circa AD 275. The oldest extant version dates to roughly the 10th–11th century, held in the Vatican Library.[2] A commonly cited version, dated to 1595, appears in Koine Greek with a Latin translation. In this translation, the author translates “πεσσὸν” to the Latin “fœtum.”

Below is the Hippocratic Oath, in Ancient Greek, from the 1923 Loeb edition, followed by the English translation:

ὄμνυμι Ἀπόλλωνα ἰητρὸν καὶ Ἀσκληπιὸν καὶ Ὑγείαν καὶ Πανάκειαν καὶ θεοὺς πάντας τε καὶ πάσας, ἵστορας ποιεύμενος, ἐπιτελέα ποιήσειν κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμὴν ὅρκον τόνδε καὶ συγγραφὴν τήνδε:

ἡγήσεσθαι μὲν τὸν διδάξαντά με τὴν τέχνην ταύτην ἴσα γενέτῃσιν ἐμοῖς, καὶ βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καὶ χρεῶν χρηΐζοντι μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι, καὶ γένος τὸ ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἀδελφοῖς ἴσον ἐπικρινεῖν ἄρρεσι, καὶ διδάξειν τὴν τέχνην ταύτην, ἢν χρηΐζωσι μανθάνειν, ἄνευ μισθοῦ καὶ συγγραφῆς, παραγγελίης τε καὶ ἀκροήσιος καὶ τῆς λοίπης ἁπάσης μαθήσιος μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι υἱοῖς τε ἐμοῖς καὶ τοῖς τοῦ ἐμὲ διδάξαντος, καὶ μαθητῇσι συγγεγραμμένοις τε καὶ ὡρκισμένοις νόμῳ ἰητρικῷ, ἄλλῳ δὲ οὐδενί.

διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπὶ δηλήσει δὲ καὶ ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν.

οὐ δώσω δὲ οὐδὲ φάρμακον οὐδενὶ αἰτηθεὶς θανάσιμον, οὐδὲ ὑφηγήσομαι συμβουλίην τοιήνδε: ὁμοίως δὲ οὐδὲ γυναικὶ πεσσὸν φθόριον δώσω.

ἁγνῶς δὲ καὶ ὁσίως διατηρήσω βίον τὸν ἐμὸν καὶ τέχνην τὴν ἐμήν.

οὐ τεμέω δὲ οὐδὲ μὴν λιθιῶντας, ἐκχωρήσω δὲ ἐργάτῃσιν ἀνδράσι πρήξιος τῆσδε.

ἐς οἰκίας δὲ ὁκόσας ἂν ἐσίω, ἐσελεύσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων, ἐκτὸς ἐὼν πάσης ἀδικίης ἑκουσίης καὶ φθορίης, τῆς τε ἄλλης καὶ ἀφροδισίων ἔργων ἐπί τε γυναικείων σωμάτων καὶ ἀνδρῴων, ἐλευθέρων τε καὶ δούλων.

ἃ δ᾽ ἂν ἐνθεραπείῃ ἴδω ἢ ἀκούσω, ἢ καὶ ἄνευ θεραπείης κατὰ βίον ἀνθρώπων, ἃ μὴ χρή ποτε ἐκλαλεῖσθαι ἔξω, σιγήσομαι, ἄρρητα ἡγεύμενος εἶναι τὰ τοιαῦτα.

ὅρκον μὲν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι, καὶ μὴ συγχέοντι, εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καὶ βίου καὶ τέχνης δοξαζομένῳ παρὰ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τὸν αἰεὶ χρόνον: παραβαίνοντι δὲ καὶ ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τούτων.

**** THE OATH IN E N G L IS H

I swear by Apollo Healer, by Asclepius, by Hygieia, by Panacea, and by all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath and this indenture.

To hold my teacher in this art equal to my own parents; to make him partner in my livelihood; when he is in need of money to share mine with him; to consider his family as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they want to learn it, without fee or indenture; to impart precept, oral instruction, and all other instruction to my own sons, the sons of my teacher, and to indentured pupils who have taken the Healer’s oath, but to nobody else.

I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgment, and I will do no harm or injustice to them. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein.

Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm, especially from abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free. And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of my profession, as well as outside my profession in my intercourse with men, if it be what should not be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding such things to be holy secrets.

Now if I carry out this oath, and break it not, may I gain for ever reputation among all men for my life and for my art; but if I break it and forswear myself, may the opposite befall me.– Translation by W.H.S. Jones.

FIRST DO NO HARM

*****************MAIN ARTICLE: PRIMUM NON NOCERE**************

It is often said that the exact phrase “First do no harm” (Latin: Primum non nocere) is a part of the original Hippocratic oath. Although the phrase does not appear in the AD 245 version of the oath, similar intentions are vowed by, “I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm”. The phrase primum non nocere is believed to date from the 17th century.

Another equivalent phrase is found in Epidemics, Book I, of the Hippocratic school: “Practice two things in your dealings with disease: either help or do not harm the patient”. The exact phrase is believed to have originated with the 19th-century English surgeon Thomas Inman.

Context and interpretation

A 12th-century Greek manuscript of the oath

The oath is arguably the best known text of the Hippocratic Corpus, although most modern scholars do not attribute it to Hippocrates himself, estimating it to have been written in the fourth or fifth century BC. Alternatively, classical scholar Ludwig Edelstein proposed that the oath was written by the Pythagoreans, an idea that others questioned for lack of evidence for a school of Pythagorean medicine. While Pythagorean philosophy displays a correlation to the Oath’s values, the proposal of a direct relationship has been mostly discredited in more recent studies.

Its general ethical principles are also found in other works of the Corpus: the Physician mentions the obligation to keep the ‘holy things’ of medicine within the medical community (i.e. not to divulge secrets); it also mentions the special position of the doctor with regard to his patients, especially women and girls.[12] However, several aspects of the oath contradict patterns of practice established elsewhere in the Corpus. Most notable is its ban on the use of the knife, even for small procedures such as lithotomy, even though other works in the Corpus provide guidance on performing surgical procedures.

Providing poisonous drugs would certainly have been viewed as immoral by contemporary physicians if it resulted in murder. However, the absolute ban described in the oath also forbids euthanasia. Several accounts of ancient physicians willingly assisting suicides have survived. Multiple explanations for the prohibition of euthanasia in the oath have been proposed: it is possible that not all physicians swore the oath, or that the oath was seeking to prevent widely held concerns that physicians could be employed as political assassins.

The interpreted AD 275 fragment of the oath contains a prohibition of abortion that is in contradiction to original Hippocratic text On the Nature of the Child, which contains a description of an abortion, without any implication that it was morally wrong,[16] and descriptions of abortifacient medications are numerous in the ancient medical literature.[ The oath’s stance on abortion was unclear even in the ancient world where physicians debated whether the specification of pessaries was a ban on simply pessaries, or a blanket ban on all abortion methods. Scribonius Largus was adamant in AD 43 (the earliest surviving reference to the oath) that it precluded abortion. In the 1st or 2nd century AD work Gynaecology, Soranus of Ephesus wrote that one party of medical practitioners followed the Oath and banished all abortifacients, while the other party—to which he belonged—was willing to prescribe abortions, but only for the sake of the mother’s health. William Henry Samuel Jones states that “abortion… though doctors are forbidden to cause it, was possibly not condemned in all cases”. He believed that the oath prohibited abortions, though not under all circumstances.[18] John M. Riddle argues that because Hippocrates specified pessaries, he only meant pessaries and therefore it was acceptable for a Hippocratic doctor to perform abortions using oral drugs, violent means, a disruption of daily routine or eating habits, and more. Other scholars, most notably Ludwig Edelstein, believe that the author intended to prohibit any and all abortions. Olivia De Brabandere writes that regardless of the author’s original intention, the vague and polyvalent nature of the relevant line has allowed both professionals and non-professionals to interpret and use the oath in several ways. While many Christian versions of the Hippocratic Oath, particularly from the Middle Ages, explicitly prohibited abortion, the prohibition is often omitted from many oaths taken in US medical schools today, though it remains controversial.

The oath stands out among comparable ancient texts on medical ethics and professionalism through its heavily religious tone, a factor which makes attributing its authorship to Hippocrates particularly difficult. Phrases such as ‘but I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art’ suggest a deep, almost monastic devotion to the art of medicine. He who keeps to the oath is promised ‘reputation among all men for my life and for my art’. This contrasts heavily with Galenic writings on professional ethics, which employ a far more pragmatic approach, where good practice is defined as effective practice, without reference to deities.

The oath’s importance among the medical community is nonetheless attested by its appearance on the tombstones of physicians, and by the fourth century AD it had come to stand for the medical profession.

The oath continued to be in use in the Byzantine Christian world with its references to pagan deities replaced by a Christian preamble, as in the 12th-century manuscript pictured in the shape of a cross.

“MODERN” VERSIONS AND RELEVANCE

An engraving of Hippocrates by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638

The Hippocratic Oath has been ECLIPSED, as a document of professional ethics by more extensive, regularly updated ethical codes issued by national medical associations, such as the AMA Code of Medical Ethics (first adopted in 1847), and the British General Medical Council’s Good Medical Practice. These documents provide a comprehensive overview of the obligations and professional behaviour of a doctor to their patients and wider society. Doctors who violate these codes may be subjected to disciplinary proceedings, including the loss of their license to practice medicine. Nonetheless, the length of these documents has made their distillations into shorter oaths an attractive proposition. In light of this fact, several updates to the oath have been offered in modern times, some facetious.

THE OATH HAS BEEN MODIFIED NUMEROUS TIMES (..BIG PHARMA – NWO..)

In the United States, the majority of osteopathic medical schools use the Osteopathic Oath in place of or in addition to the Hippocratic Oath. The Osteopathic Oath was first used in 1938, and the current version has been in use since 1954.

One of the most significant revisions was first drafted in 1948 by the World Medical Association (WMA), called the Declaration of Geneva. “During the post World War II and immediately after its foundation, the WMA showed concern over the state of medical ethics in general and over the world. The WMA took up the responsibility for setting ethical guidelines for the world’s physicians. It noted that in those years the custom of medical schools to administer an oath to its doctors upon graduation or receiving a license to practice medicine had fallen into disuse or become a mere formality”.[29] In Nazi Germany, medical students did not take the Hippocratic Oath, although they knew the ethic of “nil nocere”—do no harm.[30][failed verification]

In the 1960s, the Hippocratic Oath was changed to require “utmost respect for human life from its beginning”, making it a more secular obligation, not to be taken in the presence of any gods, but before only other people. When the oath was rewritten in 1964 by Louis Lasagna, Academic Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University, the prayer was omitted, and that version has been widely accepted and is still in use today by many US medical schools:

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon’s knife or the chemist’s drug.

I will not be ashamed to say “I know not”, nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient’s recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person’s family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

In a 1989 survey of 126 US medical schools, only three of them reported use of the original oath, while thirty-three used the Declaration of Geneva, sixty-seven used a modified Hippocratic Oath, four used the Oath of Maimonides, one used a covenant, eight used another oath, one used an unknown oath, and two did not use any kind of oath. Seven medical schools did not reply to the survey.

As of 1993, only 14% of medical oaths prohibited euthanasia, and only 8% prohibited abortion.

In a 2000 survey of US medical schools, all of the then extant medical schools administered some type of profession oath. Among schools of modern medicine, sixty-two of 122 used the Hippocratic Oath, or a modified version of it. The other sixty schools used the original or modified Declaration of Geneva, Oath of Maimonides, or an oath authored by students and or faculty. All nineteen osteopathic schools used the Osteopathic Oath.

In France, it is common for new medical graduates to sign a written oath.

In 1995, Sir Joseph Rotblat, in his acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize, suggested a Hippocratic Oath for Scientists.

In November 2005, Saparmurat Niyazov, then leader of Turkmenistan, declared that doctors should swear an oath to him instead of the Hippocratic Oath.[citation needed]

In 2007, US citizen Rafiq Abdus Sabir was convicted for making a pledge to al-Qaeda, thus agreeing to provide medical aid to wounded terrorists.

As of 2018, all US medical school graduates made some form of public oath but none used the original Hippocratic Oath. A modified form or an oath unique to that school is often used. A review of 18 of these oaths was criticized for their wide variability: “Consistency would help society see that physicians are members of a profession that’s committed to a shared set of essential ethical values.”

VIOLATION

There is no direct punishment for breaking the Hippocratic Oath, although an arguable equivalent in modern times is medical malpractice, which carries a wide range of punishments, from legal action to civil penalties.[40] In the United States, several major judicial decisions have made reference to the classical Hippocratic Oath, either upholding or dismissing its bounds for medical ethics: Roe v. Wade, Washington v. Harper, Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington (1996), and Thorburn v. Department of Corrections (1998).[41] In antiquity, the punishment for breaking the Hippocratic oath could range from a penalty to losing the right to practice medicine.

In 2022, a college in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu saw a batch of medical students undertaking the Charaka shapath, a Sanskrit Oath by the name of ancient sage physician Maharishi Charak instead of the Hippocratic oath. The state government subsequently dismissed the Dean of the Madurai medical college for this act.

Asklipios his Daughters, meaning etc

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The daughters of Asclepius
 Ipioni: the Wife of  Asclepius. And this daughters:  HYGEIA(=Health), EGLI(=Glamour),
IASO, AKES, Panacea. (Dictionary Suidas)


 Ipioni was secondary deity Asclepius wife, daughter Merope personification of gentleness. It was deity with healing properties, mainly dealing with obstetrics. Its name recalls the “ipion Pharmacy” was simultaneously comrade and wife of Asclepius, the ancient god of medicine.


His name is not suspected of Asklepios from July the Epidafrio that produced the name “glory” (Aogla) and in our opinion it is consistent and lexicographer Hesychius.
The etymology of the name from “Asklin”, the Corinthian King, whom he healed, or the “Asgelatan” epithet of Apollo, or “Aglaopin” seems rather popular origin. The second component of the name is “mild” that adds to the “glory” shine and gentleness ….
The earliest scholars produced the name from “Ashkelon”. Asclepius is the ideal conception of healing power of nature as now perceived by people, who acts in “soft” seasons in the hills and in the fresh air under the soft glow and heat of the sun, the points gush cool springs and tall trees surrounding clean atmosphere.
Such was exactly the environment of places of worship and this conception strengthened the various legends of his birth and origin.
Along with Ipioni acquired these daughters:
The first two probably represent different stages of treatment, while the third medication.
The IASO or Iiso (in the Ionian dialect) is an ancient Greek ideal, anthropomorphic, secondary attached deity Asclepius intertwined with the “sacred” concept of Healing (treatment).
Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis, sister goddesses healthy Akesos, Panacea and Aegle or daughter Amphiaraos.
 As a derivative of the verb iaomai (= heal) Place names: Iasis (Healing) – Jason – Iassos – Iatir – JATO – Doctor – Iator and the Cure as a means of therapy
 Pausanias reports that the Amphiaraeion Oropos altar, one of the five parts of which was dedicated to Aphrodite, the Panacea, the IASO, Health and Peony Athena.
 Also worshiped in Epidaurus and Athens.
  

The fund has worshiped at Epidaurus, as sisters, as a deity.
Her name is rooted in the ancient A and verb, meaning treat.
It was considered as the goddess of the healing process.

The Panacea was anthropomorphic secondary deity of Greek mythology intertwined with the concept of treatment (or herbal medicine) for Pasha disease. Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis sister goddess Health, Iassos of Machaona and Podaleirios, Doctors of the Trojan War in Homer.
Worshiped mainly in Oropos, Attica, Kalymnos, Kos, etc .. The form of the present and the Asklepieion of Athens.
As goddess seen as able to cure every disease, its name quickly spread to all the Greek cities, particularly drugs capable of curing if not all diseases at least most of them.

The Egli.
It is said to have derived its name “Glow,” radiators, brilliant fame, grandeur, or “Splendour,” or by the beauty of the human body when it is in good health, or the price paid in the medical profession.

Health was the ancient Greek goddess, personification of Health of body and soul.
As the oldest center of worship of Titane refers to Sicyon, where were the sanctuary of Asclepius and Hygeia. According to ancient Greek tradition Arifron Sikyonios wrote the hymn to the goddess, whose cult was spread in Athens about 420 BC ..
In Greek mythology holds a prominent place in worship of her father. However, while Asclepius directly related to the treatment of diseases, the goddess associated with preventing disease and maintaining health status.
Apart from Athens, worshiped in other cities, such as Thespies in Elatia, Megara, Corinth and Argos.
The Orphic hymn health shows the importance attached by the ancient Greeks on health: “Imeroesa, Erato, polythalmie, pamvasileia, klythi marlin healthy ferolvie, mother collected works …”

The artists portrayed him from 5th century. BC as a young woman, later adopted as a symbol of the serpent.
Health others want her husband and other daughter of Asclepius.
It was probably a very ancient divinity, who is identified when the Asclepius, sometimes with Amphiaraos and when with Athena. Bronze statue of Athena Health stood on the Acropolis near ancient altar, immediately after entering the Propylaea.
Carved figures of Asclepius and Hygeia save many.
Here’s Hymn to Health, the Arifrona from Sikyon:

“Health most venerable among the blessed,
let us dwell with you the rest of my life,
let’s you my willing chug rather than wealth or grace parents.
Whether the royal power, which is equal to the gods to humans,
or cravings with hidden Venus nets.
Hunting, or other pleasure or the pain relief Gods show to people,
in with you, blissfully Health, all thallium and Graces shining spring without you no one was prosperous “

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