A N A X A G O R A S

 According to Plutarch in his work On exile, Anaxagoras is the first Greek to attempt the problem of squaring the circle, a problem he worked on while in prison. He is considered to be both the geographical and theoretical successor to the earliest Ionian philosophers, particularly Anaximenes. Eventually, Anaxagoras made his way to Athens and he is often credited with making her the home of Western philosophical and physical speculation. 

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Anaxagoras (/ˌænækˈsæɡərəs/; Greek: Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagóras, “lord of the assembly”; c. 500 – c. 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Born in Clazomenae at a time when parts of IONIA(= “Asia Minor”) came under the control of the Persian Empire, untill when later Alexander the Great liberated and became Greek again Anaxagoras came to Athens. Although Anaxagoras lived in Athens when Socrates was a youth and young adult, there are no reports that Anaxagoras and Socrates ever met.

About 480 Anaxagoras moved to Athens, then becoming the centre of Greek culture, and brought from Ionia the new practice of philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry. He was a philosopher of nature remembered for his cosmology and for his discovery of the true cause of eclipses. He was associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles. Although Anaxagoras proposed theories on a variety of subjects, he is most noted for two theories. First, he speculated that in the physical world everything contains a portion of everything else. His observation of how nutrition works in animals led him to conclude that in order for the food an animal eats to turn into bone, hair, flesh, and so forth, it must already contain all of those constituents within it. The second theory of significance is Anaxagoras’ postulation of Mind (Nous) as the initiating and governing principle of the cosmos.

After 30 years’ residence in Athens, he was prosecuted on a charge of impiety for asserting that the Sun is an incandescent stone somewhat larger than the region of the Peloponnese. The attack on him was intended as an indirect blow at Pericles, and, although Pericles managed to save him, Anaxagoras was compelled to leave Athens. He spent his last years in retirement at Lampsacus.

T H A L E S & P Y T H A G O R A S

****************T H A L E S

Thales of Miletus - Wikipedia

Thales of Miletus was a Greek mathematician who lived 2600 years ago. He formulated a theorem with the following meaning: Every triangle inscribed in a circle has a right angle if one of the sides of the triangle is the diameter of the circle. One easy way to construct a right-angled triangle, is to use Thales’ theorem. Thales theorem states that if one of the sides of a triangle is along the diameter of a circle, and if the third vertex also lies on the circle, then the angle at the third vertex is a right angle.The triangle A B C is inscribed in a circle in such a way.

The Pythagorean theorem

pythagoras
Behold! Dynamic proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

For a right-angled triangle with shorter sides a and b, and the hypotenuse c, following holds:

c2=a2+b2�2=�2+�2

Conversely, if three positive numbers abc satisfy c2=a2+b2�2=�2+�2; then the numbers can be the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle.

There are many proofs of the Pythagorean theorem that are based on interpreting the square of a number as the area of a square. You then prove that the area of the two smaller squares in the image below, have the same total area as the large square.

Pythagorean Theorem

One of the easiest proofs is shown in the worksheet above. A more difficult proof where the smaller squares are cut and then put together as a larger square is shown below.

pythagoras
Animated Pythagoras’ Theorem Jigsaw Puzzle. Change the topmost slider to see the translations.

Exercise 1

Use the picture above to prove Thales’ theorem!

Dynamic Pythagoras’ tree

Pythagoras' tree

By using Thales theorem, it is possible to make a dynamic variant of a fractal called Pythagoras tree.

Exercise 2

Pythagoras' tree construction
  • Input two points A� and B� and a slider α� representing an angle. Use the tool icon Regular Polygon to make a square as in the picture above.
  • Use the tool icon Midpoint or Centre to make the midpoint E� between C� and D�. Use the tool icon Rotate, to rotate C� around E� by the angle α�. Move the slider to see the point C′�′ move. Make a triangle as in the picture above. The triangle will be a right-angled triangle due to Thales’ theorem.
  • Pick Tools -> Create New Tool. Make a tool that has the objects C�, C′�′, D�, and the two polygons as output objects. The tool will have A�, B�, and α� as input objects.
  • Build a tree by using the tool. Start by clicking two points, then enter α in the input box that shows up.

You can make variations of Pythagoras’ tree. For some examples see Variations on Pythagoras’ Tree.

Pythagoras' tree variants

Much of our modern science, and astronomy in particular, has roots in the ancient world. In particular, the Greek philosophers studied the cosmos and tried to use the language of mathematics to explain everything. The Greek philosopher Thales was one such man. He was born around 624 BCE,from (Miletus was a Greek island in Ionia Asia Minor, now modern Turkey) and he came from a distinguished family.

It is difficult to write about Thales since none of his own writing survives. He was known to be a prolific writer, but as with so many documents from the ancient world, his vanished through the ages. He is mentioned in other people’s works and seems to have been quite well-known for his time among fellow philosophers and writers. Thales was an engineer, scientist, mathematician, and philosopher interested in nature. He may have been the teacher of Anaximander (611 BC – 545 BCE), another philosopher.

Some researchers think Thales wrote a book on navigation, but there is little evidence of such a tome. In fact, if he wrote any works at all, they did not even survive until the time of Aristotle (384 BCE- 322 BCE). Even though the existence of his book is debatable, it turns out that Thales probably did define the constellation Ursa Minor.

Despite the fact that much of what is known about Thales is mostly hearsay, he was definitely well-respected in ancient Greece. He was the only philosopher before Socrates to be counted among the Seven Sages. These were philosophers in the 6th century BCE who were statesmen and law-givers, and in Thales’s case, a natural philosopher (scientist). 

There are reports that Thales predicted an eclipse of the Sun in 585 BCE. While the 19-year cycle for lunar eclipses was well known by this time, solar eclipses were harder to predict, since they were visible from different locations on Earth and people were not aware of the orbital motions of the Sun, Moon, and Earth that contributed to solar eclipses. Most likely, if he did make such a prediction, it was a lucky guess based on experience saying that another eclipse was due.

After the eclipse on 28 May, 585 BCE, Herodotus wrote, “Day was all of a sudden changed into night. This event had been foretold by Thales, the Milesian, who forewarned the Ionians of it, fixing for it the very year in which it took place. The Medes and Lydians, when they observed the change, ceased fighting, and were alike anxious to have terms of peace agreed on.”

Impressive but Human

Thales is often credited with some impressive work with geometry. It is said he determined the heights of pyramids by measuring their shadows and could deduce the distances of ships from a vantage point onshore.

How much of our knowledge of Thales is accurate is anyone’s guess. Most of what we know is due to Aristotle who wrote in his Metaphysics: “Thales of Miletus taught that ‘all things are water’.” Apparently Thales believed the Earth floated in water and everything came from water.

Like the absent-minded professor stereotype still popular today, Thales has been described in both glowing and derogatory tales. One story, told by Aristotle, says Thales used his skills to predict that the next season’s olive crop would be bountiful. He then purchased all the olive presses and made a fortune when the prediction came true. Plato, on the other hand, told a story of how one night Thales was gazing at the sky as he walked and fell into a ditch. There was a pretty servant girl nearby who came to his rescue, who then said to him “How do you expect to understand what is going on up in the sky if you do not even see what is at your feet?”

Thales died about 547 BCE in his home of Miletus.

Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

D E M O C R I T O S = Δ Η Μ Ο Κ Ρ Ι Τ Ο Σ =”DEMOCRITUS”

Bust of Democritus. Villa of the Papyri.

Born c. 460 BC Abdera, Thrace

Era Pre-Socratic philosophy Region Western philosophy

School Atomism

Main interests Nature

Notable ideas Atoms and the void as the fundamental constituents of the physical world

Democritus (/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/, dim-OCK-rit-əs; Greek: Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning “chosen of the people”; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher from Abdera, primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

FEW of Democritus’ original work has survived, MOST references. Many of these references come from ARISTOTELES, who viewed him as an important rival in the field of natural philosophy

Atomic hypothesis
See also: Atomism
We have various quotes from Democritus on atoms, one of them being:

δοκεῖ δὲ αὐτῶι τάδε· ἀρχὰς εἶναι τῶν ὅλων ἀτόμους καὶ κενόν, τὰ δ’ἀλλα πάντα

Δημόκριτος, DEMOKRITOS, meaning “chosen of the people”; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an ANCIENT-GREEK PRE-SOCRATIC philosopher from THRACE/ABDERA, primarily remembered today for HIS FORMULATION of an atomic theory of the universe.
Democritus knew that if a stone was divided in half, the two halves would have essentially the same properties as the whole.Therefore, he reasoned that if the stone were to be continually cut into smaller and smaller pieces then; at some point, there would be a piece which would be so small as to be indivisible. He called these small pieces of matter “atomos,” the Greek word for indivisible. Democritus, theorized that atoms were specific to the material which they composed. In addition, Democritus believed that the atoms differed in size and shape, were in constant motion in a void, collided with each other; and during these collisions, could rebound or stick together. Therefore, changes in matter were a result of dissociations or combinations of the atoms as they moved throughout the void. Although Democritus’ theory was remarkable, it was rejected by Aristotle, one of the most influential philosophers of Ancient Greece; and the atomic theory was ignored for nearly 2,000 years.

None of Democritus’ original work has survived, except through second-hand references. Many of these references come from Aristotle, who viewed him as an important rival in the field of natural philosophy.

Along with Leucippus the most important representative of the ancient atomic theory (compare atomic theory). According to Democritus and his teacher Leucippus – whose ideas cannot be separated from Democritus – reality consists of an infinite number of indivisible bodies, atoms,

LIFE
Although many anecdotes about Democritus’ life survive, their authenticity cannot be verified and modern scholars doubt their accuracy. Democritus was said to be born in the city of Abdera in Thrace, an Ionian colony of Teos. Ancient accounts of his life have claimed that he lived to a very old age, with some writers claiming that he was over a hundred years old at the time of his death.
Ancient accounts of his life have claimed that he lived to a very old age, with some writers claiming that he was over a hundred years old at the time of his death.

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Christopher Charles Whiston Taylor [de] states that the relation between Democritus and his predecessor Leucippus is not clear; while earlier ancient sources such as Aristotle and Theophrastus credit Leucippus with the invention of atomism and credit its doctrines to both philosophers, later sources credit only Democritus, making definitive identification of specific doctrines difficult.

Atomic hypothesis
See also: Atomism
We have various quotes from Democritus on atoms, one of them being:

δοκεῖ δὲ αὐτῶι τάδε· ἀρχὰς εἶναι τῶν ὅλων ἀτόμους καὶ κενόν, τὰ δ’ἀλλα πάντα νενομίσθαι [δοξάζεσθαι]. (Diogenes Laërtius, Democritus, Vol. IX, 44) Now his principal doctrines were these. That atoms and the vacuum were the beginning of the universe; and that everything else existed only in opinion. (trans. Yonge 1853)

The theory of Democritus held that everything is composed of “atoms,” which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between atoms, there lies empty space; that atoms are indestructible, and have always been and always will be in motion; that there is an infinite number of atoms and of kinds of atoms, which differ in shape and size. Of the mass of atoms, Democritus said, “The more any indivisible exceeds, the heavier it is.” However, his exact position on atomic weight is disputed. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases.

Democritus, along with Leucippus and Epicurus, proposed the earliest views on the shapes and connectivity of atoms. They reasoned that the solidness of the material corresponded to the shape of the atoms involved.Using analogies from humans’ sense experiences, he gave a picture or an image of an atom that distinguished them from each other by their shape, their size, and the arrangement of their parts. Moreover, connections were explained by material links in which single atoms were supplied with attachments: some with hooks and eyes, others with balls and sockets.

The Democritean atom is an inert solid (merely excluding other bodies from its volume) that interacts with other atoms mechanically. In contrast, modern, quantum-mechanical atoms interact via electric and magnetic forces and are dynamic.

Correlation with modern science
The theory of the atomists appears to be more nearly aligned with that of modern science than any other theory of antiquity. However, the similarity with modern concepts of science can be confusing when trying to understand where the hypothesis came from. Classical atomists could not have had an empirical basis for modern concepts of atoms and molecules.

The atomistic void hypothesis was a response to the paradoxes of Parmenides and Zeno, the founders of metaphysical logic, who put forth difficult-to-answer arguments in favor of the idea that there can be no movement. They held that any movement would require a void—which is nothing—but a nothing cannot exist. The Parmenidean position was “You say there is a void; therefore the void is not nothing; therefore there is not the void. The position of Parmenides appeared validated by the observation that where there seems to be nothing there is air, and indeed even where there is not matter there is something, for instance light waves.

The atomists agreed that motion required a void, but simply rejected the argument of Parmenides on the grounds that motion was an observable fact. Therefore, they asserted, there must be a void.

Democritus held that originally the universe was composed of nothing but tiny atoms churning in chaos, until they collided together to form larger units—including the earth and everything on it. He surmised that there are many worlds, some growing, some decaying; some with no sun or moon, some with several. He held that every world has a beginning and an end and that a world could be destroyed by collision with another world.

MATHEMATICS

Democritus argued that the circular cross-section of a cone would need step-like sides, rather than being shaped like a cylinder.
Democritus was also a pioneer of mathematics and geometry in particular. According to Archimedes, Democritus was among the first to observe that a cone and pyramid with the same base area and height has one-third the volume of a cylinder or prism respectively, a result which Archimedes states was later proved by Eudoxus of Cnidus. Plutarch also reports that Democritus worked on a problem involving the cross-section of a cone that Thomas Heath suggests may be an early version of infinitesimal calculus.

ANTHROPOLOGY
Democritus thought that the first humans lived an anarchic and animal sort of life, going out to forage individually and living off the most palatable herbs and the fruit which grew wild on the trees. They were driven together into societies for fear of wild animals, he said. He believed that these early people had no language, but that they gradually began to articulate their expressions, establishing symbols for every sort of object, and in this manner came to understand each other. He says that the earliest men lived laboriously, having none of the utilities of life; clothing, houses, fire, domestication, and farming were unknown to them. Democritus presents the early period of mankind as one of learning by trial and error, and says that each step slowly led to more discoveries; they took refuge in the caves in winter, stored fruits that could be preserved, and through reason and keenness of mind came to build upon each new idea.

ETHICS AND POLITICS
The ethics and politics of Democritus come to us mostly in the form of maxims. As such, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has gone as far as to say that: “despite the large number of ethical sayings, it is difficult to construct a coherent account of Democritus’s ethical views,” noting that there is a “difficulty of deciding which fragments are genuinely Democritean.”

AESTHETICS
Later Greek historians consider Democritus to have established aesthetics as a subject of investigation and study,[8] as he wrote theoretically on poetry and fine art long before authors such as Aristotle. Specifically, Thrasyllus identified six works in the philosopher’s oeuvre which had belonged to aesthetics as a discipline, but only fragments of the relevant works are extant; hence of all Democritus’s writings on these matters, only a small percentage of his thoughts and ideas can be known.

WORKS
Diogenes Laertius attributes several works to Democritus, but none of them have survived in a complete form.
,,That Organisms first came from moist soil.

Everything that exists in man is made up of atoms.

The SOUL=PSYCHE=ΨΥΧΗ consists of very small, smooth, round atoms, like fire.

Spirit, soul, vital heat, vital principle are all one and the same thing.

They are not limited to humans or animals, but are scattered throughout the world.

And in man and other animals, the intellectual atoms, with which we think, are distributed throughout the body.

However, these subtle atoms, which make up the soul, are the noblest and most wonderful part of the body.

The wise man cultivates thought, frees himself from passion, superstition, and fear, and seeks in contemplation and understanding the humble happiness that exists in human life.

Happiness does not come from external goods.

Man must get used to finding within himself the sources of pleasure!!

Cultivation is better than riches.

No power and no treasure can compare with the expansion of our knowledge.

Happiness is fickle and carnal pleasure provides only short-term satisfaction.

We achieve lasting satisfaction by gaining calmness, cheerfulness, mediocrity and some order and symmetry in our lives.

We can learn a lot from animals – spinning from the spider, thrift from the swallow, singing from the nightingale and the swan.

But strength of body is kindness only to beasts of burden, but strength of character is kindness to man.

Like the heretics of Victorian England, Democritus raises above his scandalous metaphysics a very presentable morality.

Good deeds must be done not out of compulsion, but out of conviction, not out of hope of reward, but for their own sake.

Man should feel more shame towards himself when he does evil, than towards the whole world.

Eventually Democritus proved his principles and perhaps vindicated his advice by living to the age of 109.

Diogenes Laertius narrates that when Democritus publicly read his greatest work, the <<Great Diacosmos>>, the city of Abdira gave him a hundred talents!!

But perhaps Abdera had undervalued their currency.

When someone asked him what was the secret of his longevity, he replied that he ate honey daily and bathed his body in olive oil.

Finally, when he lived long enough, he daily reduced his food, determined to die of starvation.

He was very old, Diogenes tells us, and he looked like he was dying.

His sister mourned him because she would die on the feast of Thesmophoria, which would prevent her from fulfilling her duties to the goddess.

He then reassured her and ordered her to bring him daily warm breads or some honey and by bringing these into his nostrils he was kept alive during the holy festival.

But when three days had passed since the feast, he breathed his last without pain, as Hipparchus assures us, having lived 109 years!!!

His city issued him at public expense, and Timon the Athenian praised him.

Democritus did not found a school, but formulated the most famous scientific hypotheses and gave philosophy a system, which, despite being denounced by many, survived everyone and reappears in every generation!!!!

Historical editing: Giorgos Giwrgos Chavales

H I P P A R H O S

 

Bornc. 190 BC
NicaeaKingdom of Bithynia
(modern-day İznik, Bursa, Turkey)
Diedc. 120 BC (around age 70)
Rhodos
Greece
OccupationsAstronomerMathematicianGeographer

Hipparchus (/hɪˈpɑːrkəs/GreekἽππαρχοςHipparkhos; c. 190 – c. 120 BC) was a Greek astronomergeographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discovery of the precession of the equinoxes. Hipparchus was born in NicaeaBithynia, and probably died on the island of Rhodes, Greece. He is known to have been a working astronomer between 162 and 127 BC.

Hipparchus is considered the greatest ancient astronomical observer and, by some, the greatest overall astronomer of antiquity. He was the first whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon survive. For this he certainly made use of the observations and perhaps the mathematical techniques accumulated over centuries by Meton of Athens (fifth century BC), TimocharisAristyllusAristarchus of Samos, and Eratosthenes, among others.

He developed trigonometry and constructed trigonometric tables, and he solved several problems of spherical trigonometry. With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry, he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses.

His other reputed achievements include the discovery and measurement of Earth’s precession, the compilation of the first known comprehensive star catalog from the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, as well as of the armillary sphere that he may have used in creating the star catalogue. Hipparchus is sometimes called the “father of astronomy”, a title conferred on him by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre in 1817]

Life and work

Hipparchus was born in Nicaea (Greek: Νίκαια), in Bithynia. The exact dates of his life are not known, but Ptolemy attributes astronomical observations to him in the period from 147 to 127 BC, and some of these are stated as made in Rhodes; earlier observations since 162 BC might also have been made by him. His birth date (c. 190 BC) was calculated by Delambre based on clues in his work. Hipparchus must have lived some time after 127 BC because he analyzed and published his observations from that year.

In the second and third centuries, coins were made in his honour in Bithynia that bear his name and show him with a globe.

Relatively little of Hipparchus’s direct work survives into modern times. Although he wrote at least fourteen books, only his commentary on the popular astronomical poem by Aratos was preserved by later copyists. Most of what is known about Hipparchus comes from Strabo‘s Geography and Pliny‘s Natural History in the first century; Ptolemy’s second-century Almagest; and additional references to him in the fourth century by Pappus and Theon of Alexandria in their commentaries on the Almagest.

Hipparchus’s only preserved work is Commentary on the Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus (Greek: Τῶν Ἀράτου καὶ Εὐδόξου φαινομένων ἐξήγησις). This is a highly critical commentary in the form of two books on a popular poem by Aratus based on the work by Eudoxos.[Hipparchus also made a list of his major works that apparently mentioned about fourteen books, but which is only known from references by later authors. His famous star catalog was incorporated into the one by Ptolemy and may be almost perfectly reconstructed by subtraction of two and two-thirds degrees from the longitudes of Ptolemy’s stars. The first trigonometric table was apparently compiled by Hipparchus, who is consequently now known as “the father of Trigonometry

 Eudoxus in the 4th century BC and Timocharis and Aristillus in the 3rd century BC already divided the ecliptic in 360 parts (our degrees, Greek: moira) of 60 arcminutes and Hipparchus continued this tradition. It was only in Hipparchus’s time (2nd century BC) when this division was introduced (probably by Hipparchus’s contemporary Hypsikles) for all circles in mathematics. Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), in contrast, used a simpler sexagesimal system dividing a circle into 60 parts. Hipparchus also adopted the Aristarhus astronomical Greek πῆχυς pēchys) that was equivalent to 2° or 2.5° (‘large cubit’).

Hipparchus’s long draconitic lunar period (5,458 months = 5,923 is post-Hipparchus so the direction of transmission is not settled by the tablets.

Geometry, trigonometry and other mathematical techniques

Hipparchus was recognized as the first mathematician known to have possessed a trigonometric table, which he needed when computing the eccentricity of the orbits of the Moon and Sun. He tabulated values for the chord function, which for a central angle in a circle gives the length of the straight line segment between the points where the angle intersects the circle. He may have computed this for a circle with a circumference of 21,600 units and a radius (rounded) of 3,438 units; this circle has a unit length for each arcminute along its perimeter. (This was “proven” by Toomer, but he later “cast doubt“ upon his earlier affirmation. Other authors have argued that a circle of radius 3,600 units may instead have been used by Hipparchus.) He tabulated the chords for angles with increments of 7.5°. In modern terms, the chord subtended by a central angle in a circle of given radius R equals R times twice the sine of half of the angle, i.e.:chord⁡�=2�⋅sin⁡12�{\displaystyle \operatorname {chord} \theta =2R\cdot \sin {\tfrac {1}{2}}\theta }The now-lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria‘s fourth-century commentary on section I.10 Trigonometry was a significant innovation, because it allowed Greek astronomers to solve any triangle, and made it possible to make quantitative astronomical models and predictions using their preferred geometric techniques.

Hipparchus must have used a better approximation for π than the one given by Archimedes of between 3+1071 (≈ 3.1408) and 3+17 (≈ 3.1429). Perhaps he had the approximation later used by Ptolemy, sexagesimal 3;08,30 (≈ 3.1417) (Almagest VI.7).

Hipparchus could have constructed his chord table using the Pythagorean theorem and a theorem known to Archimedes.

The stereographic projection was ambiguously attributed to Hipparchus by Synesios (c. 400 AD), and on that basis Hipparchus is often credited with inventing it or at least knowing of it. However, some scholars believe this conclusion to be unjustified by available evidence.The oldest extant description of the stereographic projection is found in Ptolemy‘s Planisphere (2nd century AD)

There are several indications that Hipparchus knew spherical trigonometry, but the first surviving text discussing it is by Menelaus of Alexandria in the first century, who now, on that basis, commonly is credited with its discovery. (Previous to the finding of the proofs of Menelaus a century ago, Ptolemy was credited with the invention of spherical trigonometry.) Ptolemy later used spherical trigonometry to compute things such as the rising and setting points of the ecliptic, or to take account of the lunar parallax. If he did not use spherical trigonometry, Hipparchus may have used a globe for these tasks, reading values off coordinate grids drawn on it, or he may have made approximations from planar geometry, or perhaps used arithmetical approximations developed by Pythagoras.

The now lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria’s 4th-century commentary on section Trigonometry was a significant innovation, because it allowed Greek astronomers to solve any triangle, and made it possible to make quantitative astronomical models and predictions using their preferred geometric techniques.

Hipparchus must have used a better approximation for π than the one from Archimedes of between ​3 10⁄71 (3.14085) and ​3 1⁄7 (3.14286). Perhaps he had the one later used by Ptolemy: 3;8,30 (sexagesimal)(3.1417) (Almagest VI.7), but it is not known whether he computed an improved value himself.

H I P P O C R A T E S A S C L E P I O S D I O S C U R I D E S

H I P P O C R A T E S A S C L E P I O S

Hippocrates (d. 460 BC-360 BC) was a curious Greek physician, the first to systematically classify medicine and attempt a methodical treatment of diseases. He was Koos, Asclepiades by birth and son of Heraklides and Phainaretis or Praxithea daughter of Phainaretis according to others. He was the 20th descendant of Herakles from his mother and the 18th descendant of Asclepius from his father. Initially he was a student of his own father, then of Herodikos, Gorgias, the orator Leontinus and Democritus of Abderitis, although several researchers claim that his relationship with Gorgias and Democritus was a spiritual communication and not a discipleship relationship.

Facts and assumptions

After training in medicine he left Kos and successively visited Thessaly, Thassos and Thrace. His fame quickly spread throughout Greece and beyond its borders to mighty Persia. Artaxerxes invited him to his court by sending ambassadors with valuable gifts but he refused to leave his homeland. It is said that he healed the Macedonian king Perdiccas and saved Abdira from plague. Some claim that it was there that he cured the “maniac”, as he was called, Democritus, although later writers have recorded Hippocrates’ admiration for the wise man. As it turns out, this claim is unfounded. He greatly helped the Argives and Athenians, taking preventive measures against the spread of infectious diseases. The latter, as a sign of gratitude, initiated him into the Eleusinian mysteries and proclaimed him a citizen of Athens. They also granted free feeding in the Rectory for him and his descendants, although modern researchers dispute his involvement in the events of the Attic land. He died at about the age of ninety in Larissa and was buried somewhere between Gyrtonos, Tirnavos and Larissa. According to Anthimos Gazis, his tomb was preserved until the second AD. century.

Hippocrates lived in Greece during the Golden Age, which produced great men such as Sophocles, Euripides and Thucydides. He toured, it is said, in Thessaly, Thrace, Thassos, Scythia, and probably also in Middle Egypt. He is the first to establish scientific medicine, as Galen also affirms (he was the first to examine the perfection of Greek medicine. xiv, 676). His works are products of exquisite observation, experience and rare rationality. In fact, they are the biggest milestone in the course of Greek medicine.

The Hippocrates Collection

The works that make up the Hippocratic Collection are 59 in number, written in the Ionic dialect between 440-340 BC. and are the oldest monuments of precise scientific medicine. They are divided into sectors. Of a general nature are: the Oath, the Law, About Ancient Medicine, About the Physician, About Art, About Goodness, Orders and Aphorisms. Anatomical and physiological are: On Anatomy, On Heart, On Muscles, On Glands, On Bone Nature, On Birth, On Child Nature, Dietetics, On Food, On Diet, On Diet Hygiene. Of general pathology are: On Airs, Waters and Lands, On Juices, On Crisis, On Crisis, On Weeks, On Nature. Prognostic medicine includes: Prognostikon, Prorretikon and Koakai Prognosis. In special nosology: On Epidemics, On Diseases, On Diseases, On Internal Diseases, On Sacred Disease and On Types of Humans. In Therapeutics belong: About Diet Acids and About Liquids Chrisios. Surgery includes: Per Doctor, About Ulcers, About Hemorrhoids, About Syringes, About Head Wounds, About Moles, About Joints. Molchico. Ophthalmology includes On Appearance, while obstetrics and gynecology include: On Virgins, On Female Nature, On Women A’, B’, On Aphors, On Pregnancy, On Seven and Eight Months, On Embryo Ecstasy. Finally, Pediatrics includes About Dentistry.

In addition to the above works, 24 Epistles and the Peri Manias Logos are also included, in which Hippocrates’ invitation from the Abderites for the supposed cure of Democritus is described. However, the many adaptations of his works, the addition of pseudo-inscriptions from ancient times led later scholars to the inability to distinguish fake works from genuine ones. After all, the collection in its current form was made around 300 BC, in the Alexandrian times, when Ptolemy ordered the collection of his writings. Thus, it was deemed necessary to include all writings bearing his name, even if there were reasonable suspicions that they were forgeries, as long as they belonged to pre-Aristotelian times.

Of course, the question of authenticity preoccupied researchers for a long time, as a result of which many paradoxical opinions were recorded. Erotianos, for example, admits only 31 writings, while Galen reduces their number to about 13. Among the younger French medical historian Emile Littre, relying on the Ionic dialect filled with the “donations” of Hippocrates, due to his Doric origin of, admits as genuine, besides the Oath and the Law, eleven other works. Dills admits only three et cetera. More important than the editions of his work remains the ten-volume edition by Émile Littre (1829-1861), in Paris, with a Greek text and a French translation. The latest edition of the works belongs to Kulwein (Leipzig 1894 and 1902), but it remained unfinished. Among the Greeks, Adamantios Korais made excellent criticism of his works in On Gaseous Waters and Lands and On Acid Diet and Ancient Medicine.

The Miracle of Medicine

In general, Hippocrates considers that everything comes from the 4 elements, each of which corresponds to the property of cold, dry, hot, liquid. In the solid components of the body the earthy prevails and in the liquids the watery. Cohesive essence of everything is the spirit, innate and warm in man, residing in the heart. Basic body fluids are blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. Health or disease depends on their balance and imbalance.

In the body there is a special animal power, nature. On this power depended the maintenance, development, but also the healing of the body and its restoration from the pathological state to the normal. This is also the most brilliant conception of the mind of Hippocrates, which is justified today by the modern views on health and balance of the bio-energetic potential of the organism. After all, Hippocrates does not locate the disease in the organs. He considers that the organism is sick or cured as a whole and thus the patient is treated with a completely different eye and perspective.

According to Hippocrates and the so-called Hippocratics, the doctor must reject all kinds of superstition, be clean in body and inseparable from morality. His life should be modest and full of silence and he himself should be a philosopher. Rightly, then, Andral saw in the Hippocratics, men deprived of the modern technology of observation, acting by their intellectual power alone, and being led to the same truths or ideas, to which scientists are led today by the slow and laborious work of analysis and observation. For Galen, Hippocrates is “Uncle”, greatest of physicians and first of philosophers. He did not limit himself to simple empiricism, but united it with the intellect in order to know nature.

The figure of Hippocrates as the “Father of Medicine” remains strong not only in the historical circles of antiquity and in modern times, although we are used to seeing him through the eyes of Galen. Galen describes Hippocrates as he would rather describe himself, so he emphasized only the texts that excited him. However, he remains at the same time the connecting link for the dissemination of his teaching, as he transferred his interest to later doctors.

Thus, by copying his texts, the ideas of Hippocrates survived during the Byzantine Empire and were inherited by Renaissance physicians. The collection became the foundation around which the experience of medicine was recorded in order to build the modern edifice of medicine. Except that modern medicine has become so specialized that it has lost the overall structure, the fundamental idea of Hippocrates. Based on the fact that the Hippocratics, apart from being philosophers, were also interested in other fields in order to arrive at their apt and revealing observations, such as ethnography. The breadth of their knowledge led to interpretations that were not only related to the mechanistic view of the human organism, something that should be taken seriously by medical science today, in order to lead to the modern, universal miracle of healing.

****************THE O A T H OF HIPPOCRATES

The Hippocratic Oath is the oath taken by doctors and refers to the ethical practice of medicine. It is believed that the oath was written by Hippocrates in the 4th century BC. or by one of his students, and thus included in the Hippocratic collection.

The oldest partial fragments of the oath date to circa AD 275. The oldest extant version dates to roughly the 10th–11th century, held in the Vatican Library.[2] A commonly cited version, dated to 1595, appears in Koine Greek with a Latin translation. In this translation, the author translates “πεσσὸν” to the Latin “fœtum.”

Below is the Hippocratic Oath, in Ancient Greek, from the 1923 Loeb edition, followed by the English translation:

ὄμνυμι Ἀπόλλωνα ἰητρὸν καὶ Ἀσκληπιὸν καὶ Ὑγείαν καὶ Πανάκειαν καὶ θεοὺς πάντας τε καὶ πάσας, ἵστορας ποιεύμενος, ἐπιτελέα ποιήσειν κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμὴν ὅρκον τόνδε καὶ συγγραφὴν τήνδε:

ἡγήσεσθαι μὲν τὸν διδάξαντά με τὴν τέχνην ταύτην ἴσα γενέτῃσιν ἐμοῖς, καὶ βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καὶ χρεῶν χρηΐζοντι μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι, καὶ γένος τὸ ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἀδελφοῖς ἴσον ἐπικρινεῖν ἄρρεσι, καὶ διδάξειν τὴν τέχνην ταύτην, ἢν χρηΐζωσι μανθάνειν, ἄνευ μισθοῦ καὶ συγγραφῆς, παραγγελίης τε καὶ ἀκροήσιος καὶ τῆς λοίπης ἁπάσης μαθήσιος μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι υἱοῖς τε ἐμοῖς καὶ τοῖς τοῦ ἐμὲ διδάξαντος, καὶ μαθητῇσι συγγεγραμμένοις τε καὶ ὡρκισμένοις νόμῳ ἰητρικῷ, ἄλλῳ δὲ οὐδενί.

διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπὶ δηλήσει δὲ καὶ ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν.

οὐ δώσω δὲ οὐδὲ φάρμακον οὐδενὶ αἰτηθεὶς θανάσιμον, οὐδὲ ὑφηγήσομαι συμβουλίην τοιήνδε: ὁμοίως δὲ οὐδὲ γυναικὶ πεσσὸν φθόριον δώσω.

ἁγνῶς δὲ καὶ ὁσίως διατηρήσω βίον τὸν ἐμὸν καὶ τέχνην τὴν ἐμήν.

οὐ τεμέω δὲ οὐδὲ μὴν λιθιῶντας, ἐκχωρήσω δὲ ἐργάτῃσιν ἀνδράσι πρήξιος τῆσδε.

ἐς οἰκίας δὲ ὁκόσας ἂν ἐσίω, ἐσελεύσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων, ἐκτὸς ἐὼν πάσης ἀδικίης ἑκουσίης καὶ φθορίης, τῆς τε ἄλλης καὶ ἀφροδισίων ἔργων ἐπί τε γυναικείων σωμάτων καὶ ἀνδρῴων, ἐλευθέρων τε καὶ δούλων.

ἃ δ᾽ ἂν ἐνθεραπείῃ ἴδω ἢ ἀκούσω, ἢ καὶ ἄνευ θεραπείης κατὰ βίον ἀνθρώπων, ἃ μὴ χρή ποτε ἐκλαλεῖσθαι ἔξω, σιγήσομαι, ἄρρητα ἡγεύμενος εἶναι τὰ τοιαῦτα.

ὅρκον μὲν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι, καὶ μὴ συγχέοντι, εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καὶ βίου καὶ τέχνης δοξαζομένῳ παρὰ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τὸν αἰεὶ χρόνον: παραβαίνοντι δὲ καὶ ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τούτων.

I swear by Apollo Healer, by Asclepius, by Hygieia, by Panacea, and by all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath and this indenture.

To hold my teacher in this art equal to my own parents; to make him partner in my livelihood; when he is in need of money to share mine with him; to consider his family as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they want to learn it, without fee or indenture; to impart precept, oral instruction, and all other instruction to my own sons, the sons of my teacher, and to indentured pupils who have taken the Healer’s oath, but to nobody else.

I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgment, and I will do no harm or injustice to them. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein.

Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm, especially from abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free. And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of my profession, as well as outside my profession in my intercourse with men, if it be what should not be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding such things to be holy secrets.

Now if I carry out this oath, and break it not, may I gain for ever reputation among all men for my life and for my art; but if I break it and forswear myself, may the opposite befall me.– Translation by W.H.S. Jones.

FIRST DO NO HARM

*****************MAIN ARTICLE: PRIMUM NON NOCERE**************

It is often said that the exact phrase “First do no harm” (Latin: Primum non nocere) is a part of the original Hippocratic oath. Although the phrase does not appear in the AD 245 version of the oath, similar intentions are vowed by, “I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm”. The phrase primum non nocere is believed to date from the 17th century.

Another equivalent phrase is found in Epidemics, Book I, of the Hippocratic school: “Practice two things in your dealings with disease: either help or do not harm the patient”. The exact phrase is believed to have originated with the 19th-century English surgeon Thomas Inman.

Context and interpretation

A 12th-century Greek manuscript of the oath

The oath is arguably the best known text of the Hippocratic Corpus, although most modern scholars do not attribute it to Hippocrates himself, estimating it to have been written in the fourth or fifth century BC. Alternatively, classical scholar Ludwig Edelstein proposed that the oath was written by the Pythagoreans, an idea that others questioned for lack of evidence for a school of Pythagorean medicine. While Pythagorean philosophy displays a correlation to the Oath’s values, the proposal of a direct relationship has been mostly discredited in more recent studies.

Its general ethical principles are also found in other works of the Corpus: the Physician mentions the obligation to keep the ‘holy things’ of medicine within the medical community (i.e. not to divulge secrets); it also mentions the special position of the doctor with regard to his patients, especially women and girls.[12] However, several aspects of the oath contradict patterns of practice established elsewhere in the Corpus. Most notable is its ban on the use of the knife, even for small procedures such as lithotomy, even though other works in the Corpus provide guidance on performing surgical procedures.

Providing poisonous drugs would certainly have been viewed as immoral by contemporary physicians if it resulted in murder. However, the absolute ban described in the oath also forbids euthanasia. Several accounts of ancient physicians willingly assisting suicides have survived. Multiple explanations for the prohibition of euthanasia in the oath have been proposed: it is possible that not all physicians swore the oath, or that the oath was seeking to prevent widely held concerns that physicians could be employed as political assassins.

The interpreted AD 275 fragment of the oath contains a prohibition of abortion that is in contradiction to original Hippocratic text On the Nature of the Child, which contains a description of an abortion, without any implication that it was morally wrong,[16] and descriptions of abortifacient medications are numerous in the ancient medical literature.[ The oath’s stance on abortion was unclear even in the ancient world where physicians debated whether the specification of pessaries was a ban on simply pessaries, or a blanket ban on all abortion methods. Scribonius Largus was adamant in AD 43 (the earliest surviving reference to the oath) that it precluded abortion. In the 1st or 2nd century AD work Gynaecology, Soranus of Ephesus wrote that one party of medical practitioners followed the Oath and banished all abortifacients, while the other party—to which he belonged—was willing to prescribe abortions, but only for the sake of the mother’s health. William Henry Samuel Jones states that “abortion… though doctors are forbidden to cause it, was possibly not condemned in all cases”. He believed that the oath prohibited abortions, though not under all circumstances.[18] John M. Riddle argues that because Hippocrates specified pessaries, he only meant pessaries and therefore it was acceptable for a Hippocratic doctor to perform abortions using oral drugs, violent means, a disruption of daily routine or eating habits, and more. Other scholars, most notably Ludwig Edelstein, believe that the author intended to prohibit any and all abortions. Olivia De Brabandere writes that regardless of the author’s original intention, the vague and polyvalent nature of the relevant line has allowed both professionals and non-professionals to interpret and use the oath in several ways. While many Christian versions of the Hippocratic Oath, particularly from the Middle Ages, explicitly prohibited abortion, the prohibition is often omitted from many oaths taken in US medical schools today, though it remains controversial.

The oath stands out among comparable ancient texts on medical ethics and professionalism through its heavily religious tone, a factor which makes attributing its authorship to Hippocrates particularly difficult. Phrases such as ‘but I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art’ suggest a deep, almost monastic devotion to the art of medicine. He who keeps to the oath is promised ‘reputation among all men for my life and for my art’. This contrasts heavily with Galenic writings on professional ethics, which employ a far more pragmatic approach, where good practice is defined as effective practice, without reference to deities.

The oath’s importance among the medical community is nonetheless attested by its appearance on the tombstones of physicians, and by the fourth century AD it had come to stand for the medical profession.

The oath continued to be in use in the Byzantine Christian world with its references to pagan deities replaced by a Christian preamble, as in the 12th-century manuscript pictured in the shape of a cross.

“MODERN” VERSIONS AND RELEVANCE

An engraving of Hippocrates by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638

The Hippocratic Oath has been ECLIPSED, as a document of professional ethics by more extensive, regularly updated ethical codes issued by national medical associations, such as the AMA Code of Medical Ethics (first adopted in 1847), and the British General Medical Council’s Good Medical Practice. These documents provide a comprehensive overview of the obligations and professional behaviour of a doctor to their patients and wider society. Doctors who violate these codes may be subjected to disciplinary proceedings, including the loss of their license to practice medicine. Nonetheless, the length of these documents has made their distillations into shorter oaths an attractive proposition. In light of this fact, several updates to the oath have been offered in modern times, some facetious.

THE OATH HAS BEEN MODIFIED NUMEROUS TIMES (..BIG PHARMA – NWO..)

In the United States, the majority of osteopathic medical schools use the Osteopathic Oath in place of or in addition to the Hippocratic Oath. The Osteopathic Oath was first used in 1938, and the current version has been in use since 1954.

One of the most significant revisions was first drafted in 1948 by the World Medical Association (WMA), called the Declaration of Geneva. “During the post World War II and immediately after its foundation, the WMA showed concern over the state of medical ethics in general and over the world. The WMA took up the responsibility for setting ethical guidelines for the world’s physicians. It noted that in those years the custom of medical schools to administer an oath to its doctors upon graduation or receiving a license to practice medicine had fallen into disuse or become a mere formality”.[29] In Nazi Germany, medical students did not take the Hippocratic Oath, although they knew the ethic of “nil nocere”—do no harm.[30][failed verification]

In the 1960s, the Hippocratic Oath was changed to require “utmost respect for human life from its beginning”, making it a more secular obligation, not to be taken in the presence of any gods, but before only other people. When the oath was rewritten in 1964 by Louis Lasagna, Academic Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University, the prayer was omitted, and that version has been widely accepted and is still in use today by many US medical schools:

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon’s knife or the chemist’s drug.

I will not be ashamed to say “I know not”, nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient’s recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person’s family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

In a 1989 survey of 126 US medical schools, only three of them reported use of the original oath, while thirty-three used the Declaration of Geneva, sixty-seven used a modified Hippocratic Oath, four used the Oath of Maimonides, one used a covenant, eight used another oath, one used an unknown oath, and two did not use any kind of oath. Seven medical schools did not reply to the survey.

As of 1993, only 14% of medical oaths prohibited euthanasia, and only 8% prohibited abortion.

In a 2000 survey of US medical schools, all of the then extant medical schools administered some type of profession oath. Among schools of modern medicine, sixty-two of 122 used the Hippocratic Oath, or a modified version of it. The other sixty schools used the original or modified Declaration of Geneva, Oath of Maimonides, or an oath authored by students and or faculty. All nineteen osteopathic schools used the Osteopathic Oath.

In France, it is common for new medical graduates to sign a written oath.

In 1995, Sir Joseph Rotblat, in his acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize, suggested a Hippocratic Oath for Scientists.

In November 2005, Saparmurat Niyazov, then leader of Turkmenistan, declared that doctors should swear an oath to him instead of the Hippocratic Oath.[citation needed]

In 2007, US citizen Rafiq Abdus Sabir was convicted for making a pledge to al-Qaeda, thus agreeing to provide medical aid to wounded terrorists.

As of 2018, all US medical school graduates made some form of public oath but none used the original Hippocratic Oath. A modified form or an oath unique to that school is often used. A review of 18 of these oaths was criticized for their wide variability: “Consistency would help society see that physicians are members of a profession that’s committed to a shared set of essential ethical values.”

VIOLATION

There is no direct punishment for breaking the Hippocratic Oath, although an arguable equivalent in modern times is medical malpractice, which carries a wide range of punishments, from legal action to civil penalties.[40] In the United States, several major judicial decisions have made reference to the classical Hippocratic Oath, either upholding or dismissing its bounds for medical ethics: Roe v. Wade, Washington v. Harper, Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington (1996), and Thorburn v. Department of Corrections (1998).[41] In antiquity, the punishment for breaking the Hippocratic oath could range from a penalty to losing the right to practice medicine.

In 2022, a college in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu saw a batch of medical students undertaking the Charaka shapath, a Sanskrit Oath by the name of ancient sage physician Maharishi Charak instead of the Hippocratic oath. The state government subsequently dismissed the Dean of the Madurai medical college for this act.

Asklipios his Daughters, meaning etc

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The daughters of Asclepius
 Ipioni: the Wife of  Asclepius. And this daughters:  HYGEIA(=Health), EGLI(=Glamour),
IASO, AKES, Panacea. (Dictionary Suidas)


 Ipioni was secondary deity Asclepius wife, daughter Merope personification of gentleness. It was deity with healing properties, mainly dealing with obstetrics. Its name recalls the “ipion Pharmacy” was simultaneously comrade and wife of Asclepius, the ancient god of medicine.


His name is not suspected of Asklepios from July the Epidafrio that produced the name “glory” (Aogla) and in our opinion it is consistent and lexicographer Hesychius.
The etymology of the name from “Asklin”, the Corinthian King, whom he healed, or the “Asgelatan” epithet of Apollo, or “Aglaopin” seems rather popular origin. The second component of the name is “mild” that adds to the “glory” shine and gentleness ….
The earliest scholars produced the name from “Ashkelon”. Asclepius is the ideal conception of healing power of nature as now perceived by people, who acts in “soft” seasons in the hills and in the fresh air under the soft glow and heat of the sun, the points gush cool springs and tall trees surrounding clean atmosphere.
Such was exactly the environment of places of worship and this conception strengthened the various legends of his birth and origin.
Along with Ipioni acquired these daughters:
The first two probably represent different stages of treatment, while the third medication.
The IASO or Iiso (in the Ionian dialect) is an ancient Greek ideal, anthropomorphic, secondary attached deity Asclepius intertwined with the “sacred” concept of Healing (treatment).
Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis, sister goddesses healthy Akesos, Panacea and Aegle or daughter Amphiaraos.
 As a derivative of the verb iaomai (= heal) Place names: Iasis (Healing) – Jason – Iassos – Iatir – JATO – Doctor – Iator and the Cure as a means of therapy
 Pausanias reports that the Amphiaraeion Oropos altar, one of the five parts of which was dedicated to Aphrodite, the Panacea, the IASO, Health and Peony Athena.
 Also worshiped in Epidaurus and Athens.
  

The fund has worshiped at Epidaurus, as sisters, as a deity.
Her name is rooted in the ancient A and verb, meaning treat.
It was considered as the goddess of the healing process.

The Panacea was anthropomorphic secondary deity of Greek mythology intertwined with the concept of treatment (or herbal medicine) for Pasha disease. Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis sister goddess Health, Iassos of Machaona and Podaleirios, Doctors of the Trojan War in Homer.
Worshiped mainly in Oropos, Attica, Kalymnos, Kos, etc .. The form of the present and the Asklepieion of Athens.
As goddess seen as able to cure every disease, its name quickly spread to all the Greek cities, particularly drugs capable of curing if not all diseases at least most of them.

The Egli.
It is said to have derived its name “Glow,” radiators, brilliant fame, grandeur, or “Splendour,” or by the beauty of the human body when it is in good health, or the price paid in the medical profession.

Health was the ancient Greek goddess, personification of Health of body and soul.
As the oldest center of worship of Titane refers to Sicyon, where were the sanctuary of Asclepius and Hygeia. According to ancient Greek tradition Arifron Sikyonios wrote the hymn to the goddess, whose cult was spread in Athens about 420 BC ..
In Greek mythology holds a prominent place in worship of her father. However, while Asclepius directly related to the treatment of diseases, the goddess associated with preventing disease and maintaining health status.
Apart from Athens, worshiped in other cities, such as Thespies in Elatia, Megara, Corinth and Argos.
The Orphic hymn health shows the importance attached by the ancient Greeks on health: “Imeroesa, Erato, polythalmie, pamvasileia, klythi marlin healthy ferolvie, mother collected works …”

The artists portrayed him from 5th century. BC as a young woman, later adopted as a symbol of the serpent.
Health others want her husband and other daughter of Asclepius.
It was probably a very ancient divinity, who is identified when the Asclepius, sometimes with Amphiaraos and when with Athena. Bronze statue of Athena Health stood on the Acropolis near ancient altar, immediately after entering the Propylaea.
Carved figures of Asclepius and Hygeia save many.
Here’s Hymn to Health, the Arifrona from Sikyon:

“Health most venerable among the blessed,
let us dwell with you the rest of my life,
let’s you my willing chug rather than wealth or grace parents.
Whether the royal power, which is equal to the gods to humans,
or cravings with hidden Venus nets.
Hunting, or other pleasure or the pain relief Gods show to people,
in with you, blissfully Health, all thallium and Graces shining spring without you no one was prosperous “

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H E L L E N I C K A L L O S

H E L L E N I C A R T S

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H E L L E N I C ARTS / PART ONE(1)

How many Athens did Phidias sculpt for the Acropolis? The answer will surprise you: the sculptor created three statues of the goddess, to which he gave different interpretations and which would later become points of reference for classical Hellenism. One was the Athena Prómachos, armed with a shield and spear, so colossal that if you didn’t see her coming from Cape Sounion it meant you had the wrong city and you weren’t in Athens. The second was Athena Lemnia, shown as a messenger of peace, without a helmet and so harmonious that if you looked at her for too long you ended up falling asleep. The last and most famous was the Athena Parthenos, a large statue that presided over the Parthenon, in gold and ivory. He ended up in trouble for the latter: Pericles’ opponents accused him of having appropriated precious metals and he ended up in prison, where he died according to Plutarch. An unworthy end for an artist like him, but luckily Plutarch made a big mistake: documentary evidence attests that Phidias was in Olympia after the trial, working on the immense statue of Zeus. This time, he did his calculations well for gold and silver. You never knew.

PARTHENON WAS BUILT ON P=π & Ε=Φ PYTHAGOREAN PRINCIPLES:
pi and Phi.
π=3.14159265359
Φ=1.61803398875.

“Μεγάλην παιδείαν νόμιζε δι’ ής δυνήση φέρειν απαιδευσίαν” = Consider great education that which will give you the ability to suffer ignorance) – PYTHAGORAS

DETAILED RELIEF IN WHICH THE GOD ASKLEPIOS INSIDE THE TEMPLE TOGETHER WITH HIS WIFE IPIONI AND HIS DAUGHTER HYGEIA ACCEPT THE OFFERINGS OF WORSHIPERS.
A SMALL SLAVE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESSION LEADS A PIG FOR SACRIFICE.

THE SYMBOLIC SACRIFICE OF THE PIG CORRESPONDS TO THE KILLING OF THE ANIMAL – 

BARBARIANS FROM THE EAST.LOOTING AND MASSACRING IN ATHENS,WHEN THE CITY`S ARMY WAS IN MISSION TO THE DEFEND IONIA ANDVTHE ISLANDS IN THE EAST

ON THE BRINK OF PURE DIVINE ARE 3 UNITS: SYMMETRY, TRUTH AND BEAUTY(= ΚΑΛΛΟΣ /KALLOS).
THE RHYTHMS (OR ORDERS) OF THE COLUMNS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF THESE 3 UNITS.
The DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS POWER, WITH THE SUPPORT OF GREAT WEIGHTS AND THEREFORE SYMMETRY, BECAUSE ONLY SYMMETRY IS STRONG ….THE IONIC RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO WISDOM AND BY EXTENSION TO TRUTH, AS THE SPIRAL ALLUDES TO MENTAL POWER…
THE CORINTHIAN ORDER (RHYTHM) REPRESENTS THE BEAUTY (OR KALLOS), SINCE
, AS THE MOST DECORATED, IT EXPRESS DELICACY AND GRACE…
VITRUVIUS,
ON ARCHITECTURE …
THE 3 RHYTHMS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF ALL 3 PARTS OF THE SOUL= ΨΥΧΗ/PSYCHE…
THE DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS THE POWER OF THE THYMOID, OF EMOTION ….
THE IONIC RHYTHM REPRESENTS THE WISDOM OF THE ACCOUNTING, THE INTELLIGENCE-KNOWLEDGE=ΝΌΗΣΗΣ-ΓΝΩΣΙΣ
/NOESIS-GNOSIS…
THE CORINTHIAN RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO THE BEAUTY OF DESIGN: EROS=ΕΡΩΣ
THE SEAL AND GREATNESS OF SPIRITUAL GREECE!.

IF WE START FROM THE CENTER OF THE PARTHENON AND JOIN THESE POINTS: THESEIUM, PNYX, THE BASE OF PHILOPAPPOUS, AND THE CENTER OF THE TEMPLE OF OLYMPUS ZEUS(DIOS), AN OCTAGON WILL FORM WHERE EACH ANGLE WILL BE EXACTLY EQUAL TO THE LENGHT OF PARTHENON TIMES 7(SEVEN)……. THE MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY THE ANCIENT GREEKS EXCEEDED ANY IMAGINATION, SO THEY FORMED A PERFECT NETWORK, BASED ON MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS, WHICH WAS UNCONCEPTABLE TO THE CHALDEANS, BABYLONIANS,, HINDUS, PHOENICIANS AND EGYPTIANS… THE THEATERS BUILT BY THE GREEKS HAD PERFECT ACOUSTICS WHEREVER THEY ARE….. LATER THE ROMANS TRY TO IMITATE THEM, BUT WHEN SOMEONE WISHES TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH A GREEK, IT IS LIKE WISHING TO MOUNT BAREFOOT (BAREFOOT) IN THE MIDDLE OF WINTER ON OLYMPUS…THE WIDTH OF THE PARTHENON IS ONE TWO MINUTES OF THE EQUATOR…CHALKIS IS THE SAME DISTANCE FROM ATHENS AND SOUNIO, AS ALSO DELPHI IS THE SAME FROM OLYMPIA AND ATHENS.. DISTANCE: CHALKIS THEBE IS 162 STAGES, THE SAME AND THE AMPHIAREUM.. DELOS TO ATHENS DISTANCE

DETAILED RELIEF IN WHICH THE GOD ASKLEPIOS INSIDE THE TEMPLE TOGETHER WITH HIS WIFE IPIONI AND HIS DAUGHTER HYGEIA ACCEPT THE OFFERINGS OF WORSHIPERS.
A SMALL SLAVE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESSION LEADS A PIG FOR SACRIFICE.

THE SYMBOLIC SACRIFICE OF THE PIG CORRESPONDS TO THE KILLING OF THE ANIMAL – OUR DESIRE’S CENTER SO THAT THE SUFFERER CAN BE LED TO HEALING

ETIMOU LOGIKI

Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite, sculpture of PhidiasPhidias, also spelled Pheidias (flourished c. 490–430 bc), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration. It is said of Phidias that he alone had seen the exact image of the gods and that he revealed it to man. He established forever general conceptions of Zeus and Athena. HERE: from the eastern front of the Parthenon, 435 BC, London, British Museum.

The NIKE(=VICTORY) of SAMOTHRACE, a statue 2.75 meters high and in total, together with the bow of the ship on which it stands, 5.12 meters.
The statue of NIKE is made of PARIAN marble and the bow of marble of Lardos, in the region of RHODOS, in all probability.
It was discovered in 1863 in a temple in SAMOTHRACE along with two other statues representing NIKE!
For information, one of the remaining two is exhibited in the Museum of ART History in VIENNA and the other in the ARCHAEOLOGICAL Museum of SAMOTHRACE.
Regarding the sculpture of NIKE, which has been in FRANCE since the day it was STOLEN from SAMOTHRACE until TODAY, it was DISCOVERED on April 15, 1863, in archaeological excavations, led by the diplomat and vice-consul of FRANCE in ANDRIANOUPOLIS, Karolos Chambouzos. .
Upon SEEING the sculpture, the FRENCH DIPLOMAT contacted the FRENCH AMBASSADÖR in COLONNE and the ambassador “ARRANGED” to get the HIGH GATE’s “APPROVAL”, so that the sculpture could be transported to FRANCE by a FRENCH WARSHIP. The statue, after a stop in TOULON, finally arrived in the LOUVRE on May 11, 1864, having suffered considerable damage during its transport.
From the sculpture that the visitor sees TODAY, at LEAST the marble BASE-BOW was missing (23 pieces of marble, of which 17 RESTED on a rectangular base of SIX marble slabs, in such an inventive and skillful way, so that the STATUE and the SHIP were BALANCED and that it is IMPOSSIBLE to detach ONE part from the OTHER, as the CENTER of GRAVITY would SHIFT and the BALANCE would be LOST.
This HAPPENED, as the archaeologists THOUGHT, seeing the BROKEN pieces FOUND, that they belonged to some MOUND.
In 1875, AUSTRIAN archaeologists, headed by Alexander CONZE, found at the excavation site the marbles of the bow that the FRENCH archaeologists did not recognize as part of NIKE, and finding NEXT to them a TETRADRACHM of D. POLIORKITES, depicting the goddess NIKE on the BOW of a ship, they understood WHO it was. it is about.
When CHAMBOUSE learned in 1879 about the marbles he had left behind, without GRABBING them, he IMMEDIATELY arranged for them to be sent to the LOUVRE, as well. The restoration of the sculpture ended in 1884.
In 1891, CHAMPOISEAU returned to SAMOTHRACE, wanting to FIND and STEAL the HEAD of NIKE, but WITHOUT succeeding.
In 1950, American archaeologists from the University of New York, led by Karl LEHMANN, excavated AGAIN at the site where the NIKE of SAMOTHRACE was FOUND and FOUND a PALM of the RIGHT hand, which was ATTRIBUTED to NIKE of Samothrace. TWO fingers that were FOUND in the area by AUSTRIAN archaeologists in 1875 and which were KEPT in the VIENNA HISTORY Museum, were CONNECTED to the discovered PALM and were ALSO exhibited in the LOUVRE, in PARIS.
In 1952, two pieces of the GRAY marble of the BOW were also recovered in the Louvron, where in 1996 they were FINALLY RECOGNIZED as part of the BASE of the ship

. Gold earring with Nike pendant, Greek, 4th century BC.

By: Etimou LOGIKI

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION
ON APRIL 8, 1820, APHRODITE OF MILOS WAS BORN.
A STATUE, THAT WOULD PREFER TO REMAIN BURIED IN THE DEPTHS OF THE GREEK LAND, RATHER THAN END UP A
… “STATUA” IN A FOREIGN LAND.
IT ALL STARTED IN 1814, WHEN THE ANCIENT THEATER OF MILOS was accidentally discovered.
6 years later, on April 8, 1820, 300 meters away while working in his field, which was in the Klima area, the Milios villager Kentrotas found himself in front of an underground cave, divided into 3 galleries. In the middle he saw a statue standing, “where the left hand hid the breasts, while the right hand held an apple” (“Foreign travelers in Greece”, K. Simopoulos).
The French officer BOUTIE was among the many who offered to “help” with the statue, and he first recorded on paper the findings of Kentrotas.
BOUTIE KILLED AT LEAST 200 PROTESTING GREEK VILLAGERS, WITH THE HELP OF THE OTTOMANS, OFCOURSE…
‘OUR APHRODITE IS DEPICTED WITHOUT HANDS….EVEN IF WE ACCEPT the OFFICIAL information and BOUTIE’S PLAN AS.. TRUE(!!), THE FINDINGS FOUND IN THE FIELD WERE-AT LEAST-:
1). THE UPPER PART OF APHRODITE WITH BROKEN ARMS, BUT WITH THE BUN INTAKT AND ATTACHED TO THE HEAD (I AM WRITTING THIS BECAUSE ALONG THE WAY, IT IS MENTIONED, THAT THEY UNITED IT WITH THE.. REST OF THE HEAD, AS IT HAD DETACHED)
2). THE LOWER PART OF THE STATUE
3). A HAND HOLDING AN APPLE
4). ONE FOOT WITH A SANDAL
5). A STELE WITH BEARDED HERMES
6)… A COLUMN WITH HERCULES
THE STATUE ALSO BROUGHT.. JEWELS AND EVEN THE MARKS /HOLES ON TOP OF IT, ON WHICH THEY WERE ATTACHED, CAN STILL BE SEEN.
THE NAME OF THE SCULPTOR WAS MENTIONED ON THE BASE OF THE SCULPTURE:
(AN.. IS MISSING!!)..
HERE:
….ΔΡΟΣ ΜΙΝΙΔΟΥ ANTIOXOS ΑΠΟ ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕ” =
(AN IS MISSING!!)
ANDROS MINIDOU, ANTIOCHOS POIISE=
MADE BY THE MINIDIAN MAN ANTIOCHOS, WHO MADE IT…..

UNFORTUNATELY, HIS NAME, AS YOU SEE WAS NOT COMPLETELY “SAVED”,.. ONLY.. HIS FATHER’S NAME, AS WELL, AND HIS CITY(ANTIOCHIA-Adjctv: “ANTIOCHOS”) OF ORIGIN, BUT IN.. ANY CASE,.. THIS INSCRIPTION “DISAPPEARED” A FEW YEARS LATER BY.. “ACCIDENT”!!!!!
NO WONDER, JUST, AS IT WAS NO…WONDER, THAT BARBARIANS OTHER THUGS… CLAIMED IT EVERYWHERE, putting the money and material rewards above the joy that any civilized person feels when seeing one of our statues.

It is said that a battle took place in front of the ships between French officials, ambassadors, with priests, dragomans, etc., over where the SCULPTURE would END UP. EVERYONE HAD THEIR OWN …ARGUMENT (!!)….
(OTTOMANS, BECAUSE THEY WERE THE OCCUPANTS, FRENCH, GOTHS AND OTHER THUGS, AS WELL ).

WHY IT WAS BROKEN-LOST-DISAPPEARED IN THAT CONTROVERSY FROM OUR APHRODITE, IS CONTROVERSIAL. OTHERS SAY, THAT HER LEFT ARM FELL INTO THE… SEA AS THE BARBARIANS AND THE OTHERS LOOTERS
PULLED THE CAISSON THAT ENCLOSED HER FROM.. RIGHT TO LEFT, OTHERS, THA THEY WERE LÖST DURING THE FIGHT AND OTHER VALUABLE FINDS. WE MAY NEVER KNOW THE TRUTH!
HIS FATET WAS CERTAINTY PREDETERMINED, WITH GREECE ENSLAVED BY BARBARIANS AND THEIR SPONGERS, WHOSE ONLY CONCERT, SEEING OUR HERITAGE, WAS TO GET RICH.
AFTER ALL, IT IS SAID, THAT DURING THE OTTOMAN RULE, THERE WERE MANY “CULTURAL” DANCING VISITS OF A “RESEARCH” NATURE TO GREECE AND, THAT THE ANCIENT FINDS WERE TRANSPORTED TO KON/POLIS, FROM WHERE THEY WERE VISITED IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES BY THE SULTAN, WITH COMPENSATION OF COURSE.
THUS, IN MARCHE 1821, THE APHRODITE OF MILOS PASSED INTO THE HANDS OF LOUIS II. IT WAS THE…. GIFT(!!) OF
MARQUISE DE RIVIERE, AMBASSADOR OF FRANCE IN COLONNE, TO THE FRENCH KING . THE 2.02 METER PARIAN MARBLE SCULPTURE IS delivered a little LATER to the LOUVRE MUSEUM.
The “MAGNANIMOUS” FRENCH ARE SAID TO have “REIMBURSED” the MILOS FOR ANY LOSSES THEY., SUFFERED DUE TO THE SALE OF THE LOOTED STATUE TO THEM, IN EXCHANGE FOR 7,000 OR SO TURKISH piastres.
It is also said that an agreement was signed between the CLERGY and the FRENCH-,, JEWISH CATHOLIC PRIEST THUG: MICHAEL FOURMONT WITH THE FRENCH VICE-CONSUL OF BREST, IN WHICH IT WAS MENTIONED IN BRIEF THAT ALL OF THEM AND THEIR DESCENDANTS WAIVE ANY FURTHER COMPENSATION!!
WE WERE LEFT WITH A SIGN TO REMIND US WHERE OUR HERITAGE STOLEN/SOLD OFF BY THE USUAL SUSPECTS WAS FOUND AND A COPY OF OUR APHRODITE, WHICH IS ON DISPLAY IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM of6 MILOS, A GIFT FROM THE “GENEROUS” LOUVRE MUSEUM
.
!

(AND ) APHRODITE HAS BEEN CRYING HERE FOR YEARS AND ASKING to RETURN TO HER MOTHER, GREECE, in the WATERS of which she was BORN, to HEAR HER NAME AGAIN, to see her SUN AGAIN …
WHEN WILL OUR HERITAGE be DISPERSED AMONG PEOPLES, UNABLE NOT ONLY TO CREATE CULTURE AND STATUES , BUT ALSO THEIR OWN WORD TO DESCRIBE THE HOUSE OF THE MUSES
, : THE MUSEUM? 

🌍 The Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios) at Athens, was a two-aisled stoa located in the northwest corner of the Ancient Agora of Athens. It was built c. 425 BC–410 BC for religious purposes in dedication to Zeus by the Eleutherios (“pertaining to freedom”): a cult founded after the Persian War. It is different from others in that it was a stoa rather than a temple (the common building used for religious purposes). Scholars believe the building also served other civic purposes due to its central location. Researchers think the structure may have been built by Mnesikles, the architect who built the Propylaia. In the late first century BC a two room annex was added, possibly for the cult of the Roman imperial family.
This cult of Zeus was established after the battle of Plataia in 479 BCE, when the Greeks drove the Persians out of Greece.
Though dedicated to a god, the building takes the form commonly used for a civic building: a stoa (colonnade or portico), with two projecting wings. Built of marble and limestone in the years around 425 B.C., the stoa had Doric columns on the exterior and Ionic columns within. According to Pausanias it was decorated with paintings done by Euphranor, a famous 4th-century artist, and the shields of those who died fighting for the freedom of Athens were displayed on the building. Rooms were added to the back of the stoa in the Early Roman period and may have housed a cult of the Roman emperors.

🏛️ Why does the Parthenon have a unique architecture? 🏺
💠 Iktinos and Kallikrates when designing this temple of the Virgin of Athens knew very well what to do in order to create a wonderful architectural result.
📐 The ratio of the height and width of the facade of the building is equal to the Golden Ratio (~1.618…).
🔸 It is also noteworthy that there are no straight lines in the Parthenon and if we extended the columns they would intersect at some point.
📖Sources:
The Golden Ratio, the story of F the most amazing number (Mario Livio).
The Golden Ratio in Ancient Greece (Evangelos Spandagos

)

ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS, GREECE in 1670s, in 1860s and 2021.

The roof and several side columns of the PARTHENON would’ve been still on there. Unfortunately during the OTTOMAN EMPIRE rule over GREECE, the VENETIANS, MOROSINI’S blasted cannons from the sea and hit the PARTHENON while the OTTOMANS were using the structure as an ammunition depot.

The explosion destroyed the roof and the sides of the PARTHENON.

THEN WAS THE “ENGLISH” NOBLE COUNT ELGIN* ONE OF THE WORST AMONG OF THE BARBARIAN THUGS, AFTER THE “FRENCH” NOBLE PRIEST MICHEL FOURMONT**, WHO LOOTED THE WHOLE COUNTRY, BURNED, MASSACRED ETC…

Today there is a major reconstruction of the PARTHENON and other structures on the ACROPOLIS.

P. S: *ELGIN, AS FOURMONT** HAD THE SAME ROOTS… DURING THE MIDDLE AGES, “RENAISSANCE” AND UP TO OUR DAYS THE PSRTICULAR RACE, WERE BYING NOBLE TITLES ALL OVER EUROPE… THE MOST DANGEROUS ARE THE UNGRATEFUL BENEFICIARY ONES TOWARDS TO THE BENEFACTOR-VICTIM THROUGH THE CENTURIES.. AND IT STILL GOING ON BY ALL KIND OF MEANS

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name of the holiday comes from the flower… and is related to the custom of the second day of the “Hoos”, where three-year-old children were crowned and not only , with flowers.

At the beginning of Spring, nature is reborn from its long hibernation, the earth begins to be adorned with the first hasty flowers and the bright sun fills man with joy and optimism. The first agricultural works begin, the cultivation of the land “opens the resources” and the souls of our dead rise to the surface. This surely reminds of loved ones, who have left the worldly life, people who have never been forgotten and paying honor to their memory, apart from being a debt, also helps to soften the pain of separation.

The Limnaios hiero, (héron “in Limnais”), was the center of the events, although we do not know its exact location. It is estimated somewhere between the theater of Dionysos and Ilissos. As is well known, the great and important holidays were three days long and the Anthesterias are no exception.

On the first day we had the Pythoia, that is the opening of the pyths, the next day we had the Hoes, (vessels of wine) while the third day, the Hytroi, was dedicated to the dead.

In Pythoia we had libations, outside the closed sanctuary of Dionysos, as they opened the pitharias with the wine of the new harvest. The whole family, from the age of three and above, wore floral wreaths, while the servants were entitled to do and say what they wanted because of the day. The first wine was an offering from the head of the family outside the sanctuary “in Limnais”, then there was a libation in the house with wishes for a good outcome and of course everyone tasted for the good of the new era, danced and sang and of course did not forget to thank the god Dionysus.

The second day, the Hoes, owes its name to the hoes, the vessels where it was stored, much like today’s good wine. It was the day when the sanctuary was opened, the hierogamy was performed, during which the procession entered the sanctuary, where the symbolic marriage of the god was performed after the wife of each king, for the vegetation and fruitfulness of the earth. The king, accompanied by disguised followers, arrived at the sanctuary, on a wheeled chariot in the shape of a ship, whose bow ended in the shape of a pig’s head, while its stern resembled the neck of a swan. The same ship was also used in Panathenaia, to transport the sacred Veil of Athena. In the sanctuary he met his beloved wife, who had arrived there the day before, in a flower-decorated carriage, followed by nymphs and maenads, as well as bearded Seilins, to the sound of bells and bells, as well as the hymn of the Bacchus. She was accompanied by fourteen Athenian concubines, chosen by the king himself, the so-called Gerares. Reference is made to Hesychius as well as Polydeukis.

After the ceremony, the queen spent the night again in the sanctuary, while the escort with lit torches went to the theater where a banquet was held with wine-drinking contests. They filled clay vessels (hoes) with wine and competed to see who would drink it the fastest, while stepping on inflated ashes smeared with oil, because apparently part of the competition was the difficulty caused by their slipperiness. They brought food from home, mainly placentas with a kind of hot sauce. [“upon deipnon fast, marched the kistin and the hoa. That of Dionysus, because the priest is transferred” (Acharnes, (1085 -1087) Aristophanes)].

The contestants were speechless during the wine-drinking, while afterwards with the wine that was left over they made libations inside the sanctuary of Limnaios.

There was a special celebration for children, where three-year-old children were crowned with floral crowns, which in a sense symbolized the rebirth of mother nature. Gifts were also sent to the teachers that day.

After the dances, the participants in the banquet went out into the streets, on carriages, where obscenities, jeers and fights were customary. Today’s expression “you’ll hear it from the car” comes from this fact.

On the third day (Khytroi), the scene changed completely, the holiday was dedicated to the dead, as mentioned above. Porridge was prepared from grass and various seeds, inside clay pots, a kind of kolybum. It was believed that the souls, ascending from the underworld and hovering around the fire, breathed in the gourd and smoke and drank honey and milk from the pit. The panspermia myth goes back to the time of the Deucalion flood, during which the survivors cooked “panspermia soup”. He performed a sacrifice to Dionysus and the soul-bearer Hermes, an ancient custom. A red thread around the saints was a kind of protection from the evil, evil spirits, which were believed to ascend together with the souls.

We also had apothecaries in other cities of Greece, in Boeotia, in Corinth, in Apollonia of Halkidiki, in Thira, in Magnesia, etc.

Here in the above photos one can see how, from antiquity to the present day, from Alexandroupoli to Zurich and so on. with the same enthusiasm from young and old, the tradition of the beautiful Spring holiday continues.

Apollonius – Ariadne/ . Detalj av en attisk rödfigurig kalyx-krater från Thebe cirka 400-375 f.Kr.

Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite, sculpture of PhidiasPhidias, also spelled Pheidias (flourished c. 490–430 bc), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration. It is said of Phidias that he alone had seen the exact image of the gods and that he revealed it to man. He established forever general conceptions of Zeus and Athena. HERE: from the eastern front of the Parthenon, 435 BC, London, British Museum.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides,

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name …

  · 

ΑΝΘΕΣΤΗΡΙΑ


.

ON THE BRINK OF PURE DIVINE ARE 3 UNITS: SYMMETRY, TRUTH AND BEAUTY(= ΚΑΛΛΟΣ /KALLOS).
THE RHYTHMS (OR ORDERS) OF THE COLUMNS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF THESE 3 UNITS.
The DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS POWER, WITH THE SUPPORT OF GREAT WEIGHTS AND THEREFORE SYMMETRY, BECAUSE ONLY SYMMETRY IS STRONG ….THE IONIC RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO WISDOM AND BY EXTENSION TO TRUTH, AS THE SPIRAL ALLUDES TO MENTAL POWER…
THE CORINTHIAN ORDER (RHYTHM) REPRESENTS THE BEAUTY (OR KALLOS), SINCE
, AS THE MOST DECORATED, IT EXPRESS DELICACY AND GRACE…
VITRUVIUS,
ON ARCHITECTURE …
THE 3 RHYTHMS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF ALL 3 PARTS OF THE SOUL= ΨΥΧΗ/PSYCHE…
THE DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS THE POWER OF THE THYMOID, OF EMOTION ….
THE IONIC RHYTHM REPRESENTS THE WISDOM OF THE ACCOUNTING, THE INTELLIGENCE-KNOWLEDGE=ΝΌΗΣΗΣ-ΓΝΩΣΙΣ
/NOESIS-GNOSIS…
THE CORINTHIAN RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO THE BEAUTY OF DESIGN: EROS=ΕΡΩΣ
THE SEAL AND GREATNESS OF SPIRITUAL GREECE!.

YOUNG MEN RIDE HORSES ON THE PARTHENON FRIEZE

ANOTHER PART OF THE PARTHENON FRIEZE SHOWED THE RICH YOUNG MEN OF ATHENS RIDING THEIR HORSES. THE HORSES ARE EXCITED TO BE IN A PARADE, AND THE YOUNG MEN ARE TRYING TO KEEP THEM UNDER CONTROL.

NEED OF CATHARSIS = <<ΚΥΘΗΡΑΣΘΑΙ ΑΝΑΓΚΗ>>

…Three ways of purifying the PSYCHE(=ΨΥΧΗ= SOUL) according to PROCLUS whose IGNORANCE is considered a DISEASE OF THE MIND:
A. The first way of purification is through Plato’s PHAEDRUS through TERELTICISM as formulated by Socrates to pursue Divine Love through the virtues, to desire the Heaven of Aphrodite and through the virtues to perform friendship and divine intercourse.
So what is Love?
<<Kind of desire, lust>> (Phaedros 237ff). But even those who do not have love lust, when they desire the best, they feel lust!
How do we distinguish lust?
Two Ideas exist within us:
One begins since it dominates by nature is innate and is the desire of pleasure.
The other is glory, acquired opinion is acquired after the first and acts with a strong desire for the excellent.
These are ideas that prevail within us.
The glory that leads to excellence is called Sophrosyne, while the natural desire that is attracted by pleasures and prevails in us was called Hubris.
Love that becomes hubris is considered to have been diverted from Divine ideas. He is hurtful and disgusting and must become Sophrosyne!
On the contrary, the Love of Wisdom leads love to friendship to love and agrees with <<PHILION>> Dia.
He who speaks of him shines <<UNDER THE WORD>> and COMPELS after the divine head with the divine round Mind.
And this love is the four virtues of the Greeks, namely:
WISDOM when due to <<estimation>> the desire of love is led to excellence.
SORRY when the desire of the rectus restrains the desire of the pleasures of the horses.
COURAGE when you fight with rum for the pleasure of the excellent and beautiful and THE RIGHTEOUSNESS when the logic of the excellent presides over the lust for the enjoyment of beauty on the bodies! This is DIVINE LOVE a soul passion Divine that leads to the supreme happiness of man.
Abs. from the book: Initiation to the Delphic Light by Lia Koutalianou

TEMPLE OF APOLLO/ DELPHI//BEOTIA

O N I A (“MINOR ASIA”) /: A L I C A R N A S S O S BUDRUM IN NOW DAYS TURKEY

(Some large Mycenaean tombs have been found at Musgebi (or Muskebi, modern Ortakent), not far from Halicarnassus. According to Turkish archaeologist Yusuf Boysal, the Muskebi material, dating from the end of the fifteenth century BC to ca. 1200 BC, provides evidence of the presence, in this region, of a Mycenaean settlemen), Amazon Frieze BM GR1847.4-24.5. Detail of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: combats between Greeks and Amazons. Date circa 350 BC

section of the Amazon frieze

Section of the Amazon frieze from the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, attributed to Pytheas, c. 350 BCE; in the British Museum, London

English: Detail of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: combats between Greeks and Amazons
Date14 August 2009, 12:30:55
SourceOwn work
AuthorYair Haklai

Siphnian Treasury, c. 530 B.C.E., Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece

NO ONE LOVED THE HUMAN BODY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS. ..
NO ONE PRAISED HUMAN BEAUTY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS, THROUGH THEIR ARTS…
NO ONE HONORED LOVE WITH THEIR LIVES, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS…
AND THE MISANTHROPIC , NEGATING, RABID-FURIOUS PERSECUTORS OF HELLENISM OVER THE CENTURIES NEVER FORGAVE US FOR THIS …

By: Mauro Klemens Hein.

Relief with LETO, APOLLO, ARTEIDS and ECHIDNA, 5th c. BC.

THIS MATHEMATIC LANGUAGE
IS THE ONE, WHICH ELEVATES THE HUMANITY IN AETHERIAL LEVELS OF UNIVERSAL VALUES AND CREATIVITY THROUGH:
PHILOSOPHY,
ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, STEREOMETRY, ARCHITECTURE, ARTS, MEDICINE, ATHLETICS, GASTRONOMY,
MUSIC, DRAMA, POETRY…. ALL THESE ACHIEVEMENTS ARE INTERCONNECTED WITH ONLY MATHEMATIC LANGUAGE ON EARTH.. IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE HIGH SPIRIT OF THE HELLENIC RELIGION IS A PHILOSHOPHIC CONCEPT, UKNOWN – UNFORTUNATELY – FOR MOST OF THE NOW DAYS PEOPLE ARE HOOKED BY DOGMATIC RULES..

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of-the-ancient-greek-language-vs-phoenician-deception/

The Bardo Museum in Tunis has one of the world’s great collections of mosaics, dating back more than 2000 years. Many of them depict POSEIDON ,THE GREEK GOD ÓF THE, and the four seasons of the year. This photo is just a detail shot of a portion of one mosaic. Sadly, the Bardo Museum has been in the news not for its art collection, but for a terrorist attack.

 … 

Three-sided marble relief. Left side. Greek. Classical Period, c. 450–440 B.C. | Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

ΟΔΥΣΣΈΑΣ. ODYSSEUS with his dog ARGOS.

A M A L T H E I A — Leap to the Divine

Amalthea is the terrible goat who, with the help of the Nymphs, Adrastea and Ides, fed Zeus with her milk. She is the daughter of Helios and looks so terrifying that even the Titans could not bear her, so they begged the Earth to hide her in a cave in Crete. There, in the bowels of Mount Ida, they brought the newborn Zeus to her, to nurse him. Much later, during his fight against the Titans, Themis advised Zeus to wear the skin of Amalthea for protection, as nothing could penetrate it.

The myth of the “horn of plenty” is also associated with Amalthea. According to the prevailing version, Zeus himself broke her horn and after strengthening it with miraculous properties, gave it to the daughters of the king of Crete, Melissos, who had helped deliver the infant to Amalthea. It only took one wish and the horn was filled with all the goods.

Amalthea and her horn, a symbol of fertility and abundance, were later destroyed by Zeus in the firmament.

This is, in short, the symbolic imprint of the nursing of Zeus, which as a “Myth” unfolds internal parameters of payment, course and protection from above that the soul enjoys during its incarnate journey.

The question naturally arises:

“Is it possible for a GOAT to nurse the father of the gods?”

But Amalthea originates from the Sun, so it is a bright/solar creature. Also as horned, it is sacred, as horns were considered sacred symbols and were an object of respect, as points of connection with the divine field. Her terrible visage declares that, as a sacred creature, she should not be visible to unworthy unholy eyes. That is why the Earth itself hides her in the cave/womb, where darkness reigns and there, Amalthea receives the newborn Zeus and becomes His foster!

The Goat Amalthea, Sacred Solar creature, hidden in the bosom of Mother Earth, talismanically nurtures Zeus in the innermost, that is, in the dark, subterranean chambers of the terrible labyrinth of earthly ramifications that the soul is called to traverse. While later again the Goat is his nurse, she will protect him with her fleece against the Titans.

Because,

the Galuchia is the highest form of initiatory connection, whose influence and protection never ceases, while the Solar Knowledge (as imprinted on the fleece of Amalthea) is impenetrable by Titan shots!

As for the Sacred Horn of Amalthea, Zeus, recognizing the help given to him by Melisseus, donates it to his daughters. In essence, Zeus donates to the sowing of Melisseus, the unique fertilizing wealth, which is none other than the possibility of connecting the mortal with the Divine (as symbolized by the horns/antennae).

Finally, Amalthea and her symbolic horn of wealth are raised to the Heavenly Dome,

As

the nurse of Zeus, as AEGA is SAINT

and as AMAL-THEIA they are the BAD GODDESSES, while KERAS (K + ERAS/ERATOS) expresses the Circular route, which through Eros the soul erased, so that it could locate its Center and from there launch itself into the Celestial firmament.

In conclusion,

Zeus/Mind, by his example, demonstrates the support of the Divine in the demanding path that each soul must follow in its journey, which begins with the descent from above, is strengthened by the intake of knowledge within the bowels of the Earth and through the Solar feeder of lactation, recovers the psycho-spiritual power, as a return ticket to its destination, which touches the starting point.

It is the Circle of the course, starting from Heaven, staying in darkness, fighting against Titans and ascending/returning to the Star of origin.

In this route, the Goat

A M A L T H E A

he is called, as a nurturer, by the Nymphs and is projected as a connection of Earth and Heaven, expressing the help from above, which supports the soul in its Heroic LEAP towards the DIVINE fields, as a beneficiary of the Sacred Horn!

IF WE START FROM THE CENTER OF THE PARTHENON AND JOIN THESE POINTS: THESEIUM, PNYX, THE BASE OF PHILOPAPPOUS, AND THE CENTER OF THE TEMPLE OF OLYMPUS ZEUS(DIOS), AN OCTAGON WILL FORM WHERE EACH ANGLE WILL BE EXACTLY EQUAL TO THE LENGHT OF PARTHENON TIMES 7(SEVEN)……. THE MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY THE ANCIENT GREEKS EXCEEDED ANY IMAGINATION, SO THEY FORMED A PERFECT NETWORK, BASED ON MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS, WHICH WAS UNCONCEPTABLE TO THE CHALDEANS, BABYLONIANS,, HINDUS, PHOENICIANS AND EGYPTIANS… THE THEATERS BUILT BY THE GREEKS HAD PERFECT ACOUSTICS WHEREVER THEY ARE….. LATER THE ROMANS TRY TO IMITATE THEM, BUT WHEN SOMEONE WISHES TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH A GREEK, IT IS LIKE WISHING TO MOUNT BAREFOOT (BAREFOOT) IN THE MIDDLE OF WINTER ON OLYMPUS…THE WIDTH OF THE PARTHENON IS ONE TWO MINUTES OF THE EQUATOR…CHALKIS IS THE SAME DISTANCE FROM ATHENS AND SOUNIO, AS ALSO DELPHI IS THE SAME FROM OLYMPIA AND ATHENS.. DISTANCE: CHALKIS THEBE IS 162 STAGES, THE SAME AND THE AMPHIAREUM.. DELOS TO ATHENS DISTANCE 800





PENTELIAN MARBLE ‘ DECORATED IN BAS-RELIEF OF ‘HERMES CONSIGNING THE YOUNG DIONYSUS TO THE NYMPHS OF NISSA to NURSE AND FEED HIM’, SIGNED BY THE ATHENIAN SCULPTOR SALPION

ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF NAPLES

Boulton & Fothergill designed to hold essence or perfume. It was based on the antique Gaeta vase created by the Greek sculptor Salpion, now in the National Museum, Naples.

During the second half of the k eighteenth century ornamental vases were very popular, in some cases sets of up to seven vases were produced to be placed together on a chimneypiece. Boulton was one of the first manufacturers to seize on the commercial opportunities created by the craze for the ‘antique taste’, or neo-classicism as we now refer to it, and especially for ornamental vases, which flourished in the 1760s

No photo description available.

All reactions:

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/LEPTIS MAGNALIBYA/750 BC CORINTHIAN & IONIAN RYTHM of the COLLUMS GREEK COLONY-NOT “PHOENICIAN”, OR CARTHAGENIAN, OR ...ALBANIAN. ETC.. ETC🤣😂😅😂

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/:

2-B-CONTINUED: SYRIA/IDENTICAL HELLENIC MOSAICS: MOTIVES FROM THE GREEK MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY:. HERCULES, HIPPOLYTE, ACHILEUS…

₪₪₪.

P. S: CHECK UP PLEASE(!!), THE INCRPTIONS

,,,,,THEN: YOU KNOW…… ..WHO`s WHO in the ZOO…. MEANING WHO IS THE CREATOR & WHO’s THE.. CREATURE!! 😆

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ASIA MINOR// ANCIENT HELLENIC CITY of ADANA/ DEDICATED TO THE TWO SONS OF URANUS: ADANOS & SARUS = ΑΔΑΝΟΣ & ΣΑΡΟΥΣ // MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY/ /HERE:

CLASSICAL MOSAIC of POSEIDON(“NEPTUN” LATER in LATIN) 400 BC

MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY/ GORGONA MEDUSA

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/

BYZANTIUM-BUILT IN 8th Century BC, by BYZAS, KING OF MEGARA(BETWEEN ATHENS & CORINTH)..

..1100 YEARS…LATER “CONSTANTINOPEL”.. .

&….1300 YEARS LATER

“ISTANBUL”

Nestled beneath the winding streets of ISTANBUL, just 490 feet (149 meters) from the Hagia Sophia lies an ancient cistern that has two columns in particular, however, shaped like giant Gorgon Medusa heads, that have piqued the interest of those with a more imaginative brain. The Basilica Cistern, also known as the Yerebatan Cistern, is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that sit under the city of Istanbul, designed to catch and hold rainwater. It is one of the most famous and impressive cisterns, not only in Turkey, but in the entire world.

PS: ANCIENT GREEK

WONDERFUL MARBLE STATUES & TEMPLES, OF DEMETRA, APOLLO WERE BROKEN, UNDER TO BUILD…

TEMPLE OF BACCHUS /IONIAN ORDER IN TODAY`S BAALBEK

THOSE WHO COULDN’T STAND THE BEAUTY)(=ΚΑΛΛΟΣ/KALLOS), THE HARMONY AND THE MEASURE, TRIED TO DESTROY THEM, TO CARVE ON THEM THEIR OWN UGLYNESS!!!
AND THESE WERE NONE OTHER THAN THE VILE AND VILE DRESSED SUBHUMANS, THE BARBARIC AND FOOLISH INSTRUMENTS OF THE DARK PRIESTHOOD OF THE JUDAISM DOCTRINE!!!…LOVE IS GOD!!! NO HOLY. LOVE IS GREEK!!! NOT LATIN. EROS=ΕΡΩΣ IS THE SON OF GODDESS OF BEAUTY APHRODITE = ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗ, 
..NOTHING TO DO WITH VALENTINE.
LET’S FINALLY REASON!..BELOW: A MASTER PIECE OF ANTONIO CANOVA

Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite, sculpture of PhidiasPhidias, also spelled Pheidias (flourished c. 490–430 bc), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration. It is said of Phidias that he alone had seen the exact image of the gods and that he revealed it to man. He established forever general conceptions of Zeus and Athena. HERE: from the eastern front of the Parthenon, 435 BC, London, British Museum



The “House of the Abduction of HELEN” (also known as House 1.5 of Block 5 of the city) is named after this enormous floor mosaic, 8.48 x 2.84 metres, the largest ancient mosaic yet discovered in Europe, which is still in its original position in the archaeological site, at the north side of the house. It was unearthed in 1961, around the same time as the Stag Hunt mosaic in the next room east of it. These works are thought to have been made later than those in the “House of DIONYSOS” using more advanced styles and techniques.

The dramatic subject of the mosaic is the mythical abduction (or rape) of HELEN (later to be known as Helen of Troy) by the ATHENIAN hero THESEUS. As he forces Helen to board his waiting chariot she calls to her fleeing female companion DEIANEERA for help. The name of the four characters in the scene are written close to each head. In the photo above, the driver of the four-horse chariot is named as Phorbas (ΦΟΡΒΑΣ).
photos and articles:

© David John 

ALEXANDER the Great: The GREATEST Speech (at OPIS) in HISTORY?
ALEXANDER the Great is one of the most extraordinary individuals in history. He became king of the fringe GREEK kingdom of MACEDONIA in 336 BC at the age of just 20, and before his death twelve years later, had imposed Macedonian overlordship on Greece, destroyed the mighty Persian Empire and led an army deep into modern Afghanistan and to the Indian frontier.
At Opis he faced a mutiny by his Macedonian troops, angered that he wanted to send some of them home, while appearing to give preference to his new Asian subjects, and adopting many of their customs. Alexander dealt ruthlessly with the ringleaders, before (according to ‘The ANABASIS’ by ROMAN historian ARRIAN) making a speech to his army in which he berated his troops for their disloyalty.
Egyptian Officials Claim They’ve Found Alexander the Great’s Tomb
The speech, as it has reached us, was no doubt written by ARRIAN rather than ALEXANDER. His actual words are now impossible to ascertain.
But ARRIAN had access to eyewitness accounts which are now lost (principally PTOLEME and NEARHOS, and modern historians generally agree that the speech was a real historical event, and that ARRIAN gives a good representation of its likely content.
ALEXANDER The Great Statue Unveiled in Athens
Putting its (contested and debated) value as a historical source to one side, the scene – as it appears in ARRIAN – is a brilliantly written moment of high drama and emotion, in which ALEXANDER first highlights his debt to his father PHILIPP, before launching into a tirade in which he lists his own astounding achievements and qualities of leadership.
The speech has been abridged for this video.
The speech:
“The speech which I am about to deliver will not be for the purpose of checking your start homeward, for, so far as I am concerned, you may depart wherever you wish; but because I wish you to know what kind of men you were originally and how you have been transformed since you came into our service.
“In the first place, as is reasonable, I shall begin my speech from my father PHILIP. For he found you vagabonds and destitute of means, most of you clad in hides, feeding a few sheep up the mountain sides, for the protection of which you had to fight with small success against Illyrians, Triballians, and the border Thracians.
“Instead of the hides he gave you cloaks to wear, and from the mountains he led you down into the plains, and made you capable of fighting the neighbouring barbarians, so that you were no longer compelled to preserve yourselves by trusting rather to the inaccessible strongholds than to your own valour. He made you colonists of cities, which he adorned with useful laws and customs; and from being slaves and subjects, he made you rulers over those very barbarians by whom you yourselves, as well as your property, were previously liable to be plundered and ravaged.
“He also added the greater part of Thrace to Macedonia, and by seizing the most conveniently situated places on the sea-coast, he spread abundance over the land from commerce, and made the working of the mines a secure employment. He made you rulers over the Thessalians, of whom you had formerly been in mortal fear; and by humbling the nation of the Phocians, he rendered the avenue into Greece broad and easy for you, instead of being narrow and difficult.
“The Athenians and Thebans, who were always lying in wait to attack Macedonia, he humbled to such a degree,—I also then rendering him my personal aid in the campaign,—that instead of paying tribute to the former and being vassals to the latter, those States in their turn procure security to themselves by our assistance.
“He penetrated into the Peloponnese, and after regulating its affairs, was publicly declared commander-in-chief of all the rest of Greece in the expedition against the Persian, adding this glory not more to himself than to the commonwealth of the Macedonians. These were the advantages which accrued to you from my father Philip; great indeed if looked at by themselves, but small if compared with those you have obtained from me.
“For though I inherited from my father only a few gold and silver goblets, and there were not even sixty talents in the treasury, and though I found myself charged with a debt of 5OO talents owing by Philip, and I was obliged myself to borrow 800 talents in addition to these, I started from the country which could not decently support you, and forthwith laid open to you the passage of the Hellespont, though at that time the Persians held the sovereignty of the sea.
“Having overpowered the viceroys of Darius with my cavalry, I added to your empire the whole of Ionia, the whole of Aeolis, both Phrygias and Lydia, and I took Miletus by siege. All the other places I gained by voluntary surrender, and I granted you the privilege of appropriating the wealth found in them.
“The riches of Egypt and Cyrene, which I acquired without fighting a battle, have come to you. Coele-Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia are your property. Babylon, Bactra, and Susa are yours. The wealth of the Lydians, the treasures of the Persians, and the riches of the Indians are yours; and so is the External Sea.
“You are viceroys, you are generals, you are captains. What then have I reserved to myself after all these labours, except this purple robe and this diadem?
“I have appropriated nothing myself, nor can any one point out my treasures, except these possessions of yours or the things which I am guarding on your behalf.
“Individually, however, I have no motive to guard them, since I feed on the same fare as you do, and I take only the same amount of sleep. Nay, I do not think that my fare is as good as that of those among you who live luxuriously; and I know that I often sit up at night to watch for you, that you may be able to sleep.”
READ MORE: From Egypt To India: The Cities Founded By Alexander The Great.

VERGINA IS A PANHELLENIC SYMBOL.
The shield below is SPARTAN, AS ALL OVER GREECE

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/MACEDONIA/
A person with a NORMAL I.Q can SEE that these Macedonian coins are in GREEK ..NOT WARDASKIAN Slavoalbanian, which is Cyrilic (Slavic letters.CYRILLOS & METHODIOS were Greek Monks and they introduced the Cyrilic Alphabeth to the Slavic at that time people in 800A.D.).the coins are dated since 400 B.C belonging to the Argead – Macedonian Dynasty ….ALEXANDROS= man`s protector, became more than thousands years later…
“Aleksandar”!!..further from the ENGLISH-ZATION to “ANDER”, as: ANDROS(= of MAN) ..like PERIANDROS, MAIANDROS, LEANDROS, ANAXIMANDROS, NIKANDROS(=MAN’s VICTORY),…
..But CRIMINAL GEOPOLITICS, ECONOMICAL, INFERIORITY COMPLEX and other reasons by CERTAIN BARBARIC POWERFUL nations ..
..the plan is OLDER THAN 80 years old & Tito and later Soros is finishing the plan of their goal!: The SERBIAN Kosovo becomes ..Albania, as Great Albania!!.. &.. Wardaska (PAIANIA
 in ancient times) “Northen Macedonia”!!!
…simple FACTS!!>>>^>>>>>>>>>
Yep, apparently ALL MACEDONIAN coin inscriptions that the Greeks still can understand perfectly 2500 years later, are really Sk0pey SLAVIC-CRYPTO language for use in HELLENIC currency ???? 
JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED.. as..THEIR OWN!!!!!! 😄😂) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!
ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,
HAVING – OF COURSE – HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, JEALOUSY & NO AUTHENTIC HIGH & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION…
TEMPLES, STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, COINS, SCIENCE, as: MEDICINE, TECHNOLOGY( JUST ONE example: The ANTIKITHERA mechanism) MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, POETRY.. & ETYMOLOGY of NAMES
& WORDS by the ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC LANGUAGE, WHICH IS INTERCONNECTED WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS..
.. ARE JUST the WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS & UNFORTUNATELY THOUSANDS OF “PRIVATE” COLLECTORS
AROUND THE WORLD
.
www.argead dynasty

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/APAMEA/CORINTHIAN (ORDER OF COLUMNS)/

APAMEA is an ANCIENT GREEK city, overlooking the GHAB VALLEY in the Hama Governorate of Syria.

The city was FOUNDED AROUND 300 BC BY SELEUCOS I NICATOR, ONE of the ΔΙΑΔΟΧOI=

DIADOCHI = SUCCESSORS

FOUGHT FOR CONTROL OVER THE EMPIRE FOUNDED by ALEXANDER the GREAT AFTER HIS DEATH, ESTABLISHING THE SELEUCID EMPIRE OVER THE HELLENIZED TERRITORIES ALEXANDER HAD CONQUERED IN ASIA.

“SELEUCUS” named the city in DEDICATION to his WIFE, APAMA of SOGDIANA, one of the four cities of the Syrian TETRAPOLIS along with ANTIOCHOS (named after his father), LAODICEIA (named after his mother) and SELEUCEIA (named after himself).

In the FOLLOWING CENTURIES, the SELEUCID EMPIRE came INTO CONFLICT WITH THE ROMAN REPUBLIC OVER HELLENISTIC GREECE, RESULTING IN A GRADUAL DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND THE SUBMISSION OVER TERRITORIAL CLAIMS WEST of the TAURUS MOUNTAINS IN PRESENT-DAY TURKEY.

IN 64 BC, GNAEUS POMPEI US MAGNUS (also known as POMPEI the Great) MARCHED ON APAMEA, ANNEXING the CITY AS PART of the ROMAN PROVINCE OF SYRIA. IN RESPONSEN TO AN EARTHQUAKE in6 AD 115 ANTIOCH EARTHQUAKE ), THE ROMANS REBUILT APAMEA with a TYPICAL GREEK- ROMAN street grid system, and large public works such as aqueducts, bathhouses, and a THEATRE

.

SIREN ON A VIOTIAN SIREN ON A VIOTIAN BLACK-SHAPED = MELANMORPHIC = ΜΕΛΑΝΟΜΟΡΦΟ PLATE FROM TANAGRA, 570-560 BCE.

LOUVRE MUSEUM, MNB 626 PLATE FROM TANAGRA, AROUND 570-560 BCE.

LOUVRE MUSEUM, MNB 626

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name …

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name …

  · 

CONTAINER (=PYTO=RYTO) IN THE SHAPE OF A BEING’S HEAD AND A MAENADE…FROM ATHENA….

About 440 to 430 BC

LOUVRE MUSEUM…

THE RYTO (PLURALIS:.RYTA) FROM THE ANCIENT GREEK PYTO/RYTO.

it is a container for drinking liquids or blood during related rituals.

The word is said to be derived from the verb rein, .

The typology of the vessel includes features such as the open mouth and the hole near the bottom which probably served to diffuse the liquid.

“Tilt the old door

and let me lock out Boreas(=North-wind),

He is also a sailor

and has bitterness in his heart.”

The god BOREAS, according to one version was son of ΑΙΟΛΟΣ=AEOLUS and ANCESTOR of the MACEDONIANS, was the god of the frozen north winds that blew in winter. He is depicted as bearded, winged and with wings on his feet, wearing a short pleated tunic. As the song says “he had bitterness in his heart”. Because he lived alone in his WHITE PALACE IN THRACE and traveled by flying, giving people the icy wind with his breath.

As he was flying over ATHENS one day, he saw the beautiful OREITHYIA, the YOUNGEST daughter of the king of the city, ERECHTHEA and fell in LOVE with her. She was also SÄD because her father had SHUT her up in the PALACE, FEARING, that SHE MIGHT MARRY and NOT have HER to TAKE CARE of him in his OLD age. BOREAS, like a good boy, went and asked for her from her father. He asked Boreas to come again in a month to prepare his daughter for the wedding, but actually to buy time. During this time, BOREAS OFTEN visited the PRINCESS , who ALSO FELL in LOVE with him. So they “DIVIDED THEIR PAIN IN half”… BUT because ERECHTHEUS KEPT GIVING FURTHER POSTPONEMENTS FOR THE WEDDING, BOREAS got6 VERY ANGRY WITH his BEHAVIOR and DECIDES TO STEAL THE GIRL IN ORDER TO MARRY HER. FLYING QQUICKLY TO ATHENS OVER ILYSOS according to one version, WHERE SHE WAS PLAYING WITH HER FRIENDS, HE TOOK HER IN HIS ARMS AND FLEW AWAY with her, heading for HIS PALACE on the SARPEDONIAN CAPE OF THRACE. THERE, BOREAS AND OREITHYIA – who became IMMORTAL LIKE HER HUSBAND – MARRIED and LIVED HAPPILY in THEIR PALACE in THRACE and had TWO WINGED sons, ZETIS and CALAIS, who followed JASON with the ARGONAUTS

BOREAS, according to a legend, LATER, for the SAKE of HIS WIFE, HELPED THE ATHENIANS and destroyed the PERSIAN FLEET at ATHOS and ARTEMISIOUM. AFTER the DESTRUCTION of the PERSIAN fleet, the ATHENIANS HONORED, TOGETHER with the god POSEIDON, BOREAS, with AN ALTAR they set up on the banks of the Ilis, where OREITHIA had been CAPTURED.

These beautiful tender lyrics by Dimitris Christodoulou, set to music by Mimi Plessas and sung by the adored Antonis Kalogiannis, were among my very favorite songs of my youth! The last time I heard it and I liked it was also from the Corfu choir of OTE employees, who raised it to another parallel sphere, with the well-known timbre of the Ionian songs!

Photo from ancientrome.ru/art/artworken : Boreas abducts Orithia under the gaze of one of her friends. Red clay jug. Angiographer Hermonax.

Circa 470 BC

Height 35.1 cm, rim diameter 18 cm, base diameter 13 cm.

In St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum.

είναι κι αυτός θαλασσινός

EPITYMBIA”** LECYNTHOS, PIRAEUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM…
The tomb lekythos is decorated with embossed floral and linear motifs in bands. Beginning of the 4th century BC
The lekythos is a type of Greek vase that was used as an olive oil container. It has a narrow body and a thin and long neck. Its handle (if present) connects the neck to the body.
**EPITYMBIA= SCRIPTS ON THE TOMB LECYTHOS, DEDICATED TO HEROES AND GREAT PERSONALITIES ..

ALABASTER (vessel)

GREEK ALABASTER FROM LOWER ITALY ….LOUVRE

Alabaster in art and archeology means a vessel with a tall body and a small mouth. It usually does not have a handle, although sometimes it has small holes or ears for carrying it.

Alabaster was used by women, mainly for the storage of aromatic oils, as is at least witnessed in the angiographic scenes.

They often appear as offerings in burial assemblages. The exhibit dates back to the end of the 4th/beginning of the 3rd century BC. It was introduced at the end of the 6th century BC. century and disappeared from the scene at the end of the 5th BC. h.

The scene that decorates the vase covers the perimeter of the body, while sometimes it is adorned only with an anthemion. Its height varies from 15-20 cm.

KYATHOS

Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, drank only two goblets of wine at dinner, this was not considered a sign of great temperance,

The kyathos was quite a handy vessel and Athenaeus says that it was the necessary vessel both in the houses of the rich and in the huts of the poor. It also served as a measure of the ratio of mixing wine with water indicated by the winemaker. Polydeukis says that ten glasses of water correspond to five glasses of wine. During the banquet, the slave, who was near the krater with the goblet in his hand, filled up wine from the krater and poured the intoxicating liquid into the syndaitymonos’ glass, “cyathizoning” it, as Athenaeus says. During the wine-drinking, the host determined the number of cups, which the wine-bearer had to pour into the glass of each syndaitymon.

Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, drank only two goblets of wine at dinner, this was not considered a sign of great restraint, as Athenaeus emphasizes. Augustus did not exceed twelve cyathus during the whole banquet, as Suetonius mentions. The slave, who performed the duties of winemaker, was called “cyathotes” and was usually a handsome and graceful teenager, who carried a long and perfumed earl. In performances this young man always holds the kyathos as an emblem of his service. With the kyathos, the necessary libations were made at the beginning and end of the banquet, in which the name of the god and the name of the host were pronounced. The kyathos was a metal vessel, usually copper. But there were also bowls of more precious metal and bowls of ivory. The shape of this handy container is indeterminate. Plato the comedian compares the cup to the pan, which draw the water of the ships. Suidas and his commentator Aristophanes compare it in terms of the cochlea. Hesychius calls it an oval vessel.

CYLIX ..THE HOLY VESSEL OF ANTIQUITY…

(Dedicated to Someone)

It symbolized the soul, into which is poured the wine, the spiritual drink (the higher spiritual life), which was used in all the sacramental sacrifices. The ecstasy of the soul in a state of intoxication, caused by the divine drink (symbolized by a goblet full of wine, ambrosia, etc.) is found in the myth of Dionysus (Bacchus) who carried the drunken Hephaestus to Olympus (upper world).

The goblet was a circular glass, deep, but completely open, with a base and 2 handles. The classic type of goblet resembles today’s champagne glasses with the addition of two ears usually to hang the empty goblet. In vase paintings, contemporaries hold these glasses by the base or foot. The height of the foot, like the depth of the cup, varied by place and time and that is why there are many variations of the cup.

The oldest type of goblet is a kind of deep cup with a vertically shaped belly and a thick and tall foot. The handles show the shape of a short and full ear, many times they were not completely missing. This type is found in Italy, Greece and Asia Minor and belongs to the archaic period. A typical specimen is the archaic goblet in the British Museum, decorated with meanders and wavy lines.

With the passage of time, the shape of this acetabulum changes to a more elegant and simplified one, to end up, through gradual lightening and thinning of its parts, in the beautiful classical type. Cups of this type appear almost flattened as a consequence of the large width in relation to the small depth. The bottom of the glass forms an elongated arc. The leg, thin and slightly raised, traces a slight curve. The handles, in the shape of horns rather than rings, are also elongated, following the general trend of the vessel. But there are also goblets with a somehow pressed base or without the base, which look like the bottle. According to Athenius, the Cypriots called the acetabulum kilica. Polydeukis confuses the goblet with the carcase. Thus it turns out that the term cup is open to many definitions.

However, it is generally accepted that the goblet is the vessel we described above and is quite similar to today’s champagne glasses. Goblets were made from all kinds of materials. Of course, they were usually made of clay.
But they were also made of wood, as Martialius informs us, and of gold and silver, as Athenaeus testifies. Proof of this is the silver goblet, found during excavations in the Crimea and exhibited in the Hermitage museum. This silver goblet is decorated around the belly, just above the ears, with an engraved gold necklace. According to Martialius, there were also silver and gold goblets, decorated with precious stones, as well as goblets made of crystal or even plain glass.

COOLER AND COVERED CRATER (Vessels for cooling wine)

A cooler in ancient Greek pottery is a mushroom-shaped vessel, hollow down to its flat base, used for cooling wine. It was placed inside a larger vessel, usually a lidded krater, containing cool water.

Various shapes of vessels for cooling wine were used in the past. However, coolers of this particular shape were first manufactured by the pioneers of the red-figure style around 520 BC, apparently in combination with the cupped krater, a shape first used by the late Hezekiah around 530 BC. and established a little later by Euphronios. The use of freezers did not last more than two generations: from 460 BC. approx. and then both the production of freezers by the potters and their depiction in angiography stops.

Attic black figure cooler depicting the departure of the warrior, c. 525-500 BCE. Louvre, no. of exhibit F 319.

KANTHAROS
SYMPOSIASTIS, ON KANTHAROS BY THE PAINTER OF THE GREAT ATHENIAN KANTHAROS……. Louvre Museum, end of the 5th century B.C.

Kantharos [is a type of ancient Greek vessel with a goblet-shaped body with a vertical handle on both sides, connected to the rim of the vessel and with a high curved handle at the top]. As a vessel it is connected with the worship of the god Dionysus, and is his symbol

CHRONOLOGY….

The shape of the vase was formed during the Middle Helladic period and was already considered ancient during the classical era. It was originally made especially in LACONIA and BOEOTIA and was used as a votive, and a religious vessel in the daily practice of worship in private spaces. In the GEOMETRIC period we find kantharus in BOETIA and ATTICA as funerary votives, usually in men’s tombs which are often accompanied by reliefs of a martial or athletic theme. In Boeotia it continued to be used as a burial votive until the late classical period. In 600 BC about evolved the peculiar shape with the high leg. At the same time, its use also spread to the GREEK BRANCH OF ETRUSCIANS IN MAGNA GRAECIA.

During the late classical and Hellenistic era, its use is also found in everyday life, while it remains connected to valor, the male foil and the worship of the dead. The largest beetles found are up to 50 cm tall and were placed on top of graves. Kantharai are also depicted in reliefs and Attic vase paintings, in the hand of the deceased, the god Dionysus, or one of his attendants.

THE ANCIENT GREEKS WERE PROUD OF THEIR LANGUAGE!
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
https://euphoriatric.com/exposing-the-fary-tale-tree-of…/
https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/
https://euphoriatric.com/etymology-means*

XENOMANIA, I.E. BEING FASCINATED BY ANYTHING FOREIGN, IS A BIG AND SEVERE DISEASE OF THE NEW GREEKS. The most infuriating thing, however, is the use of foreign words instead of the more beautiful Greek ones, from a language that is the mother of all European languages and beyond.
For example, we like the word “fame story”, it attracts us more than the words “fame and history”, whose fathers are Herodotus and Thucydides. We prefer the studio to the laboratory or study. Supermarket instead of hypermarket. Sponsor instead of sponsor. Graffiti instead of a mural. A show instead of a show. Parking instead of parking, etc.
The Ancient Greeks were so proud of their language that they refused to speak barbarically.
In the tragedy “Seven on Thebes” our great tragic poet Aeschylus presents Eteocles begging Zeus and the earth for the salvation of Thebes.
What is admirable, however, is how he incorporates the language into this appeal: “Don’t stun my city with annihilation, declarer, Hellas phthongon heusan.” That is, “don’t destroy my city, which speaks Greek” (vv. 112-113).
Sophocles in “Aiad”, p. 1263, writes: “Tin barvaron gar gyslosan uk epaio” (=Because I do not know the barbaric language). Agamemnon replies to Teucros.
Also typical is the passage that Plutarch mentions to us in the life of Themistocles (6,4,2): “He is also praised for the bilingual work in the pemphtheisin under a king on land and water atisin. Interpretation, because beings of syllables by resolution extended that voice of a Greek woman, barbaric commandments, she dared to use.”
This passage, therefore, tells us that, when Xerxes sent a delegation to request “land and water” from the Athenians, Themistocles, despite the established rules, ordered the arrest of the interpreter and by resolution put him to death on the grounds that he dared to use the Greek language in barbaric edicts…
But the story of Philomela also reveals the greatness of the Greek language. Tireus, king of Thrace, dishonored his female cousin Philomela. And in order not to witness him, he cut out her tongue. However, despite the fact that Tireus cut off her tongue, in an Ancient Greek inscription she wrote the woes of her soul: “Glossan din emen etherisen Hellas fojon”.
Philomela, therefore, does not mourn that her tongue was cut out, but that she will not have a voice to speak Greek again…

So we see how our ancestors protected the Greek language.
Therefore, our ancient ancestors were proud of the Greek language and did not even allow it to be used in matters related to uncivilized people, barbarians, as they called them. Who could have imagined that in recent times this language would become the mother of all European languages and not only.
But, where did he imagine the unbelievable: Their descendants of the 21st century set out to destroy it!
For over thirty years now we have continued the “simplifications” and from the many “simplifications” and from the many alterations we have made it unrecognizable…

Apart from the protection of the language, the Ancient Greeks did not tolerate barbaric customs. The piercing of men’s ears, so that they could wear an earring = an earring, was considered a barbaric custom for our Ancient ancestors. Thus, if there was anyone with such a habit, he was ridiculed and driven out of the city.
There is, of course, a relevant text that says this: Xenophon saves it in “Kyros Anavasi” (book 3, Ch. 1, 30-34) and says the following: He is such a Greek. Then Agasias Stymphalius said: But this is neither of Boeotia, nor belongs to all of Greece, and I saw him as far as Lydon with both ears closed. And so they had. They deported this one.”
Attribution: “Because he and his particular homeland is putting all Greece to shame, since, while he is a Greek, he is like that (that is, cowardly and cowardly) afterwards, however, taking the floor, Agasias from Stymphalida said: But this man neither he has absolutely nothing to do with Boeotia, nor with Greece in general, because I saw him, like Lydus, with both of his ears pierced. And indeed that was the case. Well, of course he was kicked out.”
The New Greeks, however, envied the blacks of Africa who wear earrings and have the impression that this means progress and evolution. Of course, the Europeans follow the same tactic. And of course it is not the only barbaric custom adopted by civilized Europe…
The New Greeks, however, do something more terrible: Instead of teaching morals to the students, they introduce texts that cultivate the model of the stateless consumer, that devalue ideals and heroes and models of morals. A classic example is the first Governor of the country, Ioannis Kapodistrias, who was rightly called a saint of politics. He offered all his property to the Greek State.
When the National Assembly decided to give a grant (salary) to the Governor, Kapodistrias responded with a document that has no equal in political matters and concludes: “… that those of you who participate in the Government, want to know with us that in the in the present circumstances, it is not possible for the public ministries to receive salaries commensurate with the rank of their high ministry and with their servitudes, but that such salaries must be exactly commensurate with the financial means which the Government has at its disposal.
Kapodistrias’ refusal to accept the sponsorship caused surprise “due to the uniqueness of the act and the new admiration for the wonderful man…”.
The honesty of Kapodistrias can also be seen from his following words “I prefer death, than to deceive a people, entrusting their fate to my loyalty”.
After all this, one would expect them to project Kapodistrias as a model of virtue, an ideal example for young children to imitate, just as he really is the first worthy Governor of the Neo-Hellenic State, who was deservedly called the “saint of politics”.

And yet, instead of this, in the 3rd high school textbook they quote a poem with clear hints about financing. By whom; From the man who donated his property to the poorest state, the politician with virtuous morals, who is an excellent example for every politician? The late Io. Kapodistrias?
But this is what globalization seeks. The leveling of everything. There should be no values and moral principles. The goal is the destruction of societies and the transformation of people into an easily managed global plankton, with which the global rulers will feed…

By: Vera Gargalatzidou.

There are three types of inhabitants living in Greece.
The Greeks (the minority)
The adulterated (that is, they have barbaric genes in their genes,)
The Greek-speakers (those who claim to be Greek, but are not, nor are they fake)
I am not mentioning economic and illegal immigrants.
Well, the real ones never sleep..
On the contrary, these are the few who awaken the rest.
The corrupted are asleep and the Greek speakers are the majority throughout history..
They are not asleep, but dead and don’t know it.
If we consider how many species Plato has classified the inhabitants of the Earth into, we can have a clear picture of the current situation.
1) Barbarians
2) Dead
3) Mortals
4) People
5) Philosophers
6) Heroes..
To reach the level of the philosopher there are four stages.
Nowadays, knowledge is accessible to everyone.
No more barriers of prohibition..
Everyone’s understanding of the search for Truth is expressed through their way of thinking and behavior.
From now on, let’s not classify everyone in the category of Greeks in the true sense of the word..
In essence, Greek is a spirit..
One either has the spirit or not.
Not acquired..
As for the language, Greek is the first and only language on planet Earth.
Because it is not a product of human evolution..

ATTICA RED-FORMED=ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ/ERYTHROMOPHOS “ARYVALLOS”-
A SMALL, OFTEN SPHERICAL VESSEL, WITH A NARROW MOUTH, FOR THE OIL WHICH ATHLETES USED TO OIL THEIR BODIES….
Young robed man, headband, running RIGHT, pursued by TWO winged GODDESSES. ..
EROS on the LEFT holds a scourge with his right hand, while EROS on the right extends his arms protectively towards the young.

Parallel to the wings of EROS with the scourge, the inscription: Asopodorῳ ἡ lekythos. Above the new one is the inscription: Doris εποησεν. By the painter and potter Dourida. From Athens, area of today’s Stadiou Street. 480-470 BC
Duris is one of the most important vase painters and potters of the first half of the 5th century BC. The performance of the aryvallus is a commentary on the power and dominance of Eros, which acts as a positive or negative force on its victims, especially the young.

The LYCURGUS CUP (British Museum, PE 1958,1202.1

The BERLIN Museum encloses and proudly displays the altar of ZEUS of PERGAMOS…and because PERGAMOS…in todays Turkey..Does NOT means is ..Turkish either , or as they learn at schools, as many other “.Neighbours” with inferiority complex & Envy-jealousy etc..stealing History, as well with the blessings of PSEVDO”SCHOLARS” & GEOPOLITICAL CRIMINALS

The Statue of Liberty, whose official name is “Liberty enlightening the World” (English “Liberty enlightening the World” Gallic “la Liberte eclairant le monde”),
is a colossal statue on the islet of the same name and in the upper part of New York Bay.
This statue was erected to commemorate the friendship between the peoples of the USA and France.
Its total height is 93 meters (302 ft) including the plinth, and in the Encyclopaedia Britannica version it shows a woman preaching freedom.
This woman holds a torch in her raised right hand and an inscribed tablet in her left bearing the date July 4, 1776.
An elevator goes up to the height of the balcony and a spiral staircase leads to an observation deck on the crown worn by Liberty. The torch she holds is 93 meters above the surface of the sea. At the base of the statue is the American Museum of Immigration.
The proposal for the construction of the statue was formulated by a French historian, Édouard de Laboulais, after the American Civil War. A sufficient amount of money was collected by contributions from the French people, and the work began in France in 1875, under the direction of the sculptor FREDERIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI.
APOLLO’s ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is depicted in exactly this form.
And fortunately for us, the IMMORTAL GREEK LAND of CORINTH, saved us this image, so that today we can know the truth.
The figure of APOLLO ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is today in the MUSEUM of CORINTH, but it goes unnoticed by the unsuspecting visitor.
It is on a three-fold plate together with two other representations.
The one in the left part depicts an angel, a figure similar to that of the Christian faith and according to archaeologists is the figure of the goddess HECATE.
In the right part, a rosette is depicted.
And in the midst of the miracle! The form of the Light-bearer APOLLO, the same as that of the Statue of LIBERTY! Intellectual property is not clear to whom it belongs.
It is said by people of CORINTH who know that the director of the American Archaeological Mission, a sober and honest man, has declared that AMERICANS should come and worship in the Museum area where the image of the light-bearer APOLLO is located, because it is the source of their national symbol .
(In the photo, we see the sculpture with the representation of ZOODOTIS ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΗΛΙΟΣ=APOLLO HELIOS with his fiery chariot)

Gold seal ring from Thessaly. Representation of either LEDA and ZEUS transformed into a swan, or Venus and Mars, to the right of the satyr. In the background are depicted a helmet, a tree, a square column with a lion’s head and a temple or shrine. At the bottom of the representation are two spears, a shield and the inscription OMOLEIIAION – 2nd century BC. Benaki Museum of Hellenic Culture, Athens, Greece 

THE SYMBOLIC MESSAGES-MEANINGS
BEHIND THE KNOT OF HERCULES (GOLD INLAGD WITH GARNET , EMERALDS AND ENAMEL. /PRIVATE COLLECTOR/) .
… SIMILAR TO IT: METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART N. YORK..

THE ANCIENT GREEK WRITERS HAD THREE WAYS TO EXPRESS THEIR THOUGHT. THE FIRST WAS CLEAR AND SIMPLE, THE SECOND SYMBOLIC AND FIGURATIVE
, THE THIRD SACRED AND HIEROGLYPHIC. THE SAME WORD TOOK, ACCORDING TO THEIR DESIRE, THE MAIN MEANING, THE SYMBOLIC OR THE TRANSCENDENTAL. THIS WAS THE SPIRIT OF our LANGUAGE. HERACLITUS HAS PERFECTLY EXPRESSED THIS DIFFERENCE by IDENTIFYING IT WITH THE ADJECTIVES: SPEAKER(=ΟΜΙΛΩΝ), MEANINGFUL(=
ΣΗΜΑΊΝΩΝ), MYSTIC-HIDER(=
..ΚPYΠΤΩΝ)..

BELOW: THE ANCIENT GREEK KNOT OF HERCULES IN GOLD
Also known as the Knot of Hercules, Love Knot and Marriage Knot, the Hercules Knot is a wedding symbol that stands for undying love and commitment. It is one of the most strong known knots and is made with two entwined ropes representing the legendary fertility of Demi-God Hercules
Reef knot

THE SYMBOLIC MESSAGES-MEANINGS
BEHIND THE KNOT OF HERCULES (GOLD INLAGD WITH GARNET , EMERALDS AND ENAMEL. /PRIVATE COLLECTOR/) .
… SIMILAR TO IT: METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART N. YORK..THE ANCIENT GREEK WRITERS HAD THREE WAYS TO EXPRESS THEIR THOUGHT. THE FIRST WAS CLEAR AND SIMPLE, THE SECOND SYMBOLIC AND FIGURATIVE
, THE THIRD SACRED AND HIEROGLYPHIC. THE SAME WORD TOOK, ACCORDING TO THEIR DESIRE, THE MAIN MEANING, THE SYMBOLIC OR THE TRANSCENDENTAL. THIS WAS THE SPIRIT OF our LANGUAGE. HERACLITUS HAS PERFECTLY EXPRESSED THIS DIFFERENCE by IDENTIFYING IT WITH THE ADJECTIVES: SPEAKER(=ΟΜΙΛΩΝ), MEANINGFUL(=
ΣΗΜΑΊΝΩΝ), MYSTIC-HIDER(=
..ΚPYΠΤΩΝ)..

BELOW: THE ANCIENT GREEK KNOT OF HERCULES IN GOLD
Also known as the Knot of Hercules, Love Knot and Marriage Knot, the Hercules Knot is a wedding symbol that stands for undying love and commitment. It is one of the most strong known knots and is made with two entwined ropes representing the legendary fertility of Demi-God Hercules
Reef knot. In his Natural History, PLINY relates the belief that wounds heal more quickly when bound with a HERCULES KNOT. It has also been used since ancient
Greek traditions, krepresented the legendary fertility of the demi-god HERACLES, more popularly known as HERCULES. He was the epitome of virility and bravery.

TODAY, he is without a doubt one of the MOST ICONIC FIGURES in ALL OF GREEK MYTHAGOG-COSMOLOGY

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ASIA MINOR/ SALAGASSOS/

IONIAN RHYTHM COLLUMES-
₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪
IT’S JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED.. as..THEIR OWN!!!!!! ) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!
ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,
HAVING – OF COURSE – HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & NOT AUTHENTIC HIGH CIVILIZATION, AS:
-TEMPLES, STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, COINS, SCIENCE, as: MEDICINE, SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY. JUST ONE example): The ANTIKITHYRA mechanism MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, STETEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, POETRY & ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC 
THE LANGUAGE, ITSELF which IS MATHEMATIC (
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
,… IS INTERCONNECTED WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS..
.. ARE JUST the
WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS & UNFORTUNATELY THOUSANDS OF “PRIVATE” COLLECTORS
AROUND THE WORLD. 

MARBLE COLUMN (IONIAN ORDER), FROM THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS AT SARDIS.
DATED: ca. 300 BC / PARIAN MARBLE; DIMENSIONS: H. 361 cm

THE SEKTION OF A FLUTED GREEK IONIC COLUMN IN THE CENTER of this room stood over fifty-eight feet high in its original location at the TEMPLE of ARTEMIS. The DELICATE FOLIATE carving on the capital is UNIQUE among EXTANT capitals from the temple, and the torus (foliated base), with its vegetal SCALE-LIKE pattern, is also EXCEPTIONALLY ELABORATE.

This capital is slightly smaller than others found at the site, indicating that it does not belong to the outer colonnade. The column, displayed here with most of the shaft omitted, was probably originally from one or more of those pairs. Alternatively, it may be from the cella (inner room) or from the inner back porch. Parts of the fluted shaft are restored, and the profiled base below the torus is a copy of the original.


The Dolopes were an ancient Greek tribe that settled around the Agrafa mountain range in central Greece.
Their settlement area was called Dolopi and included an important area centered on the south-eastern part of today’s Karditsa Prefecture and the northern part of Evrytania Prefecture. Their main city was Ktimeni, which was located on the site of the current village of Redina Karditsa.
The Dolopes were a sister tribe to the Aitolians, with whom they bordered to the south. Their branch was the Dryopes who settled a little further south in the area of Late Doria and dispersed after the descent of the Dorians. Other related tribes of the Dolopians with whom they had a common history were the Agraios, the Aperantes and the Athamanes who settled north of the present prefecture of Etoloakarnania. They are also often called Dolopes.
History
The Dolopes seem to have existed until the 6th century BC. they remained autonomous. They belonged to the Delphic Amphictyonia and were represented in the Amphictyonic Congress with two votes. From the 6th century they were for long periods under the rule of their stronger neighbors, first the Thessalians and later the Aetoli. In 374 BC they submitted to the tyrant Jason of Fera. In the years that followed, they submitted to the Macedonians and then joined the Aetolian Commonwealth until the Roman conquest in 168 BC. As Pausanias mentions, the Dolopes had disappeared as a people in the 2nd century AD
.


PERSONALLY, IT FEELS LIKE AS BITTER REGRET THAT WE GREEKS, HAVING THE
MOST ANCIENT AND GREAT CIVILIZATION, HAVE FALLEN SO LOW THAT WE WORSHIP AN ENTITY, THAT HAS NOTHING IN COMMON WITH US.

LEDA, the wife of the KING of SPARTA TYNDAREUS, meets the CYGNUS who is driven by the little EROS

When ZEUS fell in love with LEDA, he transformed into a CYGNUS and thus took refuge in her arms to protect himself from APHRODITE, who allegedly pursued him.

From their union were born POLYDEUKIS of the DIOSKOURI(=ZEUS SONS) and the beautifulO HELEN.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM of CHANIA.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/APAMEA/CORINTHIAN (ORDER OF COLUMNS)/

APAMEA is an ANCIENT GREEK city, overlooking the GHAB VALLEY in the Hama Governorate of Syria.

The city was FOUNDED AROUND 300 BC BY SELEUCOS I NICATOR, ONE of the ΔΙΑΔΟΧOI=

DIADOCHI = SUCCESSORS

FOUGHT FOR CONTROL OVER THE EMPIRE FOUNDED by ALEXANDER the GREAT AFTER HIS DEATH, ESTABLISHING THE SELEUCID EMPIRE OVER THE HELLENIZED TERRITORIES ALEXANDER HAD CONQUERED IN ASIA.

“SELEUCUS” named the city in DEDICATION to his WIFE, APAMA of SOGDIANA, one of the four cities of the Syrian TETRAPOLIS along with ANTIOCHOS (named after his father), LAODICEIA (named after his mother) and SELEUCEIA (named after himself).

In the FOLLOWING CENTURIES, the SELEUCID EMPIRE came INTO CONFLICT WITH THE ROMAN REPUBLIC OVER HELLENISTIC GREECE, RESULTING IN A GRADUAL DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND THE SUBMISSION OVER TERRITORIAL CLAIMS WEST of the TAURUS MOUNTAINS IN PRESENT-DAY TURKEY.

IN 64 BC, GNAEUS POMPEI US MAGNUS (also known as POMPEI the Great) MARCHED ON APAMEA, ANNEXING the CITY AS PART of the ROMAN PROVINCE OF SYRIA. IN RESPONSEN TO AN EARTHQUAKE in6 AD 115 ANTIOCH EARTHQUAKE ), THE ROMANS REBUILT APAMEA with a TYPICAL GREEK- ROMAN street grid system, and large public works such as aqueducts, bathhouses, and a THEATRE

.

FEMALE STATUE WITHOUT HANDS IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM of EPIDAURUS
. ARGOLIS PREFECTURE, PELOPONNESE, GREECE

This site, which includes the imressive theatre of EPIDAURUS, is a UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE Inhabited since NEOLITHIC times, the FIRST significant settlement was in the MYCENAEAN PERIOD.

STUDY SHOWS ANCIENT THEATRE OF EPIDAURUS IS WORLD’S MOST PERFECT IN TERMS OF AESTHETIC AND ACOUSTIC
MARVEL l
, and all the more wondrous considering that it was created almost 2,500 years ago.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus is the crown of cultural activity in Greece during the summer months and remains to this day one of the most important and globally recognizable monuments of antiquity.
Carved into the side of Mount Kynortio and dominating the southeastern end of the sanctuary, which was dedicated to ASCLEPIUS – the God and CREATOR of MEDICINE in GREEK MYTHAGOGY–COSMOLOGY THE ANCIENT THEATRE OF EPIDAURUS has been characterized as the BIRTH place of the ART of THEATRE, and the GENRES OF COMEDY, TRAGEDY AND DRAMA.
A team of six professors from the University of Patras conducted extensive research on the ancient theatre and concluded that “the measurements confirm the theatre’s EXCELLENT ACOUSTICS and SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY y, for ALL the TYPICAL LISTENER POSITIONS TESTED.”

The study showed that in whichever seat someone sits within the theatre, either at the very front or at the last seat at the top of the theatre hill, they will be able to clearly hear the actors speak – who of course, never use microphones or any kind of sound boost equipment during plays.

The awe that someone feels once they enter the theatre is remarkable.

The NATURAL EHO OF ONE’S VOICE CAN BE HEARD FROM ONE END OF THE THEATRE TO THE OTHER, A PHENOMENON, THAT HAS LONG ATTRACTED THE ADMIRATION OF SCIENTISTS AND EVEN MORE SO DUE TO THE FACT, THAT THE THEATRE OF EPIDAURUS WAS BUILT ALMOST 2,500 YEARS AGO – A TIME WHEN KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY WERE MUCH MORE LIMITERAD.

Playing at the Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus today is considered an incredible honour and career highlight, an achievement that is high on the bucket list of not just Greek actors but of the the most talented actors actors all around the world.

The theatre hosts mostly ancient Greek-style plays as well as contemporary adaptions of old plays and some musical events.

The performances can be in modern Greek, Ancient Greek or a mix of both, while there are very limited plays in different languages.

Some of the most famous and prestigious Greek movie stars have played in Epidaurus over the years, such as Melina Mercouri, Katina Paxinou, Alekos Alexandrakis, Manos Katrakis, Anna Synodinou, Kostas Kazakos, and of course the “national Greek star” Aliki Vougiouklaki.

Foreign directors of international acclaim, like American ROBERT WILSON and Belgian comedy-tragedy movie maker IVO VAN HOVE have said that creating plays for the ANCIENT THEATRE of EPIDAURUS was a “LIFE GOAL.

The asclepieion at Epidaurus was the most celebrated healing center of the classical world, the place where ill people went in the hope of being cured. To find out the right cure for their ailments, they spent a night in the enkoimeteria, a big sleeping hall. In their dreams, the god himself would advise them what they had to do to regain their health. Found in the sanctuary, there was a guest house for 160 guestrooms. There are also mineral springs in the vicinity which may have been used in healing.

Epidauros • (Epídauros) f (genitive of ἠῐdauros); second declension.
The word epidauros means “Dra On the Wind”,
it is no coincidence that the Asclepians exist there, which has to do with sound, acoustics, earthly musical harmony which is synchronized with universal musical harmony and healing.

the acoustics in the ancient theater of Epidaurus have the curious thing, that as the Greek is clearly heard there, other languages cannot be heard, there is some kind of coordination of the sound, the Mathematical Greek language, the space and the acoustics, and this is because the Greek language is a musical language. (the relationship between musical harmony and mathematics and mathematics and the harmony of the universe is well known, just as it is also known that in ancient Greece music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy were sister sciences)

Its orchestra is a perfect circle, while its cavity is part of a sphere. 34 rows of seats in the lower section and 21 in the upper give the number 55 (ЭЄ). The sum of the first 10 numbers (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10) gives 55 (ЭЄ), the sum of the first 6 (1+2+3+4+5+6 ) gives 21 and the sum of the last 4 (7+8+9+10) gives 34.

The golden number Φ makes its appearance since the ratio of the rows of the two diazoms 21/34=0.618=Φ, but also the ratio of the lower diazom to the total of the rows 34/55=0.618=Φ6
(PYTHAGORAS IS PRESENT..AGAIN!).

5th century BC Dodona Epirus Theater (APE ROTAN)

Dodona or Dodoni is one of the most important oracles of ancient Greece. It is located in the regional unit of Ioannina of Epirus and was dedicated to Zeus and Dione. (Dodonaios God)
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
The theater of Dodona is among the largest and best preserved ancient Greek theaters in the world, capable of accommodating approximately 18,000 spectators.

Buthrotos (Albanian: Butrint, ancient Greek: Vuthroton)—

Wherever Archaeologists dig in Buthrotos (Butrint) they find #Greek Archaeological findings.

The #Albanian Archaeologist: Dhimiter Condi, who led for 30 years the team that excavated in Bouthroto found ancient #Greek statues, coins minted with Greek cities, such as #Corfu, Macedonia, and so on.

We don’t need to say anything more, as Albanian archaeologists such as:

▪︎ Dhimiter Condi also mentions in his book: “Butrint: history, monuments and museum” that #Hellenus founded “Bouthrotum”, which it means: bull crossing in #Greek language.

Furthermore, the albanian Archaeologist: Dhimiter Condi, published in his book that Buthroto was founded by Greeks.

In the photo from the book of the Albanian Archaeologist: Dhimiter Condi, among other findings it is showing:

▪︎ Statue of #Apollo, 2nd century AD, it was found in Nymphaeum in excavations at Butrint in 1929.

▪︎ Statue of #Dionysus from 2nd AD, was found in In Nymphaeum in excavations at Butrint in 1929.

▪︎ The many coins which they were found in Butrint, they include: coins minted as #Greek cities; such as Kerkyra (Corfu), Makedonia, and so on.

By Dhimiter Condi, Butrint: history, monuments and museum, Argjiro, Albania, 2008, pp. 78, 91

Dhimitër Çondi, Ph.D.

Co-Director of the Excavations Project at Butrint.

Professor of Archaeology.

Albanian Institute of Archaeology

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/IONIA(=”ASIA MINOR”)/EPHESOS/THE ODEON THEATER, ASCLEPEIION AND GEOMETRICAL INSTRUMENT, AS ALL HELLENIC TEMPLES AND MOST OF THE THEATERS, AS WELL, NO MATTER WHERE!! (SPAIN, MARSEILLE, MAGNA GRAECIA, BLACK SEA, IONIA, PONTOS, GREECE, MIDDLE EAST, ASIA, NORTH AFRICA..)
By:. MEDUSA PEGASOS

WHAT EVER STATUES “THEY” STOLE…
NO MATTER WHAT TEXTS THEY STOLE, THE BARBARIANS REMAINED BARBARIANS…
THEY COULD NOT UNDERSTAND THE GREEK SPIRIT, ITS UNFATHOMABLE HEIGHTS
AND GREAT DEPTHS, ITS LENGTHS AND WIDTHS.. “THEY” JUST SCRATCHED THE
SURFACE A LITTLE AND SAY “THEY”(=🐀)…. CREATED… CIVILIZATION….
THEY TALK… ABOUT RENAISSANCE…
…WHICH…”RENAISSANCE”??!!!…
IN ORDER TO BE A RENAISSANCE, THERE MUST HAVE BEEN A BIRTH!!!
WHEN DID THE BARBARIANS HAVE A BIRTH AND WE… DON’T KNOW???!!!!
AND SOMEONE NÄVE WILL TELL YOU:.. -BUT Greek CULTURE BELONGS… TO THE WHOLE PLANET…..
NO… MY FRIEND, GREEK CULTURE BELONGS TO THE GREEKS AND BECAME UNIVERSAL BECAUSE OF ITS QUALITY!

A T H I E F IS A L W A Y S THIEF AND AN O W N E R IS AN O W N E R !!!
(By THE MEDUSA)

THE ARCHAEO-LOOTERS OF HELLENIC ANCIENT MASTERPIECES HAVE
SURPASSED EVEN “LORD” ELGIN, (SAME ROOTS, AS “FRENCH” ABBOT MICHEL FOURMONT .. KAI O ΝΟΩΝ ΝΟΕΙΤΩ !!)

IN LOOTING….COUNTERFEITING – DISTORD

THESE KIND OF…. “NOBLE” BARBARIANS, WHO WERE BYING NOBLE TITLES, ALL OVER EUROPE(!!)
.. DURING THE MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE, AS WELL… MOST OF THEM
HAVE CONTAMINATED &
DEFILED THE 17 GREEK WARRIORS AT THE SACRED PLACES ..BEFORE AND
DURING THE “BYZANTINE” & “OTTOMAN” OCCUPATIONS….THE SAME “ONES” ARE EXTREMILY ANTHELLENIC(=ANTIGREEK) … DUE TO THEIR HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY…..ETC TOWARDS TO HIGH & UNIQUE LEVEL
OF THE HELLENIC CIVILIZATION.
IT’S IDENTICAL, THAT COUNTERFEITING AND UNGRATEFUL BENEFICIARIES (Ο ΝΟΩΝ ΝΟΕΙΤΩ!!) ARE THE MOST FAKE,
UNPREDICTABLE AND
DANGEROUS ONES!!

APPOLONIAN LIGHT vs DARKNESS.

THE ANCIENT GREEK CITY OF AIZANOI was the main settlement center of the GREEK BRANCH AIZANITIS people WHO LIVED IN ANTIQUE MACEDONIAN PHRYGIA During the excavations carried out around the TEMPLE OF ZEUS traces of settlements dating back to 3000 BC were brought to light. In the HELLENIC period, this region was subordinated alternately to Pergamum and Bithynia, but in 133 BC it came under Roman rule. It was one of the important cities in Roman times with the Temple of Zeus, the Stadium-Theatre complex and the Macellum. The Temple of Zeus, built on a hill and considered the city’s important religious structure, is one of the best-preserved temples of Zeus in the world. While the construction of a stadium with a capacity of 13,500 people and a theater with a capacity of 20,000 people in the north of the city as a complex was not seen anywhere else in Aizanoi in ancient times, the Aizanoi Macellum, dated to the second mid-2nd century AD, is one of the first bags in the world.
Statue head of the goddess of love and beauty Aphrodite, the ancient city of Aizanoi, Kütahya, western Turkey, Oct. 29, 2021. (AA Photo)
Statue head of the god of wine Dionysos, Aizanoi, Kütahya, western Turkey, Oct. 29, 2021. (AA Photo)
Noting that they have been sustaining their work in a creek bed in the ancient city of Aizanoi recently, Coşkun told that the statuary heads of Aphrodite and Dionysus were unearthed in this creek bed.
“These are important findings for us, as they show that the polytheistic belief culture of ancient Greece existed for a long time without losing its importance in the Roman era,” he said. “The findings suggest that there may have been a sculpture workshop in the region.”
Home to one of the MOST well-preserved temples in Turkey, dedicated to the Greek god ZEUS, the city of Aizanoi is easily comparable to EPHESUS in its grandeur and importance. Initially inhabited by the Greek branch of Phrygians, the area was converted into a city in the first century B.C. by the Romans and includes unique spots such as a temple; four Roman bridges, two of which are still in use today; the world’s first known indoor marketplace, with inscriptions of the prices of sold goods still visible on the walls; theatres; roman baths and an ancient sacred cave.

MAGNA GRAECIA/IDENTICAL HELLENIC THEATER RYTHM

The theater/temple of ..(.LATER ..NAMED) ….”San NICOLA” near CASERTA, ITALY/, was rediscovered by chance in 2000 by a paraglider. It’s 2100 years old and hosts a theater and a temple on the same hill 520 meters on the sea level, dominating the evocative panorama on the plains below.

The TEMPLES of the GREEK ANCESTORS WERE on ENERGY HUBS, THEY WERE NOT BUILT by CHANCE , MEANWHILE the WHOLE ISLAND of RHODES IS AN ENERGY HUB LIKE LIKE SAMOTHRAKI. “MODERN” PEOPLE DO NOT UNDERSTAND the VIBRATIONS of the ENERGY FIELDS, …………. DUE TO THAT, THE JUDEO-CHRISTIANITY – DOESN’T… 😅🤣AT ALL!!!…ATHENA WAS CALLED ATHENA PALLAS FROM THE PULSATING VIBRATIONS= “PALLOMENES” DONISEIS= ΠΑΛΛΌΜΕΝΕΣ ΔΟΝΉΣΕΙΣ.
BASIC HISTORICAL FACTS

..ANSWER IS H E R E!:

THE BRIGHTNESS OF THE GREEK CIVILIZATION GATHERS ALL THE
BARBARIANS, BY DESTRUCTION to DESTROY IT.
THIS IS HAPPENING FOR 2 MILLENNIA by NOW, BOTH GLOBALY & INSIDE THE HELLENIC REGIONS, WHERE THESE ANTHELLENIC RODENTS, WHO DURING THE AGES, STILL RULLE… THROUGH RELIGION, POLITICS, ECONOMY, “EDUCATION” & MEDIA..

THE RIGHT OF THE STRONGER:
BARBARIC LIES PERSIST ABOUT the ORIGINS of ANCIENT GREEK CITIES SUCH AS PERSEPOLIS, PETRA and BAALBEK, AMONG OTHERS, FALSELY ATTRIBUTED TO…. HAVING BEEN BUILT by the.. PERSIANS , PHOENICIANS, CARTHAGENIANS, NABATEANS and ROMANS RESPECTIVELY. The PERSIANS found the ABANDONED CITY OF PERSEPOLIS (BUILT by DESCENDANTS OF PERSEUS), AND THE NABATEANS, WHO WERE NOMADIC HERDERS FOUND AND MADE THE ABANDONED PETRA THEIR HOME. THE ROMANS WOULD INVADE and FALSELY PUT THEIR TAG ON EVERYTHING THEY CONQUERED
.

ONE SUCH WORK WAS the KYBALION AND OTHER, WERE TRANSLATED FROM EXISTING ARCHAIC WORKS. HISTORY, ORIGIN, ART AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY..

HAVE ALL BEEN STOLEN, LOOTED AND CLAIMED BY… OTHERS. NEWTON ALSO STOLE CLAIM TO THE LAWS OF MOTION AND PHYSICS, GAINING THIS KNOWLEDGE FROM ANCIENT TEXTS which he SECRET LY HELD.
THE GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN THAT: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS COMPLETELY FORMULATED THE THEORY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY, UNIFYING INTO SINGLE MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS, AS ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY
https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/…
(https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/),..and the Weak Currents of NUCLEAR ATOMS.

EVERY CIVILIZATION IS JUDGED by WHAT it LEFT BEHIND …
BUT….

THE GREEKS MUST NEVER LEARN THAT: THE ASTRONOMERS – MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS
, ARISTARCHOS, ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES, CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, HAD EXHAUSTED THE LIMITS OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE BY SOLVING MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION EQUATIONS OF 12 UNKNOWNS (TWELVE EQUATIONS TWELVE UNKNOWNS), WHILE THE LIMIT OF TODAY’S COMPUTERS IS “7 EQUATIONS 7 UNKNOWNS”. BECAUSE THE THIEVES OF ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST be SHOWN!! …
The GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW that: the ENGINEERS – TECHNICIANS: EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, MANUFACTURED TOPOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS FÖR TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC MECHANISMS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS, BECAUSE THE SWINDLER EDISON MUST BE SHOWN AS THE INVENTOR OF … ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH THE ABOVE GREEK ENGINEERS USED THE ELECTRON (AMBER) AS A NATURAL ACCUMULATOR of STATIC ELECTRICITY in TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS…
THE GREEKS MUST NOT KNOW THAT: THE GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS the INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, HAD MAPPED THE ENTIRE SURFACE OF THE PLANET, BECAUSE THERE IS A DANGER THAT THE GREEKS WILL LEARN THAT ATLANTIS AND THE AMERICAN CONTINENT BELONGED ADMINISTRATIVELY IN DELPHI, WHILE ASIA BELONGED ADMINISTRATIVELY TO SARDIS, WITH THE CENTRAL COORDINATOR BEING THE APOLLONIAN CENTER OF DELOS, TO WHICH THE
TRANSBOREAN
GREEKS (NORTHERN SIBERIA) SENT AS A TOKEN OF RECOGNITION “EVERY YEAR, CHOICE GRAIN”, THROUGH THE GREEK ARIMASPAS AND ISSIDONES AND MASSAGESTAE of CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN SIBERIA.
THE GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW THAT THE e GREEK DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, CARRIED OUT “BALANCING ELEKTROMAGNETIC FLUIDS OF THE BODY” TREATMENTS BY REGULATING the ALKALINITY and ACIDITY OF THE ORGANS..
….. THAT THEY WERE MAKING CURES USING “LEFT-HANDED AMINO ACIDS” (ANTIBIOTICS) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).
THE GREEKS MUST NOT LEARN THAT THE SYMBOLS “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” AND “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” WERE SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, BY WHICH THE GREEKS PYTHAGORAS AND DEMOCRITUS AND ARISTARCHOS EXPRESSED RIGHT-HANDED AND LEFT-HANDED NUCLEI OF ATOMS, PLANETS, SOLAR SYSTEMS, GALAXIES AND COSMIC DOMAINS CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES.
2500 YEARS AGO HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED BRAIN AND HEART SURGERY…
DESPITE THE ALMOST NON-EXISTENT MEANS OF HIS TIME, HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED DIFFICULT SURGERIES. HE AND HIS STUDENTS SUCCESSFULLY TREATED ORTHOPEDIC, CARDIAC AND BASIC SURGERY CASES. HIPPOCRATES EVEN PERFORMED OPERATIONS ON THE HUMAN SKULL, AS WE READ IN SEVERAL OF HIS WORKS… IN ADDITION TO THE OPERATION ITSELF, HIPPOCRATES ATTACHED GREAT IMPORTANCE TO THE PREPARATION OF THE PATIENT AND THE OPERATING ROOM.
In the work Kat’iatreion, he describes in detail how the patient should be prepared before the operation, how the tools are sterilized, how the space is shaped, but also how artificial and natural light is used during the operation…
American ARCHAEOBOTANISTS WERE ABLE FOR the FIRST time to STUDY and ANALYZE the CONTENTS of PILLS MADE BY DOCTRINE IN ANCIENT GREECE and which were discovered 20 years ago, in a GREEK SHIPWRECK OFF THE COAST of TUSCANY…
DNA ANALYZES SHOWED that each pill was a mixture of at least ten different plant extracts, including hibiscus and celery. “For the first time, we now have physical EVIDENCE of what is contained in the writings of the ANCIENT GREEK PHYSICIANS, AS DIOSCORIDIS AND GALENOS,” SAID ALLEN TWO WAY of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION’s NATIONAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY in WASHINGTON , ACCORDING to NEW SCIENTIST
“APOSTLE ORPHEUS” Besides…

THE “Phoenician “DECEPTION
The PHOENICIANS and GREEK ALPHABET
“…the GREEK ALPHABET EXISTED at the TIME of ATLANTIS, 9,500 BC, SINCE PLATO speaks of inscriptions with oaths as well as names of kings carved into vows, and therefore carried history at least from 15,000 BC. But according to the “PHILHELLENIC” pile researchers, it comes from…. the Phoenician alphabet 😅🤣 of the 14th century BC. That is, the wretches have deliberately
They “FORGOTTEN” to multiply the history of Greece and its language x 10!!!

IDENTICAL HELLENIC THEATERS TEMPLES, STATUES, FRESCOES, MOSAICS MOTIVES FROM THE MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY:

.. NOT ONLY.. CYPRUS…: IONIA, PHRYGIA, CAPADOKIA, PONTOS, ASPENDOS,
ANTIOCHIA, EPHESOS, PERGAMOS, SMYRNA, ALICARNASOS… etc etc..
FACTS vs FAKES:
JUST ONE EXAMPLE:

THE EVALUATION OF THE OFFER OF GREEK CULTURE ALL OVER THE WORLD, IS DIFFICULT TO EVALUATE, BECAUSE OF THE WIDTH OF THE OFFER IT IS THE PLACE THAT HOSTED THE HIGHEST CIVILIZATION

JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…EARTH, WEST, SOUTH & NORTH!!
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED,
COUNTERFEITING, STEALING, COPIED & DISTORTED..
.. AND – VERY OFTEN – SHOWED…BY SOME OF THE BARBARIANS, AS….. THEIR
OWN!!!!!!!😂🤣

THAT HAPPENS ALL OVER the WORLD, –
SUPPORTED, as ALLWAYS, BY the CLASSICAL, GLOBAL ANTHELLENIC(=ANTIGREEK) – BARBARIAN

GEOPOLITICAL MAFIA..
THUS BARBARIANS HELP BARBARIANS.. WITH HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & OFCOURSE VERY FAR b FROM THE AUPHTENTIC ETHERIAL & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION AS:
TEMPLES(CORINTHIAN, DORIC & IONIC ORDER ONES), STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, FRESCOES, COINS, SCIENCE:
MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS, TECHNOLLGY, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, POETRY… PLUS:…
THE ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by the ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC LANGUAGE, WHICH IS INTERCONNCTED MATHEMATICAL WITH THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS
.. ARE JUST the WITNESSES…

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-construction-of…

The stolen ancient Greek masterpiece from the sculptor Lysippos!
The horse sculptures come from the island of Chios (the fifth largest of the Greek islands).

Since four horses and a quadriga (a type of chariot that was also used in the Ancient Olympic Games) were mentioned in the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai, more commonly called “brief Historical Notes” text dated from the 8th or ninth century. The horses stayed there until 1204 when they were looted by Venetian forces as part of the sack of the capital of the Byzantine Empire in the Fourth Crusade. Interestingly, the collars on the horses’ necks that you can see in the photos below were added around this time to cover the areas where their necks and heads had been removed to allow them to be transported from Constantinople to Venice.

The horse sculptures come from the island of Chios (the fifth largest of the Greek islands). Since four horses and a quadriga (a type of chariot that was also used in the Ancient Olympic Games) were mentioned in the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai, more commonly called “brief Historical Notes” text dated from the 8th or ninth century. The horses stayed there until 1204 when they were looted by Venetian forces as part of the sack of the capital of the Byzantine Empire in the Fourth Crusade. Interestingly, the collars on the horses’ necks that you can see in the photos below were added around this time to cover the areas where their necks and heads had been removed to allow them to be transported from Constantinople to Venice.

Soon after the Fourth Crusade, Doge Enrico Dandolo (Doge meaning a civil officer or lay judge in Venice or Genoa) sent the horses to Venice, where they were installed on the terrace of the facade of St. Mark’s Basilica in 1254.

In 1797, Napoleon forcibly removed the horses from the basilica and carried them off to Paris, where they were used in the design of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel together with a quadriga.

In 1815, the horses were returned to Venice by Captain Dumaresq, who had fought at the Battle of Waterloo and along with the allied forces in Paris. He was selected by the Emperor of Austria to take the horses down from the Arc de Triomphe and return them to their original place at St. Mark’s in Venice. For doing an excellent job bringing the horses back to Venice, the Emperor gave him a gold snuff box with his initials in diamonds on the lid.

Until the early 1980s, the horses remained untouched above St. Mark’s. But with growing air pollution that would make the statues deteriorate quicker, they were removed and brought inside St. Mark’s and can still be seen inside the basilica. They were replaced with exact copies that can be seen outside.

..

ORPHEUS

He was one of the first singers and musicians of the ancient legends. Others were certainly remembered in antiquity, but the mythical singer ORPHEUS, son according to legend of Apollo and the muse Clio, and, according to others, of Oeagros and Clio or of Apollo and Calliope, transcended the concept of time and history, thus still belonging today as yesterday to the collective imagination for certain modern narrative works that evoke it, such as ORFEO IN PARADISO by Luigi Santucci or ORFEU NEGRO by Vinicius de Moraes.
He was and is the one who, with his poetry and his singing, was able to soften the cruelest souls, who made wild beasts docile and docile, stopped rivers, moved plants and even stones. A song therefore that seemed suspended between the earth and the sky and which captured the attention of all creatures, making them cry, the expression of a touching tenderness, of a sweet melancholy.
Orpheus is remembered, in ancient legendary stories, as a companion of Jason, the hero who first dared to attempt a long and dangerous sea voyage to the distant lands of the Black Sea, in Colchis, to conquer the Golden Fleece. the divine singer in the expedition had the task of overriding the dangerous melody of the Sirens and in this way saved his fellow Argonauts who would otherwise have been their prey.
But what made him even more famous was his descent into the world of the dead while alive. Others later tried this harsh experience (Hercules, Odysseus, Aeneas), but Orpheus only did it driven by love for his wife, the nymph Eurydice, who had died from a snake bite. No longer able to live without her, he overcame the resistance of the guardians of the world of shadows, Charon, Cerberus, Ixion, Tantalus, Sisyphus; he moved the entire underworld to pity and managed to change the inexorable verdict of Hades and Persephone.
In exchange for permission to bring Eurydice back to life, the lords of the Underworld made a bizarre condition: he would never have to turn to look at Eurydice’s beloved face during the journey back from the kingdom of the dead. If he had done so he would have lost her forever.
At first Orpheus resisted despite the fact that she called her name several times and in many tones, but, when he had the feeling that Eurydice was not following her steps, he was unable to resist and could not help but turn away. losing her forever.
Orpheus came out of the world of the dead, but his life no longer had meaning; so he wandered on Mount Rodope, now inconsolable and swore that he would never love a woman again: when he met the Bacchae, who offered him consolation and love, he did not allow himself to be convinced by their flattery, so much so that they, in a feast in honor of Dionysus, divinity whose cult Orpheus had opposed, taken by enthusiasm and Dionysian obsession, killed him by cutting him to pieces and throwing him into the Ebro river. The head and the lyre that always accompanied his singing continually repeated the pain of the loss of his wife: the remains arrived near Antissa, on the island of Lesbos, land of great lyric poets such as Alcaeus and Sappho, where an oracle arose and a tomb was erected and his remains were kept there forever with great respect and veneration.

Ancient Hellenic Aesthetics 

ANCIENT GREEKS HAD FLOOR HEATING AND BIOCLIMATIC PALACES 2.700 BC

TEMPLE OF APOLLO/ DELPHI//BEOTIA.

WE REAL GREEKS OF KYNOS (GREEK-MINDED) WE CREATED CONSTELLATIONS, THE RAT SATANISTS WHO RULE US BY STOCK AND ORIGIN, WE IN THE LIGHT, THEM IN BR@A THE MUD AND THE DISADVANTAGES OF THEIR FEET RELATIVES DIKON
THE BATTLE IS OLD, LIGHT AGAINST DARKNESS, HUMANS AGAINST HYBRIDS, GREEK WHITES vs moses shepherds
Walking down to Monastiraki from Apollonos Street, behind the old Ministry of Education, next to Samiotis Priests at number 26, I noticed a …door
How old is it, and who put it there and for what reason? What does it symbolize, who are behind the Gate?
The careful traveler notices
THE 9 MUSES OF OUR GREEK GOD APOLLO
THE SIXTEEN POINTED STAR OF THE SILVERS (VERGINA SUN)
THIS ALONE PROVES THE GREEKNESS OF THE MACEDONIAN KINGDOM AND AFTERWARDS
WORLD KINGDOMS
AN ATLANTA
THE HOLY OWL OF THE GODDESS OF WISDOM ATHENA
A FLOOR VIEW OF THE ACROPOLIS…. Ms…
I leave it up to you…
further down I raised dirty galleries that are made by the well-known reptilians of the planet, and that, indeed in the heart of Zionism, BROOKLYN, New York, resisted at first even this NYPD that caught them…

History of Macedonia

The Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella MAKEDONIA 🇬🇷

Along the top of the scene the artist GNOSIS (=ΓΝΩΣΙΣ) has signed HIS name in white SQUARE =”ΓΝΩΣΙΣ ΕΠΟΗΣΕΝ”= KNOWLEDGE CREATED THIS, the EARLIEST known artist’s signature on a mosaic.

By ANCIENT QUEST.

Portrait of Alexander the Great
Egypt, Alexandria.
3rd century BC.
This cameo portrait was previously believed to be a depiction of Antiochus of Syria, based on an interpretation of the lettering on the reverse of the stone. However, when compared with close analogies in glyptic art and numismatics, the personage shown here fits the traditionally iconography of Alexander the Great considerably better.
The image of a young military commander in armour with a luxuriant head of hair and a diadem, a clear-cut profile and an upward gaze are typical for portraits of the Hellenic Macedonian conqueror, going back to the original by Lysippos. The cameo created in the new Egyptian capital that Alexander founded is a vivid illustration of his cult in a Hellenistic state.
Material:

Three-layered sardonyx, gold.
Dimensions:

2,6×1,7 cm

ΤHE THRONE OF EURIDICE, GRANDMOTHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT AIGAI, MACEDONIA, #GREECE.
“THRONE OF A LATE 4th CENTURY BC QUEEN FROM A TOMB AT AEGAE, #GREECE.
AEGAE OR AIGAI WAS ORIGINAL CAPITAL OF MACEDONIANS, THE ANCIENT KINGDOM in EMATHIA IN NORTHERN #GREECE, ALSO THE BURIAL-PLACE OF THE MACEDONIAN KINGS, NOW VERGINA .


SWASTIKA JUST IN SANSKRIT THAT IS WELL AND IS”.
THIS SYMBOL IS GREEK ORIGIN.
IN ANCIENT TIMES REFERRED AS “DOUBLE MEANDER” OR “GAMMADION”… NOT, AS SWASTIKA. Now theories k.Chitler for suns etc. I can not say because I need at least 1,000 pages to analyze. Used by Hittler when he visited a tribe of the Himalayas that had as its symbol the double meander and adopted as of them took in his words the same “DREADFUL AND STRONG KNOWLEDGE .” NOTE THAT THIS TRIBE, ALTHOUGH BUDDHISTS CONSIDER TODAY AS SPIRITUAL FATHERS GREEKS IN PARTICULAR APOLLO.
Ancient OLYNTHOS , MEANDER, CROSS AND SUN SYMBOLS, EARLY (4th B.C) GREEK MOSAIC/ MACEDONIA/ GREECE.
MOSAIC OF THE OIKOS AT AIGAI PALACE IN VERGINA, GREECE .
BUILT BY PHILIP II (c. 359-336 BCE), FATHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
IT’S ONE AMONG THE MANY LARGEST AND WELL KNOWN CLASSICAL-IDENTICAL HELLENIC MOSAICS…
450 YEARS BC.

DOUBLE MEANDER MOSAIC OF THE OIKOS AT AIGAI PALACE IN VERGINA, GREECE .
BUILT BY PHILIP II (c. 359-336 BCE), FATHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
IT’S ONE AMONG THE MANY LARGEST AND WELL KNOWN CLASSICAL-IDENTIXAL HELLENIC MOSAICS…
450 YEARS BC

READERS FLOOR AT THE LIBRERY OF MESSINI THE METROPOLE OF THE LATER CICILIAN MESSINI, BY SPARTANS (SPARTA IS THE CAPITAL OF LACONIA – NEIGHIBOUR TO MESSINI CITY OF MESSINIA COUNTY

THE “MEANDER”=ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ/MEANDROS AS A SYMBOL OF ANCIENT GREECE…
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-historical-symbols/
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/
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The most ancient Greek symbol, the Meander, is a symbol of Victory and Unity, a symbol of Infinity and Eternal Life, but also of our eternal journey through the world. Greek Key, as it declares the Greek origin of all things that carry it on them!

As a symbol, it may have been used mainly in decoration, but it is essentially a Greek seal, as most ancient Greek objects bear the design of the Meander. As a shape, the Acropolis will not be missing either. It may be born of prehistoric times, but it will be reborn and take its main, but not only, form during Geometric Times.

A symbol of all Greeks, the Meander, as it will be used in vases, temples, monuments, sculptures, objects, war weapons and armour, clothing in all the lengths and breadths of the Greek World. The same shape is present in the famous shield of Philip II. Through the Roman Empire, it also appears in Byzantine Culture. So the Maander is one of the leading Greek symbols, which was used in the most important periods of Greek history!

The sense of the infinite, of the endless on the one hand, but also of precision and integration on the other, characterize Greek culture. Already from classical antiquity, the meander represented the visual expression of the quintessence of ancient Greek thought – harmonious identification of opposites to the highest possible degree.

In ancient times this symbol depicted the endless flow of time and the completion of repeated time cycles. .

The enigmatic and unknown adventures of fate and the movement in a certain direction, from the point of birth and starting to the wide horizons of the unknown – a parallel with the course of Hellenism throughout the world.

In the mythical choice of Heracles, the difficult path of Virtue had a meandering shape (in contrast to that of Evil, which was straight), with the meanders symbolizing the structured difficulties of life, which man is called to overcome by sharpening his spirit in order to approach the ideal.

It is noteworthy that the meander is a more widespread symbol, both geographically and chronologically, that is traced wherever European-type Civilization has appeared.

It is presented in the majority of ancient works of art, in vases, buildings, inscriptions. The meander (or Greek key) was and is the symbol of eternal life and our eternal passage through this world. The most important presence of the meander is that in the genetic material (meander-spiral).

By the term meander or Greek key is meant in architecture and archeology the banded decoration – a composition of straight lines – that join each other at right angles or intersect diagonally. The meander motif, in its various variations, was often used in antiquity to decorate the frieze of temples. Variants of it are the meander which uses spiral repeating patterns (5) and the Vitruvian helix (tongue), a repeating curvilinear wave pattern.

Beautiful Coin of HIERON II

Dion.
The sacred city of the Macedonians and the sanctuary of Zeus in the area of Olympus.
It reached its peak during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, as it was one of the earliest Roman colonies in the Macedonian region.
During the time of Alexander the Great, Dion had significant importance for Macedonia Greece in general.

It was there that Philip II celebrated the capture and destruction of Olynthus, the capital of the Chalkidiki League. In the same place, Alexander the Great invoked the help of the gods, while he was making the ceremonial preparations for his military campaign in Asia.
#AlexanderTheGreat#macedonia#dion

Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the Ancient Macedonians.

The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus,ArtemisHeracles, andDionysus.As all the  Ancient Greeks regarded it as an essential element of Hellenic identity to share common religious beliefs and to come together at regular intervals at Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia,Delphi,Nemea/Argos, etc.) in order to celebrate Panhellenic festivals. Most of the gods who were worshipped in southern Greece can also be found in the Macedonian pantheon and the names of the most important Macedonian religious festivals are also typically Greek. Evidence of this worship exists from the beginning of the 4th century BC onwards, but little evidence of Macedonian religious practices from earlier times exists. From an early period, Zeus was the single most important deity in the Macedonian pantheon. Makedon, the mythical ancestor of the Macedonians, was held to be a son of Zeus, and Zeus features prominently in Macedonian coinage.The most important centre of worship of Zeus was at Dion inPieria, the spiritual centre of the Macedonians, where beginning in 400 BC King Archelaos established an annual festival, which in honour of Zeus featured lavish sacrifices and athletic contests. Worship of Zeus’s son Heracles was also prominent; coins featuring Heracles appear from the 5th century BC onwards. This was in large part because the Argead kings of Macedon traced their lineage to Heracles, making sacrifices to him in the Macedonian capitals of Vergina and Pella. Numerous votive reliefs and dedications also attest to the importance of the worship of Artemis. Artemis was often depicted as a huntress and served as a tutelary goddess for young girls entering the coming-of-age process, much as Heracles Kynagidas (Hunter) did for young men who had completed it. An important aspect of Macedonian social life were court symposia, which were characterized by heavy drinking (of apparently unmixed wine), feasting, and general debauchery. Symposia had several functions, amongst which was providing relief from the hardship of battle and marching. 
Athenian playwrights such as Euripides and Agathonand the famous painter Zeuxis, all were influential in the early kingdom. Euripides wrote his last two tragedies at Archelaos’s(= people`s leader) court.The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus,ArtemisHeracles, andDionysus.As all the  Ancient Greeks regarded it as an essential element of Hellenic identity to share common religious beliefs and to come together at regular intervals at Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia,Delphi,Nemea/Argos, etc.) in order to celebrate Panhellenic festivals. Most of the gods who were worshipped in southern Greece can also be found in the Macedonian pantheon and the names of the most important Macedonian religious festivals are also typically Greek. Evidence of this worship exists from the beginning of the 4th century BC onwards, but little evidence of Macedonian religious practices from earlier times exists. From an early period, Zeus was the single most important deity in the Macedonian pantheon. Makedon, the mythical ancestor of the Macedonians, was held to be a son of Zeus, and Zeus features prominently in Macedonian coinage.The most important centre of worship of Zeus was at Dion inPieria, the spiritual centre of the Macedonians, where beginning in 400 BC King Archelaos established an annual festival, which in honour of Zeus featured lavish sacrifices and athletic contests. Worship of Zeus’s son Heracles was also prominent; coins featuring Heracles appear from the 5th century BC onwards. This was in large part because the Argead kings of Macedon traced their lineage to Heracles, making sacrifices to him in the Macedonian capitals of Vergina and Pella. Numerous votive reliefs and dedications also attest to the importance of the worship of Artemis. Artemis was often depicted as a huntress and served as a tutelary goddess for young girls entering the coming-of-age process, much asHeracles Kynagidas (Hunter) did for young men who had completed it.

Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the Ancient Macedonians.

Entrance to the tomb of King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC)

The Alexander Sarcophagus is a remarkably well-preserved, late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus from the necropolis near Sidon, Lebanon. It is adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great and scrolling historical and mythological narratives.

Restoration work on a huge carpet-like Greek mosaic in the West Bank city of Jericho has been completed, revealing 38 intricate panels depicting floral and geometric patterns and a ‘tree of life’ (below)
Hisham’s Palace had lain forgotten for centuries until it was rediscovered in the 19th century.
British archaeologist Robert Hamilton explored it more extensively in the 1930s, when the mosaic was first discovered in the palace’s main bathhouse.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/THRACE/.

THRACIAN WREATH IN GOLD 420 BC PROPABLY BELONGNING TO AN ARISTOCRAT

National Archaeological Museum of Bulgaria

EVERYTHING BORN HERE!

At the time, before the Deluge of Deucalion, the Priests were the wise scientists, knowledgeable in all the Sciences of the time and not only. At that time, a great civilization had developed in Greece, but it was lost, with no evidence of its existence left, due to the encroachment of the Greeks.

But the Priesthood of Egypt, as their country was not affected by the flood, managed to save and spread all the knowledge of the Greeks, which, unfortunately, the Egyptians appropriated. And as the Greeks no longer had testimonies, due to the destruction of their country, the Greek knowledge passed through time and was “appropriated” as… the knowledge OF THE ….. EGYPTIANS

In addition to the revelation and admission of the Egyptian Sages to Solon, about the divine origin and superiority of the Greeks, as mentioned by Plato in “Timaeus”, the following passage by Ath. Stageritis is equally revealing:

[…] Actis(*) went to Egypt, where he built Heliopolis after his father’s name, he also taught the Egyptians Astrology; and because later a deluge happened in Greece and most of the people perished and their writings and History, and Astrology was found only in Egypt later, the Egyptians discovered this relevant circumstance, they appropriated it, boasting and claiming to have discovered it, because the Greeks had no proof… These may seem improbable, but we should not notice them as strange, because we have and find sufficient proofs that there were found in Egypt very ancient Hellenistic cities called […] OGYGIA, Volume I Within the Universe, everything moves in a circle, where the end will meet the beginning, as the completion of the 360° circular path “touches” the first degree of the beginning. Above the meeting of the two Fates, the first and the last, there appears Lawfulness and…

WHAT STARTED HERE WILL END HERE!

THE GREEKS AND US!!!!!!!!!!

”’GREEKS” ARE NOT THOSE WHO LIVE IN GREECE, BUT THOSE WHO (WHEREEVER THEY ARE, IN WHATEVER POINT OF THE EARTH AND IF THEY LIVE) SPEAK THE GREEK LANGUAGE, I.E. LIVE ACCORDING TO THE LAWS OF THE SUN, THE LAWS OF LIGHT, THE LAWS OF GOD THE CREATOR!!

IN BRIEF, THE WORD “GREEK”, MEANS “HE WHO (CAN AND) SEES GOD”.

I.E., ONE WHOSE HIGH VIBRATIONAL FREQUENCY IS THE SAME AS THAT OF LIGHT, THEREFORE IT ALLOWS HIM TO “SEE” THE CORRESPONDING FREQUENCY IN WHICH THE GODS BECOME VISIBLE!!

A “GREEK” IS THE SPIRITUALLY EVOLVED BEING AND ABSOLUTELY THE CITIZEN OF A COUNTRY, WHICH IS COMPLETELY ARBITRARY AND ABUSEFULLY CALLED “GREECE”!!

“GREECE” WAS ONCE, MANY THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO, WHEN THEY HAD MADE THIS PLACE THEIR PLACE, THEIR THRONE, THEIR HEADQUARTERS.

WE HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THEM!!!!

EVEN OUR ANCIENT ANCESTORS WERE NOT RELATED TO THE GREEKS, YES, THOSE OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD!!!!

EVEN THEN THERE WERE A FEW GREEKS AMONG THEM!!!

THE GREEKS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN FEW AMONG THE MANY, BECAUSE THEIR JOB ON EARTH WAS NO OTHER THAN TEACHING AND SPREADING KNOWLEDGE.

THE TEACHERS WERE GREEKS.

THE TEACHERS!!!!!!!!!

COMING TODAY AND GOING OUT ON THE STREETS DOES ANY CITIZENS WHO HAVE AWARENESS OF THEIR “GREEK” IDENTITY CAPABLE OF TAKE THE helm OF OUR PRESENT COUNTRY AND RESTORE THE DIGNITY AND HER STATE HISTORY????

I HIGHLY DOUBT!!!!

TODAY’S GREEKS LIVE A FOREIGN WAY OF LIFE AND WHAT THEY PERCEIVE HAS TO DO WITH THEIR MICRO-WORLD AND THEIR-MICRO INTERESTS!!!

THIS SHOWS A LACK OF ESSENTIAL EDUCATION WHICH TODAY HAS BEEN COMPLETELY DESTRUCTED WHEN WE HAVE ENDED UP WALKING AS A PEOPLE TORTURED IN A CONTINUOUS LYMPHATIC PROCESS!!! GIORGOS HAVALES

TEMPLE OF HEPHAESTUS.
It is one of the best preserved ancient temples.
On top of Kolonos hill, which is delimiting the Ancient Agora of Athens to the west, stands the temple of Hephaestus.

Doric peripteral temple, with pronaos –fore-temple–
cella –inner shrine– and opisthonaos –rear temple–, the best preserved of its type in the Greek world.

The facade of the pronaos and opisthonaos, to the east and west, are distyle, and the inner shrine had an interior colonnade.

It occupies the crest of the Kolonos Agoraios Hill and was designed by an unknown architect probably in honour of Hephaistos

It is one of the best preserved ancient temples, partly because it was transformed into a Christian church.

According to the traveller and geographer Pausanias (1, 14, 5-6), two deities were jointly worshipped in the temple: god Hephaestus, protector of all metallurgists, and goddess Athena Ergani, protecting all potters and the cottage industries.

The identification of this templeas Hephaesteion (location of worship of the god Hephaestus) was ascertained by the excavations and investigations that brought to light metallurgy workshops on the wider area of the hill, thus outshining earlier opinions presuming that Theseus, Hercules or Aris (Mars) were the deities worshipped there.

The temple was probably erected between 460 and 420 BC by a yet unknown architect, to whom, however, are attributed other temples of similar structure in the Attica region.

The temple disposed of a pronaos (anteroom) and an opisthodomos (back section), both distyle (two-columned) in antis.

On the exterior it was surrounded by a Doric colonnade having six columns on the narrow sides and thirteen columns on the longer sides.

The entire building, from the crepis (stone base) to the roof, was made of marble produced in the quarries of Pendeli mountain (in Attica), while the architectural sculptures that adorned the temple were of marble produced in the quarries on the island of Paros.

On the interior of the cella was a two-part colonnade forming the letter Π and at the far end was a pedestal, that supported the bronze ceremonial statues of Hephaestus and Athena, created by the sculptor Alkamenis; according to the traveller and geographer Pausanias, they were probably executed between 421 and 415 BC.

The lavish sculptural decoration of the temple featured highly interesting metopes that adorned the east and the west side of the external colonnade. The east side numbered ten metopes that were visible from the Agora: they depicted nine of the feats of Hercules.

Furthermore, on the north and the south side are depicted four of the feats of Theseus, which probably were the reason why the people named this temple ?Thision?.

The frieze does not run across all four sides of the cella, but only the across the pronaos and the opisthodomos.

The pronaos features the victorious struggle of Theseus against the claimers of the throne, who were the fifty sons of Pallas; six gods also participate into the fight.

The opisthodomos depicts the fight of the Centaurs narrated on the wall which is against the cella.

Notable sculptural representations also adorned the pediments of the temple.

The west pediment depicted the fight of the Centaurs and the east pediment the reception of Hercules on mount Olympus or the birth of goddess Athena.

Several among these sculptures inspired statues that were found in the surroundings of the temple, such as the fragmented and partially preserved complex of two feminine figures, one of which transports the other on her shoulders, as if trying to save her life, (?Ephedrismos? = carrying on one’s back),

Museum of the Ancient Agora, no of finding S 429), or the trunk of a dressed feminine figure where the movement is intensely underlined; the latter could be one of the acroteria (ornamental corner pieces) of the temple (Nereis = water deity, Museum of the Ancient Agora, no of finding S 182).

During the Hellenistic period, bushes or small trees in parallel order were planted into flowerpots around the temple; these pots came to light during excavation.

In the seventh century AD, the temple was conversed into a church dedicated to St. George Akamas, and thus stayed in use until the liberation of Greece from the Turkish occupation.

During the eighteenth century, many eminent Protestants, who died in Athens, were interred in the edifice, while in 1834 it hosted the ceremony of the first reception of king Otto.
Hence the temple was used as an archaeological museum, until 1930, when the American School for Classical Studies in Athens started excavations in the Ancient Agora.

Photograph: Francis Naef 

For devotees of “Indo-European” reeds. Indian relief “Heracles the protector of the Buddha”.
The Indo-Europeans allegedly and without evidence, in 2300, the Greeks and Herakles before 7,000.
BUDDAH with DIONYSOS as patron next to him, in 7000. The Greeks lived in Asia (Greek name) since prehistoric times and had excellent relations with the Asians.
Some LOW LEVEL individuals are promoting this tree as… linguistic history(!!), how FUNNY it is when one of the two central trunks starts with the word European which ALL Greeks know that the word EUROPE is from GREEK MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY and the word Hellenic should have been placed there instead, it comes later in a branch with Greek, that is, they again separate the ancient from the modern Greek… how complex now when they know that if they remove our language from their vocabularies, the whole trunk will collapse!
And the pacifier Indo India another Greek word is the basis….POOR “scientists” tells you!

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
The University professors who, INSTEAD OF SERVING the TRUTH keep a FISHY SILENCE in the FACE of the DESTRUCTION of HISTORY AND LANGUAGE, and EVEN MORE so those who appoint them to their positions, are considered guilty.
Just as unfortunately today everything on our planet IS SICK, so in our country there is a morbid lack of meritocracy, so that positions and positions are held by unfit people with only the virtue of a
cquaintances and their submission to what the globalization agenda naturally imposes.

However, be aware of this: just as the PHYSICAL TAXIS cannot be changed either by laws or by force, so it is NEVER allowed to be practiced for a long time to the detriment of the humanizing Greek Speech and our humanizing Language.

It is only a matter of time for the repentant human race, after being soiled in the spiritual mud, to take REFUSE ONCE AGAIN in the THREADS of the LIGHT-GIVING GREEK CULTURE ORDER to BE REBORN.

After all, this is his destination!

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
https://euphoriatric.com/etymology-means/
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/
https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/

THE “Phoenician “DECEPTION
The Phoenicians and Greek Alphabet
“…the Greek alphabet existed at the time of ATLANTIS, 9,500 BC, since PLATO speaks of inscriptions with oaths as well as names of kings carved into vows, and therefore carried history at least from 15,000 BC. But according to the “PHILHELLENIC” pile researchers, it comes from…. the Phoenician alphabet 😅🤣 of the 14th century BC. That is, the wretches have deliberately
They “FORGOTTEN” to multiply the history of Greece and its language x 10!!!

The RIGHT of the STRONGER:
BARBARIC lies persist about the origins of ancient Greek cities such as Persepolis, Petra and Baalbek, among others, falsely attributed to having been built by the Persians, Phoenicians, Carthagenians, Nabateans and Romans respectively. The Persians found the abandoned city of Persepolis (built by descendants of Perseus), and the Nabateans who were nomadic herders found and made the abandoned Petra their home. The Romans would invade and falsely put their tag on everything they conquered.

One such work was the KYBALION which he and others translated from existing archaic works. History, origin, art and high technology have all been stolen, looted and claimed by others. Newton also stole claim to the laws of motion and physics, gaining this knowledge from ancient texts which he secretly held.

THE GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN that: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS completely formulated the theory of NUCLEAR PHYSICS and SPECIAL RELATIVITY, unifying into formulas, as ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY, and the Weak Currents of NUCLEAR ATOMS.
EVERY CIVILIZATION is judged by WHAT it left behind…BUT….
THE GREEKS MUST NEVER LEARN, that: the ASTRONOMERS MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS
, ARISTARCHOS, ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES, CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, had EXHAUSTED the LIMITS of human INTELLIGENCE by solving MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION equations of 12 unknowns (twelve equations twelve unknowns) while the limit of today’s computers is “7 equations 7 unknowns”. Because the THIEVES of ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST be SHOWN!! …
The GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW that: the ENGINEERS – TECHNICIANS: EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, manufactured TOPOGRAPHIC instruments for TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC mechanisms and instruments for ELECTRICAL applications, because the SWINDLER EDISON MUST be SHOWN as the INVENTOR of … ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH the above GREEK ENGINEERS used the ELECTRON (AMBER) as a NATURAL ACCUMULATOR of STATIC ELECTRICITY in technical applications…
The Greeks MUST NOT KNOW that: the GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS the INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, had mapped the ENTIRE surface of the planet, because there is a danger that the Greeks will learn that ATLANTIS and the AMERICAN CONTINENT belonged administratively in DELPHI, while Asia belonged administratively to SARDIS, with the central coordinator being the APOLLONIAN Center of DELOS, to which the Transborean Greeks (Northern Siberia) sent as a token of recognition “every year, choice grain”, through the Greek ARIMASPAS and ISSIDONES and MASSAGESTAE of CENTRAL and SOUTHERN SIBERIA.
The GREEKS shouldNOT KNOW THAT THE GREEK DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, CARRIED OUT “balancing electromagnetic fluids of the body” treatments by regulating the alkalinity and acidity of the organs. That they were making cures using “left-handed amino acids” (antibiotics) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).
The Greeks must not learn that the symbols “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” and “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” were SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, by which the Greeks PYTHAGORAS and DEMOCRITUS and ARISTARCHOS expressed right-handed and left-handed nuclei of atoms, planets, solar systems, galaxies and cosmic domains clusters of galaxies.
2500 years ago HIPPOCRATES performed brain and heart surgery…
Despite the almost non-existent means of his time, HIPPOCRATES performed DIFFICULT surgeries. He and his students successfully treated orthopedic, cardiac and basic surgery cases. HIPPOCRATES even performed operations on the human skull, as we read in SEVERAL of his works… In addition to the operation itself, HIPPOCRATES attached great importance to the preparation of the patient and the operating room.
In the work Kat’iatreion, he describes in detail how the patient should be prepared before the operation, how the tools are sterilized, how the space is shaped, but also how artificial and natural light is used during the operation…
American archaeobotanists were ABLE for the FIRST time to study and analyze the contents of pills made by doctors in ANCIENT Greece and which were discovered 20 years ago, in a Greek shipwreck off the coast of TUSCANY…
DNA analyzes showed that each pill was a mixture of at least ten different plant extracts, including hibiscus and celery. “For the first time, we now have physical EVIDENCE of what is contained in the writings of the ANCIENT Greek physicians DIOSCORIDIS and GALENOS,” said ALLEN TWO WAY of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION’s NATIONAL Museum of NATURAL HISTORY in WASHINGTON , according to New Scientist..
“Apostle ORPHEUS”

“ΦΌΒΟΣ ΜΝΉΜΗΝ ΕΚΠΛΉΣΣΕΙ, ΤΈΧΝΗ ΔΕ ΆΝΕΥ ΆΛΚΗΣ ΟΥΔΈΝ ΩΦΕΛΕΊ.”(ANCIENT ATTICA GREEK)

(ΦΌΒΟΣ/”PHOBOS”) = FEAR NULLIFIES MEMORY AND KNOWLEDGE(=ΓΝΩΣΗ=GNOSI) WITHOUT COURAGE AVAILS NOTHING.

THUCYDIDES

THE STOLEN STATUE OF THESEUS

An amazing work of art of our ancestors, dating back to 500 BC, stolen by Germans. It was located in the temple of Athena Aphaia in Aegina. Today we see the temples turned into ruins and we are unaware that a few years ago they hid all these masterpieces which were stripped, mutilated to adorn museums abroad.


HIPPOCRATES AND HYGEIA/ IVORY CARVED 5th CENTURY BC

The Greeks began to use a year divided into twelve months, it is believed that this happened no later than the 8th century. BC, since mention of its existence is found in Hesiod.
It should also be mentioned that the relationship between the calendar year and the various holidays was close for the Greeks, as evidenced by the fact that the names of most of their months came from the names of holidays celebrated during those months.
These celebrations are rarely related to episodes from the life of the gods themselves and usually have to do with the agricultural occupations that took place during the corresponding period of time and with which man ensured his harvest and therefore his existence and perpetuation.
So the ancient Greeks were the first (in Europe) to divide the year into 12 synodic (lunar) months and, because they knew that each synodic month did not have a whole number of days (approximately 29 ½ days), they gave the months a duration of 30 days (perfect or , full months) and 29 days (hollow months) alternately. They thus tried to make the first day of each month coincide as much as possible with the New Moon.
Months of the ancient Greek year (of ancient Athens) and their approximate Time interval (from-to) are:
1. Hekatombion July 15-August 15
2. Metageitnia August 15-September 15
3. Voidoromion September 15-October 15
4. Pyanepsion October 15-November 15
5. Maimaktrion November 15-December 15
6a. Poseidon I December 15-January 15
6b. Poseidon B’ (or second or later) vaccine month
7. Weddings January 15-February 15
8. Antithestira February 15-March 15
9. Deer hunting March 15-April 15
10. Munichion April 15-May 15
11. Thargilion 15 May-15 June
12. Skiforion June 15-July 15
In ancient Greece, as we saw above, the year consisted of twelve lunar months, which usually had 29 and 30 days alternately (these are the “hollow” and “full” months, respectively). The limits of each month were marked by the appearance of two new moons, so its duration was about 29 ½ days. (In total, we know more than 130 local month names and in addition their dialectal variants, which were usually derivatives of the names of feasts or divine epithets and corresponded to separate cities. The inoculated months usually took one of the remaining names with the additional indication- “second”, “late” or, as in Thessaly, marked “inoculated”.)
The first month of each year coincided with the summer (e.g. Athens) or winter solstice (e.g. Delos), and the spring (e.g. Delphi) or autumnal equinox (e.g. Argos) .
However, the establishment of a year of 354 days created a problem and, if no measures were taken, it would constantly expand, since a solar year has 365 days. In order to eliminate this difference, they added at intervals, usually every two years, a vaccinal month lasting about 22-23 days.
Along with the lunar month, characterized by epigraphic texts as “min kata theon (SUN)” or “min kata Selininen”, the organization of the annual time was also based on the tenure of the political rulers (e.g. Attic organization and division of the annual time into rectories) and in this case the month was called “men kat’ archontan”.
These different systems of naming and organizing the annual time functioned simultaneously in the daily reality of each city, just as the religious and political expressions functioned simultaneously.
The fact that in several parts of the ancient Greek world the names of the months are not related to the festivals of their most important gods but usually to those of Apollo means that a sanctuary of this god with pan-Hellenic acceptance must have made a decisive contribution to their establishment, as has been proven this in Delphi and around the seventh century BC.
Of course, it should be emphasized that the ancient Greeks do not seem to have celebrated the New Year with special holidays. For them, the beginning of each month was more important, which was connected to any of their occupations.
In Athens, however, an epigraphic testimony informs us of a religious ceremony that took place on the last day of the past year, but which involved a limited number of people. It was a sacrifice of the outgoing officials to Zeus Sotira and Athena Soteira wherever it was aimed at securing the favor of these gods for the new year.
In the Roman years and under the influence of Rome itself, the celebration of the New Year began, which expanded throughout the territory of the Roman Empire, therefore also in the Greek area.
Julius Caesar, applying the knowledge of the famous Greek astronomer from Alexandria Sosigenis, in 46 BC. established January 1 as the beginning of the year, which has since become widespread in the West. Also with the help of Sosigenes, requested by Julius Caesar, we also owe the adjustment of the year to the duration of the rotation of the Earth around the Sun.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ASIA MINOR/ IONIA/ A N T I O C H E I A/

MOTIVES FROM THE CLASSICAL GREEK MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY: – HERE:
THE N I N E M U S E S

https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/
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IT’S JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED, COUNTERFEITED, DISTORTED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED.. as..THEIR OWN!!!!!! 😄😂🤣) MOSTLY BY ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS🐀🐁!!
ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,
HAVING – OF COURSE – HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & NOT AUTHENTIC HIGH CIVILIZATION, AS:
-TEMPLES, STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, COINS, SCIENCE, as: MEDICINE, SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY. JUST ONE example): The ANTIKITHYRA mechanism MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, STETEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, POETRY & ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC THE LANGUAGE, ITSELF which IS MATHEMATIC

,… IS INTERCONNECTED WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS..
.. ARE JUST the
WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS & UNFORTUNATELY THOUSANDS OF “PRIVATE” COLLECTORS
AROUND THE WORLD.

This is a gold HEMISTATER or DRACHM from Sicily, struck by HIERON circa 220-217 BC when he was King.
The coin shows PERSEPHONE WREATHED in BARLEY with a CORNUCOPIA behind her. The reverse shows a CHARIOTEER driving a biga with prancing horses and an inscription IEPΩNOΣ below.

HIERON II ( 308 BC – 215 BC) WAS A GREEK TYRANT OF SYRACUSE ( 270 BC – 215 BC), ILLEGITIMATE SON OF THE NOBLE HIEROCLES AND DESCENDANT OF THE TYRANT GELON . HE SERVED AS A GENERAL TO THE KING OF EPIRUS, PYRRHUS , AND WAS AN IMPORTANT MILITARY FIGURE WHEN THE FIRST CARTHAGENIAN WAR BROKEN OUT .
AFTER THE DEPARTMENT OF PYRRHUS FROM SICILY (275 BC) THE ARM OF SYRACUSE APPOINTED HIERON, AS HIS COMMANDER, HE SIGNIFICANTLY STRENGTHENED HIS POSITION BY MARRYING THE DAUGHTER OF LEPTINUS, A PROMINENT CITIES .

In a WELL-KNOWN story described by Vitruvius, HIERON II ordered a votive crown to be made for him from pure gold and because he did not trust the goldsmith he asked ARCHIMEDES to EXAMINE WHETHER the gold had been ADULTERATED with SILVER.
ARCHIMEDES had to SOLVE the problem WITHOUT DESTROY ING the CROWN DID NOT WANT TO MELT IT TO CALCULATE ITS DENSITY AND ORIGIN. WHILE BATHING, ARCHIMEDES NOTICED THAT THE WATER LEVEL IN THE TUB ROSE when HE STEPPED IN AND REALIZED THAT THIS EFFECT COULD BE USED TO DETERMINE THE VOLUME OF THE CROWN…

Assuming that water is practically incompressible the effect of sinking would be for the crown to displace an amount of water equal to its own volume.
Dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced gives the density of the crown, the density will be less than that of gold if some cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes was so excited by his discovery that he went out into the street naked shouting ” Eureka! Eureka! ». King Hiero’s gold was actually adulterated with silver according to ARCHIMEDES’S FAMOUS DISCOVERY

In the museum of the gallery of ATTALOS located below the ACROPOLIS, there is a “MANGER” of 330 BC. depicting the cave of PAN, where HERMES delivers little DIONYSOS to the NYMPHS!
And whoever understood, understood…..

******************P E R G A M O S***********************************************************’

Pergamus (/ˈpɜːrɡəməs/; Ancient Greek: Πέργαμος) was the son of the warrior Neoptolemus and Andromache. Pergamus’s parents both figure in the Trojan War, described in Homer’s The Iliad: Neoptolemus was the son of Achilles and fought on the DANAAEANS side, while Andromache was the Trojan prince Hector’s wife. After the death of both Achilles and Hector, and the fall of Troy, Neoptolemus captured the newly widowed Andromache for his concubine and went to rule in Epirus. After Neoptolemus’s death, some sources say that Andromache returned to Asia Minor with her youngest son, Pergamus, although this is probably a later addition to the legend.

Asklepion of the Pergamon

Pergamon Museum, the most visited in Berlin. It hosts more than 1.5 million visitors per year.

Pergamon Museum, the most visited in Berlin. It hosts more than 1.5 million visitors per year.

Pergamon (Pergamum) ancient Greek city located 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, Turkey /

BERLIN, GERMANY – MARCH 06, 2013: Detail of the frieze of the Pergamon Altar in the Pergamon Museum. Altar was built in the 2nd century in the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor

Ornament of the Pergamon altar, inside the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Athena winning against a giant and crowned by the NIKE.Ornament of the Pergamon altar, inside the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Athena winning against a giant and crowned by the Victory.

Altar in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

Man looking at Pergamon Altar in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

Pergamos = “height or elevation” Ancient Greek city of Mysia Minor, in Asia Minor, the seat of the dynasties of ATTALOS and EUMENES, famous for its temple of ASCLEPIOS and the invention and manufacture of parchment.
Pergamus (/ˈpɜːrɡəməs/; Ancient Greek: ) was the son of the warrior Neoptolemos and Andromache.

Pergamus’s parents BOTH figure in the CIVIL WAR BETWEEN DANAAE+ACHAEOI vs TROJANS described in Homer’s The Iliad: Neoptolemus was the son of Achilles and fought on the ACHAEOI side, while Andromache was the Trojan prince Hector’s wife. After the death of both Achilles and Hector, and the fall of Troy, Neoptolemus captured the newly widowed Andromache for his concubine and went to rule in Epirus. After Neoptolemus’s death, some sources say that Andromache returned to Asia Minor with her youngest son, Pergamus, although this is probably a later addition to the legend.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3SIooVHV8E

Tourists in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

“never of worldly Phoenix the daughter as beloved,
who gave birth to my Rhadamanthes and the co-god Minos;
HOMER “Ilias” X 321-322 (Kazantzaki-Kakridi street)

Homer presents Zeus as exalting his love for his wife Hera as superior, comparing it to the loves he felt in his adventures with other women. Listing the names of the girls with whom he had some “close contacts”: Ixion’s wife, the limp Danae, Semele, Alcmene, Demetra the beautiful-haired, Leto the world-famous, he also mentions Europe in these verses, without he names her.

In the photo, a red-shaped bell-shaped krater (vessel for mixing wine with water), found in Taranto, in southern Italy, and dated to 360 BC. Attributed to the “Painter of Ilio Persida”. Today at the Louvre museum.
On one side of it is depicted the very beloved scene that was often depicted on vases, reliefs and hologlyphs, mosaics, frescoes by ancient and modern artists, but also on coins, up to our modern Euro: The rapture of Europa, daughter of the king of Tire Phoenicas , from Jupiter -taurus.
On the other side of the vase, Dionysus, a Maenad and a Satyr are depicted (1st comment).
Europa was a beautiful girl with big eyes (wide + second form of the acc. of oro: opopa >opsis, omma-mati).
The abductions of the myths followed roughly the same pattern: The beautiful girl was playing carefree or picking flowers with her friends, when a divine figure saw her, fell in love with her, and abducted her. Like Pluto Persephone, Boreas Oreithyia, Jupiter Europe etc.
In this performance, it is the moment when Zeus, transformed into a beautiful, tame and pure white bull, pretends to graze approaching Europe, who sat down to rest from the game on the shores of Tire or Sidon. She wears a white beaded necklace and bracelets. He sits on top of a cave. [My personal guess: Pre-economy of the Ideal Man? But do the trees that surround her also indicate her chthonic status and symbolism? Are they myrtles? For when Europe was deified, her statue was surrounded with a wreath of myrtles of great diameter]. Around her are her friends and perhaps Aphrodite with Niki. The young woman pulls back her veil to admire the bull, which makes a playful bending motion. Europe’s next move will be to ride him happily. Then he, wasting no time, got up and rushed into the sea! From there, accompanied by a procession of dolphins, Nereids, Tritons, and even Poseidon himself, as depicted in various versions, they reach Idaion Andron in Crete, where they unite. From this marriage three children are born: Minoas, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys.
From this representation, the tilted head of Europe is what they chose to depict in the watermark and the Euro hologram (2nd comment).

Treasures of the PONTOS KINGDOM
The pure gold king’s crown. Credit: SAMSUN MUSEUM
ANCIENT GREEK TREASURES dated from the KINGDOM of PONTOS, a HELLENIC state located in the NORTHEASTERN part of ASIA MINOR, will be displayed in a new museum in the city of SAMSUN, TURKEY.

Among the antiquities is the AMISOS TREASURE . It consists of 64 pieces, was found during a construction excavation in SAMSUN on Nov. 28, 1995, and is considered the MOST valuable treasure belonging to the dynasty members of the PONTOS KINGDOM.

It is stated that the history of the gold artifacts dates back to the 1st century B.C. and could have belonged to the sixth PONTOS KING, MITHRIDATES PHILOPATOR PHILADELPHOS.

The contents were: “a pure gold king’s crown, 15 gold buttons, four gold bracelets with human and animal figures on it, 18 broken gold bracelets, a gold barette, two gold earrings, 10 big gold necklaces, a gold ring with a gem, 24 necklaces, 424 beads, a glass bowl, four earthenware, three kerosene lamps and an earthenware plate.”

TREASURES PONTOS KINGDOM
The museum will also exhibit coins from the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Ottoman and Republican periods, jewelry, arches, sculptures, tombs and warship models from the Chalcolithic, Early Bronze, Hellenistic and Roman periods
.

Another highlight of the new museum is the Amisos Mosaic with a base size of 56 square meters. It is a remarkable ancient mosaic discovered in the Turkish city of Samsun, which was formerly known as Amisos in antiquity. The mosaic was unearthed during archaeological excavations in the area and dates back to the Roman period, around the 2nd or 3rd century CE.

Treasures PONTOS KINGDOM
Amisos Mosaic: Credit: Samsun Museum
The Amisos Mosaic is renowned for its intricate design and detailed craftsmanship. It depicts scenes from ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY, including images of gods, mythical creatures, and other figures. The mosaic is composed of colorful tesserae (small tiles) made of stone or glass, meticulously arranged to create vibrant and lifelike compositions.

The rise and fall of the Kingdom of PONTOS
The Kingdom of PONTUS along the southern coast of the Black Sea emerged in the 4th century BC after the collapse of the Persian Empire and the conquests of ALEXANDER the GREAT .

The region was initially inhabited by various indigenous peoples but became heavily influenced by Greek culture following the arrival of Greek colonists and the establishment of Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast.

PONTOS reached its peak under the rule of Mithridates VI Eupator, also known as Mithridates the Great, who reigned from around 120 BCE to 63 BCE.

Mithridates was a formidable ruler who expanded PONTOS’ territory through military conquests and alliances. He also resisted Roman expansion into Anatolia, leading to a series of conflicts known as the Mithridatic Wars between PONTOS and the Roman Republic.

Despite Mithridates’ efforts, PONTOS eventually fell to the Romans, with Mithridates being defeated by Roman general POMPEUS the GREAT in 63 BCE. The kingdom was then incorporated into the Roman Republic’s territories as a client state.

The region continued to be significant during the Roman and later Byzantine periods, but the Kingdom of PONTOS as an independent entity ceased to exist after its conquest by Rome.

TAGSAmisosAmisos TreasuresGreek News Pontos KingdomSamsunTurkey

Tourists in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

BERLIN, GERMANY – MARCH 06, 2013: Pergamon Altar as reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. It was built in the 2nd century in the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor

Detail of the famous Pergamon Altar in the Pergamon museum in Berlin

ISTANBUL, TURKEY – 10 JULY, 2014: Miniaturk park in Istanbul, Turkey. Reduced copy of Pergamon Altar built during the reign of King ΕΥΜΕΝΗΣ II in ancient Geek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor.

Spectators in the hall and on the steps of the Pergamon Altar in Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany – September 22, 2007

Educational concepts in Classical Greek sculptur, : interior of an European museum

HIEROGAMIA (sacred marriage) of ZEUS and HERA, fresco, fourth style, c. 65 CE. From Pompeii, House of the Tragic Poet. Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Photo: Luciano Pedicini, Naples, licensed under public domain (PD-1996).

By: Michalis Cheilos. Paestum( Poseidonia )Ultras 🇬🇷☠️🇮🇹 Magna Graecia

For the History ,Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, in Magna Graecia.
The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order dating from about 550 to 450 BC that are in an excellent state of preservation. The city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads.
 

HIS IS PHOENICIA FROM THE EAST….
SO THAT THEY DON’T FOOL YOU OF THAT IT WASN’T A GREEK
COLONY IT WAS CONQUERED
BY THE SEMITIC TRIBES LATER…
.

By:
Πολύγνωτος Παπαοικονόμοu

ANCIENT PHOENICIA A COLONY OF GREEK RACES
THE MOST IMPORTANT CITIES OF THE PHOENICIAN COAST WERE BYBLOS, SIDON, TYRE, ARADOS, JOPPA, GAZA (ORIGINALLY MINOA OR MINYA) AND TRIPOLI, WHICH WERE FOUNDED BY CRETANS
IN 3000-1600 BC THAT IS, WHEN OUR GREEK ANCESTORS WERE UNDISPUTED SEA EMPERORS OF THE ENTIRE MEDITERRANEAN.

For Tire it is written that it was founded in 2300 BC. by GREEK PELASGIANS SETTLED FROM MAGNESIA AND PHTHIA, THERE WAS ALSO A TEMPLE OF HERAKLES, APPARENTLY OLDER THAN that of the SON of ALCMENE (HERODOTUS, B 44).

Tire owes its name to the princess TYRO, daughter of the king of THESSALY Salmoneus and wife of Kritheos, king of Phthia!!!
(Greek Mythology, Richepin A 386, Pergamenai Editions 1953).

But the most important PHOENICIAN CITY, SIDON, IS ALSO mentioned by HOMER
(Odyssey, Raps. d, verse 618) as a Greek establishment WHEN, AFTER THE CIVIL WAR WITH TROJA. MENELAOS sailed there with his fleet, in SIDON the GREEK PHAEDIMOS was the king.

ALSO GREEK-PELASGIAN COLONIZED CITIES IN PHOENICIA WERE POSIDION AND Al MINA, WHICH WERE FOUNDED BY SETTLERS FROM OLD ERETRIA (on MOUNT ORTHYS) IN 2000 BC.

Another case is the city of EVAGORITIS, a name ORIGINATING from the CYPRIOT KINGDOM OF EVAGORAS, WHICH FLOURISHED IN 1800 BC. and it is described as a multi-people commercial center with famous professorships and large libraries!!

THE NATIVE SIMITIC TRIBES OF PHOENICIA APPEAR IN THE FOREGROUND ONLY IN 1300-1200 BC, AS SAILORS, PIRATES AND TRADERS.

HOWEVER , EVEN THEIR MOST FAMOUS COLONY, THE WELL-KNOWN CARTHAGE, FOUNDED IN 750 BC. SERVED, AS A GREEK COLONY, FOUNDED BY THE GREEK PRINCESS DIDO, WITH THE NAME CARTHAGENI!!!
DIDO WAS A DIASPORA GREEK, SISTER OF PYGMALION, KING OF CYPRUS AND TYRE, WHO LED A COLONIZATION CAMPAIGN WITH A LARGE GROUP OF OTHER GREEKS, AS WELL

By: Gorgo Degr:,

THE SEMITES WERE NOT SKILLED SAILORS. THEY LEARNED THE ART FROM THE GREEK PHOENICIANS, WHO STAYED BEHIND, IN THE CONTEXT of the general destruction caused by the fire from heaven in 1200, which destroyed ALMOST all of PHOENICIA THE MINYANS WERE NOT THE FIRST GREEKS, THEY WERE THE MOST GREEK NOT OF US ALL

HERE:
A GREEK PARCEL GILT SILVER MIRROR
HELLENISTIC PERIOD, CIRCA 2ND-1ST CENTURY B.C.
Disk-shaped, the obverse highly polished, the reverse set with a repoussé sheet in high relief depicting Aphrodite about to punish Eros for breaking an alabastron, the goddess threatening with the sandal removed from her right foot, held in her right hand, leaning forward on her stool, supporting herself with her left hand on the corner of the cushion, her right foot forward, the left leg bent back with her sandaled foot on a footstool, a himation around her waist and legs, bracelets on each wrist, a hand -mirror on the cushion behind her, winged Eros cowering before her with his hands raised to his lips, the broken vessel on the ground between them, a second Eros crouching beneath her stool, enclosed by a wreath of oak leaves, preserving gilding for the wreath, hair, wings, drapery, sandal, alabastron and footstool
6 3/8 in. (16.1 cm.) diameter
12,055 oz (374.8 g) 

THYMELE WORSHIP COMMUNITY

ὦναὶ, ὧι damalis Eros
And blue-eyed nymphs
purple of Aphrodite
they sympathize, it returns
d’ high mountain peaks;
I am touching you, you are not happy
Come to us, blessed
they obey willingly;
Kleoboulis is a good man
advisor, myself for man-
᾽, ὦ Deonise, accept.
……….THAT IS: TRANSLATED ABOVE TEXT/ (FROM THE ANCIENT ATTICA DIALECT):
Anakta, where Eros the tamer
and the blue-eyed Brides
and the rosy-cheeked Aphrodite play with you
and you turn to the high mountains,
I run into you;
and come to me good friend
and my request
listening to the cutie.
Be Good advisor
Be Cleobolus,
Dionysus me
to accept my love
EPIGRAM of ANACREON to DIONYSOS
In the image: Black Attic Hydra of 520 BC. approximately with Dionysus, Bacchus and Silenus. It has an inscription at the top of the scene: ΠΑΜΦΑΙΟΣΜΕΠΟΙΗΣΕΝ=PAMPHEIOSMEPOIISEN =AMPPHEUS MADE ME

TO CELEBRATE THIS OCCASION, LET’S LOOK TOGETHER AT THIS SPLENDID ATTIC ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ=RED-FIGURED NECK-AMPHORA ARV(2) 648.27, attributed to THE OIONOKLES PAINTER, DATED TO 470 BC. approximately and PRESERVED AT THE KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM IN VIENNA (inv. 846).

It is a courtship scene IN WHICH A YOUNG MAN, STANDING AND LEANING ON A KNOBLED STICK, HANDS A FLOWER TO A GIRL SITTING BEFORE HIM.

In her left hand is perched a #dove, an iconographic attribute OF THE GODDESS #APHRODITE and a clear reference to the feeling between the protagonists.

Between the two there is a KALATHOS (wicker basket used to store wool and utensils for domestic work entrusted to women).

PER FESTEGGIARE QUESTA RICORRENZA, OSSERVIAMO INSIEME QUESTA SPLENDIDA NECK-AMPHORA ATTICA A FIGURE ROSSE ARV(2) 648.27, attribuita AL PITTORE DI OIONOKLES, DATATA AL 470 a.C. circa e CONSERVATA AL KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM DI VIENNA (inv. 846).

È una scena di corteggiamento NELLA QUALE UN GIOVANE UOMO, STANTE E APPOGGIATO A UN BASTONE NODOSO, PORGE UN FIORE A UNA FANCIULLA SEDUTA INNANZI A LUI.

Nella mano sinistra di lei è appollaiata una #colomba, attributo iconografico DELLA DEA #AFRODITE e chiaro riferimento al sentimento tra i protagonisti.

Tra i due è un presente un KALATHOS (cesto in vimini usato per riporre lana e utensili dei lavori domestici affidati alle donne).

La ceramica antica – Identita, cocci e dintorni.

nd you, on #”Valentine’s Day”🥹😅😂🤣#February 14, do you prefer #flowers or chocolates?

TO CELEBRATE THIS OCCASION, LET’S LOOK TOGETHER AT THIS SPLENDID ATTIC ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ=RED-FIGURED NECK-AMPHORA ARV(2) 648.27, attributed to THE OIONOKLES PAINTER, DATED TO 470 BC. approximately and PRESERVED AT THE KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM IN VIENNA (inv. 846).

It is a courtship scene IN WHICH A YOUNG MAN, STANDING AND LEANING ON A KNOBLED STICK, HANDS A FLOWER TO A GIRL SITTING BEFORE HIM.

In her left hand is perched a #dove, an iconographic attribute OF THE GODDESS #APHRODITE and a clear reference to the feeling between the protagonists.

Between the two there is a KALATHOS (wicker basket used to store wool and utensils for domestic work entrusted to women)

PER FESTEGGIARE QUESTA RICORRENZA, OSSERVIAMO INSIEME QUESTA SPLENDIDA NECK-AMPHORA ATTICA A FIGURE ROSSE ARV(2) 648.27, attribuita AL PITTORE DI OIONOKLES, DATATA AL 470 a.C. circa e CONSERVATA AL KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM DI VIENNA (inv. 846).

È una scena di corteggiamento NELLA QUALE UN GIOVANE UOMO, STANTE E APPOGGIATO A UN BASTONE NODOSO, PORGE UN FIORE A UNA FANCIULLA SEDUTA INNANZI A LUI.

No photo description available.

*** AUTOLYCUS, THE GRANDFATHER AND GODFATHER OF ODYSSEUS
*** AUTOLYCUS AND THE HELMET OF ODYSSEUS
Autolykos = self-luminous from lyki = the light
In Rhapsody IV of the Odyssey, the maid Eurycleia washing the feet of Odysseus, who has been transformed into a beggar by Athena, recognizes him directly from a wound on his leg.
This wound was caused by a wild boar’s tooth when he went as a young man to Parnassos, where his grandfather Autolykos lived, to hunt wild boar.
The name Odysseus was given by Autolykos to his grandson because of the suffering he had given to those he had wronged (v, 405).
“.. there are many because I am tired and I can’t do it ..”
“because I arrived here angry with many”
His daughter was Anticleia, the mother of Odysseus.
Autolykos took part in the Argonautic expedition, being one of Jason’s 50 Argonauts.
On Parnassos where he lived he honored the god Hermes according to Homer (v, 395).
According to Hesiod, Autolycus had inherited from Hermes the ability to steal and transform the stolen. From Amydoras he stole a bronze helmet, the “kynee”.
This helmet was worn by Odysseus during his night invasion with Diomedes in the city of Troy.
Odysseus must have taken the cunning of his character from his grandfather…
AUTOLYCUS AND THE HELMET OF ODYSSEUS
When the Greeks decided to send two warriors to spy on the Trojan camp, Diomedes chose Odysseus as his companion to go with them.
Homer tells us:
“…And Mirionis gave Odysseus’ quiver
bow and sword. And then the head with a helmet
his leather jacket, tightly fastened
in many thongs, and had wool in the background,
and boar’s teeth, densely white, encircled it.
Autolykos had stolen this from Eleonas, it seemed
of Ormenides Amyntoros pierced the roof.
In the Scandian of Amphidamados, inhabitant of Kythera
he also sent it as a souvenir to Molon of Xenia
Amphidamas saw it. And to his son Molos
he left Mirionin. And this helmet it was
where the forehead of uncle Odysseus lived…”
(ILIAS, Rhapsody K, f. 260)
Here we see that this HELMET belonged to Amydoros Ormenides who lived in Eleonas, who was the father of Phoenix, Achilles’ teacher.
Autolycus steals [antitorisas domon] a leather helmet [kynei] from the house of Amyndoras Ormenides [father of Phoenicus] which was in Eleonas.
He gives it as a gift to Amphidamandas, a resident of Skandia of Kythira.
He gave it as a gift to Molo, father of Mirionis, for his hospitality.
Molos gave it to his son, Miriones, to wear in the Trojan War.
Mirionis gives it to Odysseus while preparing for the evening spying.
This helmet had white wild boar teeth all around, material with excellent impact properties and inside with compressed wool to absorb the impacts and not let them be transferred to the skull.
Mirionis knows the history of this helmet. That’s why he gives it to Odysseus. It was owned by his grandfather, Autolykos.
Odysseus is depicted with this helmet in most vase paintings. We understand that it was something very important for Odysseus…..
In the photo we see a helmet from the Mycenaean era made of boar’s teeth similar to the one mentioned by Odysseus.
It was found in a vaulted tomb of Pylos.
Antonopoulio Museum of Pylos

Orestes kills his father’s cousin, Aegisthus, and then kills his own mother, Clytemnestra, who had made a bond with him while Agamemnon was away in Troy.
Everyone’s motivation for their actions was revenge.
In the past, Aegisthus has killed Orestes’ grandfather and his uncle, Atreus, for reasons of power.
Agamemnon succeeds in expelling Aegisthus from Mycenae, but also Thyestes (brother of Atreus) and takes over the kingdom.
When she left for Troy, Clytemnestra following the curse of Nafplius, who after the murder of his son, Palamidus of the Achaeans (Odysseus and Agamemnon) entered into a relationship with Aegisthus.
(Nauplius had sworn that he would corrupt the women of the Achaeans after the death of his son and thus destroy their houses).
Thus Clytemnestra and Aegisthus organize the murder of Agamemnon, which happens with the return of the king. Aegisthus seems to have gotten his revenge, but Orestes restores his father’s name and kills the two lovers.
Then he arrives in Athens to be tried in Areion Pagon. The votes of conviction/acquittal are equal. Then Athena takes over and acquits Agamemnonides. Since then, the votes are an odd number, so as to avoid a tie.

Caraff with painted moments of children playing and talking.

Aphrodite and Eros. Ancient Greece. Tanagra-Greece, the last quarter 4th cent. BC. – the 1st quarter 3rd cent. BC.

A statuette depicting Aphrodite with her son Erota, whom she entertains with a toy-top, is a unique work, known to date only in a single copy. In this sculptural group, a characteristic feature of Hellenistic art was manifested – a penchant for genre. The coloring applied on the white coating has been preserved so well that you can mentally recreate the original major color scale.

The Hermitage Museum

THE KRYPTEIA IN SPARTA: INITIATION OR STATE TERRORISM? [SECOND PART].


[Image: Anonymous, “Relief with Heroes and Worshipers”, Sparta 6th century BC, Altes Museum, Berlin].
In summary, we can therefore state that while the tradition attributable to Plato identifies the krypteiai with “war training”, in which young people on the verge of finishing their training were subjected to a final test, lasting a season or even a entire year, to verify their actual military capacity – measured on the ability to resist deprivation and to procure everything one needs on one’s own and without any help – that represented by Aristotle and Plutarch makes them real missions military, blitzes carried out lightning fast by a carefully selected elite to inflict the greatest damage on enemies in a reasonably short time.
So how can these discrepancies between the sources be explained? Numerous scholars have long questioned the various reconstructions since the 19th century. A common feature of the results obtained by them is the importance that almost everyone recognizes in the role of the helots in the evolution of the Spartan order and in particular of the agoge. Perceived as a foreign body by the ruling class, they always represented a threat to the stability of the existing social order and to its very survival. At the slightest sign of weakness of the Spartiates, they would certainly have risen up to subvert the order, the kosmos, which saw them in a base and degrading position. This had to be avoided at all costs.
But there’s more. Since its origins, the Spartan state, due to the great distance that separated it from the sea, had directed its expansionist aims towards the interior and the mainland. Those who paid the price, before the others, were the Messenians, who inhabited a region located in the south-western Peloponnese, coveted by the Spartans for the fertile plains it hosted. After the so-called “Messenian wars”, they had been subjugated by their powerful neighbors and reduced to the rank of helots, with all the imaginable consequences. As is easy to understand, the Messenians had never resigned themselves to this condition and had periodically attempted to recover through numerous insurrections, all of which were bloodily repressed. Until, after the disastrous outcome of the battle of Leuctra (371 BC), Sparta had lost its military hegemony in favor of the Thebans and they had invaded the Peloponnese and liberated Messenia, actually founding there, with the general Epaminondas, the new polis of Messene (369 BC).
Therefore the helots were perceived by the Spartiates as a danger to be perpetually guarded against; and the Messenians, subjugated in ancient times, were assimilated to them in the perception of the ruling class. However, when, after Leuctra, the Spartans lost their military dominance in the Peloponnese and were forced to accept the Theban imposition of a free Messenia with a new capital, it can well be assumed that they certainly did not do so willingly. Isocrates, in the oration “to Archidamus”, confirms this thesis [7].
But what does this situation have to do with the interpretation of krypteia? Well, some scholars have advanced the thesis that the alleged incompatibility between the versions of Plato and Aristotle is nothing more than the indication of an evolution undergone by the institute over time. If, in fact, throughout Spartan history it was nothing more than a military training practice, a final test which young warriors had to undergo at the end of the period of preparation for entry into active citizenship, after the defeat of Leuctra, the loss of Messenia and the liberation of its inhabitants, became something substantially different.
The Spartans never completely resigned themselves to the loss of Messenia. «The Spartans did not make peace with the Messenians, because the Messenians were helots. The Spartans were at war with the Messenians: in the Spartan view this was a war against the helots” [8]. A war, however, which due to the current conditions of the 4th century. B.C. it could not be fought, at least in enemy territory. But which, on the other hand, could be replaced by the one fought within one’s own territory against the helots still available. On an almost ritual level, the victims of the krypteiai served to symbolically renew the submission of all the helots (including the Messenians) to Sparta, and to remind the younger generations (called to physically carry out the actions) of their duty to continue the war until the lost territories are regained.

War was part of Sparta’s nature. The glory of the ancestors came from the war, the stories, the examples, the warnings addressed to the young were full of the war. The role of citizen and that of warrior were in fact indistinguishable in the Spartan perspective. And we had to return to the war if we didn’t want to die.


[7]. See M. Nafissi, “Krypteiai spartane”, pag. 220. The text of Isocrates’ Archidamus, in its English translation, can be consulted here: https://bit.ly/2RRUO3r. See in particular paragraphs 28, 86-87 and 96.
[8]. See M. Nafissi, “Krypteiai spartane”, pag. 222.


After eliminating all the brigands, thieves and monstrous murderers who had infested the road from Troezen to Attica, Theseus was able to enter Athens, where Aegeus still reigned, who after so many years seemed to have forgotten the story of Pittaeus, of Aethra, of the sword and of the sandals.
He had welcomed Medea into his palace, who he then married, always driven by the desire to secure an heir. Medea had given him a son who could one day become the successor to the throne of Athens. Medea, unlike Aegeus, had not forgotten Aethra and her son and was on her guard, fearing that one day he would show up boasting of his origins and legitimate role as king.
As soon as he arrived in Athens, in fact, Theseus immediately made headlines. While he was admiring a temple under construction, dedicated to Apollo, he was addressed with offensive words by the construction workers. In response, the hero lifted and threw a cart pulled by an ox which had been used to transport construction material over the temple. Those men were struck by the gesture and it was immediately known throughout the city. Even Medea, realizing that Theseus had arrived in Athens, attempted an extreme gesture: she turned to Egeus telling him that a stranger with a rather singular appearance and threatening attitude had shown up; so he warned the king, making him suspicious of the newcomer’s intentions. If the foreigner had been a spy, Egeo would have had to eliminate him without attracting too much attention. Medea convinced him to invite him to a banquet: she would provide the rest. With a poisonous herb she prepared a mixture to put in the guest’s wine to eliminate him.
Once at the table Theseus took out the sword, which his father had hidden many years before, to cut the portions of the ox that had been placed on the table in honor of him. When Egeus saw that sword he recognized it and remembered everything, so he overturned the cup of poisoned wine and hugged his son. He had therefore found a son who came from the past, but he also knew that Theseus would not have forgiven Medea for the danger of the poison. So he convinced her to sneak away before the hero could take revenge on her. Medea, with her son Medus, wrapped in a fairy cloud, moved away from Athens forever.
The dangers were not over yet: it was in fact the turn of Pallas and his fifty sons. He considered Aegeus a usurper, but, knowing that his descent was unlikely, he had put up with it while waiting to become king of Athens in his turn. Suspicious about the arrival of that newcomer welcomed so affectionately by the king, he thought that there was a link between Aegeus and Theseus; if this were true, all his hopes could vanish at any moment, and so he prepared a plan to eliminate the young man.
He divided the group of his sons into two groups: he himself, in command of twenty-five of them, headed towards the city threateningly with the intention of taking Theseus by surprise and killing him. The other group, however, would have stopped in a place called Gargetto to set up an ambush for Theseus in case he managed to escape the first attack. But this plan, apparently flawless, did not achieve the desired results because the archer Leo warned Theseus that in this way he managed to overcome his opponents. Pallas and the survivors had to surrender to Theseus and invoke his mercy. But, having learned that it was Leo who had warned the hero, they promised in their hearts that they would take revenge and swore eternal hatred for his lineage too. By now Theseus enjoyed the full approval of the king, who had recognized him as his son.

Vase – 450 – 430 BC
Theseus, wearing the petasus and chlamys, takes leave of Egeus. The Athenian king is on the far left, wearing tapeworm and cloak and holding a staff. To the right of Theseus, Medea and a warrior, Forbas, with a large shield. Behind her the warrior Aethra, mother of Theseus, with chiton and cloak that also wraps her head.
All the characters represented are indicated by inscriptions in purple red, which have almost completely disappeared. It was precisely from this kylix that the personality of a painter, active in Athens around the middle of the 5th century BC, was identified. His production is exclusively limited to a series of kylikes, mostly decorated with mythological and heroic subjects of Attic theme. Civic Archaeological Museum of Bologna


​Metopa raffigurante Teseo dal “Tesoro degli Ateniesi” (inizio del VI sec.a.C.) Museo di Delfi.

Il tempio di Teseo ad Atene (469-465 a.C.)

GREEK MARRIAGE BOILER

height 51.1 cm, 430-420 BC, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The bath of the bride and groom was an integral part of the wedding ritual, because it marked the end of one phase of their lives and the beginning of a new one. Besides, purification with water before any contact with the goddesses was a tradition for the Greeks. The water for the wedding bath was drawn from a specific source and in Athens – more specifically – it came from the Enneakrouno. The vessel for his transport was the bath-boat. The subject of the bride’s bath is depicted more often than the groom’s, but the scene is summed up in the procession to or from the fountain.

In the belly of the vessel the bride sits on a difro, resting her feet on a footstool and with both hands plays a harp, suggesting the songs that were heard during the bride’s preparation. One of the following approaches from behind, holding a luthophoro, a vessel used mainly at weddings to carry water for the wedding bath.

Three women approach the bride holding wedding gifts in boxes. On the other side of the vase two women offer boxes of gifts. Beneath the handles are depicted winged women who may be Nikes denoting the triumphant power of beauty or may represent deities of the Underworld associated with fertility.

The ribbons or branches they carry represent the divine blessing they bring to the bride. Since the bride does not wear a veil and crown and is not clothed, it leads us to the conclusion that the “mansions” are depicted, one day after the wedding feast and the bridal procession. During this time, the bride would welcome friends and family to her new home and receive their gifts, textiles, baskets, trunks, compasses, mirrors, etc…….

ART IMAGES FROM MUSEUMS – Art images from museums
·
Hydria: the queen of vases – 4th century BC – from Cuma, province of Naples – h 65.5 cm – State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia – purchased from the collection of Marquis G. Campana in 1862
This large hydria, widely known as “Regina Vasorum”, is one of the finest examples of ancient Greek pottery. Almost the entire surface of the egg-shaped body of the vase is covered with black lacquer. The edge is decorated with a golden band of ovules. The lacquered body, with the exception of a narrow band, is decorated with vertical ribs, thus recalling the finish of metal vases.

1) The narrow band on the body shows griffins, lions and panthers, all in relief. However, the most important decoration of the vase is a relief composition showing the Eleusinian deities. We see Rhea, mother of the Olympian gods; the goddess of the Underworld Hecate holding a torch; the young Dionysus holding a thyrsus;

2) The goddess of agriculture and fertility Demeter; Athena sitting on a rock;

Silver bucket with FEMALE scene (WOMEN, bathing or in spa) – h 27 cm – from HERCULANEUM – 2nd–3rd century AD – NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF NAPLES
Cosmetics were stored in terracotta containers, glass jars or containers made of various materials like this silver cosmetic jar from Herculaneum.by
Art images from museums.

SECCHIO in ARGENTO con scena FEMMINILE (DONNE al BAGNO o alle TERME) – h 27 cm – da ERCOLANO – II-III secolo d.C. – MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO NAZIONALE DI NAPOLI
I COSMETICI VENIVANO conservati6 in contenitori di terracotta, barattoli di vetro o contenitori di vari materiali come questo vaso per cosmetici in argento proveniente da ERCOLANO. by
Immagini d’arte dai musei.

MAGNA GRAECIA

ΑΡΓΥΡΟΣ ΚΟΥΒΆΣ με σκηνή ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΊΟΥ (ΓΥΝΑΊΚΕΣ, που κάνουν ΜΠΆΝΙΟ ή στο ΣΠΑ) – h 27 cm – ΑΠΌ ΤΟ HERCULANEUM = ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΟN – 2ος–3ος ΑΙΏΝΑΣ μ.Χ. – ΕΘΝΙΚΌ ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΙΚΌ ΜΟΥΣΕΊΟ ΝΆΠΟΛΗΣ
Τα καλλυντικά αποθηκεύονταν σε δοχεία από τερακότα, γυάλινα βάζα ή δοχεία από διάφορα υλικά όπως αυτό το ασημένιο καλλυντικό βάζο της HERCULANEUM. by
ΕΙΚΌΝΕΣ ΤΈΧΝΗΣ ΑΠΌ ΜΟΥΣΕΊΟ

WOMAN PLAYING THE LYRE.
RED WINE-TERRACOTTA
ATTICA PER. 490-480 BC.

Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University – DSC01548 (cropped).jpg .

OINOCHOI – vessel typical of ancient Greek pottery, used for pouring wine (less often water).
It was a kind of jug with an oval belly and a clearly divided neck ending in a characteristic trefoil spout. it had a tall, bulky vise, twisted high above the mouth, (the name comes from the Greek oinos – wine and heo – pour).

HERACLES AND CERBERUS….

ATTIKOS “DIGLOSSOS” AMPHOREAS, 520-515 BC.

ATTRIBUTED TO THE PAINTER ANDOKIDES

LOUVRE PARIS MUSEUM…

HERACLES IS DEPICTED IN THE UNDERWORLD, WHILE TRYING TO TAME CERBERUS...

THE HERO IS ATTENDED BY THE PROTECTOR OF THE GODS, ATHENA.

JEWELERY…

THE ANCIENT JEWELLERY WAS CALLED PYXIS/ΠΥΞΙΣ(=COMPASS) AND WOMEN KEPT JEWELRY AND COSMETICS THERE..IT HAD INSTRUCTIONS AND GAVE ITS NAME TO THE NAVAL COMPASS…

A pyxis is a wooden or ceramic ancient Greek vessel, cylindrical in shape, with a lid.
Women usually put their cosmetics or jewelry there. In other words, it was a vessel that played the same role as a present-day cosmetic box or a jewelry box. The nautical compass got its name from the similarity in shape to the ancient vessel.

One of the most interesting ancient Greek compasses is today in the National Museum in Warsaw. It is an Attic vase of the 4th century BC. which has a hand depicted on its lid.

The ancient pyxis.
The fingers are thin

and the hand is probably female. It is a rare case in Attic vase painting where the subject is not decorative, but used as a practical guide: it shows the owner of the compass how to open the lid! Corresponding symbols exist today on many packages for how to open them!

Photo
Compass of the Archaic period 470 BC- 460 BC. Performance from the weddings of Peleus and Thetis. Louvre Museum.

THE NIOBIDE CRATER …
CALYCOTOS** CRATER OF THE “NIOBIDE PAINTER”:
APOLLO AND ARTEME KILLING THE CHILDREN OF NIOBES 460-450 BC.
PARIS, LOUVRE

The best-known example of a red-figure vase decorated with representations showing the influence of the great painting is a cupped krater from Orvieto in central Italy (Etruria), now in the Louvre Museum (fig. 190), dating to the decade 460-450 BC. X.

On one side of this crater, the killing of the sons and daughters of Niobe by Apollo and Artemis is depicted, and for this reason the vase painter who created the representation is called the “painter of the Niobides”. According to the myth, Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, married Amphion from Thebes and had seven sons and seven daughters.

Proud as she was, Niobe once boasted of her many children to Leto, who had only two. Enraged by the insult, Leto asked her own children, Apollo and Artemis, to punish Niobe and they killed her children with their arrows. Only one of Niobe’s sons and one of her daughters survived.

In the center of the scene of the killing of the Niobids in the crater of the Louvre, Apollo and Artemis are shown shooting the children of Niobe; two of them try in vain to escape, while two others, a boy and a girl, are already lying dead on the ground. The scene takes place in a rocky mountain landscape, where a tree can be seen. The irregularities of the ground are clearly visible from the position of the dead Niovids lying on the ground and from the movement of those running to escape. On the other side of the crater is depicted a multi-faced scene, in which various heroes of mythology appear who are difficult to identify; one at the bottom of the representation is lying down and rising, another beside him is seated and the rest are standing.

Only two figures are identified with certainty, Athena and Heracles, who is depicted in the center of the composition. The overall interpretation of the scene remains enigmatic. The different positions and the bold perspective foreshortening of the figures as well as their placement at different levels within the space are elements that refer to the important innovations of the great painting of the first half of the 5th century BC, mentioned by ancient authors, connecting them, as we have seen, with Polygnotos and Mykonos.
It is therefore very possible, as they have already assumed, that the “painter of the Niovides”, when he painted this crater, had as his models frescoes or paintings by these two painters and especially by Polygnotos. How much the Athenian vase painters of the mid-5th BC admired Polygnotos. century can also be seen from the fact that three of them took his name and signed their works that way.

KALYKOTOS** (from the word KALYX) = cover, cover, wrist, in use only on flowers and fruits, case of the seeds of …

CRATER
LEFKANIC RED MORPHOSIS HELICATE CRATER 410-400 BC.
IT IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE PAINTER OF THE CARNIES..DIONYSUS WITH HIS FOLLOWERS IS DEPICTED…
Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Taranto.

.

CLAY PUMP(KYMBI**)…..
LONG OPEN VASE WITH WRITTEN MULTICOLORED DECORATION OF GOATS IN A LANDSCAPE WITH RICH VEGETATION ON ONE SIDE AND DOLPHINS IN A SEA LANDSCAPE ON THE OTHER…
AKROTIRI THIRAS(SANTORINE) LATE CYCLADE PERIOD …NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM….

**KYMBI=ΚΥΜΒΗ, IS A CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF THERAIC(From SANTORINI) POTTERY, ALTHOUGH THE EXACT USE OF THE VESSEL IS NOT KNOWN….
-.. THE TERM “CATACOMB” IS DERIVED FROM THE GREEK PREPOSITION KATA=DOWN, AGAINST AND THE LATIN WORD CUMBA, WHICH IN ITS TURN COMES FROM THE GREEK
KYΜΒΗ/KYMBI, MEANING:
1) AMPHORA CAVITY, CUP, VESSEL.
2) A KIND OF BOAT MADE FROM A HOLLOWED-OUT TREE TRUNK….

GEOMETRIC DIPYLOUS AMPHORE……
The Amphora of Dipylus is the most important vase of the geometric era and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek ceramic and vase art. Its maker is known by the conventional name Angiograph of Dipylos.
HISTORY OF ITS DISCOVERY…
It was found in 1891 during the archaeological excavations directed by Valerios Stais at the Dipylos of Keramikos.
DESCRIPTION
The vase is entirely decorated with successive parallel horizontal friezes of geometric decoration of meanders and rhombuses. The main frieze contains two images flanked by two small handles.
Contains a total of 19 human silhouettes. The image on the front is longer than the image on the back. It is flanked by two small vertical meanders. It depicts a performance of intention and mourning of a dead woman, as we infer from the skirt she wears. She is placed on a horizontal bed with a funeral sheet.
In front of the bed two kneeling women to the right mourn, while to the right a man and a woman sit on a chair to the left who also mourn. Even further to the right are five women, and two men also mourning, while a child touches the bed of the deceased with his hand. To the left of the bed are six other women and a child who are mourning, while the child also touches the bed with his hand. The men are distinguished by the sword and knife they wear at the waist. The representation on the reverse is flanked by two large stars. The neck of the vase contains two representations of grazing deer and resting goats.
ARTISTIC INTERPRETATION ….
The chest of the people is shaped like a triangle, from which the arms of the mourners form an extension. Palms and fingers are depicted only when they have some special significance to the scene depicted. The hands and fingers of the dead manifest the lifeless body. Between the human silhouettes are placed decorative elements that visually connect the scene with the entire decoration of the vase, thus forming a bridge between the geometric shapes and the human scene. The decorative elements on the belly and neck of the vase are of excellent quality. They serve to further emphasize the shape of the vessel.
In the center of the neck of the vase, as well as on its shoulders and in the center of the belly we notice a double meander, an invention of the Angiographer of Dipylos. Another important innovation is the deer friezes, perhaps of Eastern influence with a gold foil pattern.
INTERPRETATION ….
The amphora marked a female grave, while a monumental krater was placed in male graves.
HISTORICAL LOCATION……
It is dated to the Late Geometric era, 760-750 BC. The workshop of the Angiographer of Dipylos had specialized in the manufacture of this monumental vase. The Pottographer of Dipylos may have been the potter of this vase at the same time. The Dipylos is of later construction. The vessel may have been moved there from somewhere else after the destruction of the city in 490 BC. and placed in the place where it was found.


CENTAUR FIGHTS/ CENTAUROMACHIA = ΚΕΝΤΑΥΡΟΜΑΧΙΑ.
Red-faced Deinos of Apulia – Battle scenes of Lapiths and Centaurs – late 4th century. BC. – Jatta National Museum, Ruvo di Puglia, Bari, Italy
Lapiti (gr. Lapithai) Mythical people of Thessaly, famous for the battle with the Centaurs. The latter, invited by Peirithos, king of L. to his wedding banquet with Hippodamea, which was drunk with wine, did not respect either the bride or the Lapith girls. In the terrible fight that followed the Centaurs were slaughtered. The myth is represented among others on the western pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia.

Art images from museums

ARCHESTRATOS – THE ANCIENT GREEK POET AND PHILOSOPHER FROM SYRACUSE FATHER OF GASTRONOMY
nine years of light

In addition to the high arts of Rhetoric, Poetry, Philosophy and Architecture, Ancient Greece also gave birth to the high art of Gastronomy. The most circumstantial proof of this is the word “gastronomy” which comes from the Greek “gastir” and “nomos”, i.e. “the laws of the stomach”.
As the cradle of gastronomy, Greece laid the foundations of the culture of taste and influenced the culinary culture of many countries since 400 BC. Thus, on the international menu we often find dishes with a Greek influence and this is because many nations embraced the Greek culinary philosophy and art, because, among other things, it is healthy and delicious.
The Ancient Roots of Greek Cuisine
The Ancient Greek poet, philosopher and gastronomist Archestratos is considered the father of Gastronomy. Born in Syracuse in the 4th century BC, he was the man who laid the foundations of the philosophy of cooking.

He is said to have been a gourmand of the time, who traveled the Mediterranean, tasting food and recording recipes.
In his famous poem “Idypathia” he reveals to us the secrets of ancient Greek cuisine, devoting chapters to the Greek diet. Only 300 verses have survived from his specific poetic work, in which he nevertheless records the rules of the Greek diet and presents the “Savoir Manger”.

According to Archestratos, the 5 golden rules of eating are as follows:

Using simple, pure products produced by nature.

Harmony of materials between them, so that one does not overlap the aromas and flavors of the other.

No heavy sauces and hot ingredients.

Use of light sauces for greater pleasure on the palate.

Seasoning with the well-known Greek measure and discipline, so as not to disturb the harmony of flavors and aromas.

The Ancient Greeks didn’t just eat for survival, but also to enjoy, feel pleasure, communicate and philosophize about cooking. Another indication regarding the consideration of cooking as a high art, equal to the rest of the arts, in Ancient Greece, was that it was practiced only by men, who at that time held the reins in the practice of the high arts and saw gastronomy as a spiritual good.

Red-Figure Lekythos (Oil Vessel): Athena Slaying Giant (body); Satyr between Maenads (shoulder), c. 490 BC. Shoulder attributed to Berlin Painter (Greek, Attic, active c. 505–460 BC), body attributed to Painter of Goluchow 37 (Greek, Attic, active c. 490–460 BC). Ceramic; diameter: 14.1 cm (5 9/16 in.); diameter of mouth: 8.7 cm (3 7/16 in.); overall: 38 cm (14 15/16 in.); diameter of foot: 10 cm (3 15/16 in.). The Cleveland Museum of Art, Purchase from the J. H. Wade Fund 1978.59

The two separate areas of figural decoration on this vase have been attributed to different painters: the small satyr and maenads on the shoulder to the Berlin Painter; and the larger figures of Athena and the slain Giant Enkelados on the body to the Painter of Goluchow 37. Scholars have named these two painters, whose actual names remain unknown, after other vases they have painted, now in Berlin and Warsaw. The victory of Athena and the Olympian gods over the Giants has been interpreted as a metaphor for the Greek victory over the Persians around the time this vase was made. Thus, although Enkelados appears as a fully armed warrior, he falls in utter and complete defeat—bleeding from multiple wounds, eyes rolling back, sword dropping from his hand.

Douris was a most versatile painter, creating scenes of great delicacy, as on the Atalanta lekythos (1966.114), and scenes of great power, as here. In the mythological War of the Gods and Giants (Gigantomachy), Athena slays the giant Enkelados with her spear. He reels backward, his eyes rolling skyward. The giant’s broken spear is a beautiful compositional bridge between the two figures. This scene may depict the victory of the Greeks (represented by Athena) over the Persians (represented by the Giant) at Marathon in 490 BC

The Sun of Vergina is a symbol that was widely used by Ancient Greeks. It became famous due to the Macedonians who were using it as Symbol of the Argead Dynasty.
–The Royal house of Macedon:
vergina sun philip
The typical Sun of Vergina is a 16-pointed Sun. It can also be found in other styles: 12-pointed or 8-pointed. What was the meaning of this symbol?? –In the typical 16-pointed Sun , the 4 rays represent the 4 elements: Earth-Ocean-Fire-Air. The other 12 rays represent the 12 Gods of Olympus.You can see the explanation in the following animation :

–In every form, the Sun of Vergina symbolized Virginity:
Goddess Athena was a Virgin, so this Sun was associated with her. We can also find this symbol associated with Apollo. –All the versions (16,12 and 8-pointed Sun) are associated with another famous Greek symbol, the “Delphian Epsilon”, symbol of Apollo:

The Sun of Vergina became common art design in coins, craters, wall-drawings etc LONG BEFORE the Macedonian royal house (the Argead Dynasty) used it. After the unification of the Greek (Hellenic) nation under the leadership of Alexander the Great, the Sun of Vergina became the symbol of the Hellenic Ethnogenesis.
In the following replies, you will be able to see some pieces of Ancient Greek art containing the Sun of Vergina, BEFORE THE RISE OF THE GREEK KINGDOM OF MACEDONIA. These sun symbols are found in various Greek places, apart from Macedonia. Moreover, there will be a small historical flashback, in order to see the evolution of this symbol throught the ages :
2000 BC:
This is the time where ancient Greeks first started using the Sun symbol. It was not standardized yet, it was a early form of the Sun of Vergina:

780BC:
The Sun of Vergina has been standardized. The following art work shows the destruction of Troy. We can clearly see the Sun symbol in the warrior’s hump. It was found in Mykonos island :

The following images are just a small sample, showing the wide usage of the Sun of Vergina in Greek Art:
Spartan Hoplite – 780 BC:

Spartan Amphoreus –
It dates from the 6th century BC, that is, well before Macedonia’s later dominance in the Greek world. In this fine example of ancient pottery, the Sunburst here is not just an incidental decorative motif but rather constitutes the central theme. Its appearance on this household item from distant Sparta, at such an early date, is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the panhellenic nature of this ancient symbol. In addition, this item perhaps alludes to a more specific connection between Sparta and her Dorian cousin of the north.
This vase can now be found in the Louvre Museum, Paris. 6th Century BC:

An amphora from the Pontus region (the southern shore of the Black Sea) dating from the second half of the sixth century BC. Priam and the god Hermes lead Hera, Athena and Aphrodite to Paris whose task will be to decide which of these goddesses is the most beautiful. According to the legend each of these goddesses made offers to Paris so that they might win the contest. Hera promised to make him ruler of the world, Athena vowed that he would never be vanquished in battle. Paris eventually chose Aphrodite as she promised him the love of Helen, the most beautiful mortal woman in the world. The Trojan War was a direct result of this fateful contest:
Exekias was a famous vase-painter and potter of ancient Athens. The scene on this page, from an amphora of the third quarter of the 6th century BC (now at the National Museum of Athens), is one of his most famous works. It is considered one of the finest surviving examples of ‘Black Figure’ vase painting.

Achilles and Ajax, two major Greek heroes of Homer’s Iliad are depicted here relaxing over a game of dice during a lull in the fighting. Achilles has just won; he has just thrown a ‘four’ while Ajax has to accept a ‘three’:
Third Quarter of the 6th century BC:
Achilles and Ajax
The cloaks of both these Homeric figures are studded with numerous 8-ray Sunbursts.
The return of Hephestus– 560 BC:

Below is a pyxis (box-like vase) from the second half of the 6th century BC signed by the prolific Athenian potter Nikosthenes. It depicts the hero Herakles with the Gods of Olympus. The seal on the lid of this vessel features the familiar 16-ray Sunburst. Like the garments of Achilles and Ajax on the Exekias vase, the clothes of one of the figures on the front of the pyxis is also adorned with sunbursts:
Athena and Hermes– 540 BC
heracles olympians pyxis Athena and hermes

Heracles and Lernaia Hydra- 525 BC:

Odyseus blinds the Cyclop, Magna Grecia- 520 BC:

Greek Amphoreus, Magna Grecia– 500 BC

Heracles- Olympia- 500 BC:

Goddess Athena– 5th century BC:

Hades-the Greek underworld– 5th century BC:

An Athenian citizen-soldier of about 450 BC. He is wearing a linen cuirass (body armour), a style which had largely replaced cuirasses made of bronze by about the middle of the 6th century BC:

The shoulder pieces of his cuirass are decorated with 8-ray Sunbursts. The grotesque face of the Gorgon Medusa, a very common Greek symbol and one of the attributes of the goddess Athena, hangs on his chest.
Heracles and Athena, 480 BC:

Another Attic vase (dated c. 480 BC), shows a warrior wearing an ΅Attic’ helmet and carrying a large, decorated shield. A sixteen-ray sunburst adorns the shoulder piece that is visible:
– c. 480 BC:

The shoulder pieces of yet another hoplite from an Athenian vase of 450 BC above), are likewise decorated with 8-ray Sunbursts. This scene captures the solemn mood of the hoplite warrior’s departure for battle. He is shown clasping his father’s hand while his wife (or mother) carries a phiale (cup) which will be used for the ritual libation of farewell:
450 BC:

Inside the temple of Nemesis in Thamnous– 436 BC:

Ancient Greek hoplites, Museum of Napoli, 400 BC:

The Legent of godess Dimitra-400BC:

Canos Vase –400 BC:

Detail of Canos Vase- The Persian king Darius, seated on his throne, holds a Council of War and decides to invade Greece. Below him are Persians bearing tribute. Above Darius are the Gods of Olympus. Among them, flanked by Zeus and Athena, is a female figure, a personification of Greece [Hellas] herself. Athena has placed her arm on Greece and together with Zeus appears to be consoling her in view of her impending struggle and tribulations (see Canosa vase detail below):
Two 16-ray Sunbursts complete the line-up of Greece and the Hellenic pantheon while a further two Sunbursts appear

Greek Hoplite vs Persian Soldier, 4th century BC:

The Greek hero Perseus:

Fourth century BC
Athena Promahos
Three youths in battles one of whom carries a shield emblazoned with the Sunburst:

An epaulette depicting a sunburst.
epaullete
On Greek Shields and Helmets
The shields of ancient Greek hoplites (heavy infantry) invariably bore a symbolic design known as the episema, which had a ritual or heraldic significance. Surviving representations of these devices attest to a vast diversity of design and inspiration. Although often unique to the individual, (a phenomenon resulting in a plethora of emblems: roosters, lions, tripods, gorgons, birds, bulls, serpents, boars etc), whole armies often presented a uniform design. Such was the case of SpartaΆs soldiers who were easily recognizable by the legendary Lambda (‘Λ’: the Greek ‘L’, the first letter of ‘Lacedaimonia’, the land of the Spartans) on their shields, in addition to their scarlet cloaks.
At least two of the hoplites competing in the armed foot-race from a Greek amphora of the 4th century BC (below), carry shields featuring a solar episema. Athletic contests were held in honour of the gods at Greek festivals. The armed foot-race was a very popular event, so much so, that 25 shields were on hand at Olympia for the use of the contestants. A Panathenaic amphora by Nikomachos from the same period (not shown) likewise depicts three nude warriors racing, two of whom carry shields emblazoned with Sunbursts.

Nudity in battle, as depicted on this late classical Athenian wine-jug (below), was an artistic convention designed to distinguish Greek from barbarian. Greek warriors never actually fought without body armour; nor did they hunt in this way as the famous painting by Gnosis of Alexander hunting would have us believe. A Greek hoplite is here engaged in battle against three Persians (not all of whom are visible). This scene reflects the growing confidence felt by Greeks in the wake of their defeat of Persia in the early 5th century and XenophonΆs successful Persian venture in the early 4th century BC. The Greek hoplite proudly carries a shield adorned with the evidently quite common Sunburst episema:

An Attic red figure krater now in the Antikenmuseum (in Basle, Switzerland; not shown) depicts a scene from the Amazonomachy, the mythical battle between Theseus and his Athenians against the invading Amazons. Significantly, one of the Athenian warriors engaged in the melee, who is also fighting in ?heroic nudity?, holds a shield with a 16-ray Sunburst. The ‘Polygnotos’ stamnos (445-430 BC; below) dealing with the same theme, shows Theseus himself carrying a shield decorated with a Sunburst. [A combat scene from an amphora painted by the so-called Suessula Painter (c. 400 BC; not shown) likewise depicts a Greek soldier carrying a shield decorated with a somewhat faded yet still discernible Sunburst].

An early krater from Magna Graecia from the last quarter of the fifth century BC painted by the so-called Sisyphus Painter incorporates a number of different scenes. Horse riders are apparently engaged in a race in the top-most scene. Women are shown playing musical instruments in the middle, while the bottom scene has the legendary battle between the Centaurs and the Lapiths as its theme. One of the Lapith warriors is carrying a large shield with a distinct 16-ray Sunburst episema…

EARLY CORITHIAN ALABASTRON DEPICTING TWO CONFLICTING ROOSTER…

AROUND 625-600 BC

MUSEUM OF CYCLADE ART Athens N.P. Goulandris Collection 1062.

ATTICA
black-figured AMPHORA. Minute style, with large number of white embroidered rosettes. Designs black on red panels with borders of lotus and honeysuckle along the top; accessories of white and purple.
In the centre is ZEUS seated to RIGHT, bearded, with long hair, fillet, long purple CHITON and embroidered HIMATION, in left hand a sceptre; underneath his chair, the back of which is recurved in the form of a swan’s head, is a lion walking and looking back to right. He is represented on a larger scale than the other figures. Confronting him is HERMES, bearded, with hair in a club; he wears a petasos, short embroidered chiton, purple chlamys, and endromides; in his left hand is a caduceus, his right is raised as if speaking. Behind him stand two male figures to left holding spears; the first one is bearded, with long hair, long purple chiton and embroidered himation; the other, beardless, with long hair and a short purple chiton. Behind ZEUS are two male figures to right, both beardless, with long hair, holding spears; the first one wears a short embroidered chiton, the second a striped embroidered himation.
(b) CONTEST of HERACLES and GERYON: HERACLES stands to RIGHT, in the lion’s skin, which is stippled to show the hair, and short embroidered chiton, with quiver at back and sheath at left side; in his right hand is a sword with which he attacks GERYON. The latter is represented as three warriors united at the hips, all bearded and fully armed; the shield of the middle one has a star of sixteen points as device, that of the right-hand one is painted purple. The left-hand one falls back wounded; he has a chiton with scale-pattern and shield painted purple inside. Behind him is a hawk flying to left. Between the combatants lies EURYTEON prostrate to right; he is bearded, and wears a short purple chiton and greaves, his left hand is extended; his legs are drawn up in agony, and the eye is rendered without the pupil. On the left is ATHENA to right, without helmet, in long CHITON, with DIPLOIDION, embroidered with diaper-pattern, in her left hand a spear.
View lessabout description. https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical.

..

H E R E:

A krater with the Macedonian 16-ray sun (Vergina Sun) from the 6th century BC, that is, well before Macedonia’s later dominance in the Greek world.

In this fine example of ancient pottery, the sunburst here is not just an incidental decorative motif but rather constitutes the central theme. Its appearance on this household item from distant Sparta, at such an early date, is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the panhellenic nature of this ancient symbol. In addition, this item perhaps alludes to a more specific connection between Sparta and its Dorian cousin of the north.

Now in the Louvre Museum, Paris.

Read more http://history-of-macedonia.com/sun-of-vergina/-ray sun (Vergina Sun) from the 6th century BC, that is, well before Macedonia’s later dominance in the Greek world.

In this fine example of ancient pottery, the sunburst here is not just an incidental decorative motif but rather constitutes the central theme. Its appearance on this household item from distant Sparta, at such an early date, is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the panhellenic nature of this ancient symbol. In addition, this item perhaps alludes to a more specific connection between Sparta and its Dorian cousin of the north.

Now in the Louvre Museum, Paris.

Read more http://history-of-macedonia.com/sun-of-vergina

TWO OF THE CLASSICAL PANHELLENIC SYMBOLS:
AKROCERAMOS AND THE SUN OF VERGINA ON THE SHIELD
OF THE ARMED SPARTAN.
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/

I AM FASCINATED BY THE BARBARIAN IGNORANT AND ARROGANT ONES‼️🤮😝😆😂🤣..FROM PSEVDO”HISTORIANS”, GEOPOLITICAL SCAMBUGS, CRIMINAL “POLITICIANS”, IDIOTS WITH LOW “EDUCATION”, LOW IQ…,, JEALOUSY – ENVY
ONLY ONES WITH LOW IQ, OR HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX TOWARDS THE ORIGINAL HIGH LEVEL UNIQUE CULTURE DO
ACT THIS WAY!.. DO THEY MEAN SERIOUSLY??!! 😆……. THAT FIRST WERE NAMES AS:… “ALEKSANDAR”, PERIANDAR, MENANDAR, MEANDAR, LEANDAR, ANAXIMANDAR…??? 😆ETC.

…. DO THEY. REALLY MEAN. THAT??, 😂….
IT SOUNDS LIKE THE ORIGINAL ANCIENT GREEK MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE (NAMES AND WORDS., SCIENCE, ASTRONOMY, THRATERS, MATHEMATICS,…ETC.. ETC..) WERE SLAVIC??
SOME OF THE HUNDRED OF THOUSANDS OF WORDS AND NAMES….
AS:

ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ/
ALEXANDROS=MAN’S PROTECTOR….
INFINITIVE: ΑΛΕΞEIN=TO PROTECT… TO.. “ALEXANDAR”.

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ
( CASSANDER
FROM THE BERB: ΚΈΚΑΣΜΑΙ (ANCIENT GREEK). KÉKASMAI =“TO SHINE”; EXCEL OVER”) AND ἈΝΉΡ (ANḖR, “MAN ”). IN TURN, THE NAME MEANS “ONE, WHO EXCELS OVER MAN.”

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA/
CASSANDRA IS AN ANCIENT GREEK FEMININE NAME MEANING “SHINING UPON MAN.” THIS IS A LATINIZED VERSION OF THE GREEK
ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA
KASSANDRA.
A NAME SHARED WITH THE TROJAN PRINCESS, WHO WAS GIVEN THE GIFT OF PROPHECIES BY APOLLO BUT CURSED SO THAT NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE HER.

ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΣ /FILIPPOS
ΦΙΛΟΣ+ΙΠΠΟΣ
FRIEND+HORSETO… FILIP”..

ΜΑIΑΝΔΡΟΣ/
MAIANDROS
(“MAN’S QUEST) TO…”MEANDAR”.https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/
ΛΕΑΝΔΡΟΣ/LEANDROS “LEANDAR” ΛΈΩΝ=LION./LION TO MAN.

ΠΕΡΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ
PERI+ANDROS=”ABOUT THE MAN”) TO…. “PERIANDAR” ( CORINTH/ 600 BC).

ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΣ/MENANDROS
“MENANDER”=MENANDROS/ FROM: MΕΝΟΣ /MENOS=“FORCE”+‎ANDROS, (GENETIVUS FORM OF ANHP/ANER= MAN).

ΑΡΙΣΤΑΝΔΡΟΣ
“ARISTANDER”=
/ARISTANDROS (FROM: APISTO+ANDROS=NOBLIEST OF MAN.

ΑΡΙΣΤΑΡΧΟΣ/ARISTARHOS… (ARISTARHUS, LATER IN LATIN)
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ+APXOΣ= NOBLIEST+DOMINANT, RULER.
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΦΆΝΗΣ/ARISTOFANIS= ARISTOPHANES
ΑΡΙΣΤΟ+ΦΆΝΗΣ=THE SEEN NOBLIEST.

ΑΝΑΞΙΜΑΝΔΡOΣ
ANAXIMANDER”=ANAXIMA+ANDROS=MAN’S SOVEREIGNTY…TO “ANAXIMANDAR”(ONE OF THE IMPORTANT TEACHERS OF PYTHAGORAS).

ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ
“NIKANDER”= /NIKANDROS(NIKH+ΑΝΔΡΟΣ= MAN’s VICTORY TO “NIKANDAR”.
ΛΥΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ/ LYSANDROS “LYSANDER””LYSANDAR”
(FROM VERB:ΛΥΩ)
ΛΥΣΗΣ(SUBSTANTIVE) = MANS SOLUTION, THE MAN, WHO SOLVES THE PROBLEMS…
(EXAMPLE: ANA+ΛΥΣΗΣ=
ANALYSIS,
DIA+LYSIS, KATA+LYSIS, PARA+LYSIS… etc. THE MEANINGS CHANGE, DEPENDING ON WHICH
PREPOSITION, INTENT, OR WORDS ARE CONNECTED…

ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ/MACEDONIA COMES FROM ΜΑΚΕΔΝΟΣ= MEANING TALL….
https://euphoriatric.com/etymology/
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of
BY: SAVVAS SAVVIDIS

Macedonia- Greece 🇬🇷 THESSALONIKI
🏛Born in 352 BC, Thessalonike was the daughter of King Philippos II of Macedon and his wife or concubine, Nicesipolis. Her mother hailed from the Thessalian nobility, and the name “Thessalonike” was bestowed upon her in honor of Philip’s military victory over the Thessalians
🏛History links her to three of the most powerful men in Macedon—daughter of King Philip II, half-sister of Alexander the Great and wife of CASSANDER**
🏛A popular Greek legend has it that Thessalonike became a mermaid who lived in the Aegean after the death of Alexander. The legend states that Alexander, in his quest for the Fountain of Immortality, retrieved with great exertion a flask of immortal water. In some versions of the story, he used the water to wash his sister’s hair, making her immortal; in others, he forgot to tell her the contents of the flask and so used it to water a wild onion plant. When Alexander died his grief-stricken sister attempted to end her life by jumping into the sea. Instead of drowning, however, she became a mermaid who passes judgment on mariners throughout the centuries and across the seven seas.
🏛 To the sailors who encounter Thessaloniki, she always poses the same question:
“Is king Alexander alive?” (Greek: Is King Alexander alive?), –
to which the correct answer would be “He lives and reigns and conquers the world” (Greek: He lives and reigns and conquers the world!). Given this answer, she would allow the ship and her crew to sail safely away in calm seas. Any other answer would transform her into the raging Gorgon bent on sending the ship and every sailor on board to the bottom of the sea.

**ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ
( CASSANDER
FROM THE BERB: ΚΈΚΑΣΜΑΙ (ANCIENT GREEK). KÉKASMAI =“TO SHINE”; EXCEL OVER”) AND ἈΝΉΡ (ANḖR, “MAN ”). IN TURN, THE NAME MEANS “ONE, WHO EXCELS OVER MAN.”

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA/
CASSANDRA IS AN ANCIENT GREEK FEMININE NAME MEANING “SHINING UPON MAN.” THIS IS A LATINIZED VERSION OF THE GREEK
ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA
KASSANDRA.
A NAME SHARED WITH THE TROJAN PRINCESS,
CASANDRA, DAUGHTER OF PRIAMOS AND ECABE AND SHE WAS GIVEN THE GIFT OF PROPHECIES BY APOLLO BUT CURSED SO THAT NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE HER.
✴️✴️
Macedonia- Greece 

“SOLUN” & “SALONIKA”!! ???🤮😅😂🤣.. WELL THIIS IS ALBANO-WARDASKIAN NEW NAME OF THESSALONIKE!!
🤮😅😂🤣!!
….. FACTS:
THESSALONIKE=ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟ+ΝΙΚΗ=VICTORY OVER THESSALIANS.. 👍🙂….THESSALONIKE WAS NAMED LATER THE HALF SISTER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT…

MAGNA GRAECIA /Lekythos attica a figure nere di provenienza siciliana: Aiace trasporta sulle spalle Achille esanime. Ultimi decenni VI secolo a.C. Staatliche Antikensammlung di Monaco di Baviera 

The sling was an ancient weapon, used in hunting, in war, in sport. And it has also been preserved as a children’s toy to this day. Everyone knows the myth recorded in the Bible with the killing of Goliath by David’s sling.
Because slings were made of leather, rope, linen or wool, they were very hard to find over time. The most ancient are a pair of woven slings found together with other weapons in the tomb of Tutankhamun (died 1325 BC) to accompany him on the hunt. Another one was found in 1914 in the area of Fayoum, 800 BC. But the projectiles used in the slings have been found.
The first appearance of the sling due to the projectiles found, is the first time around 10,000 BC. The projectiles were very effective in war, because they hit the opponents, seriously injuring them, reaching even to the bones. They even reached the speed of 60 km per hour. In the Greek area, mainly in the Aegean, spherical, oval and amphiconical stone and clay sling projectiles have been found in settlements of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. (Sesklos, Dimini, Naxos, Rhodes etc.). Also found in the Bronze Age were two lead pointed projectiles in a pit under the SE side of the palace of Knossos (Evans).
The first depiction of slingers is found on the well-known silver “siege cry” (1st comment) from pit tomb IV of burial enclosure A of Mycenae (1550-1500 BC), where slingers together with archers, club-bearers and satellites attempt a siege of a city (in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
In the black figure amphora of the photograph from the collection of the British Museum in London, (14233163659), Hercules is depicted killing the Stymphalian hens with a slingshot.
In classical Greece there were battalions of slingers under the “small” (lightly armed), which were made up of slaves.
The use of the sling continued by the Macedonians and in Hellenistic times and the Romans. They were mostly leaden with pointed ends or like a branch with leaves on both sides.
In the lead projectiles that have been found, we notice that there are inscriptions usually embossed and not engraved (Glandes inscriptae, inscribed projectiles). Inscriptions were used for the first time in the 5th century BC. in GREECE. Their use continued into the early Roman Imperial period. They carved the clay matrix where the pencil was poured, so the inscriptions came out in relief. Some also had embossed figures related to something that causes pain: Wasp, snake, arrow, trident, lightning… As for the inscriptions, apart from the more usual ones with the name of the owner or the city, they also had playful and threatening messages, such as : “trogalion” (eat as a sweet snack), or “dexai” lave” (party!), “fire” (to hell!), papai (oh!) etc. Among the projectiles of Roman times it has been found in the countryside of Montiglia , of the autonomous community of Andalusia, 49 km from Córdoba, a pointed lead lead projectile (of the 2nd commentary) 4.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1.7 cm high. Weighs 71.1 grams . It bears two inscriptions, reliefs that read: IPSCA and CAES. IPSCA (modern Baena) was an Iberian and then Roman city in the province of Baetica in central Andalusia. Contributensis Ipscensis, in the province of Córdoba. It is the first toponym of any city in Roman Spain ever found written on a slingshot.CAES stands for Gaius Julius Caesar. The city of Ipsca supported Caesar and provided him with “munitions”, such as lead missiles. So he wrote on it that she was Caesar’s sponsor. Probably in 48-45 BC. she also sent her own men to reinforce Caesar’s army in view of his clash with Pompey’s sons, in the last battle of the civil war with Caesar victorious, the so-called “Battle of Munda” (as the entire Iberian peninsula was then called) in 48-45 BC, in the area where the projectile was found. Thus, this find also determined the place of the battle, which had not been determined, but was generally called the “Battle of Munda, (of Spain).

I AM FASCINATED BY THE BARBARIAN IGNORANT AND ARROGANT ONES‼️🤮😝😆😂🤣..FROM PSEVDO”HISTORIANS”, “SCHOLARS”, GEOPOLITICAL SCAMBUGS, CRIMINAL “POLITICIANS”, IDIOTS WITH LOW “EDUCATION”, LOW IQ…,, JEALOUSY – ENVY
ONLY ONES WITH LOW IQ, OR HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX TOWARDS THE ORIGINAL HIGH LEVEL UNIQUE CULTURE DO

ACT THIS WAY!.. DO THEY MEAN SERIOUSLY??!! 😆……. THAT FIRST WERE NAMES AS:… “ALEKSANDAR”, PERIANDAR, MENANDAR, MEANDAR, LEANDAR, ANAXIMANDAR…??? 😆ETC.

.... DO THEY. REALLY MEAN. THAT??, 😂….
IT SOUNDS LIKE THE ORIGINAL ANCIENT GREEK MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE (NAMES AND WORDS., SCIENCE, ASTRONOMY, THRATERS, MATHEMATICS,…ETC.. ETC..) WERE SLAVIC??
SOME OF THE HUNDRED OF THOUSANDS OF WORDS AND NAMES….

AS:

ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ/
ALEXANDROS=MAN’S PROTECTOR….
INFINITIVE: ΑΛΕΞEIN=TO PROTECT… TO.. “ALEXANDAR”.

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ
( CASSANDER
FROM THE BERB: ΚΈΚΑΣΜΑΙ (ANCIENT GREEK). KÉKASMAI =“TO SHINE”; EXCEL OVER”) AND ἈΝΉΡ (ANḖR, “MAN ”). IN TURN, THE NAME MEANS “ONE, WHO EXCELS OVER MAN.”

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA/
CASSANDRA IS AN ANCIENT GREEK FEMININE NAME MEANING “SHINING UPON MAN.” THIS IS A LATINIZED VERSION OF THE GREEK
ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA
KASSANDRA.
A NAME SHARED WITH THE TROJAN PRINCESS, WHO WAS GIVEN THE GIFT OF PROPHECIES BY APOLLO BUT CURSED SO THAT NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE HER.

ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΣ /FILIPPOS
ΦΙΛΟΣ+ΙΠΠΟΣ
FRIEND+HORSETO… FILIP”..

ΜΑIΑΝΔΡΟΣ/
MAIANDROS
(“MAN’S QUEST) TO…”MEANDAR”.https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/
ΛΕΑΝΔΡΟΣ/LEANDROS “LEANDAR” ΛΈΩΝ=LION./LION TO MAN.

ΠΕΡΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ
PERI+ANDROS=”ABOUT THE MAN”) TO…. “PERIANDAR” ( CORINTH/ 600 BC).

ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΣ/MENANDROS
“MENANDER”=MENANDROS/ FROM: MΕΝΟΣ /MENOS=“FORCE”+‎ANDROS, (GENETIVUS FORM OF ANHP/ANER= MAN).

ΑΡΙΣΤΑΝΔΡΟΣ
“ARISTANDER”=
/ARISTANDROS (FROM: APISTO+ANDROS=NOBLIEST OF MAN.

ΑΡΙΣΤΑΡΧΟΣ/ARISTARHOS… (ARISTARHUS, LATER IN LATIN)
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ+APXOΣ= NOBLIEST+DOMINANT, RULER.
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΦΆΝΗΣ/ARISTOFANIS= ARISTOPHANES
ΑΡΙΣΤΟ+ΦΆΝΗΣ=THE SEEN NOBLIEST.

ΑΝΑΞΙΜΑΝΔΡOΣ
ANAXIMANDER”=ANAXIMA+ANDROS=MAN’S SOVEREIGNTY…TO “ANAXIMANDAR”(ONE OF THE IMPORTANT TEACHERS OF PYTHAGORAS).

ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ
“NIKANDER”= /NIKANDROS(NIKH+ΑΝΔΡΟΣ= MAN’s VICTORY TO “NIKANDAR”.
ΛΥΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ/ LYSANDROS “LYSANDER””LYSANDAR”
(FROM VERB:ΛΥΩ)
ΛΥΣΗΣ(SUBSTANTIVE) = MANS SOLUTION, THE MAN, WHO SOLVES THE PROBLEMS…
(EXAMPLE: ANA+ΛΥΣΗΣ=
ANALYSIS,
DIA+LYSIS, KATA+LYSIS, PARA+LYSIS… etc. THE MEANINGS CHANGE, DEPENDING ON WHICH
PREPOSITION, INTENT, OR WORDS ARE CONNECTED…

ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ/MACEDONIA COMES FROM ΜΑΚΕΔΝΟΣ= MEANING TALL….

https://euphoriatric.com/etymology/
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of





ATTIC RED-FORMED HUS……AND THE ACTIVITIES OF THE HAMMOCK OF THE FESTIVAL OF THE FLOWER FESTIVAL..

Attributed to the Painter of Eretria National Archaeological Museum Collection of Vases, no. wide BS 319
the vase depicts a scene that has been linked to the action of Aiora, which probably took place in Attica during the festival of the FLOWER FESTIVAL (ANTHESTIRIA)…..

In the center of the performance hangs a hammock (cradle), on which a crowned, bearded man places a small boy, also crowned. On the ground, below the hammock, are branches and next to it the top of a jar, which is half buried in the ground. On the left stand two older boys, while on the right is a klims (seat with a back) with a footstool, which has been dressed in a tunic and robe and decorated with a necklace, wreaths and branches, as if it were a human. In front of the incantation is a low table, with a bottle and three popanas (sweets).

According to the prevailing opinion, the custom of Aiora is connected with the myth of Irigoni, daughter of Ikarius, who gave his name to the Municipality of the same name in Attica. Ikarius had been initiated by the god Dionysus himself into the art of making wine, but he was killed by his compatriots, who, not having experienced the consequences of wine-drinking again,

they thought he poisoned them. Irigoni could not bear the pain of her father’s death and hanged herself from a tree….. The inhabitants of Attica, in order to save themselves from the wrath of Dionysus who caused an epidemic of suicides by hanging among young girls, asked for an oracle from the oracle of Delphi, according to which they would be propitiated only if they honored Dionysus, Ikarius and Herigone. They thus instituted the Hammock festival, during which girls swung in a cradle…..singing an ode called ἀλῆτις ,,,.

A small number of Attic vase paintings depicting young girls swinging in hammocks attest to the practice of the custom in Attica…. In the Eretrian Painter’s hu, the girl’s place is taken by a boy, which may echo another version of the myth, in which did not distinguish the gender of the children who participated in
action.

THE DANCE OF THE COLOURS.

RED-FIGURED 😊 ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ = ERYTHROMORPHUS)
VESSEL IN THE FORM OF A KNUCKLEBONE (ASTRAGALOS).
470 – 450 BC.
#Hellas#Greece.

Personifications of floating Clouds on an ANCIENT ATTIC vessel from AEGINA. Here, four girls personifying clouds, float in the air. The second girl holds a long tendril with flower.

On the reverse side of this vessel, the God of WINDS, AEOLOS, directs the dance or the girls (clouds) from the mouth of his cave.

Knucklebones is a game of dexterity played with a number of small objects that are thrown up, caught, and manipulated in various manners. IT IS ANCIENT IN ORIGIN IS FOUND IN THE ANCIENT HELLENIC GAME OF THE ASTRAGALOS (a bone in the ankle, or hock) of a sheep was used.

SOPHOCLES (A GREEK TRAGEDIN OF THE 5th CENTURY BC), in a written fragment of one of his works, ascribed the game to the mythical figure PALAMEDES, who supposedly taught it to his HELLENIC countrymen DURING THE CIVIL WAR WITH TROY. The game is also mentioned BY HERODOTUS AND PLATO .

Dimensions: Length: 16.51 centimetres (6.5 inches).

Αν οι θεοί συνομιλούν, χρησιμοποιούν την ελληνική γλώσσα.. ΚΙΚΈΡΩΝ ..

When the gods converse, they use the Greek language.. CICERO .

HELLENISTIC MYRTLE WREATH OF MIDA
HELLENISTIC WREATH – MEDA’S DIAMOND
Meda, daughter of Kothelas, king of the Getae, was a Thracian princess whom Philip married, when he was returning from the campaign in Scythia, in 339 BC. and at the time of her death she would have been 20-25 years old. Obeying the custom of her tribe which, as recorded by Herodotus, stipulated that the wives of the prominent should accompany their husbands to death, the young foreigner seems to have committed suicide when the king was murdered. Following her husband and master into the flames of the funeral pyre and into the tomb, forever companion of the king’s bed in Hades, she became for the Macedonians, who were certainly not familiar with such examples of devotion, a new Alcestis, a model of conjugal virtue and loyalty.
This seems to be the reason why Alexander, the new king, honored her so much, giving her on the journey without return gifts of untold value.
Stephen of Medes , one of Philip II’s wives

The artist convincingly renders the forms of his creatures and creates the impression of “naturalness” and liveliness. The jumble of flowers and insects, the entwining, twisting and spreading shoots everywhere evoke the image of nature in Spring, but if one looks more closely, one recognizes the underlying strict geometry of the structure, the symmetrical repeating lyre and heart-shaped patterns, the exact correspondence of the spirals and in the center the sacred symmetry of the divine knot, two sprouts that intertwine as never in nature to form the “Heraklion Amma”, [4] a symbol of the progenitor god of the Herakles, a clear reference to the royal house of the Macedonians. The laws of geometry make Creation ‘Cosmo’, a jewel. Made of gold, the immortal matter, the orderly sprouts, the flowers with deep blue petals, the bees that transform the nectar into honey do not copy nature, but render vividly and accurately like wonderful ideograms the meaning of beings. The artist of the diadem of the Goats did not attempt to depict a naturalistic image of Spring but rather Spring itself as a timeless, unchanging and life-giving Idea… In the center, above the ‘sacred knot’, a dove emerges from the calyx of an anthem , the sacred bird of Venus, symbol of love that lasts forever. Low below him, on the forehead of the lucky wearer, hang two tiny pomegranates, the sacred fruits of Persephone, symbols of fertility that overcomes death. [5]
Image of Mediterranean myrtle
Greek gold myrtle wreath (The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston)
Gift of Miss Annette Finnigan.

Correspondingly interesting and attractive is the relevant description of Étienne
When the queen wore the diadem found in the same coffin at the same time as this purple shawl, it must have looked like a veritable bouquet of spring flowers.[35] This diadem is an absolutely extraordinary artifact and very difficult to describe.[36] It develops intricate whorls on either side of a central axis, strongly marked, at the top, by three flowers supported on tendrils supported by a vertical acanthus leaf, in the center, by a knot of Heracles, and, at the bottom, by four globular pendants which were falling on the forehead. The leaves of the acanthus (?) are rather small and inconspicuous compared to the foliage and plant decoration. Although the species cannot be identified with certainty, we can distinguish at least five different types of plant forms: flowers with a double crown of narrow petals and a central bud (pink?), a wide disk with a pistil in the center, and stamens that form a small crown of flowers (anemones?), flowers with five broad petals (daffodils?), more or less elaborate anthemes (lily family?), pointed buds, borne in a rather capricious manner from different supports. Note that we do not recognize the myrtle, which however corresponds to another wreath abandoned on the floor of the vestibule. [37: M. Tsigarida, “Golden myrtle wreath from Vergina”] All (?) the flowers were colored with blue material (paste). and they were often attached to stems forming a kind of spring, which could vibrate at the slightest movement of the head. Bees are represented foraging, while a tiny bird has made its nest in the heart of a flower. The diadem ended in a lion’s head buckle.
The myrtle, a sacred plant of the goddess Aphrodite, was a symbol of love and a symbol of immortality and had chthonic associations.[8] The Greeks wore crowns at events and received them as athletic prizes with honors.[9] Crowns made of gold leaf were created to be buried with the dead but were too fragile for everyday wear. But it has been argued that they were worn at formal social events that included religious ritual, such as banquets, which began
in sacrifice to the gods.[10] Myrtle leaves and flowers were made of thin gold leaf, stamped and detailed and then joined with stems. Many wreaths that have survived to this day were found in ancient tombs. A gold myrtle wreath inlaid with precious stones is kept in the Museum of Inner Mongolia, accompanied by a note that it is a find from illegal excavations in Ulanqab and is vaguely dated to the Han period (200 BC to 200 AD). It is characteristic that the flowers are inlaid with a blue precious stone, thus resembling a Macedonian crown which was recently returned by the Getty Museum to the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki
Gold Myrtle Flower Diadem


HELLENIC WREATH – MEDA’S DIAMOND
Meda, daughter of Kothelas, king of the Getae, was a Thracian princess whom Philip married, when he was returning from the campaign in Scythia, in 339 BC. and at the time of her death she would have been 20-25 years old. Obeying the custom of her tribe which, as recorded by Herodotus, stipulated that the wives of the prominent should accompany their husbands to death, the young foreigner seems to have committed suicide when the king was murdered. Following her husband and master into the flames of the funeral pyre and into the tomb, forever companion of the king’s bed in Hades, she became for the Macedonians, who were certainly not familiar with such examples of devotion, a new Alcestis, a model of conjugal virtue and loyalty., measures 14 cm in diameter and 4 cm in height. The interior is plain and unadorned. The exterior is flanked by a mother-of-pearl band, and most of the surface covered with acanthus leaves in low relief set against a gilt background. Four projecting heads depict characters from Greek mythology: Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite and Athena.

MORGANTINA. MEGARIAN CUP FROM THE AGORA AREA . THE SO-CALLED “MEGARESE CUPS” WERE TABLE VASES INTENDED TO CONTAIN HEMISPHERICAL LIQUIDS, PRODUCED IN GREECE AND ITALY. CHARACTERISTICS WERE THE LACK OF THE FOOT AND THE RELIEF DECORATION OF THE EXTERNAL WALLS, USUALLY WITH PHYTOMORPHIC MOTIFS.
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE FROM
MORGANTINA, DATING BACK TO BETWEEN THE 2nd AND 1st CENTURIES BC. IT IS A MAGNA GRAECIA/SICILIAN PRODUCTION, FROM A LOCAL FACTORY (FROM SYRACUSE OR TYNDARIS). ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF AIDONE (EN).
THE FOUNDER OF BYZANTION, BYZAS, WAS SON OF KING NISOS OF MEGARA. DURING THE 7th CENTURY BC, THE GREEK NATION WAS CITY-STATES WERE EXPANDING AND ESTABLISHING NEW COLONIES.
The DORIAN CITY-STATE of THE MEGARA, NEAR ATHENS, WAS ALSO SEARCHING FOR SITES TO SET UP YET ANOTHER COLONY. 

By:
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΔΡΟΣΟΣ

THOSE WHO COULDN’T STAND THE BEAUTY)(=ΚΑΛΛΟΣ/KALLOS), THE HARMONY AND THE MEASURE, TRIED TO DESTROY THEM, TO CARVE ON THEM THEIR OWN UGLYNESS!!!
AND THESE WERE NONE OTHER THAN THE VILE AND VILE DRESSED SUBHUMANS, THE BARBARIC AND FOOLISH INSTRUMENTS OF THE DARK PRIESTHOOD OF THE JUDAISM DOCTRINE!!!…

ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΔΡΟΣΟΣ
(ΜΕΓΙΣΤΙΑΣ)

ΕΚΕΙΝΟΙ ΠΟΥ ΔΕΝ ΑΝΤΕΞΑΝ ΤΟ ΚΑΛΛΟΣ, ΤΗΝ ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ, ΠΡΟΣΠΑΘΗΣΑΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΡΕΦΟΝΤΑΣ ΤΑ, ΝΑ ΧΑΡΑΞΟΥΝ ΠΑΝΩ ΤΟΥΣ ΤΗΝ ΔΙΚΗ ΤΟΥΣ ΑΣΧΗΜΙΑ!!!
ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΙ ΔΕΝ ΗΤΑΝ ΑΛΛΟΙ ΑΠΟ ΤΑ ΜΙΑΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΒΔΕΛΥΡΑ ΦΑΙΟΦΟΡΕΜΕΝΑ ΥΠΑΝΘΡΩΠΙΔΙΑ, ΤΑ ΒΑΡΒΑΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΟΗΤΑ ΟΡΓΑΝΑ ΤΟΥ ΣΚΟΤΕΙΝΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΤΕΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΙΟΥΔΑΙΟΓΕΝΟΥΣ ΔΟΓΜΑΤΟΣ!!!…

ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΔΡΟΣΟΣ
(ΜΕΓΙΣΤΙΑΣ) 

A 2,300-year-old ancient Greek gold wreath worth £100,000, kept for decades in a tatty box of old newspapers under bed by owner who had no idea what it was. The wreath was put on sale at Duke’s of Dorchester auction house in 2016

Greek Bronze chariot inlaid with ivory with scenes from the life of the Greek hero Achilles, 2nd quarter of the 6th century B.C.
Dimensions: Total H. 51 9/16 in. (130.9 cm); Length of pole 82 1/4 in. (209cm).
Description of figures on the Chariot: The iconography represents a carefully thought-out program. The three major panels of the car depict episodes from the life of Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War. In the magnificent central scene, Achilles, on the right, receives from his mother, Thetis, on the left, a shield and helmet to replace the armor that Achilles had given his friend Patroklos, for combat against the Trojan Hektor. Patroklos was killed, allowing Hektor to take Achilles’ armor. The subject was widely known thanks to the account in Homer’s Iliad and many representations in Greek art. The panel on the left shows a combat between two warriors, usually identified as the Greek Achilles and the Trojan Memnon. In the panel on the right, the apotheosis of Achilles shows him ascending in a chariot drawn by winged horses. The subsidiary reliefs partially covered by the wheels are interpreted as showing Achilles as a youth in the care of the centaur Chiron and Achilles as a lion felling his enemies, in this case a stag and a bull. The central axis of the chariot is reinforced by the head and forelegs of the boar at the junction of the pole to the car. The deer below Achilles’ shield appears slung over the boar’s back. The eagle’s head at the front of the pole repeats the two attacking eagles at the top of the central panel, and the lion heads on the yoke relate to the numerous savage felines on the car. While the meaning of the human and animal figures allows for various interpretations, there is a thematic unity and a Homeric quality emphasizing the glory of the hero.
Provenance: Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York.
P.S.: In 1902, a landowner working on his property accidentally discovered a subterranean built tomb covered by a tumulus (mound). His investigations revealed the remains of a parade chariot as well as bronze, ceramic, and iron utensils together with other grave goods. Following the discovery, the finds passed through the hands of several Italian owners and dealers who were responsible for the appearance of the chariot and related material on the Paris art market. There they were purchased in 1903 by General Luigi Palma di Cesnola, the first director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
There is presented, UNFORTUNAELY..as…. “Etruscian” No matter the HISTORICAL EVIDENCE..

The Monteleone chariot is the best preserved example of its kind from MAGNA GRAECIA OR q”ANCIENT ITALY before the Roman period. The relatively good condition of its major parts–the panels of the car, the pole, and the wheels–has made it is possible to undertake a new reconstruction based on the most recent scholarship. Moreover, some of the surviving ivory fragments can now be placed with reasonable certainty. The other tomb furnishings acquired with the chariot are exhibited in two cases on the south wall of this gallery

By: IXΩP.: HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ANCIENT FINE ARTS/ 4th CENTURY BC (BRITISH MUSEUM).
“THE GOBLET OF LYCURGOS” …SCIENTIST ARE STILL TRYING TO FIND OUT HOW IT CHANGES COLORS…

The British Museum acquired the LYCURGUS CUP from Victor, 3rd Lord Rothschild, in 1958. As the British Museum states on its website dedicated to the cup, the object was “originally purchased by Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild (1808-1879)”. . The conclusion is yours to make.

THE GREEKS CALLED IT : **ΆΓΑΛΜΑ=STATUE**, WHICH MEANS, THAT EMBRACES YOUR SOUL WHEN YOU SEE IT.. AS YOU REFLECT IT

BEAUTIFUL AND YOU ARE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND ALL THE SYMBOLISM, WHICH EACH STATUE(AGALMA ONE!)CARRIES ON IT…

.... THE ROMANS CONTINUED TO NAME THE STATUES… STATUA FROM THE GREEK WORD ΣΤΑΤΙΚΟ=STATIC ((VERB: ISTHMI= I AM STANDING ΑΣΤΗΡ=STAR)),

—WHICH IN ENGLISH BECAME STATUE AND MEANS THIS, THAT IS STANDING STILL….

**”I ΆΓΑΛΜΑ** (VERB: ΑΓΑΛΙΑΖΩ//AGALIAZO ) = BEING IN HOLISTIC EUPHORIA………

…… THIS HUGE GAP EXISTS BETWEEN EVERY GREEK AND BARBARIAN WORD AND EVERY GREEK AND BARBARIAN IDEOLOGY. THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS CONCEPTUAL AND EXPLAINS THE ESSENCE OF EVERY THING. “THE PRINCIPLE OF WISDOM IS THE VISITATION OF NAMES” ALL THE OTHER LANGUAGES ARE PURELY SUPERFICIAL BECAUSE THEIR CREATORS HAD A SUPERFICIAL REFLECTION….

AS PLATO SAID: -VISION MAY BELONG TO ALL, BUT PERCEPTION TO A FEW…MAN, WHO`S BLIND IN PHYCHE= (=SOUL), CANNOT SEE OR EVEN UNDERSTAND ESSENTIAL THINGS.

A historically reliable set of Athenian armor from 490 BC. It has been scrupulously copied from all available ceramic depictions of the period. This armor could only be afforded by an extremely wealthy warrior – a high-ranking officer or general ..

Perhaps the single best known sculpture from antiquity, the so-called LAOCOON group, was found in Rome in 1506 and placed on public display in the Vatican, where it remains. This cast was made from the marble original and acquired by the Ashmolean from the British Museum in 1933.

The Roman writer PLINY (active in the AD 70s) ascribed the group to the sculptors HAGESANDROS, ATHENODOROS and POLYDOROS, who worked in the later first century BC. Hellenistic sculpture. LAOCOON, a Trojan priest of APOLLO, and his sons struggle with two flesh-eating snakes, sent as a divine punishment. The priest had warned the Trojans against accepting the wooden horse sent by the AEOLIAN-ACHAIAN GREEKS at th that civill war between the WEST Greeks vs “Troades”and incurred the anger of POSEIDON (some say ATHENA,) who was supporting the ACHAIAN GREEKS.
The saying ‘ BEWARE of DANAOI (=ACHAIAN-AEOLIAN GREEKS) bearing gifts’ comes from lines spoken by the priest in VIRGIL`S poem The AENEIAD

While struggling against the snakes, LAOCOON supports himself against the altar on which he had been making a sacrifice. His head is turned back with a grimace of pain which is combined with the horror at the death of his sons, the exertion of his struggle and the awareness of his own imminent death.
The LAOCOON group is one of the most discussed and famous pieces of HELLENIC sculpture, described by Michaelangelo as a ‘MIRACLE of art’. 

IT IS SEEN, AS THE EPITOME OF THE IDEAL IMAGE OF YOUTH FUL GODS IN GREEK ART.

HERMES of PRAXITELES
The statue, known as the Hermes of PRAXITELES, or the HERMES of OLYMPIA, was FOUND in the RUINS of the TEMPLE OF HERA, in OLYMPIA, GREECE. The priceless artwork is displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia.

The MARBLE sculpture is dated back to the FOURTH CENTURY BC, BASED on a remark recorded by the second-century Greek traveler Pausanias.

Its style defined what is known as the “Praxitelean Style,” although art historians doubt it was indeed created by Praxiteles because there are no identified ancient replicas of it.
A German archaeological excavation of the Temple area, led by Ernst Curtius, was begun in 1875 after an agreement was made with the Greek government.

On May 8, 1877, in the Temple of Hera, archaeologist Gustav Hirschfeld uncovered the main parts of a statue of a young man resting against a tree trunk, covered by a mantle. It was in an excellent state of preservation.

It took a great deal more effort, and six additional discoveries, to uncover the rest of the parts of the statue as it is displayed today.

There are parts of the HERMES of PRAXITELES STILL missing, including his right forearm, two fingers of his left hand, the left foot, and his penis. DIONYSUS is missing his arms and the end of his right foot.

Much of the tree trunk and the plinth are also lost. However, an ancient base of the statue survives.

H E R M E S OF P R A X I T E L E S
Public Domain
HERMES’ PLACE in the GREEK PANTHEON
According to Greek mythology, HERMES was born to Maia, a daughter of ATLAS and ZEUS. The infant HERMES snuck out of his cave on Mount CYLLENE in ARCADIA on the day of his birth and traveled all the way to PIERIA, 250 miles to the NORTH in MACEDONIA, to meet his half-brother APOLLO, who was grazing his cattle.

The young god stole all 50 of the animals and then went into hiding.

APOLLO chased HERMES BACK to ARCADIA and brought the MISCREANT in front of their FATHER. HERMES protested that he was an INNOCENT INFANT, and it was impossible for him to have done such a thing.

To add INSULT to INJURY, HERMES STOLE APOLLO’s BOW and ARROW from him, AS WELL.

ZEUS put HERMES on trial, and ruled that the young god should return the cows he stole at ANY cost.

Again, HERMES PROVED to be the WINNER in this situation as well. While in PIERIA, he had INVENTED the LYRE, an instrument he built using a turtle shell, two cow’s horns, and sheep gut.

HERMES began to play the instrument and sing so HEARTBREAKINGLY BEAUTIFUL that the god of music decided he must have the lyre, and he offered the fifty cows in return.

APOLLO also TAUGHT HERMES the ART of PROPHECY and GAVE him the KERYKEION, a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it, his future trademark as a messenger of the gods. He received this distinction from ZEUS immediately after the said trial.

Clearly, HERMES was a MISCHIEVOUS god from the moment of his birth. Moving easily between Mount OLYMPOS and EARTH, he was very popular with mortals. He was a great liar and thief, and even became the patron saint of thieves, liars and merchants.

We can see that, from antiquity, traders have had a reputation for telling lies to sell their merchandise, even when there was nothing wrong with their merchandise.

But HERMES also served as the MESSENGER of all the GODS and was seen as the GOD of TRAVELERS and ATHLETES because of his SPEED and physical FITNESS.

The messenger of the gods was also a friend to mankind and, by relaying divine messages to mortals, he became the highest-ranking being that they would ever encounter on their level of existence. Mortals could relate to him much more than to the fearsome ZEUS.

In ancient philosophy, Hermes was the representative of “logos,” the word, as well as meaning and reason itself. The Greek word ερμηνεία (hermeneia – “interpretation,”) derives from his name. Therefore, the term “hermeneutics” means the study of the methodological principles of interpretation.

Hermes’ name was used in Hermeticism, Hermetic Magic and alchemy, all highly influential ancient disciplines which lasted well into the early modern age. These practices gave us the modern phrase “hermetically sealed

.”

The sculpture of ancient Greece is the main surviving type of fine ancient Greek art as, with the exception of painted ancient Greek pottery, almost no ancient Greek painting survives. Modern scholarship identifies three major stages in monumental sculpture in bronze and stone: the Archaic (from about 650 to 480 BC), Classical (480–323) and Hellenistic. At all periods there were great numbers of Greek terracotta figurines and small sculptures in metal and other materials.

The Greeks decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. Seeing their gods as having human form, there was little distinction between the sacred and the secular in art—the human body was both secular and sacred. A male nude of Apollo or Heracles had only slight differences in treatment to one of that year’s Olympic boxing champion. The statue, originally single but by the Hellenistic period often in groups was the dominant form, though reliefs, often so “high” that they were almost free-standing, were also important.

The reason that ancient Greek sculptures have small penises isnt because the artist didnt want the viewer to focus on them. Its because the cultural perception of penis was different.

NO ONE LOVED THE HUMAN BODY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS. ..

NO ONE PRAISED HUMAN BEAUTY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS, THROUGH THEIR ARTS…

NO ONE HONORED LOVE WITH THEIR LIVES, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS…

AND THE MISANTHROPIC , NEGATING, RABID-FURIOUS PERSECUTORS OF HELLENISM OVER THE CENTURIES NEVER FORGAVE US FOR THIS …

Rewind to the ancient Greek world of around 400 BC, and you’ll find that large, erect penises were not considered desirable, nor were they a sign of power or strength.

In his play The Clouds (c. 419–423 BC), ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes summed up the ideal traits of his male peers as “a gleaming chest, bright skin, broad shoulders, tiny tongue, strong buttocks, and a little prick

Lady of Elce(detail)~National Archaeological Museum, Madrid.
THE LADY OF ELIKI~ GREEK-IBERIAN ART
The Lady of Elche (4th century BC. Greco-Iberian Art). is a limestone bust that was discovered in 1897 at L’Alcúdia, an archaeological site on a private estate two kilometers south of Elche, Spain.

~Ancient Eliki, colony of the Achaeans (Elche, Spain)~
It was founded by Ionian settlers in 600 BC. near Lefki Akra (Alicante).
The distant Greek settlers named the city in memory of their birthplace of the Achaean Eliki next to Aegio.
Over time, the local Iberians also joined the Greek population of the city.
It seems that due to its commercial location it flourished.
From its ancient Greek period, the famous Dama de Elche (Dama de Elche) is preserved, a bust of a woman carved in colorful stone in Greco-Iberian style.

During the Second Carthaginian War, the general Hannivas destroyed the city.
When the Romans dominated Spain they rebuilt it under the name Iulia Ilice Augusta.
For about three centuries Eliki experienced a long period of prosperity.
Its superior water quality and better land access (via a trade route) led to the withering of the neighboring city of White Acre (2nd-3rd century AD).

With the advent of Christianity in the region, Eliki became the seat of a bishop.
During the 5th century AD it was occupied by the Arianist Visigoths who destroyed its ancient monuments.
During the period 554 -620 AD it came under Byzantine rule thanks to the old patrician Justinian Liverio.
Then it was recaptured by the Visigoths and in 711 it passed into the possession of the Arabs.
At the end of the 13th century, in the framework of the Spanish reconquista, the king of Aragon, James II the Righteous 1267–1327, liberated Eliki from the Moorish despotism.
Today’s Elche developed from the 18th century onwards.
From the 19th century the establishment of a railway and a shoe industry gave greater commercial prestige to the town.

Even in modern times the inhabitants of Elche (remembering their distant Greek origins) celebrate the Greek week which includes the typical life of an ancient Greek city: Rhapsodies, theaters, dancing, torches, parades of hoplites, amphorae, ancient coins, offerings, tunics , pedicles and Homeric speech.

At the same time, they celebrate the Assumption of the Virgin every August 15 with religious performances.
They even call themselves pobladores Griegos, that is, Greek residents.

Lady of Elce(detail)~National Archaeological Museum,Madrid.

LETO……(LATUNA LATER IN LATIN)

IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY LETO (OR LATO IN THE DORIC DIALECT), IS THE DAUGHTER OF THE TITAN COIUS AND PHOEBE [.FROM ZEUS SHE GAVE BIRTH TO APOLLO AND ARTEMIS . IN ROMAN MYTHOLOGY LATER, THE CORRESPONDING GODDESS OF LETO IS LATONA.

LETO WAS THE MAIN deÄGODDESS IN EASTERN LYCIA, WHILE THE INHABITANTS OF KOS ALSO CLAIMED HER ORIGIN.

HER SANCTUARY, LETOON, CONNECTED THE CITY-STATES OF LYCIA TO EACH OTHER. SHE WAS WORSHIPED WITH THE EPITHETS OF KOIOGENEIA [, FISTI AND ECDYSIA.

BIRTH OF ARTEMIS AND APOLLO

When HERA learned that LETO was pregnant by ZEUS, she FORBADE her to give BIRTH on LAND and in ANY PLACE under the sun. According to a myth, NOT so widespread, LETO came from the land of HYPERBORIA in the form of a SHE-WOLF, seeking the land of wolves, LYCIA. The MOST widespread myth says that when LETO was about to give birth, a small island appeared in the sea , DELOS, where she managed to give birth first to ARTEMIS and then to APOLLO .

According to OVID, after the birth of the twins, Leto wandered and reached Lycia, where she was not received with the best welcome. When she went to drink water from a lake, the inhabitants forbade her, stirring up the mud at the bottom of the lake. Then LETO transformed them into frogs for the lack of hospitality they showed, so that they would always live condemned to the muddy waters of rivers and lakes.

THE PUNISHMENT OF NIOBE……

Once the queen NIOBE , who had seven sons and seven daughters, was proud of the fecundity and beauty of her children, saying that “LETO, the chosen one of ZEUS , has only one pair of TWINS to show against her so many” (meaning her ARTEMIS and APOLLO).

When LETO found out, she was indignant and asked her children to punish NIOBE’S rashness. Thus, according to the traditions, the two gods marked with their arrows, ARTEMIS the DAUGHTERS, APOLLO the SONS.

The dead bodies of NIOBE’S children remained UNBURIED for NINE days, since ZEUS turned into stone anyone who attempted to pay funeral honors. On the ninth day the gods yielded to NIOBE’S entreaties and buried them themselves in two common graves.

WORSHIP

SANCTUARIES OF LETOS are mentioned by ancient sources in many regions of Greece. Very often she was worshiped alongside her two children. PAUSANIAS AND STRABO mention the existence of sanctuaries and statues DEDICATED to LETO, APOLLO AND ARTEMIS in the village OF ZOSTIR IN ATTICA, MEGARA, ARGOS, SPARTA, TANAGRA [, DELPHI (AND PINDAROS mentions in an ODE OF), in ARTEMISION OF RHODES, IN MANTINEIA, IN PHAISTOS OF CRETE (ECDYSIA WERE CELEBRATED IN HER HONOR), in ORTYGIA and LATOREA in LYDIA , where a festival dedicated to her was also held.

Her worship was great in DELOS, where there was a large temple dedicated to her, LETOOS. According to the legend, LETO WON DELOS from POSEIDON, with whom she exchanged KALABRIA .

SIMILAR was the temple in LYCIA, LETOON, NEAR THE RIVER XANTHOS, “60 stadia from the city.” Inscriptions indicate that the LYCIAN Community had its headquarters there. Modern excavations, from 1962 onwards, have been carried out in the area, bringing to light, among other things, a trilingual inscription in ARAMAIC , and LYCIAN GREEK.

LYRICAL HYMNS have been written in HONOR of LETO by the THRACIAN MUSICIAN AND POET PHILAMMON.

.

THIS IS THE REASON WE SAY THAT THE GREEKS BROUGHT SCIENCE TO HUMAN HISTORY
https://enneaetifotos.blogspot.com/…/blog-post_83.html

“There are two reasons why Socrates ascended and was marbled on his distinguished pedestal, tells us his great grandson in letters, who was born fifteen years after the death of Socrates, Aristotle. One that he taught “it is not determined at all”, and the other that he invented “practical reasons”.
The first explains that Socrates first succeeded in defining concepts. And do you know what feat that is? It is a fact as important as the establishment of the Olympic games by Heracles and Lycurgus. Defining a concept is a very difficult task. If it were not so, the absurdity we see around us today would not have happened. You ask people in Greece what democracy is, and you get nine million definitions. Have you ever attended the coronation of the casida and palavera? The abrakatabra that German physicists say about German theologians?

And the same thing happens, if you ask what is freedom, virtue, justice, honorable and everything else.

But the definition of each concept is one, Socrates taught. To define a concept, he told us, you would describe it in so many words that you couldn’t add a single word, couldn’t take a single word away, and couldn’t change a single word. So. And if you manage to define the concept in the end.

But this, dear reader, is discovery and invention like those of Newton, Columbus, Darwin, Einstein, Freud. And Socrates is the first photometric for all these bigoted men. The second that succeeded, Aristotle always says, is “practical reasons”. In other words, the inductive method was introduced in the research.

This second is even more important than the first. Because in essence it means that Socrates introduced science into the spiritual history of man, in the sense that he introduced the method of science.
This is the reason why, among other things, we say that the Greeks brought science to the history of man. And this is why the Greek stands out from all other cultures.

As we are half-educated, and prognosticators, and spiritually young, we often claim that other ancient peoples also did science. The Egyptians, for example, the Aztecs, the Assyrians, the Chinese, the Chaldeans, the Jews, the Persians, you name it.

Error. Only the Greeks did science. Science, in the sense that you discover and build a system of applied information whose organic structure has the order, precision and necessity of the organic order that exists within nature. Cause which makes nature and the laws of its constitution unchangeable, and eternal, and indestructible.

Compared to the Greeks, the science that the others did is a pre-empirical achievement. Astrology for example instead of astronomy. “Comboyanism”(=Hill Billy THUGS mentality) instead of medicine. Priesthood and priest instead of philosophy. Guard instead of geometry. Magic and catechism instead of morality. Hide and seek instead of sports. Morlo-kings made of dry wood instead of politics. And compare accordingly.
Today, research in all areas of science is served by one hundred as many sciences, which are taught in the universities of the world.

Origin and source and motherland (as we say homeland) of all this boisterous spiritual orgasm that brought man “repentantly to strike the stars”, according to Horace’s verse, is Greece. And the progenitor or master of this discipline is Socrates.

Of course, here one cannot overlook the heavy pre-shock of the advance of the Presocratics. Nor the concluding hymn of the great philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Epicurus.

This is why Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus and Phainaretes the Athenian, is great. Because she is the mummy who brought science to the light of history.”
Dimitris Liantinis – Gemma 

Centaur in polychrome marbles
Marble: antique red and black, antique green bas
e

—-The definition of the courtyard in front of the south façade of the villa [Villa Doria Pamphili], divided into three spaces by the orthogonal arms of the terraced portico, according to the model of the Hellenistic-Roman maritime villas, belongs to this first arrangement.

This extraordinary sculpture was rediscovered in the mid-19th century in Albano, in one of
the luxurious residences of the Pamphilj family in Lazio. It is a remarkable replica, perhaps from the Antonine Era (138-192 AD), of one of the so called “Furietti Centaurs”, the celebrated pair in the Capitoline Museums from Hadrian’s Villa. The original model was sculpted in grey Lucullan marble and signed by ARISTEAS an artist from APHRODISIAS, a city known for exporting sculptures. The composition of these statues shows clear references to the Hellenic culture. Our version is outstanding for the excellent quality of the materials used in its carving and its refined colours

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ MAGNA GRAECIA/POMPEIA /

TRICLINIUM=TRIKLINON(=THREE BED ROOM) OF THE HOUSE OF
VETTII IN POMPEI

A triclinium ( pl. : triclinia) is a formal dining room in a Roman building. The word is adopted from the Greek triklinion (τρικλίνιον)—from tri- (τρι-), “three”, and klinē (κλίνη), a sort of couch or rather chaise longue.
First recorded in 1640–50; from Latin trīclīnium, from Greek triklī́nion=τρικλίνιο, diminutive of tríklīnos “having three couches (adjective), dining room so furnished (noun),” equivalent to tri- tri- + klī́n(ē) “couch” (see clinic) + -ion diminutive suffix. Etymology edit. triklinos < ancient Greek triklinos < tri- + bed. three bed room=
τρίκλινος< τρι- + κλίνη. Adjective editing. triclinos, -i, -o. which has three beds..
In ancient Greek and Roman architecture, a dining room in an elite house. Triclinia (pl.) normally featured dining couches arranged on three sides of a table.
The triclinium was named after the three couches typically found in the dining rooms of upper-class . The lectus, or couch, was an all-purpose piece of furniture. Usually made of wood with bronze adornments, the open bottom was crisscrossed with leather straps, which supported stuffed cushions.
The dining room was one of the most important reception spaces of the residence and, as such, it included high-quality decorative fixtures, such as floor mosaics, wall paintings, and stucco reliefs, as well as portable luxury objects, such as artworks (particularly sculptures) and furniture. Like the Greeks, the Romans reclined on couches while banqueting, although in the Roman context respectable women were permitted to join men in reclining. This practice set the convivium apart from the Greek symposium, or male aristocratic drinking party, at which female attendees were restricted to entertainers such as flute-girls and dancers as well as courtesans (hetaerae).

A dining room typically held three broad couches, each of which seated three individuals, thus allowing for a total of nine guests. This type of room is commonly described as a triclinium (literally, “three-couch room”), although dining rooms that could accommodate greater numbers of couches are archaeologically attested. In a triclinium, the couches were arranged along three walls of the room in a U-shape, at the center of which was placed a single table that was accessible to all of the diners. Couches were frequently made of wood, but there were also more opulent versions with fittings made of costly materials, such as ivory and bronze

OLYMPIAS OF EPIRUS

While her birth name was Polyxena, she is widely known by her later name, Olympias. Wife of Philip II, mother of Alexander the Great, Olympias exercised unprecedented power who defied the ancient world’s rules for women, and charted her and her son’s rise to power through wits, ambition, and might. She was perhaps the first woman to play a major role in ancient Greek political history.

She was born around 375 BCE, the daughter of Neoptolemus I of Epirus, a Greek king, and an unknown mother. Her family was a powerful one in ancient Greece. They claimed to be descended from the Greek hero Achilles, the main character in Homer’s “Iliad.”

Olympias was also known by several other names: Polyxena (her Original Name), Myrtale, and Stratonice. Historians believe she chose the name Olympias to celebrate her husband’s victory in the Olympic Games.

Olympias made it her life’s main mission to ensure that Alexander would one day be King. She was a devoted mother to her young son and constantly reminded him of his ancestral lineage to Achilles, which would have a powerful impact on Alexander.

ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΣ ΒΑΚΤΡΙΑΣ
(τόπος ανακάλυψης του δίσκου)

AMPHIPOLIS OF BACTRIA
(disc discovery location)

“When two suns will shine in the sky, the earth will be on fire! The heavenly goddess, eternal mother of all, the winged Nemesis with her chariot will bring! From her womb, she will restore an ancient bond”!

In the bloodline of Alexander (stripe), my friends, the fetus that will restore the right order was conceived! It will be a beast for those who promote immorality! They already know it, their mind controls them, they stand defenseless against his appetites and wait for the fate! Those whose eyes are awakened, live the events and understand! For MOST others, with lO IQ OR INFERIORITY COMPLEX this seems like NOTHING!!

CYBELE with her chariot drawn by two lions for a votive sacrifice and above the HELIOS=ΗΛΙΟΣ=SUN GOD, the S E L E N E = Σ Ε Λ Η Ν Η = MOON and the SIXTEENTH OF V E R G I N A.

Dion.
The sacred city of the Macedonians and the sanctuary of Zeus in the area of Olympus.
It reached its peak during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, as it was one of the earliest Roman colonies in the Macedonian region.
During the time of Alexander the Great, Dion had significant importance for Macedonia Greece in general.


It was there that Philip II celebrated the capture and destruction of Olynthus, the capital of the Chalkidiki League. In the same place, Alexander the Great invoked the help of the gods, while he was making the ceremonial preparations for his military campaign in Asia.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY-MYSTAGOCY

THE FACT THAT FILLS YOU LEAST WITH ANGER! FOR A LIFE TIME THEY MAKE MONEY FROM GREEK ANTIQUITIES, EVEN TODAY WHEN TOURISTS VISIT THE TEMPLE OF EPHESUS AND THE TURKS CALL THEM… “ROMAN” RUINS!!!

The fact that fills you least with anger! For a lifetime they make money from Greek antiquities, even today when tourists visit the temple of “EPHESUS” and the Turks call them..

Roman ruins!!! NOT to mention the MUSEUMS everywhere in NORTHERN and CENTRAL EUROPE, that have STOLEN antiquities along with the rocks on which they rest!

It’s a DISGRACE, these countries like GERMANY and ENGLAND, are STILL allowed to keep these STOLEN TREASURES that have nothing to do with their histories🤬

“EPHESUS”=ΕΦΕΣΟΣ

THE EVALUATION OF THE OFFER OF GREEK CULTURE ALL OVER THE WORLD, IS DIFFICULT TO EVALUATE, BECAUSE OF THE WIDTH OF THE OFFER IT IS THE PLACE THAT HOSTED THE HIGHEST ALL HUMANITY RECEIVED, THE LIGHT OF KNOWLEDGE AT ALL LEVELS !!! EVERY SPIRIT OF YOUR HOLY EARTH IS A RICH OF INFORMATION OF WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY.

EPHESOS the CITY OF ARTEMIS & HERACLEITOS.

“EPHESUS” was one of the MOST important coastal cities of ASIA MINOR, almost on the AEGEAN SEA.

BUILT at the 10th century BC by IONIAN GREEKS

ANCIENT EPHESUS (today’s archaeological site) in ANTIQUITY was very close to the sea, even known as “THALASSOTHÉA “(=SEEWIEW), but the constant silting of the river KAǗSTROU forced residents to move the settlements of WEST. NEVERTHELESS, the ancient city was built on the low slopes of KORESOS and wields hills, where then the fertile plain of EPHESUS extended to the so-called EPHESUS field. The Temple of ARTEMIS was located right in this plain 1 Mile (ten stages) from the city. The fertility of the plain of EPHESUS as well as the location of the city of thalassothéas at a focal point of the natural way of communication of the AEGEAN SEA with the HELLENIC MAINLAND contributed to the edge of the city.

According to the ANCIENT traditions of the ANCIENT GREEK writers HISTORIANS, GEOGRAPHERS etc. EPHESUS was reported to have been occupied during prehistoric times by the amazons allegedly moved from the caucasus region by raiding ASIA MINOR capturing various areas – cities named after the most ikanotérōn of them, which were among others EPHESOS, SMYRNA , KYME , MYRINA and SINOPE… ETC….

STRABON also mentions the above that in later times these cities worship their famous heroines amazons and even cut coins with AMAZON shows. The EPHESIANS in particular in the 5th century bc, wanting to honor the famous AMAZON EPHESOS, a competition among the most famous sculptures of their time for the construction of a statue in order to place it in the temple of ARTEMIS.

Around The 8th century BC, EPHESUS became the economic center of ASIA MINOR. In The 6th century it passed under the rule of CROESUS, but preserving its independence. He then passed the rule of CYRUS and the next PERSIAN Kings and THUS became part of the PERSIAN STATE. EPHESUS was RELEASED in 334 bc by the troops ALEXANDER the GREAT, so EPHESOS BECAME GREEK AGAIN and CHANGED its name and was named ARSINÓEIA(=ARSINOI ARSINOE: (ARSIS = to LIFT = from the verb:

ΑIPΩ+NΟΥΣ/

AERO+NOUS = MIND ),

ΑΡΣΙΣ+ΝΟΥΣ= The HIGH-MINDED…

That LIFTS UP (“takes the mind”) the minds.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/

MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY/

JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD

….by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED by COUNTERFEITING BARBARIANS,..AS….THEIR OWN!!!😂🤣) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!

ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,

BEEING – OFCOURSE –

SUPPORTED, as ALLWAYS, BY the CLASSICAL, GLOBAL BARBARIAN

GEOPOLITICAL MAFIA..

THUS BARBARIANS HELP BARBARIANS.. WITH HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & OFCOURSE VERY FAR FROM THE AUPHTENTIC ETHERIAL & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION AS:

TEMPLES(CORINTHIAN, DORIC & IONIC ORDER), STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, FRESCOS, COINS, SCIENCE:

MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS, TECHNOLLGY, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, POETRY… PLUS:…

THE ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by the UNIQUE MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE(https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-construction…/ WICH IS INTERCONNCTED MATHEMATICALY WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS

.. ARE JUST ONE OF the WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS,

AROUND THE WORLD….BUT NO ONE KNOWS the NUMBER OF THE THOUSANDS of THOSE “PRIVATE” ONES…..

The GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN that: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS completely formulated the theory of NUCLEAR PHYSICS and SPECIAL RELATIVITY, unifying into single MATHEMATICAL

formulas, as ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY, and the Weak Currents of NUCLEAR ATOMS.

The Greeks MUST NEVER LEARN that: the ASTRONOMERS – MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS

, ARISTARCHOS,(https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aristarchus-of-Samos)

ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES,

CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, had EXHAUSTED the LIMITS of human INTELLIGENCE by solving MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION equations of 12 unknowns (twelve equations twelve unknowns) while the limit of today’s computers is “7 equations 7 unknowns”.

BECAUSE the THIEVES of ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST be SHOWN!! …

The GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW that: the ENGINEERS & TECHNICIANS, AS:

-EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, manufactured TOPOGRAPHIC instruments for TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC MECHANISMS and INSTRUMENTS for ELECTRICAL applications, BECAUSE the GREAT SWINDLER EDISON “MUST” be SHOWN as the INVENTOR of …😂🤣 ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH the ABOVE GREEK ENGINEERS used the ELECTRON (AMBER) as a NATURAL ACCUMULATOR of STATIC ELECTRICITY in technical applications…

The Greeks MUST NOT KNOW that: the GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS the INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, had mapped the ENTIRE surface of the planet, because there is a danger that the Greeks will learn that ATLANTIS and the AMERICAN CONTINENT belonged administratively in DELPHI, while Asia belonged administratively to SARDIS, with the central coordinator being the APOLLONIAN Center of DELOS, to which the Transborean Greeks (Northern Siberia) sent as a token of recognition “every year, choice grain”, through the Greek ARIMASPAS and ISSIDONES and MASSAGESTAE of Central and Southern SIBERIA.

The Greeks should not know that the Greek DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, carried out “BALANCING ELEKTROMAGNETIC FLUIDS of the BODY” treatments by REGULATING the ALKALINITY and ACIDITY of the ORGANS. That they were making cures using “left-handed amino acids” (antibiotics) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).

The Greeks must NOT LEARN that the SYMBOLS “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” and “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” were SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, by which the Greeks PYTHAGORAS and DEMOCRITUS and ARISTARCHOS expressed RIGHT -handed and LEFT -handed NUCLEI of ATOMS, PLANETS, SOLAR SYSTEM, GALAXIES and COSMIC DOMAINS CLUSTERS of GALAXIES.

*****E P H E S O S PLUS THE WHOLE ANSWERS******

***********Ε Φ Ε Σ Ο Σ = “E P H E S U S” ************

THE EVALUATION OF THE OFFER OF GREEK CULTURE ALL OVER THE WORLD, IS DIFFICULT TO EVALUATE, BECAUSE OF THE WIDTH OF THE OFFER IT IS THE PLACE THAT HOSTED THE HIGHEST ALL HUMANITY RECEIVED, THE LIGHT OF KNOWLEDGE AT ALL LEVELS !!! EVERY SPIRIT OF YOUR HOLY EARTH IS A RICH OF INFORMATION OF WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY.

EPHESOS the CITY OF ARTEMIS & HERACLEITOS.

Ephesus” was one of the most important coastal cities of ASIA MINOR, almost on the AEGEAN SEA.

BUILT at the 10th century BC by IONIAN GREEKS

ANCIENT EPHESUS (today’s archaeological site) in ANTIQUITY was very close to the sea, even known as “THALASSOTHÉA “(=SEEWIEW), but the constant silting of the river KAǗSTROU forced residents to move the settlements of west. Nevertheless, the ancient city was built on the low slopes of KORESOS and wields hills, where then the fertile plain of EPHESUS extended to the so-called EPHESUS field.

“EPHESUS”=ΕΦΕΣΟΣ
EPHESOS THE CITY OF ARTEMIS & HERACLEITOS.
https://euphoriatric.com/ancient-hellenic-ancient-greek…/
EPHESOS THE CITY OF ARTEMIS & HERACLEITOS
.

“EPHESUS” WAS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ANCIENT GREEK COASTAL CITIES OF IONIA (“ASIA MINOR”), ALMOST ON THE AEGEAN SEA.
BUILT AT THE 10th CENTURY BC BY IONIAN GREEKS
ANCIENT EPHESUS (TODAY’S ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE ) IN ANTIQUITY WAS VERY CLOSE TO THE SEA, EVEN KNOWN, AS “THALASSOTHÉA “(=SEEWIEW), BUT THE CONSTANT SILTING OF THE RIVER KAǗSTROU FORCED RESIDENS TO MOVE THE SETTLEMENTS OF WEST. NEVERTHELESS, THE ANCIENT CITY WAS BUILT ON THE LOW SLOPES OF KORESOS AND WIELDS HILLS, WHERE THEN THE FERTILE PLAIN OF EPHESUS EXTENDED TO THE SO-CALLED EPHESUS FIELD. THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS WAS LOCATED RIGHT IN THIS PLAIN 1 MILE (TEN STAGES) FROM THE CITY. The FERTILITY OF THE PLAIN OF EPHESUS as well as the location of the city of THALASSOTHÉAS, AT A FOCAL POINT OF THE NATURAL WAY OF COMMUNICATION OF THE AEGEAN SEA WITH THE HELLENIC MAINLAND CONTRIBUTED TO THE EDGE OF THE CITY .

ACCORDING TO THE ANCIENT TRADITIONS of the ANCIENT GREEK writers HISTORIANS, GEOGRAPHERS etc. EPHESUS was reported to have been occupied during prehistoric times by the amazons allegedly moved from the caucasus region by raiding ASIA MINOR capturing various areas – cities named after the MOST ikanotérōn of them, which were among others EPHESOS, SMYRNA, KYME, MYRINA AND SINOPE.

STRABON ALSO MENTIONS the ABOVE that in LATER TIMES THESE CITIES WORSHIP THEIR FAMOUS HEROINES AMAZONS AND even CUT COINS with AMAZON shows. The EPHESIANS in PARTICULAR in the 5th century bc, WANTING TO HONOR the FAMOUS AMAZON EPHESOS, a competition among the most famous sculptures of their time for the construction of a statue in order to place it in the temple of ARTEMIS.

AROUND THE 8th CENTURY BC, EPHESUS BECAME THE ECONOMIC CENTER OF IONIA(“ASIA MINOR”). IN THE 6th CENTURY IT PASSED UNDER the RULE of CROESUS, BUT PRESERVING ITS INDEPENDENCE. HE THEN PASSED THE RULE OF CYRUS AND THE NEXT PERSIAN KINGS AND THUS BECAME PART OF THE PERSIAN STATE… EPHESUS WAS RELEASED IN 334 BC BY THE TROUPS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, SO EPHESOS BECAME GREEK AGAIN AND CHANGED ITS NAME AND WAS NAMED ARSINÓEIA(=ARSINOI ARSINOE: (ARSIS = TO LIFT FROM THE VERB: AIRO + NOUS = MIND ), THE HIGH-MINDED….THAT LIFTS UP (“TAKES THE MIND”), THE MINDS.

“EPHESUS” WAS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ANCIENT GREEK COASTAL CITIES OF IONIA (“ASIA MINOR”), ALMOST ON THE AEGEAN SEA.

BUILT AT THE 10th CENTURY BC BY IONIAN GREEKS

ANCIENT EPHESUS (TODAY’S ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE ) IN ANTIQUITY WAS VERY CLOSE TO THE SEA, EVEN KNOWN, AS “THALASSOTHÉA “(=SEEWIEW), BUT THE CONSTANT SILTING OF THE RIVER KAǗSTROU FORCED RESIDENS TO MOVE THE SETTLEMENTS OF WEST. NEVERTHELESS, THE ANCIENT CITY WAS BUILT ON THE LOW SLOPES OF KORESOS AND WIELDS HILLS, WHERE THEN THE FERTILE PLAIN OF EPHESUS EXTENDED TO THE SO-CALLED EPHESUS FIELD. THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS WAS LOCATED RIGHT IN THIS PLAIN 1 MILE (TEN STAGES) FROM THE CITY. The FERTILITY OF THE PLAIN OF EPHESUS as well as the location of the city of THALASSOTHÉAS, AT A FOCAL POINT OF THE NATURAL WAY OF COMMUNICATION OF THE AEGEAN SEA WITH THE HELLENIC MAINLAND CONTRIBUTED TO THE EDGE OF THE CITY .

ACCORDING TO THE ANCIENT TRADITIONS of the ANCIENT GREEK writers HISTORIANS, GEOGRAPHERS etc. EPHESUS was reported to have been occupied during prehistoric times by the amazons allegedly moved from the caucasus region by raiding ASIA MINOR capturing various areas – cities named after the MOST ikanotérōn of them, which were among others EPHESOS, SMYRNA, KYME, MYRINA AND SINOPE.

STRABON ALSO MENTIONS the ABOVE that in LATER TIMES THESE CITIES WORSHIP THEIR FAMOUS HEROINES AMAZONS AND even CUT COINS with AMAZON shows. The EPHESIANS in PARTICULAR in the 5th century bc, WANTING TO HONOR the FAMOUS AMAZON EPHESOS, a competition among the most famous sculptures of their time for the construction of a statue in order to place it in the temple of ARTEMIS.

AROUND THE 8th CENTURY BC, EPHESUS BECAME THE ECONOMIC CENTER OF IONIA(“ASIA MINOR”). IN THE 6th CENTURY IT PASSED UNDER the RULE of CROESUS, BUT PRESERVING ITS INDEPENDENCE. HE THEN PASSED THE RULE OF CYRUS AND THE NEXT PERSIAN KINGS AND THUS BECAME PART OF THE PERSIAN STATE… EPHESUS WAS RELEASED IN 334 BC BY THE TROUPS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, SO EPHESOS BECAME GREEK AGAIN AND CHANGED ITS NAME AND WAS NAMED ARSINÓEIA(=ARSINOI ARSINOE: (ARSIS = TO LIFT FROM THE VERB: AIRO + NOUS = MIND ), THE HIGH-MINDED….THAT LIFTS UP (“TAKES THE MIND”), THE MINDS.
THE EVALUATION OF THE OFFER OF GREEK CULTURE ALL OVER THE WORLD, IS DIFFICULT TO EVALUATE, BECAUSE OF THE WIDTH OF THE OFFER IT IS THE PLACE THAT HOSTED THE HIGHEST ALL HUMANITY RECEIVED, THE LIGHT OF KNOWLEDGE AT ALL LEVELS !!! EVERY SPIRIT OF YOUR HOLY EARTH IS A RICH OF INFORMATION OF WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY

JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
….by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED by COUNTERFEITING BARBARIANS,..AS….THEIR OWN!!!) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!

ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,

BEING – OF COURSE – SUPPORTED, AS ALWAYS, BY THE CLASSICAL, GLOBAL BARBARIAN
GEOPOLITICAL MAFIA..THUS BARBARIANS HELP BARBARIANS.. WITH HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & OFCOURSE VERY FAR FROM THE AUPHTENTIC ETHERIAL & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION AS:

TEMPLES(CORINTHIAN, DORIC & IONIC ORDER), STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, FRESCOS, COINS, SCIENCE:

MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS, TECHNOLLGY, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, POETRY… PLUS:…

THE ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by the UNIQUE MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE WICH IS INTERCONNCTED MATHEMATICALY WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS….ARE JUST ONE OF the WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS, AROUND THE WORLD….BUT NO ONE KNOWS THE REAL NUMBER OF THE THOUSANDS OF THOSE “PRIVATE” ONES…..

THE GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN THAT: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS COMPLETELY FORMULATED THE THEORY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS and SPECIAL RELATIVITY, UNIFYING INTO SINGEL MATHEMATICAL
FORMULAS, AS ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY, AND THE WEAK CURRENTS OF NUCLEAR ATOMS…THE GREEKS MUST NEVER LEARN THAT: THE ASTRONOMERS – MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS,
ARISTARCHOS,(https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aristarchus-of-Samos)
ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES,
CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, HAD EXHAUSTED THE LIMITS OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE by SOLVING MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION EQUATIONS OF 12 UNKNOWN (TWELVE EQUATIONS-TWELVE UNKNOWN), WHILE THE LIMIT OF TODAY’S COMPUTERS IS “7 EQUATIONS 7 UNKNOWNS”…
.

…..BECAUSE THE THIEVES OF ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST.. BE SHOWN!! …

THE GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW THAT: THE ENGINEERS & TECHNICIANS, AS:
-EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, MANUFACTURED TOPOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS FOR TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC MECHANISMS AND INSTRUMENTS for ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS, BECAUSE the GREAT SWINDLER EDISON “MUST” BE SHOWN as THE “INVENTOR” OF … ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH THE ABOVE GREEK ENGINEERS USED THE ELECTRON (AMBER), AS A NATURAL ACCUMULATOR OF STATIC ELECTRICITY IN TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS …

THE GREEKS MUST NOT KNOW THAT: THE GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS THE INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, had mapped the ENTIRE surface of the planet, because there is a danger that the Greeks will learn that ATLANTIS and the AMERICAN CONTINENT belonged administratively in DELPHI, while Asia belonged administratively to SARDIS, with the central coordinator being the APOLLONIAN Center of DELOS, to which the Transborean Greeks (Northern Siberia) sent as a token of recognition “every year, choice grain”, through the Greek ARIMASPAS and ISSIDONES and MASSAGESTAE of Central and Southern SIBERIA.

The Greeks should not know that the Greek DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, carried out “BALANCING ELEKTROMAGNETIC FLUIDS of the BODY” treatments by REGULATING the ALKALINITY and ACIDITY of the ORGANS. That they were making cures using “left-handed amino acids” (antibiotics) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).

The Greeks must NOT LEARN that the SYMBOLS “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” and “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” were SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, by which the Greeks PYTHAGORAS and DEMOCRITUS and ARISTARCHOS expressed RIGHT -handed and LEFT -handed NUCLEI of ATOMS, PLANETS, SOLAR SYSTEM, GALAXIES and COSMIC DOMAINS CLUSTERS of GALAXIES

2500 years AGO HIPPOCRATES performed BRAIN and HEART SURGERY...
https://euphoriatric.com/hippokratis-asklipios-skola/
https://euphoriatric.com/medical-in-ancient-greece…/

Despite the almost non-existent means of his time, HIPPOCRATES performed difficult surgeries. He and his students successfully treated orthopedic, cardiac and basic surgery cases. HIPPOCRATES even performed operations on the human skull, as we read in several of his works… In addition to the operation itself, HIPPOCRATES attached great importance to the preparation of the patient and the operating room.

In the work Kat’iatreion, he describes in detail how the patient should be prepared before the operation, how the tools are sterilized, how the space is shaped, but also how artificial and natural light is used during the operation

American archaeobotanists were able for the first time to study and analyze the contents of pills made by doctors in ancient Greece and which were discovered 20 years ago, in a Greek shipwreck off the coast of Tuscany…

DNA analyzes showed that each pill was a mixture of at least ten different plant extracts, including hibiscus and celery. “For the first time, we now have physical evidence of what is contained in the writings of the ancient Greek physicians DIOSCORIDIS and GALENOS,” said ALLEN TWOWAY of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION’s NATIONAL Museum of NATURAL HISTORY in WASHINGTON , according to New Scientist.
Apostle ORPHEUS”

EPHESOS the CITY OF ARTEMIS & HERACLEITOS.

“Ephesus” was one of the most important coastal cities of ASIA MINOR, almost on the AEGEAN SEA.

BUILT at the 10th century BC by IONIAN GREEKS

ANCIENT EPHESUS (today’s archaeological site) in ANTIQUITY was very close to the sea, even known as “THALASSOTHÉA “(=SEEWIEW), but the constant silting of the river KAǗSTROU forced residents to move the settlements of west. Nevertheless, the ancient city was built on the low slopes of KORESOS and wields hills, where then the fertile plain of *EPHESUS” extended to the so-called EPHESUS field

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Antioch on the Orontes, an ancient Greek city on the eastern side of the Orontes River, was one of the most glorious of all the Greek cities in the world.

Greek settlers had been arriving on the western shores of IONIA for a couple of centuries, the Trojan War in about 1183 BCE MYCAENEANS Greeks were migrating into IONIA, often destroying the established local political structure, and bringing with them their own language and oral traditions. Local names that may have first been written down by them centuries later underwent a degree of transformation in that time.

Antioch was founded near the end of the fourth century BC by Seleucus I Nicator (= Σέλευκος Α’ ο Νικάτωρ), one of Alexander the Great‘s generals, as one of the tetrapoleis of Seleucis of Syria. Seleucus encouraged Greeks from all over the Mediterranean to settle in the city.[2] The city’s location offered geographical, military, and economic benefits to its occupants; Antioch was heavily involved in the spice trade and laid within close reach of the Silk Road and the Royal Road. The city was the capital of the Seleucid Empire from 240 BC until 63 BC, when the Romans took control, making it the capital of the province of Syria and later of Coele Syria. During the late Hellenistic and Roman Principate periods, Antioch’s population may have reached a peak of over 500,000 inhabitants (most generally estimate between 200,000 and 250,000),[4] making the city the third largest in the Roman Empire after Rome and Alexandria and one of the most important cities in the eastern Mediterranean. From the early fourth century, Antioch was the seat of the Count of the Orient, head of the Diocese of the East. The Romans provided the city with walls that encompassed almost 450 hectares (1,100 acres), of which one quarter was mountainous, leaving 300 ha (750 acres) –

In ancient times it was also called Antiochia on Daphne or on Orontos or Antiochia the Great. The river Orontis is on its eastern side and the mountain Silpio is very close. Seleucus I founded it at the end of the 4th century. e.g. , in honor and memory of the father of Antiochus, after his victory in the Battle of Ipsos.

It was the cradle of Greek civilization in the Middle East region, a city that was the crossroads of great philosophical currents, with a great development of letters and sciences. It was the city of national, philosophical and religious contrasts, but also of spectacles, multiculturalism and extreme expressive events. But it gradually went into decline due to the fierce raids of the conquerors, which we mentioned above, as well as the change of the trade routes to the West.

The first inhabitants were Greeks, from nearby Antigoneia. The Byzantine chronicler Ioannis Malalas narrates quite accurately that Seleucus resettled 3,500 Athenians and Macedonians from Antigone, as well as Cretans, Cypriots and other Greeks from the surrounding area. In a short time, other ethnically mixed residents from Syria and regions of the Greek east arrived. Due to the large number of Athenian inhabitants of the city, as well as the intense spiritual movement, the city was called “Syrian Athens”.

The new city began to develop at a rapid pace, with the creation of four large districts, thus also called Antioch the TETTAPOLIS. These 4 districts were so large that each one was surrounded by its own wall. From the time of Antiochus IV the Illustrious, the whole of Antioch was surrounded by a large wall. It took five hours to complete the circuit of Antioch, which is shorter than only Rome

Diagonally through the center of the city, from the north-east gate to the south-west, ran a magnificent street decorated with four rows of columns (“stoa tetrastichos”) 3 km long. Across this, another street, from the mountainside to the islet, divided the city ​​in the four major districts. Both of these streets, built by the successor of the Roman Emperor Augustus, Tiberius, were “supportive” (roofed) and “decent” with occasional “four gates”, decorated with bronze works and statues.

Many and varied monuments were erected by almost all the rulers of the Seleucids, many Romans and even Byzantine Emperors who were based in this city.

The world fame of Antioch also contributed to its beautiful suburbs, among them Platamoun (or Platanos – not related to the one towards Laodicea), on the road to Cilicia. Near this suburb, Justinian renovated an old road into a large carriageway by making mountain slopes, – “and all over the place they were embarrassed” (Procopius – About buildings).

Its population reached 500,000 inhabitants early on. Many Jews settled as early as Seleucus I, who gave them equal rights with the Greeks. And thus the rapid spread of Christianity is explained. However, the dominant element in both administration and social life were the Greeks.

Mosaic of EROS=ΕΡΩΣ standing on the WINGS OF TWO PSYCHES(=ΨΥΧΗ=SOUL) and whipping them on in Hatay Archaeology Museum

GREEK mosaic made from marble, limestone and glass terrerae depicting the Judgement of Paris from Greek mythology, wich of course was based on the HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR BETWEEN ACHAEANS-DANAAENS AGAINST THE GREEKS OF TROY..

Paris, the prince of TROY, has to decide which of the three goddesses HERA, ATHENA or APHRODITE is the prettiest. He chose APHRODITE, who promised him that he would marry the MOST beautiful mortal woman, who was Helen of Sparta. PARIS received Helen to join him in Troy, which sparked the Trojan War as the ACHAEANS fought to get her back.

The mosaic above was found in the Atrium House in Antioch-on-the-Orontes in modern-day Turkey. It is currently on display at the Louvre in Paris, room 25 Denon.

A detail from a fragmentaryby ARISTOMENES, ATHENIAN sculptor marble relief depicting the Judgement of Paris, one of the preliminaries in the Trojan War story. Paris wears his typical oriental cap and on the left is his companion, the shepherdess Oenone, who holds a SYRINX=ΣΥΡΙΓΞ(=PANPIPES). Early 2nd century CE. (Palazzo Altemps, Rome)

THE GOLDEN MASK OF AGAMEMNON, THE KING OF MYCENAE: THE MASK OF AGAMEMNON IS AN ARTIFACT DISCOVERED IN MYCENAE IN 1876 BY THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGISTS HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN.
THIS MASK IS MADE OF GOLD AND IS A FUNERAL MASK FOUND OVER THE FACE OF A DEAD BODY IN A BURIAL PLACE AT MYCENAE. SCHLIEMANN THOUGHT, THAT THE BODY AND THE MASK ARE OF THE LEGENDARY KING AGAMEMNON.
THIS MASK IS CRAFTED OUT OF PURE GOLD AND SUCH MASKS WERE PUT ON THE FACE OF DECEASED KINGS AND ROYAL PEOPLE.

AGAMEMNON WAS THE SON OF KING ATREUS OF MYCENAE AND QUEEN AEROPE. HE WAS THE LEADER OF THE ACHAEANS-DANAOI OF WEST GREEKS DURING THE CIVIL WAR WITH TRIADES (TROJANS), AS MYCENAE WAS THE MOST POWERFUL WEST GREEK TOWN AT THAT TIME. HE WAS ALSO THE BROTHER OF MEN ELAUS AND THE HUSBAND OF CLYTEMNESTRA. AGAMEMNON HAD THREE DAUGHTERS AND ONE SON . – (ONE OF HIS DAUGHTERS, IPHIGENIA, WAS THE PROTAGONIST IN EURIPIDES PLAY-DRAMA). WHEN AGAMEMNON RETURNED TO HIS KINGDOM, AFTER THE END OF THE TROJAN WAR, HE WAS MURDERED BY HIS WIFE CLYTEMNESTRA AND HER LOVER AEGISTHUS.

THE AUTENTICITY OVER THIS MASK REMAIN TILL TODAY. THIS GOLDEN EXHIBIT IS CURRENTLY ON DISPLAY AT THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM IN ATHENS. IN SPITE OF ALL THE DOUBTS, THIS DISTINGUISHED MASK OF GOLD, WHICH IS ABOUT 12 INCHES IN HEIGHT IS STILL KNOWN, AS THE MASK OF AGAMEMNON AND IS ONE OF THE MOST PRIZED DISCOVERIES FROM THE ANCIENT MYCENAEAN AGES

The Golden Larnax (Chrysi Larnaka)( (greek – Χρυσή Λάρναξ) (with the Panhellenic Sun on the lid) that contains the remains (bones) from the burial of King Philippos II of Macedonia and the royal golden wreath (greek- χρυσό διάδημα) . Formerly located at the Thessaloniki’s Archaeological Museum, Thessaloniki Greece, now displayed at the underground museum stage of Verghina, inside the Great Tumulu

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION /
FEMALE BURIALS, APPEAR TO BELONG TO PRIESTESSES.
THEIR GOLD REGALIA USUALLY INCLUDES HEADDRESSES, SOME QUITE TALL, AS WELL, AS SPANGLES EMBOSSED WITH GODDESSES, ANIMALS, SYMBOLS AND RITUAL SCENES AND MOTIVES FROM THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY HELLENIC (=GREEK) MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY.
DATED FROM THE GREEK COLONIZATION OF THE BLACK SEA REGION.
“THIS GOLDEN KALATHOS (A SHAPE FAVORED IN GREEK ART) WAS FOUND IN ONE OF THREE TOMBS IN THE MASSIVE MOUND BOLSHAYA BLIZNITSA (15m TALL) ITS INTERIOR WAS BUILT WITH STONE VAULTING. IT LIES NEAR A WEALTHY TRADING CENTER ON THE TAMAN PENINSULA, ACROSS THE KERCH STRAIGHT FROM CRIMEA. 

S

GOLD EARRING WITH GARNETS AND MERMAID.

CLASSICAL HELLENIC(BEFORE “HELLENISTIC”) PERIOD 4th/3rd century BC

CHRISTIE’s.

wanted to show this jewel for its beauty and originality as well as for the refined manufacturing technique.

I hope you appreciate it

ORECCHINO IN ORO CON GRANATI E SIRENA.

Periodo elleninico IV/III secolo a.c.

Christie’s.

Ho voluto mostrare questo gioiello per la sua bellezza ed originalità nonché per la raffinata tecnica di lavorazione.

Spero che apprezziate.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/THRACE/.

THRACIAN WREATH IN GOLD 420 BC PROPABLY BELONGNING TO AN ARISTOCRAT

National Archaeological Museum of Bulgaria.

MAGNA GRAECIA/ GODDESS NIKH=”NIKE”=VICTORIA
“ΚΡΕΙΘΩΝΙΟΣ
ΗΘΗΚΗ TON
ΕΤΗΦΑΝΟΝ”(ancient Greek) = KRITONIOS DEDICATED this CROWN/GOLDEN WREATH From the 4th century
Staatlichen Antikensammlunge

By: Antonio Esposito Marroccella. Gold earrings with clover and amphora pendants decorated with filigree and granulation – late 4th century BC – h 0.07 m – Benaki Museum of Greek Civilization, Athens, Greece
Art images from museumsOrecchini in oro con trifoglio e pendenti ad anfora decorati con filigrana e granulazione – fine del IV secolo a.C. – h 0,07 m – Benaki Museum of Greek Civilization, Atene, Grecia
Immagini d’arte dai musei 

By: Marika Monica Bianco.

GOLDEN CUPS OF VAPHIO=ΒΑΦΕΙΟ OR VAFIO(ITALIANIZED)=
DYEING WORKSHOP
FROM THE TOMB OF THE PRINCE OF VAPHIO, LOCATED AT THE ANCIENT SITE OF LACONIA, GREECE, ABOUT 8–9 km SOUTH OF SPARTA. IN THE THÒLOS TOMB EXCAVATED IN 1886 , WHICH CONTAINED THE REMAINS OF THE PRINCE, OF WHICH NOT MUCH REMAINS, AS WELL AS THE FUNERARY OBJECTS BURIED WITH HIM, THE TWO FAMOUS GOLD CUPS WERE ALSO FOUND: ONE WITH RELIEF REPRESENTATIONS OF THE DOMESTICATION OF A BULL AND BULLS. THE CUPS DATE BACK TO THE MID -15th CENTURY BC AND ARE PRESERVED IN the6 NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS.

Tazze auree di Vaphio/Βαφειό o Vafio (italianizzato) della tomba del principe di Vaphio, situata nel antico sito della Laconia, Grecia, a circa 8–9 km a sud di Sparta. Nella tomba a thòlos scavata nel 1889, che conteneva le spoglie del principe, di cui non rimane molto, così come degli oggetti funerari sepolti insieme a lui, sono rinvenute anche le due famose tazze in oro : una con raffigurazioni in rilievo dell’addomesticazione di un toro e di tori. Le tazze risalgono alla metà del XV sec a.C e sono conservate nel Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Atene

ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΊΑ = GREECE
ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΊΑ = ΕΛΛΆΣ.

GOLD DIADEM FROM THE WELL KNOWN ANCIENT GREEK: “KNOT OF HERCULES”

MACEDONIA, 3rd-2nd BC CENTURY Walters Art Museum.

ILIAD: THE MYTHICAL HORSE HYMN TO TECHNOLOGY HEPHAESTUS BUILT FOR ACHILLES…..

“He puts the earth, he puts the sea, he puts the heavens above, he puts the tireless sun, the bright moon, and all the stars, as they crown the sky…” Homer wrote in his 134 verses in the Iliad, about Achilles’ mythical shield.

A shield work of art, one of the most impressive objects of ancient history. The legendary creation built by Hephaestus, hides major and minor symbolisms.

The “Shield of Achilles” is the shield used by Achilles to fight Hector, and is described in Homer’s Iliad. In the epic, Achilles has lost his armor after lending it to his companion, Patroclus. Patroclus has been killed in battle by Hector, who has taken his weapons as booty. Achilles’ mother, Thetis, asks the god Hephaestus to forge a new suit of armor for her son.

The passage describing the shield is an early example of the “expression” (a literary description of a work of visual art) and influenced many later poems, including the Shield of Hercules, attributed to Hesiod.

.

Homer gives a detailed description of the images adorning the new shield, the work of Hephaestus. Starting from the center of the shield it moves outwards, from circle to circle, and the shield is described as follows:

The earth, the sky and sea, the sun, the moon and the constellations.

“Two beautiful cities full of people”: in one, a wedding and a trial take place, while the other is besieged by two armies, where the shield shows an ambush and a battle.

A field being recultivated for the third time.

The property of a king, where his harvest is harvested.

A vineyard where people pick grapes.

A “herd of horned animals with straight horns.”

The bull in front has been attacked by a pair of wild lions and the shepherds with their dogs are trying to drive them away.

An image of a sheep farm.

A dance scene, where young men and women dance.

The great ocean current.

Achilles’ shield can be read in a variety of different ways. One interpretation is that the shield is simply a physical encapsulation of the whole world. The layers of the shield are a series of contrasts i.e. war and peace, work and celebration, although the depiction of a murder in the city at peace shows that man is never completely free of conflict.

Wolfgang Sandewald, a German writer, claims that these intersecting contrasts show the basic forms of a civilized and essentially orderly life.

This contrast, too, is seen as a way to make us “see war in relation to peace.” The description of the shield fades between the battle for Patroclus’ body and Achilles’ re-entry into battle, which is also one of the bloodiest parts of the epic.

Consequently, the shield could be translated as a “rest before an impending deluge”, used to emphasize the cruelty of the violence during the Trojan War. It could also be translated as a reminder to the reader of what will be lost if Troy finally falls.

By: Gioacchino Vella

Gold earring, 4th century BC
It depicts with excellent technique a group of two horsemen on a chariot while the upper part is decorated with a rosette.
This amazing gold artefact is one of many pieces of fine jewelry found in tombs in the COLCHIS region.
COLCHIS then had huge reserves of gold
National Museum of Agriculture

SEILINOS**(=ΣΕΛHΝΟΣ)
ON A WAGON WITH EROS = ΕΡΩΣ
AND PSYCHE = ΨΥΧΗ(= SOUL).
MATERIAL: GOLD & SARDONYX
DIMENSIONS: FRAME: 22.1 x 18.1 x 4.2 mm, WEIGHT. 5.3 g. STONE: 18.4 x 14.1 mm – 250 BC – RMO,

**SEILENOS** (SILENUS in Latin) WAS THE OLD RUSTIC GOD OF WINE-MAKING AND DRUNKENNESS.
HE WAS THE FOSTER-FATHER OF THE GOD DIONYSOS, WHO WAS ENTRUSTED TO HIS CARE BY HERMES AFTER HIS BIRTH FROM THE THIGH OF ZEUS. THE YOUNG GOD WAS RAISED BY SEILENOS AND NURSED BY THE NYSIAD NYMPHS IN A CAVE ON MOUNT NYSA.
https://www.theoi.com › Georgikos
SILENUS (Seilenos) – Greek God of Drunkenness & Wine

By: Олег Марголін.

«П’яний Сілен на колісниці з Еротами та Психеєю»
Матеріал: метал ; золото ; сардонікс.
Розміри: рамка: 22,1 х 18,1 х 4,2 мм, вага. 5,3 г. Камінь: 18,4 х 14,1 мм – 25-0 рр. до н – RMO, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden.

CYBELE with her chariot drawn by two lions for a votive sacrifice and above the HELIOS=ΗΛΙΟΣ=SUN GOD, the SELENE=ΣΕΛΗΝΗ = MOON and the SIXTEENTH of VERGINA.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/IONIA(“ASIA MINOR”)/ZEVGMA/MOTIVES FROM THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY.
Zeugma Mosaic Museum, in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey, is the biggest mosaic museum in the world, containing 1700 m2 of mosaics. It opened to the public on 9 September 2011. The 30,000 m2 (320,000 sq ft) museum features 2,448 m2 (26,350 sq ft) of mosaic and replaces the Bardo National Museum in Tunis as the world’s largest mosaic museum.

Dionysos riding on a panther. Floor mosaic. Ca. 120—80 BC. Delos, House of the Masks.

MAGNA GRAECIA The mosaic of ALEXANDER the GREAT that adorned the Faun’s mansion in POMPEII. NATIONAL ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, NAPOLI.

ANTIOPE AND SATYROS = ΑΝΤΙΟΠΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΑΤΥΡΟΣ/MOTIVES FROM THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY/IONIA/”MINOR ASIA”/ TODAY’S TURKEY… 

DIONYSOS
ORIGINALLY DIONYSOS WAS THE GREEK GOD OF FERTILITY. DIONYSOS WAS THE SON OF THE SUPREME GOD ZEUS AND SEMELE, THE DAUGHTER OF A KING
WHY IS DIONYSOS CALLED BACCHUS?
HE WAS ALSO KNOWN AS BACCHOS (/ˈbækəs/ or /ˈbɑːkəs/; ANCIENT GREEK: ΒΆΚΧΟΣ BACCHOS) BY THE GREEKS (A NAME LATER ADOPTED BY THE ROMANS) FOR A frenzy HE IS SAID TO INDUCE CALLED BACCHEIADIONYSOS
ORIGINALLY DIONYSOS WAS THE GREEK GOD OF FERTILITY. DIONYSOS WAS THE SON OF THE SUPREME GOD ZEUS AND SEMELE, THE DAUGHTER OF A KING
WHY IS DIONYSOS CALLED BACCHUS?
HE WAS ALSO KNOWN AS BACCHOS (/ˈbækəs/ or /ˈbɑːkəs/; ANCIENT GREEK: ΒΆΚΧΟΣ BACCHOS) BY THE GREEKS (A NAME LATER ADOPTED BY THE ROMANS) FOR A frenzy HE IS SAID TO INDUCE CALLED BACCHEIA 

APOLLO AND DAPHNE

M O R E Z E V G M A = Ζ Ε Υ Γ Μ Α = “BRIDGE OR CROSSING”

Three ancient Greek mosaics (2nd Century BC) unearthed by Turkish archaeologists in Gaziantep/Zeugma (ancient greek city ΖΕΥΓΜΑ), near the border with Syria Zeugma served as one of most important trading centers of Eastern Roman Empire. Situated in South-eastern Turkey, Zeugma, literally “bridge” or “crossing” in ancient Greek, owes its name to the fact that it was located at the major ancient crossing point on the river Euphrates. The ancient term Zeugma actually referred to the twin cities on the opposing banks of the river. They were Hellenistic settlements established by commander Seleucus Nicator around 300 BCE.

THE FIRST BATH OF ACHILLEUS” / HOUSE OF THESEUS/ KATO-PAPHOS ARCHELOGICAL PARK, CYPRUS ….ON THE LEFT OF THE MOSAIC IS THETIS = ΘΕΤΙΣ (THE MOTHER OF ACHILEUS).

PS: READ THE INSCRIPTIONS (IN…GREEK OF COURSE..NOT..WHAT..EVER..)

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/PHILIPOUPOLIS/MOSAICS FROM THE GREEK MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY/HERE: HERAKLES, YPPOLITE etc..

P. S: CHECK UP, THE INCRPTIONS PLEASE(!!)

,,,,,THEN: YOU KNOW ..WHO`s WHO IN THE ZOO..MEANING WHO IS THE CREATOR & WHO’s THE CREATURE!😆

CLASSICAL GREEK MOSAICS/DELOS 230 BC

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/GEOMETRICAL MOSAIC/ FOLLOWING THE CLASSICAL GREEK PRINCIPLES / IDENTICAL CORINTHIAN ORDER OF THE COLUMNS/HELLENISTIC-ROMAN(LATER) PERIOD/MAROCCO/VOLUBILIS

H E L L E N I C C I V I L I Z A T I O N

***************************Z E V G M A****************************

From Ancient Greek ζεῦγμα (zeûgma, “yoking; a bond, a band”), from ζεύγνυμι (zeúgnumi, “to yoke; to join”), from ζεῦγος (zeûgos, “a yoke”) “Zeugma,”, ” It forms all or part of: adjoin; adjust; conjoin; conjugal; conjugate; conjugation; conjunct; …Zevgma has been a part of the English language since the 15th century,

The ancient Greek mosaics of Zeugma in Turkey are true archaeological treasures that can still be admired at the Zeugma Mosaic Museum in Gaziantep, Turkey.

The 30,000-square-meter (320,000 square foot) museum, which opened its doors in September of 2011 is the largest mosaic museum in the world, containing 1,700 square meters (18,000 square feet) of ancient works of art.

M OT I V E S FROM THE G R E E K M Y T H A G O G Y – C O S M O L O G Y

THE MUSEUMS HELLENIC MOSAICS ARE FOCUSED ON ZEUGMA, WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUNDED, AS SELEUCIA BY SELEUCOS I NICATOR, FOUNDER OF THE SELEUCID KINGDOM after serving as a military officer in the army of ALEXANDER the GREAT.
The treasures, including the mosaics, remained relatively unknown until 2000 when artifacts appeared in museums and when plans for new dams on the EUPHRATES meant that much of ZEUGMA would be flooded. In 2011, many of the mosaics remain covered, and teams of researchers continue to work on the project.

ZEUS TRANSFORMED, INTO A BULL IS PORTRRAYED STEALING THE GODDESS EUROPA

ACRATOS AND EUPHROSYNE

ANDROMEDA WITH PERSEUS, WHO IS HOLDING THE HEAD OF MEDUSA.

ZEUS IN THE FORM OF SARYROS TRYING TO SEDUSE ANTIOPE

zeus

DAEDALOS AND ICAROS MOSAICS WITH MINOANS WIFE PASIPHAE – ZEVGMA MOSAIC MUSEUM/ IONIA (=”ASIA MINOR” OR “ANATOLIA”)

However, some of the mosaics appear to belong to the Roman era, as they depict Greek GODS AND GODDESSES. IN ADDITION THE MOSAICS deviate from purely HELLENIC STYLE AND IMAGERY, with archaeologists placing them in the Roman era of the city’s history.

Queen Pasiphae, wife of King Minos, (left) orders the court architect Daedalus (center) to make her a wooden cow so that she may have sex with the white bull, with whom she has fallen hopelessly in love through divine intervention. That’s where the Minotaur is born! Icarus right, Ariadne and a servant in the middle. Under Pasiphae’s chair symbolically the white bull with Eros

A Π Ο Λ Λ Ω Ν
A P O L L O was the leader of the MUSES
Initially these deities were nymphs of the mountain and the waters.
HESIOD in THEOGONY narrates:
MNIMOSYNE slept in PIERIA with KRONO’s son ZEUS
and gave birth to these virgins
that make us forget our sufferings
and alleviate our pain.
Nine nights in a row by the wise ZEUS
going up to his sacred bed,
slept next to the MNEMOSYNE,
away from all the immortals.
Muses are the source of inspiration
for every mental activity

and in many places they were worshiped with special honors,
while there is an ORPHIC HYMN of the MUSES.
PLATO in his ACADEMY
had an altar dedicated to the MUSES,
while HOMEROS invokes MUSA CALLIOPE
as his source of inspiration,
when writing his epics.
The same is found in the works of Hesiod,
but also to all the great creators of antiquity. It has not remained until today,
the term muse is used frequently
to show that someone inspires an artist,
a creator ……….

.

KLEIO AND EUTERPE

In linguistic approach, Europe’s name is descriptive in origin. Those who look to the ancient Greek language to parse it roots combine eurys, meaning “wide,” and ops, meaning “face” or “eye,” to arrive at “wide-gazing” as an appropriate description of Europe’s broad shoreline as seen from the shipboard perspective of the maritime Greeks. By extension, they believe this phrase connotes “mainland.” Adventurous travelers who got closer to the northern lands reported the existence of mountain systems and river basins that were much larger than those of the Mediterranean region, along with climates that were very different from those the Greeks

Princess Europa and Zeus, in the shape of a white bull! The Princess got attracted by this beautiful bull and climbed on his back. Zeus jumped in the sea to bring her to Crete. Europa, in GREEK MYTHOLOGY, the daughter either of PHOENIX or AGENOR king of THE AUTHENTIC HELLENIC PHOENICIA., BEFORE PHOENICIA BECAME SEMITIC TheBEAUTY of EUROPA inspired the love of ZEUS, who approached her in the form of a WHITE bull and carried her away from PHOENICIA to CRETE. There she bore Zeus three sons: MINOS, ruler of Crete; Rhadamanthys, ruler of the Cyclades Islands; and, according to some legends, SARPEDON ruler of LYCIA. Zeus loved Europa so much that he showered her with three priceless gifts. The first one was a bronze man, Talos, who served as a guard to her. He was the bronze giant that the Argonauts met and killed in their attempt to shore on Crete. The second was a dog, Laelaps, which could hunt anything she wanted. The last one was a javelin that had the power to hit the target, whatever it was.

She later married ASTERIOS, the king of Crete, who adopted her sons, and she was worshipped under the name of HELLOTIS in CRETE, where the festival HELLOTIA was held in her honour.

It is said that when Europa died, Zeus transformed her into a star complex and he himself took again the shape of the white bull to merge in the complex. The Taurus Constellation is believed to be the form of Zeus. Today the name Europa has been given to one of Jupiter’s 16 moons and in fact this moon is very special, as it is believed to have water on its surface.

EUROPA being abducted by ZEUS disguised as a bull, Europa being abducted by Zeus disguised as a bull, detail from AN IDENTICAL ATTICA krater, 5th century; in the Tarquinia National Museum, Italy.(less)Courtesy of the Museo Nazionale Tarquiniense, Tarquinia, Italy; photograph, Hirmer Fotoarchiv, Munich P.S: ATTICA IS THE PREFECTURE WHERE ATHENS IS

MAGNA GRAECIA //POMPEI

Sappho (/ˈsæf/Attic Greek Σαπφώ[sapːʰɔ̌ː]Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω, Psappho[psápːʰɔː]) was a Greek lyric poet, born on the island of Lesbos. TheAlexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. Her birth was sometime between 630 and 612 BCE, and it is said that she died around 570 BCE, but little is known for certain about her life. The bulk of her poetry, which was well-known and greatly admired through much ofantiquity,has been lost; however, her immense reputation has endured through surviving fragments.

Sappho’s recently discovered poem on old age (lines 9–20), assigned to Book IV based on its meter. 3rd-century BC papyrus (P.Köln XI 429), from a 2007 exhibit of the Altes Museum

SAPFO ON A FRESCO OF POMPEI

Sappho on an Attiac red-figure vase by the Brygos Painter, c. 470 BC.

Sappho reading to her companions on an Attic vase of c. 435 BC


George Redarion

The year was 479 BC the United Greeks fought against the invaders from Persia.A few months after the victory of the battle of Plataea, the Greeks created a monument from the swords of fallen Persians (the serpent column, now rests in Constantinople) and carved on the column the names of the every Greek city which participated in the war.

You can see Cleary historical evidence, enjoy my Slavic friends.

THE GREEK ORIGIN OF ORPHEUS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE
https://enneaetifotos.blogspot.com/2024/01/e.html?m=1
Orpheus is a huge chapter in what we call Greek tradition. Proclus mentions that “after all the Greek theology of the Orphic Mystagogia is an offspring”. And as we will surely know, the entire edifice of Greek culture is founded on Greek worship. And this is nothing but the way of seeing life, nature and everything. That is, Greek theology. From there derive all the high and timeless values, which the Christian frenzy either copied or perverted and condemned.
Next is that the propaganda of Christian circles, which is irritated by anything Greek, would attempt to distort and obscure the Orpheus story. To confuse with intent to cause confusion. So things are not simple and superficial. The reasons are much deeper, and only if one penetrates the essence of Hellenism and Judeo-Christianity will he be able to understand why some try to present him as a “barbarian”. Because in doing so, they are trying to support a series of fallacies.
In short, whatever the Greeks achieved was not theirs but foreign. As for the myths related to this supreme spiritual entity, which they pervert precisely because they do not understand them, thus even reaching what the ancients called “insults”, it will not be discussed here. What we will attempt is to present all those elements that negate the fallacies of the followers of the Jewish schismatic group called Christianity.
The alleged barbaric origin of Orpheus is attempted to be based on the nickname “Thrace”. We say “Orpheus the Thracian”. Thrace, at that time, extended over a much wider area than today, inhabited by many barbarian peoples, including Greek races. The deception lies in the fact that they stick to this name, without giving more information, information that solves the issue once and for all and that is present in the sources. Of course, their whole enterprise is aided by the distortion of texts and meanings which they impart to their ignorant readers.
Origin of Orpheus
Let’s see some information about Thrace, from the old geographical dictionary of N. Lorentis…
In the most ancient times, the boundaries and extent of this country were vaguely defined; according to Homer, the entire extended country of Europe beyond Thessaly is understood under this name, on which the poet mentions as the same parts the Pierian, the Imathian and the Paionian, inhabited under the Peons and Kikons. And Herodotus includes among the nations of Thrace the Getae and Dacas; according to Strabo, Scylacus and Pliny, Thrace extended from the Istron River to the Strymons; and in the past Thrace was inhabited by many individual peoples, having the same customs and laws changing to each other.So when the ancients speak of “Thrace”, they are referring to a much wider area than we understand today. In this region there were many peoples (tribes). Some barbaric and others Greek, as we will see later.
We are very happy to have ancient texts that give us information about both the exact birthplace of Orpheus, his origin, and his place of action. Let’s start from the “Argonauts” of Orpheus. More specifically, it states at the end of the project:
Where did you rush to the snow-covered Thrace, Livythron is the place, I am the homeland of the earth; andron I entered the periklito, where I became a mother of great readers Oiagroios.
Levithra is the fatherland of Orpheus. These belong to Thrace (as they were called then) and are located at the foot of Mount Olympus. Olympus is located on the borders of Thessaly and Macedonia (as they are called today).
Sweida’s dictionary states:
Orpheus, of Levithra in Thrace (a city not under Pieria), son of Oiagros and Calliope; and Oiagros the fifth was from Atlas, according to Alcyone, one of his daughters. It happened generations before the Trojans.
Information is becoming more and more specific. Levithra is in Pieria. In the “Geographical” dictionary of N. Lorentis, it is mentioned about Pieria that it is “a province of today’s Macedonia located on the border of Thessaly near Mount Olympus, according to Strabo forming the coast between the Aliakmonos river and the Axios, and in ancient times it belonged to the Thrace; Orpheus was descended from this country” (p. 446).
The grammarian and poet Ioannis Tzetzis (12th century), in the work “Lykofron”, mentions that Orpheus lived around Helikon and Levithra. The name “Leivithron” means “reithron, oheton, krunon and place in Macedonia and according to Helikon” (Hesychius, “Glossai”). Today the area is called “Kanalia”, and it means the same thing. That is, a place where water flows and which has many ravines and springs.
In the Argonauts of Orpheus it is mentioned: “Pierien Levithron ta’ akra karina”.
Pausanias in “Boiotics” (L΄7-9), writes that Orpheus was buried in Dion “and the country of Macedonia is under Mount Pierian” and that his bones are there. In the years when Pausanias wrote (around the 2nd AD century), Pieria was said to belong to Macedonia, just as we say today. In fact, “there is also a river of Helikon”, which reaches “as far as Olympus”, passing through Levithra, “the fourth mountain in Macedonia”, and where “the tomb of Orpheus is at the mouth of the city”. That is, Levithra is not far from Dion, where the tomb of Orpheus is located. For the existence of the monument of Orpheus in Dion, Diogenes Laertius also speaks in the “Lives of the Philosophers”.
In the Argonautics of Apollonius of Rhodes, it is mentioned:
Let’s first remember Orpheus, the one who, according to tradition, gave birth to him in Thrace, on top of Pimplida, as Calliope united with Oiagros. [..] the famous Orpheus, the lord of Bistonian Pieria.
Here, we have the name of the mountain where Orpheus was born.
In Orpheus’ Argonautica, Jason addresses Orpheus:
Orpheus, Calliope and Oiagro, friend of the barber, Vistonii Kikonessi polyrheniosin ansans, rejoice in Aemonius the first able vessel, Strymonias you flow, Rhodope the proud to help.
(f. 77 et seq.)
The information we get from this verse of the Argonauts of Orpheus tells us that Oiagros reigned in Vistonia among the people of the Cykons. The Kikones were “an ancient nation of Thrace, living along the coast from Ismaros to the Lisos river opposite the island of Samothrace” (Geographical dictionary N. Lorenti, p. 267). In the same book it is stated that “on its shores, official Greek colonies were established since ancient times” (p. 208).
Homer mentions about the Kikones (who sided with the Trojans): “With the sword fighters the Kikones went, Euphimus, of the well-nourished Keadis from Troizena” (Iliad, rhapsody II).
As Konstantinides’ Homeric dictionary explains, “Troizenos, son of Keus, father of Euphimos” (p. 637).
The genealogical line passes from Keas (Keadis) to Troizenos and from there to Ephimos who leads the Kicones. Kicon was the son of Apollo and the nymph Rhodes (or Rhodope). It is obvious that the names are Greek, and are in use even in our modern times!
An additional proof for the Greekness of Orpheus is his Doric origin. This is what the poet Moschos (2nd century BC) tells us in the “Epitaph of Bion”, where he writes: “lost Dorios Orpheus”.
Finally, it should be mentioned that “Hellanicus and Damascus and Pherecydes in Orpheus are the relatives of Homer” (Proclus, Life of Homer 26.14). This information is also useful. So Orpheus is an ancestor of Homer!
Possible etymologies of his name
Even from the etymology of the name “Orpheus”, one can understand the Greekness of the name. Below are some possible etymologies.
A. Orpheus: from “orfni”, which means “the darkness of the night”/ “on the darkness of Hades, of the Underworld” (D. Dimitrakos, vol. I’, p. 5244).
The same thing is mentioned in the dictionary of Lidel and Scott (ed. A. Konstantinidis):
“chthonos orfni, on the underworld, i.e. of Aidos”/”The root of orfni, orfnos, orpheus is erefo: Erebus”. (vol. A, p. 361). Indeed, the myth links Orpheus to Hades, as he descended into it to bring Eurydice to the upper world. But it can also be connected to the ancient mysteries which were incomprehensible to the uninitiated. After all, Hades means that which cannot be seen with the physical eyes.
B. Orpheus: from the root “orf” which indicates that someone is deprived of something. Hence the word “orphan”. Some argue that he can be considered metaphorically “orphaned” since he was deprived of his wife.
C. Orpheus: from “Or” and “faos”, which means bright speech. The word “oros” means (and) “reason” (oros esti logos delian peion esti, according to Galen), and the word “phaos” means light.
Dating
The issue of dating – as far as the figures of mythology are concerned – is difficult already from the years of Diodorus Siculus. He writes:
I am not unaware that those who compose ancient mythologies happen to have great difficulty in writing. Because due to its antiquity, the relevant material is difficult to find, the writers are in a very difficult position, while at the same time, as its chronological placement is not amenable to precise control, it makes the readers despise the historical ones. Moreover, the variety and multitude of heroes, demigods, and other men to be descended make the narrative almost impossible. But the biggest and most outrageous obstacle of all is that those who recorded the most ancient facts and mythologies do not agree with each other.
(Historical Library, Book D΄, 1.1)
However, the position of our story is this…
We, however, since we have an opposite opinion from them, suffered the trouble of the relevant inscription and took care in every way to expose the ancient myths. For many and great deeds were performed by the heroes and demigods and many other great men, whom, for the benefits they rendered to all men, posterity honored some with isotheisms and others with heroic sacrifices, while all their history glorified to the ages with the praises due to them.
(p. 1.4)
Diomedes

https://www.pare-dose.net/8027

Η EΛΛΗΝΙΚΉ ΚΑΤΑΓΩΓΉ ΤΟΥ ΟΡΦΈΩΣ ΚΑΙ Η ΣΗΜΑΣΊΑ ΤΗΣ
https://enneaetifotos.blogspot.com/2024/01/e.html?m=1

By: George Pelechras.

WHEN THE MARBLE IS BLOOMING!!!

AKROTIRI FROM THE TEMENOS(SACRED PLACE OR TEMPLE DEDICATED TO A CERTAIN GOD OR HERO)

OF THE GREAT GODS.

SAMOTHRACE 4th century BC.

The crime has been committed centuries ago and continues to be committed in the GREEK LOGOS (”SPEECH-LANGUAGE) in all its parts, VOICES (PROSODY), MEANINGS (criterion and hegemon), THINGS, LETTERS. They mean, signified and proclaim, proclaimed…. The noun without a participle of time, like the verb, i.e. the subject and accusative form the sentence as phases. They are important voices, they express meaning in conflict and decide either as a decision or as a decision or if something is true or false. So the important voices belong to a Genus….Who will teach us Ancient Greek, when we are left with only this nonsense FAKE of Greek? the ANTHHELLENIC philologists??. we are all friends of reason and wisdom and man naturally hungers for knowledge. They should be called Grammarians, (although Grammar is useful in poetry and writing which is the beginning of Epistemology and by extension Philosophy), as very aptly in Antiquity. Who will teach us…

CHRISTOS SINOS (R I P)

Attic sarcophagus that shows a Homeric battle!

*********2- B-CONTINUED**********************************************************************

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T P O I A = “T R O Y”

Trojan (alias Ilion), euphoriatric & vergina sun, Megas Alexandros alias “Alexander” the Great, Ionia, Ephesus, What the Vergina Sun symbolizes , Greek Gods & symbols, Historical facts vs. “History Chanel”, “Axess” BBC, Pseudohistorians-“Scholars” etc.. & Nikandros

Trojan (alias Ilion) Historical facts vs. “Acces”, Pseudohistorians-“Scholars” etc..

http://www.hellinon.net/NeesSelides/Trojan War.htm

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Av2goqtc530/TKDQhukkWYI/AAAAAAAAEfI/x8gJjzKAIec/s1600/troy-epic-story.jpg

All Fine Arts(:Sculpture, Architecture,  Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics,   Language-etymology, ,(as a clue to analyze words & improve real historical facts),Literature(=λογοτεχνία) and finally MYTHOLOGY, wich is COSMOLOGY, as well, contaning ALL the above…THAT`s HOW The Ancient HELLENIQUE(Greek) Language was CREATED: INTERRELATEDwith,(as said above): All Fine Arts(:Sculpture, Architecture,  Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics,   Language-etymology(it`s the Key to analyze words & improve real historical facts), Literaure(=λογοτεχνία= the art of logos= speech and word), as: HOLISTIC and COMPLETE ONE!

So when parts of History, Mythology,  Language etc, are stolen, copied, ortwisted …..THEN ..Anyone with the basic intelligence, can obviously see that in faked stolen Historical facts, there`s NOT any RELATIONSHIP or CONTINUITY, What EVER are arguing by media, or pseudohistorians, “scholars” etc, due to strategical, economical, profits, inferiority complex etc!  ..For example!:(The speech and clear confession of Alexander the Great(Alexandros o Megas) to both Athenians and Persians:

Firstly we intend to examine the ancient evidence on the way the Ancient Macedonians were defining themselves in reference to their own identity. Concerning their own beliefs about themselves we shall review the available evidence coming from the ancient sources, both Literary and Archaeological.

A. The Literary Evidence

The first available evidence comes from the

Macedonian king Alexander during his speech to Atheneans. Essentially we have a clear confession that Alexander considers himself a Greek.
-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘

Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander I
was proud of his Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:
Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of
the Macedonians (“anêr Hellên – Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably

(explaining the Arithmollogical, Mathematical, Architecnical, Astronomical, Poetical, Philosophical, Mythological and Rythmical -Musical INTERCONNECTION & CONTINUITY, of the HELLENIQUE Language, as ONE  HOLISTIC COMPLETE..thus The MYTHE that certain words are …Semitic or Phoenician(!!!) is NOT valid because there`s not  – what so ever –  any conection or ANY CONTINUITY Between the above, as a whole at all!…

The Great Necropolis of Ancient Portus – Necropoli di Porto, Comune di Fiumicino, Lazio, Italy
The floor mosaic outside Tomb 43 is likely a reference to the trade of the dead man, presumably a ship-owner, but the Greek words (“This is a place free of fear”) could give another, more metaphysical meaning to it. In that case the lighthouse of Portus would represent the reaching of peace at the end of life, a sort of “Rest in Peace”
A great number of the inscriptions on the tombs suggest Graeco-Oriental origin. Scholars believe this is because Portus and Ostica were a cosmopolitan towns where the bourgeois population was full of businessmen of non-Italian birth. Latin, however, was the language that most townspeople used during the time that the necropolis was built. Nonetheless, the presence of Graeco-Oriental inscriptions, along with Isola Sacra tombs that resembled Hellenistic tombs of Petra, suggests Roman naturalization of foreign influence, which was prominent in the Empire

The theater of Ephesus

2,300-year-old iconic Ephesus Theatre reopens for visitors | Daily Sabah

The theatre is cut into the west slope of Mount Pion upon which the Acropolis was located. Hellenistic theatres are generally built on a natural slope of a hill in order to benefit from the gradient of the hill. The best example is the Acropolis Theatre of Pergamum which was constructed in the 3rd century BC, almost at the same time with the Ephesus Theatre. The excavations of the Great Theatre reveal that it was first constructed about 250 B.C, during the reign of Lysimachos. During the Roman period, it was enlarged and formed its current style that is seen today.

Ephesus was laid upon a grid system such as any other Hellenistic ancient city. According to this layout, major public buildings are located along the principal streets. One of the major streets of Ephesus, Arcadian runs between where the Harbor and the Great Theatre. 

The temple of Artemis was in Ephesus of today’s Turkey. Called Artemision and was built in 440 BC Considered one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Noteworthy is the fact that it took 120 years to be completed and was originally started by the king of Lydia, Kroisos. Pausanias says that the cult of Artemis of Ephesus was founded by natives of Asia Minor. Today the remnants not resemble anything in the magnificent temple there.The Temple was built of Pentelian marble(fromthe mountain of the best marble quality in Attica county, where Athens is lying) and limestone materials carried by ship over from neighboring Penteli. Somewhere 120 marble columns supporting the main part of the church. Each column had a height of 20 meters. Huge boulders were transported there with pulleys and connected with metal pins. After the completion of the roof decorated artists building with wonderful carved scenes. In the middle of the temple was a marble statue of Artemis. The temple was one of the greatest of the classical world, much larger than the Parthenon in Athens was built later. The base of the foundation had length 131 meters and width 79 meters.

The only restored columns that exists today. But still more glorious ruins of the city, a theater, a library, baths and many other public buildings.

IROSTRATOS AND ALEXANDER
Two hundred years later, in 356 BC The temple was destroyed by fire. Fire someone put the Irostratos, who wanted in this way to become famous(!).

By coincidence, the day of the destruction of the temple, Alexander the Great was born. Later, Alexander visited Ephesus and gave the order to build the temple again in the same position.

THE FINAL DESTRUCTION
The temple of Alexander survived until the 3rd AD century. With the passage of time the mud engulfed the port of Ephesus and the city ended up insignificant! The Goths then ransacked the temple and floods completed the destruction Today what remains of the temple in Ephesus are few boulders foundations and restored only one column!

The temple of Artemis (Diana in Latin), as it should have been 600 BC It had 120 columns of marble and were decorated with beautiful sculptures.
Croesus was the last king of Lydia, a region of Asia Minor. It was known for its many riches. 560 BC commanded to build a magnificent temple in Ephesus.

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus – Drive Thru History®

THE ENORMOUS PERISTYLE, WHICH FORMED FOUR GREAT PORTICOES AROUND THE COURTYARD, CONSISTED OF 60DORIC COLUMNS. IN THE ROUND CHAMBER WHICH HEUZEY NAMED THE ‘THOLOS’ TO THE EAST OF THE PROPYLON, A DEDICATORY WAS FOUND. THE 5 ROOMS ON THE SOUTH SIDE HAD MOSAIC FLOORS, ONE OF WHICH – EXECUTED IN PEBBLES – SURVIVES IN EXCELLENT CONDITION. YOU CAN SEE ONE THE GREEK KEY PATTERN SURROUNDING THE MOSAIC FLOOR.FINALLY, THE MOST IMPORTANT ARCHAEOLOGICAL FOUND THAT COMBINE GREEK KEY/MEANDER AND VERGINA SUN/STAR IS THE IVORY SHIELD THAT WAS FOUND IN PIECES IN PHILIP´S TOMB AT VERGINA ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE. THE ARDUOUS PROCESS OF RESTORATION TOOK SEVERAL YEARS – IT IS INDEED A UNIQUE MASTERPIECE OF THE 4TH CENTURY B.C. YOU CAN SEE CLEARLY THESE PAN–HELLENIC SYMBOLS IN THE PICTURE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE ARTICLE.REFERENCES1- TIMES OF REMEDIES AND MOON PHASES BY C. M. BOGER, PAGE 1322- SALLY HUTCHISON CEELY-GEOMETRIC STYLE IN ART, WISCONSIN ACADEMY OJ SCIENCES, ARTS AND LEITERS,VOL. 71, PART 2, 1983, PAGE 33- .THE WAY OF THE LABYRINTH BY HELEN CURRY, PAGES 21-235- “VERGINA SUN” OR THE “RAYS OF THE SUN GOD” ?

“HELLENISM, THE HISTORICAL COURSE OF 4000 YEARS, CREATED HUGE MULTINATIONAL EMPIRES (MULTINATIONALS, BUT NEVER MULTICULTURAL, AS STATED BY THE GREAT GREEK BYZANTINIST HELEN GLYKATZI-AHRWEILER), VAST KINGDOMS, HAD TRADE RELATIONS WITH DOZENS OF PEOPLES AND COUNTRIES, BUT OFTEN SUFFERED BARBARIAN INVASIONS AND PEOPLES CONQUERED WHOLLY OR PARTLY BY FOREIGN ARMIES AND DISPLACED PARTS OF THE ETERNAL GREEK TERRITORIES.

THE RESULT OF ALL THESE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS, DURING THE BYZANTINE TIME SOME GREEK POPULATIONS TO SPEAK DIFFERNT OTHER LANGUAGES, AS SOME ASIA MINOR (TURKISH-SPEAKING GREEKS) TO SPEAK LATIN, (VLACH-SPEAKING GREEKS), TO SPEAK SLAVIC (SLAV-SPEAKING GREEKS) TO SPEAK ALBANIC(ARVANITOFONOI GREEKS), OR ITALIAN (THE GREKANOI OF MAGNA GRECIA IN SOUTHERN ITALY).

THE PERSIANS REFERRED TO THE MACEDONIANS AS “YAUNÃ TAKABARA” (“GREEKS WITH HATS THAT LOOK LIKE SHIELDS”).

THEREFORE, THE FACT THAT SOME SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION OF MACEDONIA HAD FORMERLY THE SOLE LANGUAGE OF A BODY SLAVOGENES IDIOM, NOT A CAPABLE AND SUFFICIENT CRITERION FOR THE ATTEMPTED IN THE PAST AND ATTEMPTED TODAY BY FOREIGN CENTERS PLACING THEM OUTSIDE THE GREEK NATION …

“AS ALEXANDER COMES FROM ALEX AND THE MAN, SO THE AKESANDROS NAME COMES FROM AKESIS * AKESIOS (THERAPY, THERAPEUTIC -DUE THANKS GOD APOLLO , WHO ALSO WAS CALLED AKESIOS, AS WELL BECAHE USE CURE DISEASES) AND THE MAN. WHAT FOLLOWS FROM THIS? QUITE SIMPLY, THAT THE USURPATION OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND PHILIP AND THE NAME OF MACEDONIA SINCE OUR AMIABLE NEIGHBORS LEADS TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THE PARANOIA OF “MACEDONISM” AND NATIONALIST OF LIRIMATON NOT SO NEED AN ALEXANDER, BUT A AKESANDROU, TO SUBMIT IN THE TREATMENT OF LEARNING HISTORY. THESE ARE NOT, FROM GREEK SIDE, WITH ALL THE FRIENDLINESS EMANATING FROM THE ETYMOLOGICAL ORIGIN OF AN ANCIENT FILIONA …
* FROM THE VERB AKEOMAI() = TREAT COMES THE WELL-KNOWN AND IN THE LANGUAGE OF LEGAL MEDICAL TERM “ANIKESTOS” (FAILURE) THAT IS INCURABLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argead_dynasty

LANGUAGES
ANCIENT MACEDONIAN,THEN ATTIC GREEK, AND LATER KOINE GREEK
RELIGION
GREEK POLYTHEISM

ALEXANDER THE GREAT – ”Medallion” East of the Empire, Beroia (provincial capital of Macedonia, the Heart of Greece), 3rd century A.D., Gold, Diam. 54 mm; 96.3 g
Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa

The obverse shows the diademed head of Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC). This posthumous and idealized portrait includes symbols of Alexander’s deification, one of which is the ram’s horn, characteristic of the Egyptian god Amon. This iconography derives from the type of coin introduced by one of Alexander’s immediate successors, King Lysimachos of Thrace (297-281 BC).

The reverse shows a hunting scene, with the hunter’s spear piercing a wild boar that is being attacked by two dogs. The legend “King Alexander”, which appears to the left and above, identifies the hunter.

The “medallion” is part of a treasure including twenty similar pieces found in Aboukir, Egypt, in 1902. The designation “medallion” is purely a matter of convention based on the piece’s morphology and size, as the use given to such pieces cannot be definitively established.

ANCIENT DION (GENETIVUS OF ZEUS 3TH DECLINATION) WAS A CENTRE OF THE WORSHIP OF ZEUS AND THE MOST IMPORTANT SPIRITUAL SANCTUARY OF THE ANCIENT MACEDONIANS.

What symbolizes the Vergina Sun?

THE VERGINA SUN (OTHERWISE “STAR OF VERGINA”) IS A SYMBOL WIDELY USED BY THE ANCIENT GREEKS. ALTHOUGH THE SUN OF VERGINA IS A SYMBOL OF PAN, BECAME FAMOUS BECAUSE OF THE MACEDONIANS, WHO USE IT AS A SYMBOL OF THE DYNASTY ARGEAD THE KINGDOM OF MACEDONIA.

THE TYPICAL VERGINA SUN, CONSISTS OF 16 RAYS. WE CAN ALSO SEE HIM WITH 12 OR EVEN EIGHT RAYS OF THE SUN. THE SUN WITH SIXTEEN RAYS REPRESENTS THE FOLLOWING: THE FOUR RAYS REPRESENT THE FOUR ELEMENTS OF NATURE, LAND – SEA – FIRE – AIR AND THE REMAINING 12 RAYS REPRESENT THE 12 GODS OF OLYMPUS.

THE VERGINA SUN, THE PROPERTY REPRESENTS SOMETHING VIRGIN. THIS IS WHY WE USUALLY SEE IS THE ANCIENT GREEK SYMBOL, THE VIRGIN GODDESS ATHENA. BUT IN SEVERAL OTHER CASES, IT CAN IDENTIFY AND APOLLO

THE VERGINA SUN WAS A COMMON SYMBOL OF ANCIENT GREECE AND IS FOUND IN COINS, POTTERY, MURALS AND STATUES, LONG BEFORE THE MACEDONIAN KINGDOM AND THE DYNASTY SLOW.

DEKAEXASTEROI AND OCHTASTEROI SUNS PRESENTED IN MACEDONIAN AND HELLENISTIC COINS AND SHIELDS PERIOD. THERE IS ALSO NUMBER OF ATHENS ILLUSTRATION SOLDIERS CARRY A SIXTEEN IDENTICAL SYMBOL ON THEIR ARMOR, FROM THE 6TH CENTURY, AS WELL AS COINS FROM THE ISLAND TO THE MAINLAND GREECE, AS IN CORFU, 5TH FINDING CENTURY, LOCRIS, 4TH BC CENTURY.

AFTER THE UNION OF THE GREEKS UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, THE VERGINA SUN WAS THE MAIN SYMBOL OF GREEK ETHNOGENNESIS.

THE SYMBOL OF THE SUN OF VERGINA WAS ONE OF THE SYMBOLS OF ANCIENT GREECE, LONG BEFORE THE RISE OF THE GREEK KINGDOM OF MACEDONIA. DOZENS OF COINS, ETC. POTS BEARING THE SYMBOL FOUND IN MANY PARTS OF GREECE, OUTSIDE OF MACEDONIA.

http://ancient-medieval-macedonian-history.blogspot.com/2008/12/vergina-sun-or-rays-of-sun-god.

 Vergina Sun, a Pan-Hellenic Symbol [http://ancient-medieval-macedonian-history.blogspot.com/2008/07/vergina-suna-pan-hellenic-symbol.html]7- Macedonia,

http://ancient-medieval-macedonian-history.blogspot.com/info@macedonian.com.auAustralian Macedonian Advisory Council

Macedonian stater featuringAlexander the Great and the goddess Athena on the obverse.

The Vergina Sun – OLD PANHELLENIC Symbol –  has been proposed as a symbol of ancient Macedonia or of the Argead dynasty by archeologists.

The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.

ALEXANDER the GREAT letter to the Persian King Darious:

“Your ancestors, having campaigned in Macedonia and the rest of Greece, they hurt us while they had wronged me previously; because became leader of the Greeks and because I want to punish the Persians I spent in Asia, because you made the beginning (injustice) . Because you helped them Perinthians who unjustly wronged my father, and in Thrace, who we dominated the Ochus sent power.
And when my father was murdered by the conspirators, that you set up,as you  boasted, that  you killed Arsi with the help of Vagoou and seized power, nor equitable nor according to Persian law but beeing unfair to your own Persians and sending in my guilt to the other Greeks hostile letters to fight me, and sending money to the Spartans and some other Greeks who were from other cities sometimes not accepted while the Spartans took them, and when your envoys corrupted my friends, and the peace that succeeded the Greeks attempted to disperse, campaigned against you, because you have done the principle of hatred.

And I defeated in battle your first generals and your princes and now you and your powers and possess my country given to me by the gods, those of them who helped you and not been killed in battle, but fled to me, all these I am taking care of and they are with me not unwittingly but aware and conciously will join my campaing  against you.

And because I’m dominating the whole of Asia, come near me. And if you are afraid lest, after you come, you suffer something bad from me, send some of their friends to get sworn assurances. Once you come to me, ask and get your mother and wife and children and everything else you want.

For what would persuade me, you shall have. And from now on, when you address me, can you address regarding equal, but if you need something, do not you address me as dominant all thy “otherwise I will think about you as wrong. But if you have a different view of the kingdom, Stay and Fight for her and do not go, because I will come against you, wherever you are. “
(Arrian, Alexander Annavasis, 2-14,)

THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS OF EPHESUS WERE MADE BY THE IONIANS IN THE 11TH CENTURY BC, WHEN ANDROCLES (FROM ATHENS), ESTABLISHED A COASTAL TOWN WHICH WAS LOCATED 1.5 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM ARTEMIS’S TEMPLE. ACCORDING TO LEGEND, HE HAD BEEN ADVISED TO ESTABLISH A CITY AT THE PLACE WHICH WOULD BE SHOWN TO HIM BY A FISH AND A BOAR. DURING ANDROCLES’S REIGN, EPHESUS BECAME A MEMBER OF THE IONIAN LEAGUE AND HIS DESCENDANTS RULED THE CITY FOR A LONG PERIOD. AS YEARS PASSED, EPHESUS GREW TO A PROSPEROUS CITY AND IT WAS TURNED TO A TRADE AND BANKING CENTRE THUS RULED BY RICH MERCHANTS. THIS ATTRACTED THE INTEREST OF THE KING OF LYDIA, KROISOS, WITH WHOM EPHESUS HAD ALREADY COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. LYDIANS CONQUERED EPHESUS AND MADE THE HABITANTS TO THE INLAND CLOSE TO THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS. THE LYDIANS RULED EPHESUS UNTIL THE PERSIAN WARS WHEN THE PERSIANS TOOK IT OVER. HOWEVER, ALEXANDER THE GREAT SET THE CITY FREE IN 334 BC AND AFTER HIS DEATH IT WAS RULED BY LYSIMACHUS, A DESCENDANT OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

HTTP://ANCIENT-MEDIEVAL-MACEDONIAN-HISTORY

http://ancient-medieval-macedonian-history.blogspot.se/2008/07/vergina-suna-pan-hellenic-symbol.html

http://ancient-medieval-macedonian-history.blogspot.se/2008/12/vergina-sun-or-rays-of-sun-god.html

http://macedonia-evidence.org/obama-letter.html

Artemis

Artemis was mainly known as the goddess of hunting. She was born by Leto and Zeus. Apollowas her twin brother. According to the myth, Zeus had desired to lay with his cousin Leto. After their coupling, Leto was pregnant but Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus, had punished her by prohibiting any place of the earth, seen by the sun, accepting her giving birth to her child.

After long wanderings, Leto resorted to her sister Asteria, who had become a floating rock in order to avoind Zeus’s pursuing. Asteria, anchored in the bottom of the sea and accepted her sister who initially gave birth to Artemis and the goddess helped her mother to give birth to Apollo too. Once born, Artemis was said to be the embodiment of the moon and Apollo the embodiment of the sun.

Artemis is also known as the mood goddess as well and it was said that the silver belonged to her and that Artemis owned a silver chariot  which she used to ride at night shooting arrows of silver light.

Artemis had decided to stay unmarried and preferred to live in the forests accompanied by young girls called dryads.  Known as the Lady of the Wild, the wild animals were sacred to her and she punished the people who killed more than that they could eat.

Contrary to the Athenian Artemis who was a virgin, Artemis of Ephesus was considered to be the Great Mother and a sculpture depicts her with many breast signifying that she was the mother of the life.

The Romans used to name the goddess Diana instead of Artemis.

The Ionians named that goddess “Artemis” and when the Lydian king Croesus invaded the city, the temple, which was surrounded by walls and a wooden statue devoted to Artemis had been placed in it, was destroyed by a flood.  Croesus started constructing the new  stone temple at the same position and adorned it with columns, in the 7th century BC.

Artemis Temple (also known – many centuries later – ,as the Temple of Diana) was included among the Seven Wonders of the World. It was 115 m long and 55 m wide. Its construction lasted 120 years and its architectural order was Ionic Dipteros with double column-rows on each long and triple column-rows along the wide sides. The Temple of Artemis consisted of 127 columns with a diameter of 1.20 m and 19 m tall.

Temple of Artemis

(Recostraction)

AS THE CITY WAS LOCATED BY THE RIVER KAYSTROS (NOWADAYS KNOWN AS KUCUK MENDERES RIVER) WHICH CUT OFF THE OUTLET TO THE SEA WITH ALLUVIAL SAND, IT CREATED A MARSHY EARTH WHICH IN TURN CREATED AN UNHEALTHY ENVIRONMENT FOR THE POPULATION OF EPHESUS. LYSIMACHUS DECIDED TO TRANSFER THE CITY TO THE VALLEY SITUATED BETWEEN THE MOUNTAINS KORESSOS AND PION (NOWADAYS KNOWN AS BULBUL ANDPAYIR). HE ALSO FORTIFIED THE CITY WITH A WALL 9 KM LONG. HE NAMED THE NEW CITY AFTER HIS WIFE,ARSINOE. THE CITY GREW AGAIN IN A RICH TRADE CENTRE AND SEVERAL PUBLIC BUILDINGS SUCH AS STADIUMS, GYMNASIUMS, THEATRES ETC WERE ERECTED IN IT.

AFTER LYSIMACHUS’S DEATH, THE CITY WAS RULED BY THE EGYPTIANS AND THE SYRIANS AND IT WAS CONQUERED BY THE ROMANS IN 190 BC. EPHESUS WAS RULED BY THE ROMANS INDIRECTLY, THROUGHPERGAMUM AND STARTED BLOOMING DURING THE AUGUSTAN EMPIRE ERA. IT BECAME THE CAPITAL OF THE ASIAN PROVINCE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND IT GREW TO THE MOST IMPORTANT TRADING CENTRE OF MINOR ASIA, INHABITED BY 250,000 PEOPLE. MOST OF THE MONUMENTS, THAT HAVE SURVIVED NOWADAYS, DATE PACK TO THE PROSPEROUS PERIOD.

THE GOTHS INVADED THE CITY IN 263 AD AND THEY DESTROYED BOTH THE CITY AND THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS. EPHESUS DECLINED SINCE THEN AND EVEN THOUGH IT WAS REBUILT, IT NEVER REGAINED ITS OLD SPLENDOR.

DURING THE BYZANTINE ERA, EPHESUS WAS A VERY IMPORTANT CITY (5TH-6TH CENTURIES AD). A BIG PART OF THE CITY WAS REBUILT BY CONSTANTINE I. IN 614 AD THE CITY WAS DESTROYED AGAIN DUE TO AN EARTHQUAKE. CONTINUOUSLY, THE HARBOR OF THE CITY TURNED TO A MARSHY ARE ONCE PREVENTING THE INHABITANTS FROM ACCESSING THE SEA AND CARRY ON THEIR TRADING ACTIVITIES. THE HARBOR DECLINE AND THE ARABIC INVASIONS MADE THE POPULATION TO MOVE TOWARDS A HILL WHERE THEY WOULD BE PROTECTED. AS THEY HAD NO MORE A CONNECTION WITH THE SEA, THE CITY DECLINED AND IT WAS TURNED TO A SMALL VILLAGE, OCCUPIED BY THE TURKS IN 1390.

FINALLY, THE CITY WAS ABANDONED DURING THE 15TH CENTURY AS THERE WAS NO POSSIBILITY TO REGAIN ITS PAST FLOURISHING.

 

 

Hellenic scripts of what is remaining now from Ilion or Troja now days..

Danaoi and Achaoi  (named the troups of both Doric, Ionic, Aiolic,& Achaic in dialect kingdoms – Troja and Ephesos Ionic dialect, Pergamos & Alicarnassos: Doric), who made the campaing against Troja – meaning war between Greeks..The Athenians (in Attica county,- Ionic Dialect), Spartans, Mychenians(Agamemnon), Achileus ,- the leader of Myrmidons & the Idol of Alexander the Great, 900 years later, Ajax(Aias) – king of Salamis, son of Isione, sister of Priamos of Troja – against his own uncle(!!). This war was not of course for the beautiful Helenas eyes sake..as always the Greek Mythology (and the Hellenic religion, as well  does are based on HISTORIC facts & thus creating an ultimate pedagogical & philosophical-poetical era) dramatises in epical manners all these facts….if since some thousand years later has been grotesquely copied, and named…as …the “Old Testament”…….

The cult of Apollo emblem is phoenix in Troy. The

Troy (or Ilion), is the city-theater of the Trojan war, part of which is described in Homer’s Iliad. An ancient epic, the 9th or 8th BC century. (Iliad means “epic of Ilion”).

The beginning of the story of the Trojans mixes with myths and legends. According to Greek mythology, the Trojans were ancient people of the city of Troy in the region of Troas, in the country of Phrygia, in the land of Asia Minor. Troy was known for its riches, which won by the port trade with east and west, the beautiful clothes, iron production, and massive defensive walls. The royal family of Troy goes back to Electra and Zeus, parents of Dardanus. Electra nursed the Dardanus in the palace on the island of Samothrace. The king named the Trojans he eats people and the country Troas, from his name. The Ilos founded the city of Ilion attaching to his name. Zeus gave LiCl the Palladium. Poseidon and Apollo built the walls and fortifications around Troy for Laomedon, son of the younger group. When Laomedon refused to pay, Poseidon flooded the country and demanded the sacrifice of Isioni a sea monster. Eneskypse horse and sea monster snatched the people of the plain.

A generation before the Trojan War, Heracles captured Troy and killed Laomedon and his sons, except for young Priam. Priam later became king. During his reign, the Mycenaean Greeks invaded and captured Troy during the Trojan War. Both Trojan and the Mycenaean civilization destroyed. The Trojans Aeneas, Brutus, and Elymos escaped destruction and were founders Alva Long (neighboring city of Rome), Britain, and Elymos, a country of Sicily. The Maxyanoi was a tribe in western Libya claimed to be descendants of the Trojans, according to Herodotus. The Trojan ships metaforfothikan to Naiades, who rejoices to see the shipwreck of Odysseus.

The Iliad and The TROIKOS CYCLE
The Homer (Iliad) is one of the Homeric epics and preserved until nowadays. The composition, which according to tradition was made by Homer, placed in the 8th century BC and based on tradition oral composition and recitation of heroic poems that had developed in previous centuries. The poem, which describes some events of the tenth and final year of the siege of Troy (Ilion) by the Achaeans, written in hexameter and has 15.692 verses. Some time after creation, during the Hellenistic period, was divided into 24 rhapsodies (capital) and small changes came in this form nowadays. Each of the rhapsodies indicated by a capital letter of the Greek alphabet, while the rhapsodies of the Odyssey with a small.
The Homeric epics with the Orphic is the oldest surviving texts of ancient Greek literature in ancient Greece was considered the most important works, and used in education. As the main theme of rhapsodists, their recitation was a key part of Greek religious festivals.

The events of the Trojan War which tells the Iliad happening in tenth year of the war and unfolding in about 51 days. Top of the poem is the wrath, the wrath of Achilles, after a dispute with Agamemnon for the distribution of the spoils of the battles, leading to the withdrawal of Achilles by warfare. In the Iliad include events following the departure of Achilles and the successes of the Trojans, the entrance of Patroclus in the war with the armor of Achilles, the death of Patroclus, the return of Achilles in the battle for revenge, the death of Hector and the desecration Achillea.Telos from the tradition of the dead the Trojans Hector for burial. The episodes that have preceded ten years of war and the history of war, included in the Cypria, and the events after the burial of Hector until the fall of Troy contained in subsequent projects the Trojan cycle, Negress, Little Iliad, Ilion persita.

Case and Structure of the Iliad
The disagreement Achilles and Agamemnon and the rage of Achilles
On the first day of action, the Trojan Chrysis, priest of Apollo and father of Cressida, captive of Agamemnon, came to the camp of the Achaeans and called for the release of his daughter. But Agamemnon was adamant and challenging brutally priest, who prayed to Apollo to avenge this unacceptable behavior (hubris). Apollo responded and punished with ruinous plague the Achaean army. After nine days of illness, convened meeting of the army requested by the seer Calchas to reveal the cause of the anger of the gods. Agamemnon initially refuses to return the girl, intense wrangling with Achilles and finally persuaded to return as long to get to return one of the spoils of Achilles, the Briseis. Achilles is forced to retreat, but offended refuses to continue to fight and begs his mother, Thetis, to ask Zeus to enhance the Trojans in battle to punish the Achaeans. The meeting of Thetis with Gods delaying her son’s desire for twelve days, because Jupiter is absent in the country the Ethiopians.

 

The evolution of the competitions until the first embassy to Achilles
In the second rhapsody, Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon to stimulate attack of the Trojans, misleading information that the gods support Achaeans. Agamemnon calls a meeting after disagreements Achaeans prepared for battle. When the Trojans informed and they start the preparations. Such events inserted the list of opponents forces and Greek ships. The two armies decide to judge the outcome of the battle in a duel between Paris and Menelaus. Menelaus prevail, but Aphrodite rescues Paris. Opponents decide a truce, but the gods to Assembly decide to cause the violation by the Trojans to continue the war. The battles begin, stands out the presence of Diomedes injuring even the god Mars, the two sides have significant losses, but the Trojans are in a difficult position. Hector temporarily leave the battle to ask the Troades make supplication to Athena. When he returns, he duels with Ajax(Priamos of Troja was his uncle, Hisione was the syster of Priamos), but there is no winner. Hostilities stopped because it gets dark (that day covered the rhapsodies B through H) and decided truce for burying the dead, while the Achaeans strengthen the walling of the camp. In rhapsody I described another day battles, in which the Trojans prevail, and the next two the night following the battle in which the Achaeans asking unsuccessfully Achilles to return to war.

The onslaught of the Trojans
The Rhapsody Av begins with new battles. Although initially distinguished Agamemnon and repels the Trojans to their walls, the gods encourage Hector and since then injured many heads of Greeks (Agamemnon, Diomedes, the doctor Machaonas), the Trojans go, pushing the Achaeans in retreat and pull down the walls of their camp (rhapsodies L and M). On rhapsodies N-II continues the battle around the ships of the Achaeans, who are in dire straits. Then Patroclus persuaded Achilles to give him his arms and let him lead the army of Myrmidons to deceive the Trojans and curb their enthusiasm.

 

Excellence and death of Patroclus
The rhapsody II continues with the entrance of Patroclus into battle. Despite the advice of Achilles confine itself to remove the Trojans from the camp and do not hunt up the city, Patroclus fights and chases up the walls, where only the intervention of Apollo was able to repulse the attack of the Achaians. During conflicts Patroclus, on the enthusiasm approached several of the city walls, followed duel with Hector, who killed him with the help of Apollo. In Rhapsody P is the battle for the body of Patroclus, in which Menelaus distinguished. Eventually Ajax manages to dislodge the dead from the Trojans, but Hector holds his armor. Wearing the armor of Achilles, Hector tries again to get the body of Patroclus, without success. In Rhapsody S. Achilles mourns the death of his friend and decides to avenge him. Thetis asks Hephaestus to build new weapons and Rhapsody ends with the extensive description of the shield made.

The return of Achilles
In Rhapsody T Achilles receives new weapons and calls a meeting of the Achaeans. Reconciles with Agamemnon, since both admit they were driven to conflict by divine intervention, and returned Briseis, whom Agamemnon swears that he had touched. After the assembly Achilles mourns Patroclus departs for battle. In Rhapsody Y conflicts begin, involving and gods. Achilles duel with Aeneas, saved by Poseidon. Achilles fought with the river god Scamander and chased the Trojans to their walls (rhapsody F). The Trojans fled the city, except for Hector, who remained on the battlefield to confront Achilles (rhapsody X). Athena misled the promised help, but ultimately supported Achilles manages to kill him. Achilles refuses to hand over the Trojans Hector. Instead, they tie him to his chariot and drags. The Rhapsody ends with the lamentations of the family of Hector.


The tradition of Hector and burial
In the days after the death of Hector Achaeans completed the funeral rites for Patroclus, burned his body and organized competitions in honor of (rhapsody Y). The last rhapsody starts with twelve days desecration of the corpse of Hector by Achilles. The twelfth day the gods make meeting and send Thetis to persuade Achilles to deliver the dead and Iris motivate Priam begging Achilles. The evening the meeting of Priam to Achilles, who accept the ransom and return the dead and decided truce for the ceremony of burning. Here are ten days laments and preparations and eleventh day is burning and burial of Hector, in which the project ends.

 

http://www.hellinon.net/MacedonianEvidence.htm

The first step to destroy a nation is to delete the memory.

…….DESTROY HIS BOOKS, ITS CULTURE, TWISTING ITS HISTORY…….AFTER YOU PUT SOMEONE TO WRITE NEW BOOKS, MANUFACTURE A NEW CULTURE, INVENT A NEW STORY …IT WILL NOT NEED MUCH TIME TO START THIS NATION FORGETTING WHAT IS AND WHAT WAS. THE WORLD AROUND HIM WILL FORGET EVEN FASTER. 

Milan Kundera (The book of laughter and forgetting)
MOST POPULAR

Swastika just in Sanskrit means “That is well and is”. This symbol is Greek origin in ancient times referred to as “Double meander” or “Gammadion”. Not as swastika. Now theories k.Chitler for suns etc. I can not say because I need at least 1,000 pages to analyze. Used by Hittler when he visited a tribe of the Himalayas that had as its symbol the double meander and adopted as of them took in his words the same “Dreadful and strong knowledge.” Note that this tribe, although Buddhists consider today as spiritual fathers Greeks in particular Apollo (!)

 

 

Parts of the Phillip ivory shield that found in Vergina Tomb. You can see clearly the two Pan-Hellenic symbols: The 16th Sun/Star (Vergina Sun) and the Meander (Greek key). The shield itself can be found in the museum of Vergina in Central Macedonia, Greece. Greek Sun/Star or Vergina Sun/StarThere are many other symbols which use the rayed star (the ancient Greek symbol) across the centuries. The ancient Greek stars can contain 3-rays up to 24-rays, and all rays have many shapes, according to their inner meaning found in archaeological monuments. Many ancient archaeological findings exist today, such as ancient Greek coins, texts, icons, emblems, tituli, ostraca, fragments, epigrammata, papyrorum, tablettes, recensios, sculpures, vases, monuments etc. which make use of the ancient Greek rayed star symbol. 

 

VERGINA THE ULTIMATE PANHELLENIC SYMBOL OF THE SUN (APOLLO)

  Even Achilles (Alexander`s the Great Idol) has the rayed star on his armory – as well as many of the ancient Greek gods and goddesses.

ACHILLES WAS (900 YEARS LATER) THE IDOL OF ALEXANDER THE GREATAND AJAX (WHO WAS NEPHEW OF PRIAMOS! ASIONI – AJAX MOTHER WAS PRIAMOS SISTER).

HERE:  PLAYING DICE, 6TH CENT, BC AMPHORA THE SYMBOL IS THE CONTINUATION OF THE OLDEST ANCIENT GREEK(PANHELLENIC) SYMBOL OF THE SUN, WHICH ALSO PREDOMINATED ON THE ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS

 Acropolis ceiling

. 

  

 Inside the outer wall of columns of the Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee. This «Parthenon» is a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. It was built in 1897 as part of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition.The Sun was also the most important symbol of the origin and continuation of all Hellenes: Arcadians, Athenians, Thessalians, Macedonians – their first God, before the Olympian Gods. The choice of this symbol was obvious and natural: one of the most vital elements on earth is the Sun – the source of life.Many people call it “the Sun of Vergina” or the “Macedonian Star” but this is only a partial truth. This symbol has a history of more than three thousand years. It was the original logo or sign which the Proto-Hellenes used as their emblem for many centuries. The Macedonians simply continued the ancient Proto-Hellenic (Homeric) heritage or tradition of their forefathers. From the late 17th century AD, and in particular the 18th century, classical Greek civilization began to attract the ever-growing interest, curiosity and imagination of western Europeans. One manifestation of this was the numerous “journeys of discovery” undertaken by various scholars to the soil of “rediscovered Hellas” itself, which was then still part of the Ottoman Empire. Two such individuals were the young architects James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who in 1751 arrived in Attica and immediately set about accurately recording the architectural details of surviving buildings of classical Athens and its surroundings. The most known Rayed Star is the ancient Greek Macedonian symbol of Vergina. The “Vergina Sun”, “Star of Vergina” or “Argead Star” is the name given to a symbol of a stylised star or sun with sixteen rays. It was unearthed in 1977 during archaeological excavations in Vergina, in the northern Greek province of Macedonia. 

 The vergina star was found in the tombs of the kings of the ancient kingdom of Macedon, and was described as the symbol variously as a “star”, a “starburst” or as a “sunburst”. The well known larnax on which it appears belonged to Greek King Philip II of Macedon, the father of the Greek Alexander the Great III. The larnax is on display at the archaeological museum in Vergina. Another version of the Vergina Sun, with 12 rays, was found on the larnax of Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great. Only the Greeks can really understand the inner, esoteric, hidden ancient meaning of the vergina symbol and, in this movie a hint of it is presented.  The Macedonian Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles at Leucadia. The tomb is dated to ca. 200 B.C. The tomb was accidentally discovered in 1942 at Leucadia Emathias and subsequently excavated by Ch. Macaronas. The results of the investigation were published in a book by his collaborator, Stella Miller, in 1993.

 Depictions of Macedonian shields prove that their surface was decorated in relief. This is the case, for example, with the shields carved on the balustrade of the Alhena temple al Pergamon, where the central convex part of the shield was covered with concentric circles with patterns and an eight-ray star in the middle. One of two shields shown on the walls of the tomb of Lyson and Collides is decorated with a sixteen- raystar and similar shields occur on the walls of the Agios Athanasios tumulus (Thessaloniki) excavated in 1994 .

There is a surviving fragmentary Macedonian shield with a twelve-ray star in the centre and elements of an arch-shaped ornament and eight-ray stars around the edge ; a similarly designed silver circular applique with an eight-ray star in the middle and seven arch-shaped elements around the edge was found in tomb A at Derveni. Meander or Greek Key A Greek key pattern or meander, symbolizing the flow of a river, often is found in stylized form as a border decoration on rugs, ceramics, and walls. A meander is similar to the Chinese sign for “returning,” thus it is also a symbol of rebirth and eternity.

The speech and clear confession of Alexander the Great(Alexandros o Megas) to both Athenians and Persians

Firstly we intend to examine the ancient evidence on the way the Ancient Macedonians were defining themselves in reference to their own identity. Concerning their own beliefs about themselves we shall review the available evidence coming from the ancient sources, both Literary and Archaeological.
A. The Literary Evidence
The first available evidence comes from the
Macedonian king Alexander during his speech to Atheneans. Essentially we have a clear confession that Alexander considers himself a Greek.
-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘1

Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander I
was proud of his Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:
Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of
the Macedonians (“anêr Hellên – Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably… “

This plundered cist tomb, built of limestone and situated at the edge of the Great Tumulus next to the “Ηρώον”-‘heroon'(=”Heroes Garden”, was named Tomb of Persephone because of its painted ornamentation. Prominent among figures of the Fates (Μοιραι) and of Demeter(Δήμητρα) seated on the “mirthless rock” is a depiction of the abduction of Persephone by the god of the underworld, Pluto.

The artistry of execution, strength of conception and restraint of colouring all denote an artist of great talent (perhaps Nikomachos = Battle winner from: Niki+Machi..ex: Andromache of Troja – one of the Doughters of Priamos) of the mid-4th century BC; this dating is supported by the sherds of pottery found in the interior of the tomb.

Hades abducting Persephone, a mural from the Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, mid 4th century BC

DOUBLE CROSS MAIANDROS- AGKYLOTOS -SVASTIKA
THE SWASTIKA IS AN EXTREMELY POWERFUL SYMBOL. IT CAN BE WIDELY KNOWN BY THE NAZIS, WHO USED IT AS A SYMBOL OF THE PERIOD THAT MASSACRED THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE, BUT CENTURIES AGO HAD A POSITIVE SIGNIFICANCE. SO WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF THIS SYMBOL? NOWADAYS REPRESENTS GOOD OR BAD?
THE SWASTIKA IS AN ANCIENT SYMBOL THAT WAS USED FOR OVER 3000 YEARS. . BUILDERS SUCH AS POTTERY AND COINS FROM ANCIENT TROY (IONIAN GREEK CIVILIZATION), SHOW THAT THE SWASTIKA WAS A COMMON SYMBOL IN USE WAY BACK IN 1000 BC.

GAMMADION
ANCIENT GREEK SYMBOL OF THE SUN, THE GAMMADION OR TETRASKELION, HOLY TETRAKTYS, RIGHTLY OR SOVASTIKA, SWASTIKA.

THE CONTINUITY OF THE GREEK RACE, THE SPREAD OF THE GREEK RACE JUST AS THE RAYS OF THE LIGHT.

ILIOS- MOON -SELLAS – GREECE. IT IS MYSTICAL SACRED SYMBOL, ( KALOS IONOS-ΚΑΛΌΣ ΟΙΩΝΌΣ)=GOOD OMEN,  (EULOGIA-ΕΥΛΟΓΊΑ)=BLESSING,  (EUDEMONIA-ΕΥΔΑΙΜΟΝΊΑ)=BLISS, (ΜΑΚΡΟΖΩΊΑ-MACROZOIA)=LONGEVITY, (GONIMOTITA-ΓΟΝΙΜΌΤΗΤΑ)=FERTILITY, ,(ZOE & HYGEIA-ΖΩΉ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΊΑ)=LIFE AND HEALTH. .

JUST AS THE LIFE-GIVER SUN SUPPLIES THE EARTH.
 
IT CONNECTS THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE. THE ENTIRE GREEK WORLDVIEW, THE THEOGONY, KNOWLEDGE, BIRTH, EVOLUTION, TO INFINITY AND THE UNIVERSAL.
THE LACK AND EXCESS, THE CONNECTION OPPOSITES, AND YET THE SAME FORCES, EN-EXIST IN NATURE.

 About 900 B.C. a geometric rectilinear decorative style of triangles, chequers, and meanders began to dominate. These elements were organized in rows of separate bands, encircling the vase. During this period in geometric Greece, the meander became the dominating motif on the vases. From its origin in the Palaeolithic onward, the meander (a rectilinear geometric design) was symbolic of water, perhaps because of its resemblance to waves, lightening, and rivers. The meander was adapted, or perhaps reinvented, and made more complex by the vase painters of Athens. Rectilinear decorations of meanders, triangles, and rectangles, soon covered the vase, like a mesh or mosaic design becoming one with the vase itself. The shape of the vase was influenced by the design and became more sculptural and architectonic.Archaeologists have found what we have come to call the Greek key pattern on artifacts whose dates preceded ancient Greece by thousands of years. Anthropologist Marija Gimbutas found a meander pattern on a figurine in the Ukraine that dates from 18,000 to 15,000 BCE. Many believe the root of the labyrinth pattern derives from the shifting, twisting path of the Meander River of Phrygia in the Mediterranean region of present-day Turkey.One of the most important finds made during the Vergina excavations is the splendid Hellenistic Palace, which dates from the last 3rd of the 4th c. or the beginning of the 3rd c. BC.

MOSAIC ATLAS

www.mosaicatlas.com450 × 338Sök med bild

TITLE: MOSAIC OF CALLIOPE(ONE OF THE NINE MUSES; SEE: ABOVE:SURROUNDED BY SOCRATES AND THE SEVEN WISE MEN LOCATION: THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF BEIRUT DESCRIPTION: FROM BAALBEK, LEBANON, 3RD C. A.D. CALLIOPE IS IN THE MIDDLE AND ABOVE

Greek Art / Greek Mosaics and Murals

sasgreekart.pbworks.com449 × 480Sök med bild

THESE TWO MURALS SHOWN ARE PERFECT EXAMPLE OF THE USUAL DESIGN OF A USUAL MOSAIC AND AN INTRICATE DESIGN OF AN UNUSUAL MOSAIC. THE MOSAIC OF ALEXANDER THE …HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.SE/SEARCH?Q=ALEXANDER+THE+GREAT+MOSAIC&BIW

macedonia evidence

searching for historic truth

Letter to President Barack Obama

ancient-scholars@macedonia-evidence.org

http://macedonia-evidence.org/obama-letter-fyrom.html

May 18, 2009

THE HONORABLE BARACK OBAMA
PRESIDENT, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WHITE HOUSE
1600 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20500

DEAR PRESIDENT OBAMA,

            WE, THE UNDERSIGNED SCHOLARS OF GRAECO-ROMAN ANTIQUITY, RESPECTFULLY REQUEST THAT YOU INTERVENE TO CLEAN UP SOME OF THE HISTORICAL DEBRIS LEFT IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE BY THE PREVIOUS U.S. ADMINISTRATION.

            ON NOVEMBER 4, 2004, TWO DAYS AFTER THE RE-ELECTION OF PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH, HIS ADMINISTRATION UNILATERALLY RECOGNIZED THE “REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA.”  THIS ACTION NOT ONLY ABROGATED GEOGRAPHIC AND HISTORIC FACT, BUT IT ALSO HAS UNLEASHED A DANGEROUS EPIDEMIC OF HISTORICAL REVISIONISM, OF WHICH THE MOST OBVIOUS SYMPTOM IS THE MISAPPROPRIATION BY THE GOVERNMENT IN SKOPJE OF THE MOST FAMOUS OF MACEDONIANS, ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

            WE BELIEVE THAT THIS SILLINESS HAS GONE TOO FAR, AND THAT THE U.S.A. HAS NO BUSINESS IN SUPPORTING THE SUBVERSION OF HISTORY. LET US REVIEW FACTS.  (THE DOCUMENTATION FOR THESE FACTS [HERE IN BOLDFACE] CAN BE FOUND ATTACHED AND AT: HTTP://MACEDONIA-EVIDENCE.ORG/DOCUMENTATION.HTML)

            THE LAND IN QUESTION, WITH ITS MODERN CAPITAL AT SKOPJE, WAS CALLED PAIONIA IN ANTIQUITY.  MTS. BARNOUS AND ORBELOS (WHICH FORM TODAY THE NORTHERN LIMITS OF GREECE) PROVIDE A NATURAL BARRIER THAT SEPARATED, AND SEPARATES, MACEDONIA FROM ITS NORTHERN NEIGHBOR.   THE ONLY REAL CONNECTION IS ALONG THE AXIOS/VARDAR RIVER AND EVEN THIS VALLEY “DOES NOT FORM A LINE OF COMMUNICATION BECAUSE IT IS DIVIDED BY GORGES.”

            WHILE IT IS TRUE THAT THE PAIONIANS WERE SUBDUED BY PHILIP II, FATHER OF ALEXANDER, IN 358 B.C. THEY WERE NOT MACEDONIANS AND DID NOT LIVE IN MACEDONIA. LIKEWISE, FOR EXAMPLE, THE EGYPTIANS, WHO WERE SUBDUED BY ALEXANDER, MAY HAVE BEEN RULED BY MACEDONIANS, INCLUDING THE FAMOUS CLEOPATRA, BUT THEY WERE NEVER MACEDONIANS THEMSELVES, AND EGYPT WAS NEVER CALLED MACEDONIA.

            RATHER, MACEDONIA AND MACEDONIAN GREEKS HAVE BEEN LOCATED FOR AT LEAST 2,500 YEARS JUST WHERE THE MODERN GREEK PROVINCE OF MACEDONIA IS. EXACTLY THIS SAME RELATIONSHIP IS TRUE FOR ATTICA AND ATHENIAN GREEKS, ARGOS AND ARGIVE GREEKS, CORINTH AND CORINTHIAN GREEKS, ETC.

            WE DO NOT UNDERSTAND HOW THE MODERN INHABITANTS OF ANCIENT PAIONIA, WHO SPEAK SLAVIC – A LANGUAGE INTRODUCED INTO THE BALKANS ABOUT A MILLENNIUM AFTER THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER – CAN CLAIM HIM AS THEIR NATIONAL HERO.  ALEXANDER THE GREAT WAS THOROUGHLY AND INDISPUTABLY GREEK. HIS GREAT-GREAT-GREAT GRANDFATHER, ALEXANDER I, COMPETED IN THE OLYMPIC GAMES WHERE PARTICIPATION WAS LIMITED TO GREEKS.

            EVEN BEFORE ALEXANDER I, THE MACEDONIANS TRACED THEIR ANCESTRY TO ARGOS, AND MANY OF THEIR KINGS USED THE HEAD OF HERAKLES – THE QUINTESSENTIAL GREEK HERO – ON THEIR COINS.

EURIPIDES – WHO DIED AND WAS BURIED IN MACEDONIA– WROTE HIS PLAY ARCHELAOS IN HONOR OF THE GREAT-UNCLE OF ALEXANDER, AND IN GREEK.  WHILE IN MACEDONIA, EURIPIDES ALSO WROTE THE BACCHAI, AGAIN IN GREEK.  PRESUMABLY THE MACEDONIAN AUDIENCE COULD UNDERSTAND WHAT HE WROTE AND WHAT THEY HEARD.

            ALEXANDER’S FATHER, PHILIP, WON SEVERAL EQUESTRIAN VICTORIES AT OLYMPIA AND DELPHI, THE TWO MOST HELLENIC OF ALL THE SANCTUARIES IN ANCIENT GREECE WHERE NON-GREEKS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO COMPETE.  EVEN MORE SIGNIFICANTLY, PHILIP WAS APPOINTED TO CONDUCT THE PYTHIAN GAMES AT DELPHI IN 346 B.C.  IN OTHER WORDS, ALEXANDER THE GREAT’S FATHER AND HIS ANCESTORS WERE THOROUGHLY GREEK. GREEK WAS THE LANGUAGE USED BY DEMOSTHENES AND HIS DELEGATION FROM ATHENS WHEN THEY PAID VISITS TO PHILIP, ALSO IN 346 B.C.

ANOTHER NORTHERN GREEK, ARISTOTLE, WENT OFF TO STUDY FOR NEARLY 20 YEARS IN THE ACADEMY OF PLATO.  ARISTOTLE SUBSEQUENTLY RETURNED TO MACEDONIA AND BECAME THE TUTOR OF ALEXANDER III. THEY USED GREEK IN THEIR CLASSROOM WHICH CAN STILL BE SEEN NEAR NAOUSSA IN MACEDONIA.

            ALEXANDER CARRIED WITH HIM THROUGHOUT HIS CONQUESTS ARISTOTLE’S EDITION OF HOMER’S ILIAD.  ALEXANDER ALSO SPREAD GREEK LANGUAGE AND CULTURE THROUGHOUT HIS EMPIRE, FOUNDING CITIES AND ESTABLISHING CENTERS OF LEARNING.  HENCE INSCRIPTIONS CONCERNING SUCH TYPICAL GREEK INSTITUTIONS AS THE GYMNASIUM ARE FOUND AS FAR AWAY AS AFGHANISTAN.  THEY ARE ALL WRITTEN IN GREEK.

            THE QUESTIONS FOLLOW:  WHY WAS GREEK THE LINGUA FRANCA ALL OVER ALEXANDER’S EMPIRE IF HE WAS A “MACEDONIAN”?  WHY WAS THE NEW TESTAMENT, FOR EXAMPLE, WRITTEN IN GREEK?

            THE ANSWERS ARE CLEAR:  ALEXANDER THE GREAT WAS GREEK, NOT SLAVIC, AND SLAVS AND THEIR LANGUAGE WERE NOWHERE NEAR ALEXANDER OR HIS HOMELAND UNTIL 1000 YEARS LATER.  THIS BRINGS US BACK TO THE GEOGRAPHIC AREA KNOWN IN ANTIQUITY AS PAIONIA.  WHY WOULD THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE NOW CALL THEMSELVES MACEDONIANS AND THEIR LAND MACEDONIA?  WHY WOULD THEY ABDUCT A COMPLETELY GREEK FIGURE AND MAKE HIM THEIR NATIONAL HERO?

THE ANCIENT PAIONIANS MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE BEEN GREEK, BUT THEY CERTAINLY BECAME GREEKISH, AND THEY WERE NEVER SLAVS.  THEY WERE ALSO NOT MACEDONIANS.  ANCIENT PAIONIA WAS A PART OF THE MACEDONIAN EMPIRE.  SO WERE IONIA AND SYRIA AND PALESTINE AND EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA AND BABYLONIA AND BACTRIA AND MANY MORE.  THEY MAY THUS HAVE BECOME “MACEDONIAN” TEMPORARILY, BUT NONE WAS EVER “MACEDONIA”.  THE THEFT OF PHILIP AND ALEXANDER BY A LAND THAT WAS NEVER MACEDONIA CANNOT BE JUSTIFIED.

            THE TRADITIONS OF ANCIENT PAIONIA COULD BE ADOPTED BY THE CURRENT RESIDENTS OF THAT GEOGRAPHICAL AREA WITH CONSIDERABLE JUSTIFICATION. BUT THE EXTENSION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC TERM “MACEDONIA” TO COVER SOUTHERN YUGOSLAVIA CANNOT. EVEN IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY, THIS MISUSE IMPLIED UNHEALTHYTERRITORIAL ASPIRATIONS.

            THE SAME MOTIVATION IS TO BE SEEN IN SCHOOL MAPS THAT SHOW THE PSEUDO-GREATER MACEDONIA, STRETCHING FROM SKOPJE TO MT. OLYMPUS AND LABELED IN SLAVIC.   THE SAME MAP AND ITS CLAIMS ARE IN CALENDARS, BUMPER STICKERS, BANK NOTES, ETC., THAT HAVE BEEN CIRCULATING IN THE NEW STATE EVER SINCE IT DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE FROM YUGOSLAVIA IN 1991.  WHY WOULD A POOR LAND-LOCKED NEW STATE ATTEMPT SUCH HISTORICAL NONSENSE?  WHY WOULD IT BRAZENLY MOCK AND PROVOKE ITS NEIGHBOR?

            HOWEVER ONE MIGHT LIKE TO CHARACTERIZE SUCH BEHAVIOR, IT IS CLEARLY NOT A FORCE FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY, NOR FOR STABILITY IN THE BALKANS.  IT IS SAD THAT THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HAS ABETTED AND ENCOURAGED SUCH BEHAVIOR.

            WE CALL UPON YOU, MR. PRESIDENT, TO HELP – IN WHATEVER WAYS YOU DEEM APPROPRIATE – THE GOVERNMENT IN SKOPJE TO UNDERSTAND THAT IT CANNOT BUILD A NATIONAL IDENTITY AT THE EXPENSE OF HISTORIC TRUTH.  OUR COMMON INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY CANNOT SURVIVE WHEN HISTORY IS IGNORED, MUCH LESS WHEN HISTORY IS FABRICATED.

                                                                                   SINCERELY,

NAMETITLEINSTITUTION

ANAGNOSTIS P. AGELARAKIS, PROFESSOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY, ADELPHI UNIVERSITY (USA)

IOANNIS M. AKAMATIS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

JUNE W. ALLISON, PROFESSOR EMERITA, DEPARTMENT OF GREEK AND LATIN, THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

GEORGIOS ANAGNOSTOPOULOS, PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-SAN DIEGO (USA)

MARIANA ANAGNOSTOPOULOS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO (USA)

RONNIE ANCONA, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, HUNTER COLLEGE AND THE GRADUATE CENTER, CUNY (USA)

JOHN P. ANTON, DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND CULTURE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA (USA)

DR. NORMAN GEORGE ASHTON, SENIOR HONORARY RESEARCH FELLOW, THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (AUSTRALIA)

LUCIA ATHANASSAKI, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CRETE (GREECE)

EFFIE F. ATHANASSOPOULOS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ANTHROPOLOGY AND CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LINCOLN (USA)

HARRY C. AVERY, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH (USA)

DR. DIRK BACKENDORF. AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN UND DER LITERATUR MAINZ (GERMANY)

ELIZABETH C. BANKS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS (RET.), UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS (USA)

LEONIDAS BARGELIOTES, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS, PRESIDENT OF THE OLYMPIC CENTER FOR PHILOSOPHY AND CULTURE (GREECE)

ALICE BENCIVENNI, RICERCATORE DI STORIA GRECA, UNIVERSITÀ DI BOLOGNA (ITALY)

DAVID L. BERKEY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO (USA)

LUIGI BESCHI, PROFESSORE EMERITO DI ARCHEOLOGIA CLASSICA, UNIVERSITÀ DI FIRENZE (ITALY)

JOSINE H. BLOK, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION, UTRECHT UNIVERSITY (THE NETHERLANDS)

ALAN BOEGEHOLD, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, BROWN UNIVERSITY (USA)

EFROSYNI BOUTSIKAS, LECTURER OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF KENT (UK)

EWEN BOWIE, EMERITUS FELLOW, CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD (UK)

KEITH BRADLEY, ELI J. AND HELEN SHAHEEN PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, CONCURRENT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME (USA)

KOSTAS BURASELIS, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

STANLEY M. BURSTEIN, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES (USA)

FRANCIS CAIRNS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL LANGUAGES, THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

JOHN MCK. CAMP II, AGORA EXCAVATIONS AND PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ASCSA, ATHENS (GREECE)

DAVID A. CAMPBELL, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS. UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, B.C. (CANADA)

PAUL CARTLEDGE, A.G. LEVENTIS PROFESSOR OF GREEK CULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (UK)

PAAVO CASTREN, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI (FINLAND)

WILLIAM CAVANAGH, PROFESSOR OF AEGEAN PREHISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM (UK)

ANGELOS CHANIOTIS, PROFESSOR, SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOW, ALL SOULS COLLEGE, OXFORD (UK)

PAUL CHRISTESEN, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY, DARTMOUTH COLLEGE (USA)

JAMES J. CLAUSS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (USA)

ADA COHEN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ART HISTORY, DARTMOUTH COLLEGE (USA)

RANDALL M. COLAIZZI, LECTURER IN CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS-BOSTON (USA)

KATHLEEN M. COLEMAN, PROFESSOR OF LATIN, HARVARD UNIVERSITY (USA)

REV. DR. DEMETRIOS J CONSTANTELOS, CHARLES COOPER TOWNSEND PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT AND BYZANTINE HISTORY, EMERITUS; DISTINGUISHED RESEARCH SCHOLAR IN RESIDENCE AT THE RICHARD STOCKTON COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY (USA)

MICHAEL B. COSMOPOULOS, PH.D., PROFESSOR AND ENDOWED CHAIR IN GREEK ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ST. LOUIS (USA)

CAROLE L. CRUMLEY, PHD., PROFESSOR OF EUROPEAN ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL (USA)

KEVIN F. DALY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY (USA)

JOSEPH W. DAY, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, WABASH COLLEGE (USA)

FRANÇOIS DE CALLATAŸ, PROFESSOR OF MONETARY AND FINANCIAL HISTORY OF THE GREEK WORLD, ECOLE PRATIQUE DES HAUTES ETUDES (PARIS/SORBONNE) AND PROFESSOR OF FINANCIAL HISTORY OF THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD, UNIVERSITÉ LIBRE DE BRUXELLES (FRANCE AND BRUSSELS)

WOLFGANG DECKER, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF SPORT HISTORY, DEUTSCHE SPORTHOCHSCHULE, KÖLN (GERMANY)

LUC DEITZ, AUSSERPLANMÄSSGER PROFESSOR OF MEDIAEVAL AND RENAISSANCE LATIN, UNIVERSITY OF TRIER (GERMANY), AND CURATOR OF MANUSCRIPTS AND RARE BOOKS, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF LUXEMBOURG (LUXEMBOUR

CHARALAMBOS DENDRINOS, LECTURER IN BYZANTINE LITERATURE AND GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY, ACTING DIRECTOR, THE HELLENIC INSTITUTE, ROYAL HOLLOWAY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON (UK)

MICHAEL DEWAR, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA)

JOHN D. DILLERY, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA (USA

JOHN DILLON, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK, TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN (IRELAND)

SHEILA DILLON, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPTS. OF ART, ART HISTORY & VISUAL STUDIES AND CLASSICAL STUDIES, DUKE UNIVERSITY (USA)

MICHAEL D. DIXON, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN INDIANA (USA)

DOUGLAS DOMINGO-FORASTE, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH (USA)

MYRTO DRAGONA-MONACHOU, PROFESSOR EMERITA OF PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

STELLA DROUGOU, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

PIERRE DUCREY, PROFESSEUR HONORAIRE, UNIVERSITÉ DE LAUSANNE (SWITZERLAND)

JOHN DUFFY, PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF THE CLASSICS, HARVARD UNIVERSITY (USA)

ROGER DUNKLE, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS EMERITUS, BROOKLYN COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (USA)

MICHAEL M. EISMAN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ANCIENT HISTORY AND CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, TEMPLE UNIVERSITY (USA)

MOSTAFA EL-ABBADI, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF ALEXANDRIA (EGYPT)

R. MALCOLM ERRINGTON, PROFESSOR FÜR ALTE GESCHICHTE (EMERITUS) PHILIPPS-UNIVERSITÄT, MARBURG (GERMANY)

CHRISTOS C. EVANGELIOU, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HELLENIC PHILOSOPHY, TOWSON UNIVERSITY, MARYLAND, HONORARY PRESIDENT OF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR GREEK PHILOSOPHY (USA)

PANAGIOTIS FAKLARIS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

DENIS FEENEY, GIGER PROFESSOR OF LATIN, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (USA)

MICHAEL FEREJOHN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY, DUKE UNIVERSITY (USA)

KLEOPATRA FERLA, PH.D. IN ANCIENT HISTORY, HEAD OF RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL INFORMATION, FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD, ATHENS (GREECE)

ELIZABETH A. FISHER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND ART HISTORY, RANDOLPH-MACON COLLEGE (USA)

NICK FISHER, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, CARDIFF UNIVERSITY (UK)

R. LEON FITTS, ASBURY J CLARKE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, EMERITUS, FSA, SCOT., DICKINSON COLLLEGE (USA)

JOHN M. FOSSEY FRSC, FSA, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF ART HISTORY (AND ARCHAEOLOGY), MCGILL UNIVERTSITY, MONTREAL, AND CURATOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY, MONTREAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS (CANADA)

DR. ATHANASIOS FOTIOU, ADJUNCT PROFESSOR, COLLEGE OF THE HUMANITIES, GREEK AND ROMAN STUDIES, CARLETON UNIVERSITY, OTTAWA (CANADA)

ROBIN LANE FOX, UNIVERSITY READER IN ANCIENT HISTORY, NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD (UK)

DR. LEE FRATANTUONO, WILLIAM FRANCIS WHITLOCK PROFESSOR OF LATIN, OHIO WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY (USA)

STAVROS FRANGOULIDIS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF LATIN. ARISTOTELIAN UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

WILLIAM K. FREIERT, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND HANSON-PETERSON CHAIR OF LIBERAL STUDIES, GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS COLLEGE (USA)

RAINER FRIEDRICH, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS EMERITUS, DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY, HALIFAX, N.S. (CANADA)

HEIDE FRONING, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MARBURG (GERMANY)

PETER FUNKE, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MÜNSTER (GERMANY)

TRAIANOS GAGOS, PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND PAPYROLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN (USA)

KARL GALINSKY, CAILLOUX CENTENNIAL PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS, AUSTIN (USA)

ROBERT GARLAND, ROY D. AND MARGARET B. WOOSTER PROFESSOR OF THE CLASSICS, COLGATE UNIVERSITY, HAMILTON NY (USA)

HANS-JOACHIM GEHRKE, PROF. DR., PRESIDENT OF THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE BERLIN (GERMANY)

DR. IOANNIS GEORGANAS, RESEARCHER, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY, FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD (GREECE)

DOUGLAS E. GERBER, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO (CANADA)

DR. ANDRE GEROLYMATOS, CHAIR AND PROFESSOR OF HELLENIC STUDIES, SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY (CANADA)

STEPHEN L. GLASS, JOHN A. MCCARTHY PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS & CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, PITZER COLLEGE: THE CLAREMONT COLLEGES (USA)

HANS R. GOETTE, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF GIESSEN (GERMANY); GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, BERLIN (GERMANY)

SANDER M. GOLDBERG, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UCLA (USA)

MARK GOLDEN, PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF WINNIPEG (CANADA)

ELLEN GREENE, JOSEPH PAXTON PRESIDENTIAL PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA (USA)

ROBERT GREGG, TERESA MOORE PROFESSOR OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES, EMERITUS, DIRECTOR, THE ABBASI PROGRAM IN ISLAMIC STUDIES, STANFORD UNIVERSITY (USA)

FREDERICK T. GRIFFITHS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, AMHERST COLLEGE (USA)

DR. PETER GROSSMANN, MEMBER EMERITUS, GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, CAIRO (EGYPT)

ERICH S. GRUEN, GLADYS REHARD WOOD PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AND CLASSICS, EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY (USA)

MARTHA HABASH, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, CREIGHTON UNIVERSITY (USA)

CHRISTIAN HABICHT, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, EMERITUS, INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, PRINCETON (USA)

DONALD C. HAGGIS, NICHOLAS A. CASSAS TERM PROFESSOR OF GREEK STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL (USA)

JUDITH P. HALLETT, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK, MD (USA)

KIM HARTSWICK, ACADEMIC DIRECTOR, CUNY BACCALAUREATE FOR UNIQUE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES, NEW YORK CITY (USA)

PROF. PAUL B. HARVEY, JR. HEAD, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS AND ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN STUDIES, THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ELENI HASAKI, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA (USA)

ROSALIA HATZILAMBROU, PH.D., RESEARCHER, ACADEMY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

MILTIADES B. HATZOPOULOS, DIRECTOR, RESEARCH CENTRE FOR GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITY, NATIONAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION, ATHENS (GREECE)

STEPHAN HEILEN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA- CHAMPAIGN (USA)

WOLF-DIETER HEILMEYER, PROF. DR., FREIE UNIVERSITÄT BERLIN UND ANTIKENSAMMLUNG DER STAATLICHEN MUSEEN ZU BERLIN (GERMANY)

PONTUS HELLSTROM, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANCIENT HISTORY, UPPSALA UNIVERSITY (SWEDEN)

STEVEN W. HIRSCH, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND HISTORY, TUFTS UNIVERSITY (USA)

KARL-J. HOLKESKAMP, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF COLOGNE (GERMANY)

FRANK L. HOLT, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON (USA)

DAN HOOLEY, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI (USA)

MEREDITH C. HOPPIN, GAGLIARDI PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL LANGUAGES, WILLIAMS COLLEGE, WILLIAMSTOWN, MA (USA)

CAROLINE M. HOUSER, PROFESSOR OF ART HISTORY EMERITA, SMITH COLLEGE (USA) AND AFFILIATED PROFESSOR, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (USA)

PROFESSOR CARL HUFFMAN, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, DEPAUW UNIVERSITY (USA)

JOHN HUMPHREY, PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND ROMAN STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY (CANADA)

FROSEN JAAKKO, PROFESSOR OF GREEK PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI (FINLAND)

DR THOMAS JOHANSEN, READER IN ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK)

VINCENT JOLIVET, ARCHAEOLOGIST CNRS, PARIS [FRENCH SCHOOL ROME] (ITALY)

GEORGIA KAFKA, VISITING PROFESSOR OF MODERN GREEK LANGUAGE, LITERATURE AND HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK (CANADA)

MIKA KAJAVA, PROFESSOR OF GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE; HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI (FINLAND)

ANTHONY KALDELLIS, PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND LATIN, THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ELENI KALOKAIRINOU, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, SECRETARY OF THE OLYMPIC CENTER OF PHILOSOPHY AND CULTURE (CYPRUS)

LILIAN KARALI, PROFESSOR OF PREHISTORIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

ANDROMACHE KARANIKA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE (USA)

ROBERT A. KASTER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND KENNEDY FOUNDATION PROFESSOR OF LATIN, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (USA)

DR. ATHENA KAVOULAKI, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CRETE, RETHYMNON (GREECE)

VASSILIKI KEKELA, ADJUNCT PROFESSOR OF GREEK STUDIES, CLASSICS DEPARTMENT, HUNTER COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (USA)

JOHN F. KENFIELD, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF ART HISTORY, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY (USA)

DIETMAR KIENAST, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF DÜSSELDORF (GERMANY)

KARL KILINSKI II, UNIVERSITY DISTINGUISHED TEACHING PROFESSOR, SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY (USA)

DR. FLORIAN KNAUSS, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, STAATLICHE ANTIKENSAMMLUNGEN UND GLYPTOTHEK MÜNCHEN (GERMANY)

DENIS KNOEPFLER, PROFESSOR OF GREEK EPIGRAPHY AND HISTORY, COLLÈGE DE FRANCE (PARIS, FRANCE)

ORTWIN KNORR, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, WILLAMETTE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ROBERT B. KOEHL, PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL AND ORIENTAL STUDIES HUNTER COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (USA)

THOMAS KOENTGES, VISITING LECTURER, ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF LEIPZIG (GERMANY)

GEORGIA KOKKOROU-ALEVRAS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

ANN OLGA KOLOSKI-OSTROW, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND CHAIR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY (USA)

ERIC J. KONDRATIEFF, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND ANCIENT HISTORY, DEPARTMENT OF GREEK & ROMAN CLASSICS, TEMPLE UNIVERSITY (USA)

DR ELENI KORNAROU, VISITING LECTURER OF ANCIENT GREEK LITERATURE, DEPT. OF CLASSIC AND PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS (CYPRUS)

HARITINI KOTSIDU, APL. PROF. DR. FÜR KLASSISCHE ARCHÄOLOGIE, GOETHE-UNIVERSITÄT, FRANKFURT/M. (GERMANY)

LAMBRINI KOUTOUSSAKI, DR., LECTURER OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ZÜRICH (SWITZERLAND)

DAVID KOVACS, HUGH H. OBEAR PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA (USA)

PROF. DR. ULLA KREILINGER, INSTITUT FÜR KLASSISCHE ARCHÄOLOGIE, UNIVERSITÄT ERLANGEN (GERMANY)

DR. CHRISTOS KREMMYDAS, LECTURER IN ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY, ROYAL HOLLOWAY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON (UK)

PETER KRENTZ, W. R. GREY PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND HISTORY, DAVIDSON COLLEGE (USA)

FRIEDRICH KRINZINGER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

MICHAEL KUMPF, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, VALPARAISO UNIVERSITY (USA)

DONALD G. KYLE, PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON (USA)

PROF. DR. DR. H.C. HELMUT KYRIELEIS, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, BERLIN (GERMANY)

MARGARET L. LAIRD, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, ROMAN ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (USA)

GERALD V. LALONDE, BENEDICT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, GRINNELL COLLEGE (USA)

STEVEN LATTIMORE, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES (USA)

FRANCIS M. LAZARUS, PRESIDENT, UNIVERSITY OF DALLAS (USA)

MARY R. LEFKOWITZ, ANDREW W. MELLON PROFESSOR IN THE HUMANITIES, EMERITA WELLESLEY COLLEGE (USA)

IRENE S. LEMOS FSA, PROFESSOR IN CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY,, S.IOANNOU CENTRE FOR CLASSICAL AND BYZANTINE STUDIES, OXFORD UNIVERSITY (UK)

IOANNES G. LEONTIADES, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF BYZANTINE HISTORY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

IPHIGENEIA LEVENTI, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY (GREECE)

DANIEL B. LEVINE, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS (USA)

CHRISTINA LEYPOLD, DR. PHIL., ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF ZÜRICH (SWITZERLAND)

VAYOS LIAPIS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK, CENTRE D’ETUDES CLASSIQUES & DEPARTEMENT DE PHILOSOPHIE, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTREAL (CANADA)

HUGH LLOYD-JONES, PROFESSOR OF GREEK EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK)

YANNIS LOLOS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY (GREECE)

STANLEY LOMBARDO, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS (USA)

ANTHONY LONG, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND IRVING G. STONE PROFESSOR OF LITERATURE, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY (USA)

JULIA LOUGOVAYA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY (USA)

DR. JOHN MA, LECTURER IN ANCIENT HISTORY, OXFORD UNIVERSITY AND TUTORIAL FELLOW IN ANCIENT HISTORY, CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD (UK)

A.D. MACRO, HOBART PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL LANGUAGES EMERITUS, TRINITY COLLEGE (USA)

JOHN MAGEE, PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, DIRECTOR, CENTRE FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA)

DR. CHRISTOFILIS MAGGIDIS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY, DICKINSON COLLEGE (USA)

CHRYSSA MALTEZOU, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS, DIRECTOR OF THE HELLENIC INSTITUTE OF BYZANTINE AND POSTBYZANTINE STUDIES IN VENICE (ITALY)

JEANNETTE MARCHAND, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY, DAYTON, OHIO (USA)

EVANGELINE MARKOU, ADJUNCT LECTURER IN GREEK HISTORY, OPEN UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS (CYPRUS)

ANNA MARMODORO, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK)

RICHARD P. MARTIN, ANTONY AND ISABELLE RAUBITSCHEK PROFESSOR IN CLASSICS, STANFORD UNIVERSITY (USA)

MARIA MAVROUDI, PROFESSOR OF BYZANTINE HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY (USA)

JODY MAXMIN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPT. OF ART & ART HISTORY, STANFORD UNIVERSITY (USA)

ALEXANDER MAZARAKIS-AINIAN, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY (GREECE)

JAMES R. MCCREDIE, SHERMAN FAIRCHILD PROFESSOR EMERITUS; DIRECTOR, EXCAVATIONS IN SAMOTHRACE INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (USA)

BRIAN MCGING M.A., PH.D., F.T.C.D., M.R.I.A., REGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK, TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN (IRELAND)

JAMES C. MCKEOWN, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON (USA)

RICHARD MCKIRAHAN, EDWIN CLARENCE NORTON OF CLASSICS AND PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, PITZER COLLEGE: THE CLAREMONT COLLEGES (USA)

ROBERT A. MECHIKOFF, PROFESSOR AND LIFE MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF OLYMPIC HISTORIANS, SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ANDREAS MEHL, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITÄT HALLE-WITTENBERG (GERMANY)

JOHN RICHARD MELVILLE-JONES, WINTHROP PROFESSOR, CLASSICS AND ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (AUSTRALIA)

MARION MEYER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

DR. ARISTOTLE MICHOPOULOS, PROFESSOR & CHAIR, GREEK STUDIES DEPT., HELLENIC COLLEGE (BROOKLINE, MA, USA)

HARALD MIELSCH, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF BONN (GERMANY)

STEPHEN G. MILLER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY (USA)

LYNETTE G. MITCHELL, SENIOR LECTURER IN CLASSICS & ANCIENT HISTORY, EXETER UNIVERSITY (UK)

PHILLIP MITSIS, A.S. ONASSIS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND PHILOSOPHY, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (USA)

PETER FRANZ MITTAG, PROFESSOR FÜR ALTE GESCHICHTE, UNIVERSITÄT ZU KÖLN (GERMANY)

DAVID GORDON MITTEN, JAMES LOEB PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY (USA)

METTE MOLTESEN, MA, CURATOR OF ANCIENT ART, NY CARLSBERG GLYPTOTEK, COPENHAGEN (DENMARK)

MARGARET S. MOOK, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ANATOLE MORI, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI- COLUMBIA (USA)

WILLIAM S. MORISON, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, GRAND VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

JENNIFER SHERIDAN MOSS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ALIKI MOUSTAKA, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTELIAN UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

MARK MUNN, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY AND GREEK ARCHAEOLOGY, THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

IOANNIS MYLONOPOULOS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF GREEK ART HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK (USA)

ALEXANDER NEHAMAS, EDMUND N. CARPENTER II CLASS OF 1943 PROFESSOR IN THE HUMANITIES, PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY AND COMPARATIVE LITERATURE, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (USA)

RICHARD NEUDECKER, PD OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, DEUTSCHES ARCHÄOLOGISCHES INSTITUT ROM (ITALY)

JAMES M.L. NEWHARD, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON (USA)

CAROLE E. NEWLANDS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON (USA)

ANDREW G. NICHOLS, VISITING LECTURER OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

JESSICA L. NITSCHKE, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY (USA)

JOHN MAXWELL O’BRIEN, PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, QUEENS COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (USA)

JAMES J. O’HARA, PADDISON PROFESSOR OF LATIN, THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL (USA)

MARTIN OSTWALD, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS (RET.), SWARTHMORE COLLEGE AND PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL STUDIES (RET.), UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA (USA)

OLGA PALAGIA, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

BEATA M. KITSIKIS PANAGOPOULOS, PROFESSOR OF ART HISTORY, RETIRED, SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY, CAIFORNIA (USA)

CHRISTOS PANAYIDES, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF NICOSIA, (CYPRUS)

VASSILIKI PANOUSSI, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY (USA)

MARIA C. PANTELIA, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE (USA)

PANTOS A.PANTOS, ADJUNCT FACULTY, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY (GREECE)

ELENI PAPAEFTHYMIOU, CURATOR OF THE NUMISMATIC COLLECTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD (GREECE)

MARIA PAPAIOANNOU, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK (CANADA)

ANTHONY J. PAPALAS, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY (USA)

NASSOS PAPALEXANDROU, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN (USA)

POLYVIA PARARA, VISITING ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF GREEK LANGUAGE AND CIVILIZATION, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY (USA)

RICHARD W. PARKER, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, BROCK UNIVERSITY (CANADA)

ROBERT PARKER, WYKEHAM PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD (UK)

ROBERT J. PENELLA, PROFESSOR AND CHAIRMAN, CLASSICS, FORDHAM UNIVERSITY (USA)

ANASTASIA-ERASMIA PEPONI, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, STANFORD UNIVERSITY (USA)

JACQUES PERREAULT, PROFESSOR OF GREEK ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL, QUEBEC (CANADA)

PATRICK PFEIL, MAGISTER ARTIUM UNIVERSITÄT LEIPZIG, ALTE GESCHICHTE (GERMANY)

EDWARD A. PHILLIPS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AT GRINNELL COLLEGE (USA)

YANIS PIKOULAS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY (GREECE)

LEFTERIS PLATON, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

JOHN POLLINI, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ART & ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (USA)

DAVID POTTER, ARTHUR F. THURNAU PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND LATIN. THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN (USA)

DANIEL POTTS, EDWIN CUTHBERT HALL PROFESSOR OF MIDDLE EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY (AUSTRALIA)

ROBERT L. POUNDER, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICS, VASSAR COLLEGE (USA)

NIKOLAOS POULOPOULOS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN HISTORY AND CHAIR IN MODERN GREEK STUDIES, MCGILL UNIVERSITY (CANADA)

SELENE PSOMA, SENIOR LECTURER OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

WILLIAM H. RACE, GEORGE L. PADDISON PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL (USA)

JOHN T. RAMSEY, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO (USA)

CHRISTIAN R. RASCHLE, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ROMAN HISTORY, CENTRE D’ETUDES CLASSIQUES & DEPARTEMENT D’HISTOIRE, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTREAL (CANADA)

KARL REBER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF LAUSANNE (SWITZERLAND)

GARY REGER, PROFESSOR OF HISTORY TRINITY COLLEGE, CONNECTICUT (USA)

RUSH REHM, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND DRAMA, STANFORD UNIVERSITY (USA)

HEATHER L. REID, PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, MORNINGSIDE COLLEGE (USA)

CHRISTOPH REUSSER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ZÜRICH (SWITZERLAND)

WERNER RIESS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL (USA)

DR TRACEY E RIHLL, SENIOR LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, ANCIENT HISTORY AND EGYPTOLOGY, SWANSEA UNIVERSITY ( WALES, UK)

ROBERT H. RIVKIN, ANCIENT STUDIES DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY (USA)

WALTER M. ROBERTS III, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT (USA)

BARBARA SAYLOR RODGERS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT (USA)

ROBERT H. RODGERS. LYMAN-ROBERTS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT (USA)

GUY MACLEAN ROGERS, KEMPER PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND HISTORY, WELLESLEY COLLEGE (USA)

ROBERTO ROMANO, PROFESSORE DI RUOLO (II LEVEL) DI CIVILTÀ BIZANTINA E STORIA BIZANTINA, UNIVERSITÀ “FEDERICO II” DI NAPOLI (ITALY)

NATHAN ROSENSTEIN, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

JOHN C. ROUMAN, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, (USA)

DR. JAMES ROY, READER IN GREEK HISTORY (RETIRED), UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM (UK)

STEVEN H. RUTLEDGE, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK (USA)

DANIEL J. SAHAS, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO (CANADA)

CHRISTINA A. SALOWEY, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, HOLLINS UNIVERSITY (USA)

PIERRE SANCHEZ, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF GENEVA (SWITZERLAND)

THEODORE SCALTSAS, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH (UK)

THOMAS F. SCANLON, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE (USA)

THOMAS SCHÄFER, PROFESSOR, INSTITUT FÜR KLASSISCHE ARCHÄOLOGIE, UNIVERSITÄT TÜBINGEN (GERMANY)

BERNHARD SCHMALTZ, PROF. DR. ARCHÄOLOGISCHES INSTITUT DER CAU, KIEL (GERMANY)

PROF. DR. ANDRAS SCHMIDT-COLINET, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

ROBERT C. SCHMIEL, PROF. EMERITUS OF GREEK & ROMAN STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY (CANADA)

ROLF M. SCHNEIDER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, LUDWIG-MAXIMILIANS-UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHEN (GERMANY)

JOSEPH B. SCHOLTEN, PHD, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS/AFFILIATE ASSOC. PROF. OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK (USA)

PETER SCHOLZ, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND CULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART (GERMANY)

CHRISTOF SCHULER, DIRECTOR, COMMISSION FOR ANCIENT HISTORY AND EPIGRAPHY OF THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, MUNICH (GERMANY)

PAUL D. SCOTTON, ASSOOCIATE PROFESSOR CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND CLASSICS, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY LONG BEACH (USA)

DANUTA SHANZER, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND MEDIEVAL STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN AND FELLOW OF THE MEDIEVAL ACADEMY OF AMERICA (USA)

JAMES P. SICKINGER, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ATHANASIOS SIDERIS, PH.D., HEAD OF THE HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY DEPARTMENT, FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD, ATHENS (GREECE)

G. M. SIFAKIS, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICS, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI & NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (GREECE & USA)

CHRISTOS SIMELIDIS, BRITISH ACADEMY POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW, LINCOLN COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK)

HENK W. SINGOR, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY LEIDEN UNIVERSITY (NETHERLANDS)

PROF. DR. ULRICH SINN, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF WURZBURG (GERMANY)

MARILYN B. SKINNER PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA (USA)

NIALL W. SLATER, SAMUEL CANDLER DOBBS PROFESSOR OF LATIN AND GREEK, EMORY UNIVERSITY (USA)

PETER M. SMITH, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL (USA)

DR. PHILIP J. SMITH, RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN CLASSICAL STUDIES, MCGILL UNIVERSITY (CANADA)

SUSAN KIRKPATRICK SMITH ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

ANTONY SNODGRASS, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (UK)

GINA M. SOTER, LECTURER IV, CLASSICAL STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN (USA)

SLAWOMIR SPRAWSKI, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, JAGIELLONIAN UNIVERSITY, KRAKOW (POLAND)

STYLIANOS V. SPYRIDAKIS, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS (USA)

THEODOSIA STEFANIDOU-TIVERIOU, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

RACHEL STERNBERG, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY (USA)

DR. TOM STEVENSON, LECTURER IN CLASSICS AND ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND (AUSTRALIA)

ANDREW STEWART, NICHOLAS C. PETRIS PROFESSOR OF GREEK STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY (USA)

OLIVER STOLL, UNIV.-PROF. DR., ALTE GESCHICHTE/ ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITÄT PASSAU (GERMANY)

RICHARD STONEMAN, HONORARY FELLOW, UNIVERSITY OF EXETER (UK)

RONALD STROUD, KLIO DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY (USA)

SARAH CULPEPPER STROUP, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (USA)

DR PANICO J. STYLIANOU, LECTURER IN ANCIENT HISTORY, LADY MARGARET HALL, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK)

THOMAS A. SUITS, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL LANGUAGES, UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT (USA)

NANCY SULTAN, PROFESSOR AND DIRECTOR, GREEK & ROMAN STUDIES, ILLINOIS WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY (USA)

PETER MICHAEL SWAN, PROFESSOR OF HISTORY EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN (CANADA)

DAVID W. TANDY, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE (USA)

JAMES TATUM, AARON LAWRENCE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, DARTMOUTH COLLEGE (USA)

MARTHA C. TAYLOR, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, LOYOLA COLLEGE IN MARYLAND (USA)

PETROS THEMELIS, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ATHENS (GREECE)

EBERHARD THOMAS, PRIV.-DOZ. DR., ARCHÄOLOGISCHES INSTITUT DER UNIVERSITÄT ZU KÖLN (GERMANY)

MICHALIS TIVERIOS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

MICHAEL K. TOUMAZOU, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, DAVIDSON COLLEGE (USA)

STEPHEN V. TRACY, PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND LATIN EMERITUS, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

PROF. DR. ERICH TRAPP, AUSTRIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/VIENNA RESP. UNIVERSITY OF BONN (GERMANY)

CHRISTOPHER TRINACTY, KEITER FELLOW IN CLASSICS, AMHERST COLLEGE (USA)

STEPHEN M. TRZASKOMA, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE (USA)

VASILIKI TSAMAKDA, PROFESSOR OF CHRISTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND BYZANTINE HISTORY OF ART, UNIVERSITY OF MAINZ (GERMANY)

CHRISTOPHER TUPLIN, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL (UK)

YANNIS TZIFOPOULOS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK AND EPIGRAPHY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

GRETCHEN UMHOLTZ, LECTURER, CLASSICS AND ART HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS, BOSTON (USA)

PANOS VALAVANIS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

ERIC R. VARNER, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENTS OF CLASSICS AND ART HISTORY, EMORY UNIVERSITY, ATLANTA (USA)

ATHANASSIOS VERGADOS, VISITING ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, FRANKLIN & MARSHALL COLLEGE (USA)

FREDERIK J. VERVAET, PHD, LECTURER IN ANCIENT HISTORY. SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA)

CHRISTINA VESTER, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO (CANADA)

DR. ZSOLT VISY, LEITER UNIVERSITÄT PÉCS LEHRSTUHL FÜR ALTE GESCHICHTE UND ARCHÄOLOGIE, ARCHÄOLOGISCHES SEMINAR (HUNGARY)

EMMANUEL VOUTIRAS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

SPEROS VRYONIS, JR., ALEXANDER S. ONASSIS PROFESSOR (EMERITUS) OF HELLENIC CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (USA)

MICHAEL B. WALBANK, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF GREEK, LATIN & ANCIENT HISTORY, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY (CANADA)

DR. IRMA WEHGARTNER, CURATOR OF THE MARTIN VON WAGNER MUSEUM DER UNIVERSITÄT WURZBURG (GERMANY)

BONNA D. WESCOAT, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, ART HISTORY AND ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN STUDIES, EMORY UNIVERSITY (USA)

E. HECTOR WILLIAMS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA)

PETER JAMES WILSON FAHA, WILLIAM RITCHIE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY (AUSTRALIA)

ROGER J. A. WILSON, PROFESSOR OF THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, AND DIRECTOR, CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF ANCIENT SICILY, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER (CANADA)

ENGELBERT WINTER, PROFESSOR FOR ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MÜNSTER (GERMANY)

TIMOTHY F. WINTERS, PH.D. ALUMNI ASSN. DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AUSTIN PEAY STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

IOANNIS XYDOPOULOS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN ANCIENT HISTORY, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

DAVID C. YOUNG, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS EMERITUS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

MARIA YPSILANTI, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK LITERATURE, UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS (CYPRUS)

KATERINA ZACHARIA, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND CHAIR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS & ARCHAEOLOGY, LOYOLA MARYMOUNT UNIVERSITY (USA)

MICHAEL ZAHRNT, PROFESSOR FÜR ALTE GESCHICHTE, UNIVERSITÄT ZU KÖLN (GERMANY)

PAUL ZANKER, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (GERMANY)

FROMA I. ZEITLIN, EWING PROFESSOR OF GREEK LANGUAGE & LITERATURE, PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE LITERATURE, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (USA)

332 SIGNATURES AS OF JUNE 22ND, 2009, THAT WERE SENT WITH THE UPDATE.

THE ORIGINAL LETTER SENT ON MAY 18TH, 2009, HAD 200 SIGNATURES.

FOR THE GROWING LIST OF SCHOLARS, PLEASE GO TO THE ADDENDA.


CC: J. BIDEN, VICE PRESIDENT, USA

H. CLINTON, SECRETARY OF STATE USA

P. GORDON, ASST. SECRETARY-DESIGNATE, EUROPEAN AND EURASIAN AFFAIRS

H.L BERMAN, CHAIR, HOUSE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS

I. ROS-LEHTINEN, RANKING MEMBER, HOUSE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS

J. KERRY, CHAIR, SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

R.G. LUGAR, RANKING MEMBER, SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

R. MENENDEZ, UNITED STATES SENATOR FROM NEW JERSEY.


ADDENDA

3 SCHOLARS ADDED ON JUNE 25TH 2009:

JERKER BLOMQVIST, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, LUND UNIVERSITY (SWEDEN)

CHRISTOS KARAKOLIS, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF NEW TESTAMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

CHRYS C. CARAGOUNIS, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF NEW TESTAMENT EXEGESIS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE SINCE ANCIENT TIMES, LUND UNIVERSITY (SWEDEN)

5 SCHOLARS ADDED ON JUNE 29TH 2009:

HAROLD D. EVJEN, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER (USA)

HARA TZAVELLA-EVJEN, PROFESSOR EMERITA OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER (USA)

MICHAEL PASCHALIS, PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, DEPARTMENT OF PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CRETE, RETHYMNON (GREECE)

VRASIDAS KARALIS, PROFESSOR, NEW TESTAMENT STUDIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY (AUSTRALIA)

EMILIO CRESPO, PROFESSOR OF GREEK PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MADRID (SPAIN)

2 SCHOLARS ADDED ON JULY 8TH 2009:

DR. ZOI KOTITSA, ARCHAEOLOGIST, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FELLOW, UNIVERSITY OF MARBURG (GERMANY)

DR. EKATERINI TSALAMPOUNI, ASSISTANT LECTURER IN NEW TESTAMENT, GRAECO-ROMAN ANTIQUITY AND KOINE GREEK, LUDWIG-MAXIMILLIAN UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (GERMANY)

2 SCHOLARS ADDED ON JULY 18TH 2009:

KAROL MYŚLIWIEC, PROFESSOR DR., DIRECTOR OF THE RESEARCH CENTRE FOR MEDITERRANEAN ARCHAEOLOGY, POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, WARSAW (POLAND)

STEPHEN NEALE, DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY AND LINGUISTICS, JOHN H. KORNBLITH FAMILY CHAIR IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND VALUES, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON JULY 20TH 2009:

MARSH MCCALL, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, STANFORD UNIVERSITY (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON AUGUST 10TH 2009:

GEORGIA TSOUVALA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, ILLINOIS STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON SEPTEMBER 3RD 2009:

MIKA RISSANEN, PHL, ANCIENT HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF JYVASKYLA (FINLAND)

2 SCHOLARS ADDED ON OCTOBER 10TH 2009:

JOSÉ ANTONIO FERNÁNDEZ DELGADO. PROFESSOR OF GREEK PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSIDAD DE SALAMANCA (SPAIN)

ZINON PAPAKONSTANTINOU, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HELLENIC STUDIES, HENRY M. JACKSON SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON OCTOBER 17TH 2009:

EUGENE AFONASIN, PROFESSOR OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND OF ROMAN LAW, NOVOSIBIRSK STATE UNIVERSITY (RUSSIA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON OCTOBER 28TH 2009:

HARTMUT WOLFF, PROFESSOR FÜR ALTE GESCHICHTE (EMERITUS), UNIVERSITÄT PASSAU (GERMANY)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON OCTOBER 30TH 2009:

ELENI MANAKIDOU, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, ARISTOTELES UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON NOVEMBER 3RD 2009:

PAVLOS SFYROERAS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON NOVEMBER 11TH 2009:

KONSTANTINOS KAPPARIS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON NOVEMBER 14TH 2009:

PROF. DR. INGOMAR WEILER, PROFESSOR EMERITUS, ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN HISTORY, KARL-FRANZENS-UNIVERSITÄT OF GRAZ (AUSTRIA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON NOVEMBER 15TH 2009:

WERNER PETERMANDL, UNIVERSITÄTSLEKTOR, KARL-FRANZENS-UNIVERSITÄT OF GRAZ (AUSTRIA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON DECEMBER 4TH 2009:

ISTVÁN KERTÉSZ, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GRECO-ROMAN HISTORY, DEPARTMENT OF ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY, PEDAGOGIC COLLEGE IN EGER (HUNGARY)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON MARCH 11TH 2010:

NASSI MALAGARDIS, CHARGÉE DE MISSION AU DÉPARTEMENT DES ANTIQUITÉS GRECQUES, ETRUSQUES ET ROMAINES DU MUSÉE DU LOUVRE, PARIS (FRANCE)

2 SCHOLARS ADDED ON MARCH 25TH 2010:

GONDA VAN STEEN, PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

ROBERT WAGMAN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

2 SCHOLARS ADDED ON MARCH 27TH 2010:

ANGELOS BARMPOTIS, PH.D., DIRECTOR OF THE DIGITAL EPIGRAPHY AND ARCHAEOLOGY PROJECT, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

ELENI BOZIA, PH.D. VISITING LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON APRIL 16TH 2010:

TIMOTHY JOHNSON, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON APRIL 17TH 2010:

CHRISTOS C. TSAGALIS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS, ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI (GREECE)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON AUGUST 31ST 2010:

POTITSA GRIGORAKOU, LECTURER IN HELLENISM IN THE ORIENT, PUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS (GREECE)

2 SCHOLARS ADDED ON SEPTEMBER 3RD 2010:

MAURICE SARTRE, PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY, EMERITUS. UNIVERSITÉ FRANÇOIS-RABELAIS, TOURS (FRANCE)

APOSTOLOS BOUSDROUKIS, RESEARCHER, INSTITUTE FOR GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITY, NATIONAL HELLENIC RESEARCH FOUNDATION (GREECE)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON SEPTEMBER 10TH 2010:

ALASTAR JACKSON, HON. RESEARCH FELLOW IN ANCIENT HISTORY, MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY (U.K.)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON OCTOBER 5TH 2010:

FRANCES VAN KEUREN, PROFESSOR EMERITA OF ANCIENT ART HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON DECEMBER 4TH 2010:

THOMAS HEINE NIELSEN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT GREEK, UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN (DENMARK)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON APRIL 18TH 2011:

ANTONIS BARTSIOKAS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND ETHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THRACE (GREECE)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON OCTOBER 16TH 2011:

THANASIS MASKALERIS, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS AND COMPARATIVE LITERATURE, SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY (USA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON FEBRUARY 22ND 2013:

STEPHEN BERTMAN, PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF CLASSICS, THE UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR (CANADA)

1 SCHOLAR ADDED ON OCTOBER 12TH 2013:

HELEN KARABATZAKI, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF IOANNINA (GREECE)

National Museum, Beirut, Lebanon. A Mosaic From Baalbek, Dating …

www.alamy.com1300 × 1021Sök med bild

… ALEXANDER THE GREAT. NATIONAL MUSEUM, BEIRUT, LEBANON. A MOSAIC FROM BAALBEK, DATING FROM THE 4TH

alexandersh.jpg

167.206.67.164200 × 269Sök med bild

5-67 HEAD OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, FROM PELLA, MACEDONIA, CA. 200-150 B.C. MARBLE, APPROX. 1′ HIGH. ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, PELLA.

Head in marble of Young Alexander, found on the Akropolis, Athens. ca. 338 – 330 BC. (Akropolis Museum, Athens)

Tetradrachm minted by Alexander the Great, featuring head of Herakles (above is Heracles in Gold) on the obverse, ca. 336-326 BC

Silver tetradrachm(=Four Drachma Coin) minted by Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. Obverse: Head of Alexander

Silver tetradrachm minted by Lysimachus of Thrace. Obverse: Alexander with horns of Ammon

Alexander “Keraunophoros”(=thundercarrier – Phoro=to srry;ie: metaphoric, Christophoros=the one, who is carring Christ etc; See. Etymology on the board)), carnelian gemstone inscribed “Of Neisos”. (Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg)

Silver tetradrachm minted by Philip II of Macedon. obverse: Zeus. ca. 340 BC.

MACEDONIAN COIN:
(IN ENGLISH: “ALEXANDER’S”) MACEDONIAN COIN, STATING IN GREEK: “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”
(IN ENGLISH: “ALEXANDER’S”)

ancient macedonia history

Zeus(Zupiter later in Latin)

Symbols: Thunderbolt, Aegis, Kotinos 

Animals: Eagle, Bull, Rooster
Trees & Plants: Oak Sage. Secondary: Olive, Margaret, Amaranto, Marjoram, Walnut, Mullein, verbena, almond, violet, cassia, carnation, rope.

Neptune 
Symbols: Trident
Animals:’logo, Dolphin, Taurus
Stones: beryllium Aquamarine, Pearl
Trees & Plants: Pine, Sea Anemone, Seaweed. Secondary: linden, Outrikoularia.

Ades

Hades with Cerberus (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)
ABODEThe Underworld
SYMBOLCerberus, Drinking horn, scepter, Cypress,Narcissus, key
CONSORTPersephone
PARENTSCronus and Rhea
SIBLINGSPoseidonDemeter,HestiaHeraZeusChiron
CHILDRENMacariaMelinoe andZagreus
ROMAN EQUIVALENTDis PaterOrcus

 
Trees & Plants: Cypress, Rodia. Secondary: Mint, Narcissus, Corn.
Hera


Symbols: Diadem, Scepter
Animals: Peacock, Cow
Trees & Plants: Lily, Orange. Secondary: Apple, Willow, Sikia, Myrrh.

 
ATHENA (Latinizased to Minerva)


Symbols: Aegis
Animals: Owl, Snake
Trees & Plants: Olive. Secondary: Oak, Birch, Stafragkatho, Mulberry.

ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ – APOLLO:

Symbols: Lyra, Bow & Arrow
Animals: Kourouna, Wolf
Stones: Sapphire
Trees & Plants: Daphne. Secondary: Sunflower, Sunflower, mistletoe (Guy), Hyacinth, Orange,’nithos, Fenugreek, Phoenix, Lily, Leek.

ARTEMIS – (DIANA)


Symbols: Bow & Arrow, Crescent
Animals: Deer, Hawk
Stones: Amethyst, Selinolithos, Pearl
Trees & Plants: Willow, Jasmine, Beech, Myrtle. Secondary: Amaranth, Margarita, Hazel, Yarrow, Balm, Acacia, Mandrake, rue.

Αφροδίτη – Aphrodite
Symbols: DolphinRoseScallop ShellMyrtleDove,SparrowGirdleMirror, and Swan  (Roman copy of 2nd century AD), National Archaeological Museum, Athens)

NAMA Aphrodite Syracuse.jpg

Άρης – Ares
Symbols: Spear & Sword
Animals: Dog, Orne
Stones: Onyx, Sardonyx
Trees & Plants: mint, rue, linden, verbena, Adelochorto.

ΔΉΜΗΤΡΑ – DEMETER (CERES IN LATIN)

Eleusinian hydria Antikensammlung Berlin 1984.46 n2.jpg

Didrachme from Paros island, struck at the Cyclades and representing Demeter
Symbols: Sickle, Torch
Animals: Snake
Stones: Emerald
Trees & Plants: Ear, Barley. Secondary: Willow, Corn, Rodia, haricot, Vlichouni, Poppy.

Demeter, enthroned and extending her hand in a benediction toward the kneeling Metaneira, who offers thetriune wheat (c. 340 BC)
ABODEMount Olympus
SYMBOLCornucopiaWheatTorch,Bread
CONSORTIasionZeusOceanus,KarmanorPoseidon andTriptolemus
PARENTSCronus and Rhea
SIBLINGSHestiaHeraHades,PoseidonZeusChiron
CHILDRENPersephoneDespoina,ArionPlutusPhilomelus,EubuleusChrysothemisand Amphitheus I
ROMAN EQUIVALENTCeres
FESTIVALSThesmophoria

Demeter. Roman copy of Greek original fom: 420 f.Kr.  
Symbols: Sickle, Torch
Animals: Snake
Stones: Emerald
Trees & Plants: Ear, Barley. Secondary: Willow, Corn, Rodia, haricot, Vlichouni, Poppy.

ΕΡΜΉΣ – HERMES

Symbols: caduceus, winged sandals
Animals: Goat
Metals: Mercury
Trees & Plants: Almond, Spruce. Secondary:’nithos, Phoenix, Hazel, Clove, Cinnamon, Mulberry.

Hermes  Hermes with his mother Maia. Detail of the side B of an Attic red-figure belly-amphora, c. 500 BC.

ΉΦΑΙΣΤΟΣ – HEPHAESTUS

Symbols: Hammer & Anvil, ax, Fire
Trees & Plants: Margarita. Stones: Emerald, Lazouri, Pearl
Trees & Plants: Rose, Lily, Anemone, Milia, Myrtle. Secondary: Aloe, fern, heather, benzoin, myrrh, Quince, Sandalwood, Angelica, Pear, Astir, Afroxylia (elder), Violet.

ARIS – (MARS)

Symbols: Spear & Sword
Animals: Dog, Orne
Stones: Onyx, Sardonyx
Trees & Plants: mint, rue, linden, verbena, Adelochorto.

Hephaestus  
Symbols: Hammer & Anvil, ax, Fire
Trees & Plants: Margarita.

Pan  
Symbols: Flute, Phallus
Animals: Goat, Ram, stag, Taurus
Trees & Plants: Pine, Spruce,’mpelos. Secondary: Vanilla, Reed, Daffodil, Orchid, chin, Silenus, Savory, Fern, Wild Flowers.

DIONYSOS  

Symbols: Thyrsos, Phallus
Animals: Snake
Stones: Amethyst
Trees & Plants: Ivy,‘mpelos. Secondary: Aesculapius, Sikia, tinder, Fennel, Tamarix, Mushroom.

Dionysus riding the Panthers. Floor mosaic.
October 120-80 dd. to n.э. Delos House

Clip (700x667, 168Kb)

Hecate 

Symbols: Manual
Animals: Snake, Dog (usually black)
Stones: Amethyst, Selinolithos, Pearl
Trees & Plants: Lavender, Myrrh, Willow. Secondary: aconite, cyclamen, Garlic, Mint, Mandrake, belladonna.

Heracles, Cerberus & Hecate | Greeik vase, Apulian red figure volute krater

EROS – (Cupid)  
Stones: Opal
Trees & Plants: Rose red, white violet, Cane.

PROMETHEUS – (/PRƏˈMΘƏS/ PRƏ-MEE-THEE-ƏS;GREEK:ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ [PROMƐːTʰEÚS], MEANING “FORETHOUGHT”) IS ATITAN IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY, BEST KNOWN AS THE BENEFACTOR WHO BROUGHT FIRE TO MANKIND. PROMETHEUSSIDED WITH ZEUS AND THE ASCENDING OLYMPIAN GODS IN THE VAST COSMOLOGICAL STRUGGLE AGAINST CRONUS(KRONOS) AND THE OTHER TITANS. PROMETHEUS WAS THEREFORE ON THE CONQUERING SIDE OF THE CATACLYSMIC WAR OF THE GREEK GODS, THETITANOMACHY, WHERE ZEUSAND THE OLYMPIAN GODS ULTIMATELY DEFEATED CRONUSAND THE OTHER TITANS.

 

Prometheus symbolizes the strong man who towered over the fate of the mortal, who touched the divine in man and open the road to sovereignty over the hostile environment.

The body of the fire was really ensarkotis all knowledge. Here formed the archetype of Prometheus. Prometheus is the wise who won the knowledge and pass it to humans. Culture came from the thought that the wise.

The tragedy of the hero makes the model of the tragic human or political person and in it the expression gained worldwide fame. Prometheus was a god and unlike all the other demigods were begotten. He ascended to Olympus with his strength and his mind.

Prometheus also symbolizes the ingenuity and foresight. It symbolizes the spirit of independence toward power (DIAS). Displays the strength of mind and will.

But the works of tragic poets Aeschylus and especially the myth gets another dimension. For Aeschylus in his work “Prometheus Bound” Prometheus gave gifts – knowledge – people to help them avoid extinction (30-34, 108-109). Faded from mortal fear of death (261-262) gave fire to mankind (264), arts (266) and gave them the mind and thought, origin of culture and all the arts (architecture, Arithmetic, Georgia, Navigation, Medical, Divination, Metallurgy etc).

Aeschylus in his work expresses the ideal of the citizen, who alone decided and acted, he knew to be erected in front of the fate and beats with its rationale. And this logic he wants to express in the theater. Prometheus will become a symbol of the tragic and civil man, the man who created culture. He is the hero who rose up with power, with his will and deceit against the gods. The gods punish him, but Prometheus unyielding continues to resist. And in the end beats and redeemed.

It is the struggle of the citizens of Athens who defeated the formidable power of Persia.

In Aeschylus Prometheus is son of Themis, ie. The Law and the Law. Through this struggle Jupiter – Prometheus reflects the struggle of Athens against tyranny (Pisistratus) creator of the classic culture that opposes against every irrational power and eventually impose logic.

In the stories of Prometheus many go beyond. For them, Prometheus was not only his great friend and benefactor of mankind, but also the creator of.

And not only because he was the father of Deucalion – the first mortal king on earth who became the ancestor of the Greeks and all people – but because he had fashioned with his own hands (Lucian – Prometheus). Prometheus cooperation of Athena, had fashioned humans from clay and fire and had given them form similar to the form that had the gods.

Uranus 
Trees & Plants: linden

Gaia 
Stones: Amber (Electro), Coral
Trees & Plants: Orange, Apple Tree

KRONOS – (Saturn) 

Trees & Plants: Barley, Orchid. Secondary: Corn, Lavender, Pomegranate, Raspberry.

Rea  
Trees & Plants: Myrrh

Persephone 


Trees & Plants: Rodia, Poppy.

Adonis 
Trees & Plants: Myrrh, Rose, Lettuce, Fennel, heather

Asclepius 
Animals: Snake
Trees & Plants: Daphne, Mustard.

Iris

 
Trees & Plants: Lily

Helios – Sun Phaethon (or Aelios or “Helios”) & the chariot of the sun, Athenian
red-figure krater C5th B.C., British Museum, London 
Trees & Plants: Sunflower.

Springtide
Trees & Plants: Cedar

Hypnos – Sleep

 Death and Sleep carrying the dead body of Sarpedon. Performance by erythromofro(=Red shaped) goblet early 5th century. BC, British Museum, London
Trees & Plants: Poppy

Macedonia comes from the word Makednos,
also Makedon or Macedon (Greek: Μάκεδνος Μακεδών Makedōn or poetic Μακηδών Makēdōn), was, according to *Hesiod’s Eoiae or Catalogue of Women on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Thyia and Zeus, brother of Thessalian Magnes and cousin of Boeotian or Epirotan Graecus. His mother Thyia was the daughter of the Greek progenitorsDeucalion and Pyrrha and sister of Hellen, who together with his three sons Dorus, Xuthus (with his sons Ion and Achaeus) and Aeolos, comprised the set of the basic 7 ancient tribes that formed the Hellenic nation. The above genealogy is also quoted by the Macedonian historian Marsyas of Pella.

Makednos or Makedon, meaning “tall” or “highlander”, was the tribal name of the ancient Macedonians.

The route of the Argeads fromArgos,Peloponnese toMacedonia

AMAC’s (Australian Macedonian Advisory Council) role is to promote the truth concerning the Macedonian issue in Australian and international fora

 

PHOENICIAN “ALPHABET”:  AN HISTORICAL DECEPTION 

Overwhelming evidence that one of the most important discoveries in the history of civilization is Greek ,a deception that usurps and distorts Greek History and Civilization. It is of utmost importance that the truth be restored not only for modern Greece, but also for thewhole of humanity.The deception that alphabetical script was discovered by the Phoenicians is a long-lived one.For the past 14 years [the Greek scholarly magazine] Davlos has published numerous articleson this problem. This prompted K. Katis to ask that we submit a relevant article for hismainstream daily so that this important issue would become known to a wider audience.

This article summarizes the strong evidence against the “Phoenician Deception,” and proves that the greatest discovery in the history of civilization is Greek. We believe it necessary to republish this article in [this issue of] Davlos exactly as it appeared in the daily.

A SCIENTIFIC MONSTROSITY.

According to linguistic theory, an “alphabet” is defined as “the sum of symbols following a specific sequence and order used to ascribe the essential utterances of a language, under thecondition that each utterance represents only one symbol and vice-versa”. Consequently, in alphabetical script (as an example, in the writings of the people of Europe, America, Australian, as well as the other parts of the world) each letter represents one essential sound.This is not true for the imperfect alphabets expressed through syllables where each symbolrepresents a syllable (with two or more voiced sounds). For example, in Greek Linear A andB, there is a symbol that represents the syllable ko (k + o), a symbol that represents the syllable po (p + o), etc. In Phoenician writing (which has only consonants and no vowels), this situation is even worse, as far as we can tell from the small amount of existing samples.

IN PHOENICIAN, EACH SYMBOL IS NOT EQUIVALENT TO ONE SPECIFIC SYLLABLE, BUT TO A VARIETY OF SYLLABLES, AND THUS THE READER CAN USE HIS IMAGINATION WHEN ATTEMPTING TO DECIPHER THE SOUNDS. FOR EXAMPLE, THERE ARE CONSONANTS WHICH CAN BE READ AS EITHER BA, BOU, BE, BI, BO, ETC. OTHERS  IS NOT AN ALPHABET, IT IS A LESS ADVANCED FORM OF WRITINGTHAT CAN BE READ AS GOU, GA, GE, GO, AND SO ON. CONSEQUENTLY, PHOENICIAN SCRIPT DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN ALPHABET, AND IS NOT EVEN AN ADVANCED FORM OF SYLLABIC SCRIPT NEARING THE PERFECTION OF THE EQUIVALENT GREEK SYLLABIC WRITINGS. IT IS TRULY AMAZING TO THINK THAT, IN THE ACADEMIC WORLD OF THE PAST 150 YEARS, THE ALMOST CONTRADICTORY TERM OF “PHOENICIAN ALPHABET” HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED, WHICH, IN REALITY REFERS TO A TYPE OF WRITING THAT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AN ALPHABET. IT IS EVEN MORE UNBELIEVABLE TO THINK THAT THE SCIENTIFIC DOGMA THAT GREEK CAME FROM PHOENICIAN HAS BEEN ENFORCED. NOT ONLY THE PHOENICIAN IS NOT AN ALPHABET, IT IS A LESS ADVANCED FORM OF WRITING THAN GREEK LINEAR A AND B.

SO, PROFESSOR G. BABINIOTIS’ STATEMENT THAT “PHOENICIAN WRITING IS SOMETHING LIKE A SYLLABIC ALPHABET” MUST BE REJECTED AND REPLACED WITH THE CORRECT CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOENICIAN AS A “PURELY CONCISE SYLLABLE SYSTEM OF WRITING,” AS STATED BY THE FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE GREEK SOCIETY OF PHILOLOGISTS, PAN. GEORGOUNTZOS (SEE “THE ALPHABET: A GREEK DISCOVERY” BY PAN. GEORGOUNTZOS, DAVLOS, ISSUE 142, OCTOBER 1993, PAGE 8242).

GREEKNESS OF THE ALPHABET

a) Archaeological Evidence The theory that the alphabet is a Phoenician discovery has been maintained through the argument, among other things, that certain symbols of Phoenician writing are similar to the letters of the alphabet. For example, the Phoenician alef is the reverse or sideways Greek “A.” This argument was a strong one until about 100 years ago, when linguists and historians still maintained that the Greeks did not know how to write before 800 B. C.! Around 1900 A.D., however, Arthur Evans excavated the Greek Minoan Crete and discovered the Greek Linear writings, whose symbols corresponded to 17 of the 24 letters of the Greek Alphabet. Given that (A), the most ancient evidence of the Greek scripts (Linear A and Linear B) that were later discovered in Pylos, Mycenae, Menidi and Thebes — but also in more northern areas up to the Danube river as well — were dated to before 1500 B.C. And (B), that the Phoenicians and their writings appear in history no earlier than 1300 BC, Evans was the first person to express doubts about the theory that the Greeks received their script from the Phoenicians. He put forward the scientific suspicion that it was probably the other way round. The doubts pertaining as to who was first — the Phoenicians or the Greeks — in discovering writing, became a certainty when French professor, Paul Fore, an internationally acclaimed specialist on Prehistoric Archaeology, published a report in Nestor (an American Archaeological Journal of the University of Indiana — 16th year, 1989, page 2288). In this report, he submits and deciphers plates with Greek Linear writing found at the cyclopean wall of Pilikates, in Ithaca, dated, through the use of modern scientific methods, back to 2700 B.C., The language of these plates was Greek, and the decoding by professor Fore resulted in the following syllabic text, expressed phonetically: A]RE-DA-TI. DA-MI-U-A-.A-TE-NA-KA-NA-RE (ija)-TE. The phonetic equivalent of this is translated, always according to the professor, as: “Ιδού τι εγώ η Αρεδάτις δίδω εις την ανασσαν, την θεάν Ρέαν: 100 αίγας, 10 πρόβατα, 3 χοίρους” [Here is what I, Aredatis, gives to the queen- goddess Rea, 100 goats, 10 sheep, 3 pigs]. (See, “Davlos” magazine, issue 107, November 1990, page 6103). Thus, Fore proved that the Greeks were writing and speaking Greek at least 1400 years before the appearance of the Phoenicians and their script in history. But, the archaeological excavations in Greece during the last 15 years have given us many more great surprises: The Greeks were writing using not only Linear A and B, but also a type of writing identical to that of the alphabet since at least 6000 B.C. In fact, at Dispilio, in the lake of Kastoria, in northern Greece, professor G. Houmouziadis discovered a plate with writing very similar to that of the alphabet, which was dated, using radioactive Carbon- 14 and visual photothermal methodology, back to 5250 B.C. (see Davlos, issue 147). Three years later, N. Samson, a curator of the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Department, discovered shards of vases (“ostraka”) with letters identical to the present Greek alphabet while excavating at the “Cyclop’s Cave,” on the deserted island of Yioura, near the inhabited island of Alonnissos, in the Northern Sporades island complex. These vases were dated to5,500 to 6,000 B.C. with the same methods (see “Davlos,” issue 185, May 1997). The same archaeologist, while performing excavations on the island of Milos, discovered vessels of the proto-cycladic period (mid-3rd millennium B.C.) with letters identical to the Greek letters:

“X,” “N,” “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi],”Π” [p], “Ο,” & “Ε.” (See N. Samson’s interview in Davlos,issue 204, December 1998, page 12749.)

It is apparent that these archaeological discoveries have given a “comical’ character to the so-called “Phoenician Theory” on the discovery of writing. In addition, these archaeological discoveries have revolutionized chronological dating of Greek history as it is taught today, as well as the world history of civilization itself. (See also the book by Con. Koutrouvelli, “Re- establishing the Chronology of Prehistoric Times based primarily on astronomical information from Ancient Writers,” Davlos Publishing, 1999.)

b) The somewhat mathematical proof

While the house-of-cards which provided “proof”‘ of the so-called “Phoenician alphabet” was being torn down by archaeological discoveries, another overwhelming piece of evidence surfaced. This evidence was offered to us by the 20-year long discreet and timid research of the Greek Language and Writing by a great researcher, Elias Tsatsomoiros. Unfortunately E.Tsatsomoiros passed away on December 19th 1991, after having, however, completed his revolutionary work, History of the Genesis of the Greek Language-from the hunter-gatherer to the time of Zeus-the Deciphering of the Greek Alphabet. The undersigned [writer of this article] had the honor of publishing and editing this work (Davlos Publishing, 1991), but also the honor of having worked closely with the researcher for more than a decade. We had long discussions on the numerous problems arising from the research, and we had published a series of articles in Davlos magazine. This memorable researcher proved in a remarkable way that every letter of the Greek alphabet contained a consistent code meaning, which is literally introduced either exactly or metaphorically within the general meaning of the Greek word it belongs to, as a partial meaning. Consequently, every (ancient) Greek word is basically an acronym (similar to D(imosia) E (picheirisi) H(lektrismou) [=ΔΕΗ in Greek, or as U(nited) N(ations), in English], where every letter provides a significant or less significant notional element, and then, they all together provide the logical definition of the meaning expressed bythe word. The “significant difference” of each word’s meaning is usually provided by the firstletter. Obviously, there is not enough space in this article to present the code meaning of the letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole, as they are analyzed in this revolutionary volume of research in the field of human speech. As an example, I will choose only one of the 24 letters of our alphabet, “Ypsilon” = “Y” or, small case, “u” (pronounced, long-e “eepsilon,” the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet, and familiar to us as “Y” in the so-called “Latin” alphabet– which is nothing more than a variationof the Greek “Chalcidean” alphabet). Ypsilon, therefore, as its shape indicates, has the code meaning of “a cavity” οr, if reversed, of a “convexity.” This meaning is introduced into the words containing this letter, and sometimes, by extension into the meaning of liquids (which, through their natural flow end up filling the “cavity”). I will quickly mention some of the names of vessels and liquids (such as the amphiconical κ-Υ-πελλο which is dated back to 2700 B.C. and is displayed at the Heraklion Museum). One may add to the words mentioned there, many others, such as kot-Y-li, go-Y-ttos, tr-Y-blion, p-Y-xis, amphore-Y-s, b-Y-tion, l-Y-chnos, procho-Y-s, ske-Y-os, etc, all having the meaning of a curvedobject. Also, some other words such as k-Y-hsis (rounding of the stomach ofan eng-Y-os [pregnant] woman); k-Y-ma (curving on the surface of the ocean); cr-Y-pti (curving of the ground); the preposition [h-Y-po] Y-po (meaning under a certain level); h-Y-per (preposition meaning above acertain level); Y-psos =height; and all of the hundreds of words that have h-Y-po or h-Y-per as a prefix, as well as thousands of others. This discovery, which unfortunately has been officially ignored, is a continuation of the forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of language (see Plato’s Cratylus ).

This theory:

1. Completely rejects the that the Greek language came from another language (the so-called“Indo-European”!!!), since it is proven to be the only non-conventional language of the world. In other words, the only language where a relationship betweenthe “word” (as a form) and the “meaning of the word” is established.

2. Consequently, it is proven that Greek is the first and only created language of the human species which provided the basis for all “conventional” languages, as are all the other languages of the world (where there is no causative relationship between the form and the meaning). These other languages are a corrupt form of Greek.

3. This theory proves, without a doubt, that the alphabet was created by the Greeks so that the 24 or 27 code letters would aid in attributing the meanings of the Greek words (and only of these).

4. Comparatively, this theory shows that the symbols of the Phoenician writings andtheir nouns, e.g., “alef” =ox, “beth” = hut, “gimel = camel, etc., not only do not containcoded meaning, but are also associated or refer to [the] primitive animal conditions[one would expect in a culturally backward society].

THE HERODOTUS EXTRACT

All the Greek writers who mention the alphabet (they called it “grammata”) consider it a very ancient Greek invention (by Prometheus, Palamedes, Linus, etc). The theory of the Phoenician alphabet was always, and is still, based on an exception to this general rule. Thisexception is an excerpt from Herodotus, that he himself presents as his ‘personal opinion’ (“ως εμοι δοκεει” = “as it seems to me”). This opinion was formed based on the sayings of others, as he himself mentions in the previous paragraphs (“αναπυνθανομενος” = taking information from others). Let us have a look at the Herodotus’ excerpt (History, E 58): [58. As far as the Phoenicians, they, who arrived with Cadmus, including the Gefiraioi, had lived in many other places and introduced also arts (new and unknown) to the Greeks; in fact, and also (some) writing, whichhad not been known to the Greeks before that, as I think, first this writing which was used by all the Phoenicians. With the passing of time, however, the Phoenicians changed this type of writing along with their language.]

The most important thing about this excerpt is that in the critical phrase “… ama tin foni metevallon kai ton rhithmon ton grammaton,” it is disclosed that the Phoenicians-Gefiraioi that went to Viotia with Cadmus brought some form of writing with them. But, as the Phoenicians “changed their language” (they learned Greek, in other words), they also changed their writing (they started writing, therefore, with the existing ancient Greek writing that already existed in Viotia). Although this statement was made by Herodotus, the translators, subsequently, provided the translation [meaning] that the local Greek Viotes and not the Phoenician emigrants changed their language and writing and adopted the Phoenician! This generally incoherent reference to the alphabet, as it has been saved, has been obviously altered and meddled with, who knows by whom and when. Let us look at the suspicious continuation of the text, as it has arrived to us:

Around them (the Phoenicians) lived at that place during that year (year of Cadmus) Ionian Greeks, who received through contact or through teachings by the Phoenicians their writings, changing their own writing which they used little. When using this writing and since this writing had been introduced to Greece by Phoenicians, they called it Phoenician.

Ionian Greeks living around the Phoenicians received the Phoenician writing and, using a few of its letters, since they had altered them and since it was just, they called it Phoenician-to pay tribute to the people who brought it to Greece, is a striking contradiction. Consequently, one can assume that this is a forged paragraph, hypothetically explanatory, which aims to reduce the previous statement “…as they changed their language, they changed their writing,” to an unimportant statement. This is how the “Phoenician Theory” was substantiated and is maintained as an obvious forgery.

IN ADDITION

The “Phoenician Theory” was established in Europe during a time, when, as the renowned British classical scholar, S. G. Rembroke (The Legacy of Greece, Oxford University Press, 1984) wrote, “The Phoenicians were given an intermediary role “that is not based on any historical information”. A role, in other words, of the transporter of wisdom and civilization from the “chosen” people of Israel to the “uncivilized” nations, and specifically the Greeks. This, of course, could be forgiven, since this was established around the end of the Medieval Ages, when religious fanaticism and backwardness had reached such a point that the daughter of Agamemnon, Iphigenia, is presented as the daughter of Iephtha; Deukalion is presented as…”Noah”(!!); Appis is a consul of Joseph; Apollo, Priam, Tiresias, and Orpheus are corrupted alias HYBRIDES personae of Moses. The story of the Argonauts is the crossing of the Israelites from Egypt to Palestine, and other similar distortions. The above are noted by Rembroke.

And we conclude: At the time, Hellenism was in comatose spiritual condition regarding national and historical awareness, and therefore totally unable to defend its history and civilization, and for this reason could not react and did not react. Today, it is with ourtolerance that our language is deemed “Indo-European,” and our writing “Phoenician,” our Athena and our Socrates are presented as “Blacks,” and our civilization as “African.” What spiritual situation are we in now? [i.e., What’s our excuse this time?]

 Notes: On page 13745 of this article, is a picture of a piece of shard [pottery] dated to 6,000 B.C., found on the islet of Youra of the North Sporades island complex with Greek alphabetical writings. One can see the letters “A,” “Y,” & “D” [alpha, eepsilon, and delta ], almost identical to the Greek letters of the classical alphabets. This finding proves that the Greek alphabet is older than the Greek Linear writings. This finding also completely and definitely disproves the false theory that the Greeks got their alphabet from the Phoenicians, who made their historical appearance around 1300 B.C., in other words about 4,500 to 5,000 years after the creation of this plaque at Youra. On page 13747 are shown letter-symbols from the Proto-cycladic vessels of Milos (mid-third millennium B.C.). One can distinguish the [letter] “X” [chi] to the left and the [letter] “N” to the right. These letters are written just as the letters of the Greek alphabet are written today.

NO MATTER HOW DIFFERENT MISHELLENIC(=GREEK HATING) & ANTHHELLENIC(ANTIGREEK) EVIL & DARK POWERS, WHO LEAD THE MEDIA TOWARDS TO BLIND & UNEDUCATATED  MAIN STREAM, WHO, IS THE BIGEST VICTIM OF ALL! (“HISTORY CHANEL, POLITICIANS..ETC…THE: NEW(!!!) HISTORICAL IDENTITY FOR “MACEDONIANS”, WHO SPEALK WARDASKIAN SLAVIC, TURKISH, AS ….ANCIENT TROJANS(!!!!!!)..BUT THE TEMPLES, THE RELIGION, THE ETYMOLOGY, THE PHILOSPHY, THE POETRY, THE ASTRONOMY, THE DRAMA & THEATER , THE MATHEMATICS, NAMES,  THE REAL HISTRORICAL FACTS, THE LOGICAL CONTINUATION (& CONECTION OF THE LANGUAGE TO THE: MATHEMATICAL, ARCHITECTICAL, POETICAL, RYTHMICAL, ORTHOLOGICAL INTIME & FACTS IS MORE THAN ENOUGH TO REVEAL WHO`S WHO IN THE..ZOOO & FOR NOT UNDERSTANDING CHARACTERS WITH NO SO MUCH OF I.Q, IS JUST VERY TRAGIC!

Other vessels were also found with “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi], “Π” [p], “O,” and “E.” Source. 

Nicander of Colophon

Nikander, Theriaca, 10th century, Constantinople

 (Greek: Νίκανδρος ὁ Κολοφώνιος Níkandros ho Kolophṓnios; fl. 2nd century BC), Greek poetphysician and grammarian, was born at Claros (Ahmetbeyli in modern Turkey), near Colophon, where his family held the hereditary priesthood of Apollo. He flourished under Attalus III of Pergamum.

He wrote a number of works both in prose and verse, of which two survive complete. The longest, Theriaca, is a hexameter poem (958 lines) on the nature of venomous animals and the wounds which they inflict. The other, Alexipharmaca, consists of 630 hexameters treating of poisons and their antidotes. Nicander’s main source for medical information was the physician Apollodorus. Among his lost works, Heteroeumena was a mythological epic, used by Ovid in the Metamorphoses and epitomized by Antoninus LiberalisGeorgica, of which considerable fragments survive, was perhaps imitated by Virgil.[1]

The works of Nicander were praised by Cicero (De oratore, i. 16), imitated by Ovid and Lucan, and frequently quoted by Pliny and other writers (e. g. Tertullian in De Scorpiace, I, 1).

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CORINTH & “PERIANDER”= ΠΕΡΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ/PERIANDROS: From περι- (peri-) +‎ ἀνήρ (anḗr, “man”) +‎ -ος (-os). … a male given name, equivalent to English PERIANDER .

PERIANDER enhanced Corinth’s natural advantages by constructing an artificial harbor and a passageway across the ISTHMUS (the DIOLKOS) that allowed ships to be DRAGGED over land from one gulf to the other. He also LEVIED taxes on the USE of CORINTHIAN harbors, markets, and the DIOLKOS.
PERIANDER, (died c. 587 BCE), SECOND tyrant of CORINTH (c. 627–587 BCE), a firm and effective ruler who exploited his city’s commercial and cultural potential. Much of the ANCIENT GREEK representation of PERIANDER as a cruel despot probably derives from the CORINTHIAN NOBILITY with whom he dealt harshly.
PERIANDER was the son of CYPSELUS, the FOUNDER of the CYPSELID DYNASTY of CORINTH. To promote and protect CORINTHIAN trade, PERIANDER established colonies at POTIDAEA in CHALCIDICE and at APOLLONIA in ILLYRIA. He conquered Epidaurus and annexed CORCYRA. The DIOLKOS (=“portage way”) across the ISTHMUS of CORINTH was perhaps built during his reign. It appears that the commercial prosperity of PERIANDER’SCorinth became so great that the tolls on goods entering its ports accounted for almost all government revenues. PERIANDER cultivated friendly relations with THRASYBULUS, tyrant of MILETUS, and maintained ties with the kings of LYDIA and EGYPT. In the cultural sphere he was a patron of art and of literature; by his invitation the poet ARION came to the city from LESBOS. Sometimes reckoned as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, Periander was the supposed author of a collection of maxims in 2,000 verses.
CORINTH, Greek KÓRINTHOS, an ancient and a modern city of the PELOPONNESE, in SOUTH-CENTRAL GREECE. The remains of the ancient city lie about 50 miles (80 km) west of ATHENS, at the EASTERN end of the Gulf of CORINTH, on a terrace some 300 feet (90 metres) above sea level. The ancient city grew up at the base of the citadel of the ACROCORINTHUS—a GIBRALTAR-like eminence rising 1,886 feet (575 metres) above sea level. The ACROCORINTHUS lies about 1.5 miles (2.5 km) south of the ISTHMUS of CORINTH, which connects the PELOPONNESE with CENTRAL GREECE and which also separates the SARONIC and CORINTHIAN gulfs from each other. The citadel of the ACROCORINTHUS rises precipitously above the old city and commands the land route into the PELOPONNESE, a circumstance that gave CORINTH great strategic and commercial importance in ancient times.
The site was occupied from before 3000 BCE, but its HISTORY is obscure until the early 8th century BCE, when the city-state of CORINTH began to develop as a commercial centre. CORINTH’s political influence was increased through territorial expansion in the vicinity, and by the late 8th century it had secured control of the ISTHMUS. The CORINTHIANS established colonies at CORCYRA and SYRACUSE , which would later assure them a dominant position in trade with the #1western Mediterranean.
Britannica Quiz History Buff Quiz
During the 8th and 7th centuries CORINTH was ruled by the BACCHIANS family of nobles, but they were eventually overthrown by CYPSELUS, who, followed by his son PERIANDER , ruled the city as tyrants from about 657 to 550. These tyrants founded further colonies, but the chief source of CORINTH’s wealth remained its possession of the isthmus, which controlled not only the land traffic between Attica and the PELOPONNESE but also the traffic between the Aegean and Ionian seas by way of the CORINTHIAN and SARONIC gulfs. PERIANDER facilitated the transit of ships and cargoes, which were hauled overland from gulf to gulf, by building a stone roadway between them, thus sparing SEAFARERS the ARDUOUS voyage around the southern tip of the Peloponnese. By this time Corinth had harbours on both gulfs that flanked it, LECHAEUM on the Gulf of CORINTH and Cenchreae on the Saronic Gulf. Under the tyrants, CORINTH’S COLONIAL expansion was extended along the ADRIATIC
and into MACEDONIA.
The tyranny of the CYPSELIDS was followed in about 550 BCE by an OLIGARCHICAL government that embarked on a major building program for the city. In the second half of the 6th century, however, CORINTH was OUTSTRIPPED by ATHENS in both seamanship and commerce, and it was often the bitter commercial rivalry between CORINTH and ATHENS that was to generate crises in GREEK politics over the next 200 years. After the GRECO-PERSIAN Wars (c. 546–c. 448 BCE), CORINTH joined SPARTA against ATHENS during the PELOPONNESIAN War (431–404 BCE), but, though that conflict brought about the military defeat of ATHENS, it did little to revive the power of CORINTH, which joined with some of its former allies to defeat SPARTA in the CORINTHIAN War (395–387 BCE).
CORINTH was subsequently involved in most of the political conflicts of GREECE, but chiefly as a pawn in the struggles of more powerful city-states because of the strategic value of its citadel. CORINTH’S independence finally ended in 338 BCE when PHILIP of MACEDONIA GARRISONED the ACROCORINTHUS and made the city the centre of the LEAGUE of CORINTH. The city remained the puppet of MACEDONIA and SUBSEQUENTLY of the ACHAEAN LEAGUE until the LATTER involved it in a FATAL conflict with ROME, and in 146 BCE CORINTH was destroyed by the ROMAN general LUCIUS Mummius .
In 44 BCE JULIUS Caesar reestablished CORINTH as a ROMAN colony. The new6 Corinth flourished and became the administrative capital of the ROMAN province of ACHAEA. The city is known to readers of the New Testament for the letters addressed to its Christian community by the apostle PAUL. It enjoyed some prosperity under BYZANTINE rule but declined in the later European Middle Ages. After the Turkish conquest in 1458, it was reduced to a country town.
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The remains of the ancient city of CORINTH lie just north of the ACROCORINTHUS, with which it was joined by a circuit wall about 6 miles (10 km) in circumference. The city was connected with its principal port, LECHAEUM, by two parallel walls and a paved highway that led to the PROPYLAEA, the entrance to the agora (the city’s main marketplace). Most of the substantial remains in the agora are works from the ROMAN period, but it acquired its present extent much earlier, in the 4th century BCE, with the construction of an enormous stoa (portico), 525 feet (160 metres) in length, that enclosed its southern side. IMMEDIATELY behind the SOUTH stoa began the road leading to the city’s other port of CENCHREAE, on the SARONIC Gulf. On a small rise northwest of the agora stand seven DORIC columns, which are the remains of the TEMPLE of APOLLO (c. 550 BCE). The remains of other temples, villas, a theatre, shops, public baths, pottery factories, a gymnasium, a large TRIUMPHAN arch, and other buildings dot the site, which since 1896 has been extensively excavated.
MODERN CORINTH , three miles northeast of the site of ancient Corinth, was founded in 1858 after an earthquake leveled the latter. It is primarily a hub of communications between NORTHERN and SOUTHERN GREECE and is the PRIMARY point of export for local fruit, raisins, 0 (municipality) of CORINTH in the PELOPONNESE (MODERN GREEK : PELOPÓNNISOS) PERIFÉREIA (region), as well as the seat of an archbishop. Pop. (2001) 30,434; (2011) 30,176. 

Temple of Apollo, in Ancient Corinth, was built about 540 B.C. in the Doric style on the ruins of much earlier temple. It is one of the earliest Doric temples in the Peloponnese constructed of local limestone on top of an imposing, rocky hill.

The mosaics of the Hall of Arion based around the Greek myth of the poet Arion. In the UNESCO listed Ancient Roman mosaics in the Villa Romana del Cas

IDENTICAL-CLASSICAL MOTIVES, FROM the HELLENIC MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY: ARION/ΑΡΙΩΝ ο ΚΙΘΑΡΩΔΟΣ(=ARION the CITHAR PLAYER) rides his DOLPHIN to safety in a third-century mosaic from baths in Henchir Thyna, Tunisia (DEA Picture Library)

ANCIENT CORINTH

Corinthian columns in Jerash, Jordan

Corinthian capital from the Colosseum with gorgoneia, made by Syraciusian sculptors

CORINTHIAN columns of the ARCH of SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS in LEPTIS MAGNA

Corinthinan peripteros of the Temple of Bacchus in Baalbek, Lebanon

CORINTHIA, CORINTH. Circa 350/45-285 BC. AR Stater (21.5mm, 8.53 g, 10h). PEGASOS flying left; koppa below / Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet with neck guard and laurel wreath on the bowl; I before neck, star to right. Pegasi 425; BCD Corinth.

CORINTHIA, Corinth. Circa 400-350/45 BC. AR Stater (21.5mm, 8.60 g, 1h). PEGASOS, wings raised and trailing rein, alighting left; koppa below / Head of ATHENA right, wearing Corinthian Store helmet with neck guard.

PEGASOS STATUE IN MODERN CORINTH

Bellerophon, Pegasus and Chimera, Laconian black-figure kylix C6th B.C., The J. Paul Getty Museum

BELLEROPHONTES: ETYM: ΒΕΛΟΣ+ΦΟΡΩΝ = ARROW CARRIER was one of the MOST celebrated heroes of myth. He was a son of the god Poseidon and Eurynome, wife of King Glaukos (Glaucus) of Korinthos (Corinth). In his youth Bellerophontes captured the winged horse Pegasos as it came to drink from the town’s fountain.

He was later exiled for the murder of a family member and journeyed to the court of King Proitos (Proetus) in Argos for purification. The queen, however, developed a lust for the hero and when he spurned her, she told her husband he had tried to violate her.

Proitos then sent him off to King Iobates in Lykia (Lycia) with a closed letter requesting the youth be put to death. Iobates was reluctant to do this himself and so commanded Bellerophontes to slay the fire-breathing Khimaira (Chimera) which was ravaging the land. He rode into battle against the beast on the back of Pegasos and slew it by driving a lead-tipped spear into its fiery gullet.

The king then ordered him to subdue the barbarous Solymoi tribe, and later the Amazones, but again he proved victorious. Finally, Iobates commanded his guards to ambush and kill the youth, but he slew them all. The king was forced to acknowledge that Bellerophontes must be the son of a god and welcomed him into his house as his son-in-law and heir.

Despite all of his successes, Bellerophontes was still not satisfied and sought to ascend to heaven on the back of Pegasos. Zeus was angered by his presumption and sent a gadfly to sting the horse, causing it to buck and cast the hero back down to earth. After this he wandered the world alone, despised by both gods and men.

The mythological etymology of Bellerophontes name was “Slayer of Belleros” from the Greek Belleros and phonos. However, it is likely that the name originally meant “Wielder of Missiles” from the Greek words belos and phoreô.

Bellerophon, Pegasus and Chimera, Laconian black-figure kylix C6th B.C., The J. Paul Getty Museum 

An exquisite bronze CORINTHIAN helmet of c.510BC. Found at PUGLIA in Italy, it was acquired(!!) by… the British Museum in 1865, in whose collection it remains. 

ISTHMUS 

Humans Have A Funny Habit Of “Creating” Their Own Route 

The STATUE of LIBERTY, whose OFFICIAL NAME IS: (ENGLISH: “LIBERTY ENLIGHTENING THE WORLD” GALLIC: “LA LIBERTE ECLAIRANT LE MONDE”),IS A COLOSSAL statue on the islet of the same name and in the upper part of New York Bay.
This statue was erected to commemorate the friendship between the peoples of the USA and FRANCE.
Its total height is 93 meters (302 ft) including the plinth, and in the Encyclopaedia Britannica version it shows a woman preaching freedom.

This woman holds a torch in her raised right hand and an inscribed tablet in her left bearing the date July 4, 1776.
An elevator goes up to the height of the balcony and a spiral staircase leads to an observation deck on the crown worn by LIBERTY. The torch she holds is 93 meters above the surface of the sea. At the base of the statue is the American Museum of Immigration.
The proposal for the construction of the statue was formulated by a FRENCH HISTORIAN, ÉDUATD DE LABOULAIS, AFTER the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR . A sufficient amount of money was collected by contributions from the FRENCH PEOPLE and the work BEGAN in
FRANCE in 1875, under the direction of the SCULPTOR FREDERIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI.
APOLLO’s ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is depicted in exactly this form.
And fortunately for us, the IMMORTAL GREEK LAND of CORINTH, saved us this image, so that today we can know the truth.
The figure of APOLLO ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is today in the MUSEUM of CORINTH, but it goes unnoticed by the unsuspecting visitor.
It is on a three-fold plate together with two other representations.
The one in the left part depicts an angel, a figure similar to that of the Christian faith and according to archaeologists is the figure of the goddess HECATE.
In the right part, a rosette is depicted.
And in the midst of the miracle! The form of the Light-bearer APOLLO, the same as that of the Statue of LIBERTY! Intellectual property is not clear to whom it belongs.
It is said by people of CORINTH who know that the director of the American Archaeological Mission, a sober and honest man, has declared that AMERICANS should come and worship in the Museum area where the image of the light-bearer APOLLO is located, because it is the source of their national symbol .
(In the photo, we see the sculpture with the representation of ZOODOTIS ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΗΛΙΟΣ=APOLLO HELIOS with his fiery chariot).

Το Άγαλμα της Ελευθερίας , του οποίου η επίσημη ονομασία είναι “Η Ελευθερία φωτίζοντας τον κόσμο” (αγγλιστί “Liberty enlightening the World” γαλλιστί “la Liberte eclairant le monde”) ,
είναι ένα κολοσσιαίο άγαλμα πάνω στην ομώνυμη νησίδα και μέσα στο άνω τμήμα του Κόλπου της Νέας Υόρκης.
Το άγαλμα αυτό στήθηκε σε ανάμνηση της φιλίας των λαών των ΗΠΑ και της Γαλλίας
.

Το συνολικό του ύψος είναι 93 μέτρα (302 πόδια) μαζί με το βάθρο , και κατά την εκδοχή της εγκυκλοπαίδειας Μπριτάννικα παρουσιάζει μια γυναίκα να κηρύττει την ελευθερία.
Η γυναίκα αυτή κρατάει έναν πυρσό στο υψωμένο δεξί της χέρι και μια ενεπίγραφη πλάκα στο αριστερό όπου αναγράφεται η ημερομηνία 4 Ιουλίου 1776.

Ένας ανελκυστήρας ανεβάζει έως το ύψος του εξώστη και μια ελικοειδής σκάλα οδηγεί σε μιαν εξέδρα παρατηρήσεως πάνω στο στέμμα που φοράει η Ελευθερία.Ο πυρσός που κρατάει βρίσκεται σε 93 μέτρα ύψος πάνω από την επιφάνεια της θαλάσσης. Στην βάση του αγάλματος βρίσκεται το Αμερικανικό Μουσείο της Μεταναστεύσεως (American Museum of Immigration).

Την πρόταση για την κατασκευή του αγάλματος διατύπωσε ένας Γάλλος ιστορικός, ο Εντουάρ ντε Λαμπουλάϊγ , μετά τον Αμερικανικό Εμφύλιο πόλεμο. Συγκεντρώθηκε ένας ικανός αριθμός χρημάτων με εισφορές του γαλλικού λαού και το έργο άρχισε στη Γαλλία το 1875, υπό την διεύθυνση του γλύπτη Φρεντερίκ-Ωγκύστ Μπαρτολντί.

Ο Φωτοφόρος Απόλλων , απεικονίζεται με αυτήν ακριβώς την μορφή.
Και ευτυχώς για μας , η αθάνατη Ελληνική Γη της Κορινθίας , μας διέσωσε αυτή την εικόνα , για να μπορούμε σήμερα να γνωρίζουμε την αλήθεια.

Η μορφή του Φωτοφόρου Απόλλωνος βρίσκεται σήμερα στο Μουσείο της Κορίνθου , περνά όμως απαρατήρητη για τον επισκέπτη που δεν είναι υποψιασμένος.
Βρίσκεται σε μία τρίπτυχη πλάκα μαζί με άλλες δύο παραστάσεις.
Η μια στο αριστερό τμήμα, απεικονίζει έναν άγγελο , μορφή όμοια και ίδια με αυτήν της χριστιανικής πίστεως και είναι κατά τους αρχαιολόγους η μορφή της θεάς Εκάτης.
Στο δεξιό τμήμα, απεικονίζεται ρόδακας.
Και στην μέση ω του θαύματος! Η μορφή του Φωτοφόρου Απόλλωνος , ίδια με αυτήν του αγάλματος της Ελευθερίας! Η πνευματική ιδιοκτησία είναι πασιφανές σε ποιόν ανήκει.

Λέγεται από ανθρώπους της Κορίνθου που γνωρίζουν ότι ο διευθυντής της Αμερικανικής Αρχαιολογικής αποστολής , σώφρων και έντιμος άνθρωπος , έχει δηλώσει ότι οι Αμερικανοί πρέπει να έρχονται να προσκυνούν στον χώρο του Μουσείου όπου βρίσκεται η μορφή του φωτοφόρου Απόλλωνος , διότι είναι η πηγή του εθνικού τους συμβόλου.
(Στην φωτογραφία, βλέπουμε το γλυπτό με την παράσταση του Ζωοδώτη Απόλλωνα – Ηλίου με το πύρινο άρμα του)
.

THE PHOENICIAN DECEPTION AND THE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE

The supposed Phoenician origin of the Greek alphabet is over! https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of-the-ancient-greek-language-vs-phoenician-deception/

A  sensational speech about the Greek language and its authentic Greek writing (alphabet) which does not come from the Phoenicians and the non-existent “Indo-Europeans” ,  a theory that calls for it to be removed from school books ,  was given at the Academy of Athens by its outgoing President, Akadimaikos Antonios Kounadis on January 14, 2019 AD , closing his annual term there.

The following  text of his speech was first published on the website of the ” Estia” newspaper.

THE ORIGIN OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE: SPOKEN AND WRITTEN https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of-the-ancient-greek-language-vs-phoenician-deception/

Speech by the former president of the Academy of Athens, Antonio Kounadis

delivered at the Academy of Athens on January 14, 2019.

THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS THE HIGHEST CULTURAL GOOD

   “The  opinion put forward in the 18th century, that the Greek language belongs to the Indo-European family of languages , as well  as the opinion that the Greek alphabet is of Phoenician-Semitic origin, have been the subject of intense debates and disputes that continue to this day. Two issues, which should not leave any Greek indifferent, since the  most important asset of our cultural heritage, the Greek language ,  spoken and written, inextricably linked to the identity, continuity, survival and perspective of Hellenism , is a matter all of us.

Of course also the speaker, due to my long-term involvement with Education and my related article, with which I formalized the  harmful legislative interventions in our language, with the pseudo-labeled characterization as Educational Reforms .

Given that these two topics are interdisciplinary in nature and in fact the subject of many different sciences, my attempt in this case is  to present authentic opinions of linguists, archaeologists, historians, anthropologists, paleontologists , so that more light can be shed on these two complicated and even dark topics, based on the latest findings and developments in  human archaeogenetics (aDNA) and population genetics . Developments, which overturned or even confirmed previous assumptions.

ARISTOTLE: HELLENICIZES IT IS THE RIGHT NAME OF IT

  In  Plato’s Cratylus  , which is a dialogue about the correctness of names with interlocutors Hermogenes, the philosopher-mathematician Cratylus (founder of a philosophical school in the 5th century BC) and Socrates, the  beginnings of Comparative Linguistics can be found  in what it concerns names of barbarians (i.e. foreigners) and the comparative method (as it concerns the dialects of Greek, e.g. Aeolian, Doric, Ionic, Attic, etc.), as well as  the beginnings of Etymology for how the correct nomenclature is determined (naming) of words (names), nature or law . According to natural definition (according to Cratylos), there is an  agreement between a name (word) and its etymological conceptual content  (i.e. between signifier and signified), while according to the legal definition of names (words) naming is conventional  Greek language is preeminently conceptual or semantic, i.e. there is a causal relationship between nouns-words and their etymological meaning .

According to  Plato  (Kratylus, 435-436) ” he who believes in names, believes in things” . First,  Dionysius of Halicarnassus  (1st century BC) in his work “On the Composition of Names”  considers Plato to be the founder of Etymology,  writing: “The super-etymology discourse was first introduced by Plato in multiple men and allothi, indeed in the Cratylus.” . Regarding the value of the semantic property of names,  Aristotle  points out: “Reason, if it does not state, will not do its own work.” (The Art of Rhetoric C. 2149), then he does not exclude the Greek with the phrase: ” To Hellenizes is the right name .” (Art of rhetoric C. 4.1407).

HEISENBERG, NOBEL LAUREATE FOR ANCIENT GREEK  But even in recent times, the German philosopher-physicist Wenner Heisenberg  (Nobel Prize 1932) had declared: ” 

The term in the ancient Greek language was my most important intellectual exercise. In this language there is the most complete correspondence between the word and the conceptual content . If the first alphabet (more precisely, a writing system) is Semitic-Phoenician and if the Phoenicians (a branch of the Semitic race that distinguished itself in shipping and trade) took it from the Hebrews and transmitted it to the Greeks, it has become the subject of many discussions and disputes. Related topics for investigation are when the Phoenician immigrants settled in Phoenicia and which are the oldest inscriptions or written texts of the Phoenician culture.

HERODOTUS: “it seems to me…” Regarding the existing opinion about the origin of the Greek alphabet from the “Phoenician letters”, that is, from the Phoenician essentially “Syllabary”, it is worth noting that the “Phoenicians based this opinion mainly on the well-known 

 saying of Herodotus: “The Phoenicians … brought in teachers Greeks and words and letters did not exist before Greeks, as I believe…” . That is, Herodotus formulates this with reservation (as I do), referring vaguely to letters and not to the letters of a specific scripture.

DIODORUS SIKELIOTIS: “the Phoenicians took it from others”

  However, the historian  Diodorus the Sicilian  (E 74) does not agree with Herodotus’ opinion (E 74), who clarifies that  the so-called “Phoenician letters” are not an invention of the Phoenicians but an adaptation of other letters, that is, of the Hellenic-Cretan ones, stating  :  They are not found from the beginning, but the types of the letters are only shifted ,…”.

NO PHOENICIAN INSCRIPTIONS WERE NEVER FOUND

Let it be noted that the Phoenicians, as seen from various historical sources, settled in Phoenicia (today’s Lebanon and partly Syria) mixed with the native Canaanites between 1,200 and 1,100 BC Written texts or inscriptions about the Phoenician culture have not been found until today.

THERE WAS GREEK SCRIPTURE DURING THE TRONIC WAR (1,200 BC)  Based on historical data, inscriptions and many references to (known) texts of ancient Greek authors, it has been accepted by the international scientific community that  

the Greek (alphabetic) writing probably existed before the time of the Trojan War . (We do not mean Linear A or B or certainly the most ancient Cretan hieroglyphic writing through ideograms.) However, the Greek (alphabetic) writing seems to have existed before the times of Homer, based on historical sources. E.g. in the Iliad (describing the Trojan War),  

Homer , referring to Bellerephon, writes ” 

signs that you have written on a canvas with a tymophothora many “. (Letter of Proitus to his father-in-law, Iovatis. G 169.) Also, according to the philosopher and  

historian Porphyry  (3rd AD century), Homer wrote the Iliad “not at all, not continuously, because they are contiguous, but” he  

wrote me every rhapsody  and being shown in the midst of the cities of food, he disappeared…” (Dictionary of Souda or Suida).   Mistriotis mentions that  

Apollodorus  (180-110 BC) tells us that Ajax, during the Trojan War, wrote the news of the death of his brother, Palamedes, on a rudder , which the sea waves carried to his father Nafplion. Of interest is the Scientific Communication of the Greek researchers Tavros 

Papamarinopoulos  and his collaborators, which I presented at the Public Session of the Academy (19/10/2017) entitled “Astronomical Dates of the End of the Trojan War and the Return of Odysseus” (Prak tics of the Academy , vol. 92 A, 2017). The Announcement concludes that  

the end of the Trojan War dates back to 1200 BC.  This date indicates the existence of a writing during the time of the Trojan War, in view of what was extrapolated by Homer about Bellerephon and by Mistriotis – Apollodorus for what they mention about Oiacas. 

If there really was writing before 1200 BC, the claims that the Greeks allegedly took the writing system (Syllabary) from the Phoenicians are shaken, lacking in credibility . Of course, this question remains open in the absence of evidence, because the existing evidence is not enough.

EVANS: THE PHOENICIANS TOOK THE LETTERS FROM THE GREEKS

LINE 1left from a vase at Akrotiri Thiras – right from Zakros Palace, Arch. Museum of Sitia

According to  Sir Arthur Evans  “the writing of Crete is the mother of the Phoenician” , while according to  René Dussault  “the Phoenicians had received the alphabet from the Greeks,  who had formed it from the Cretan-Mycenaean script “. (See also Georgiev, Problems of the Minoan Language, Sofia 1953.)

PHOENICIAN WITHOUT VOWELS…

  The Phoenician is not an alphabet, but a “Syllabary”, without vowels, with 22 consonants and without the consonants X, F, P of the Greek alphabet . But also according to the  Irvain University Center TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae), the  Cretan historian Dosiades  (who wrote the local history of Crete) mentions that  the alphabet was found by the Cretans .

WHERE DOES THE LETTER ALPHA COME FROM

   Plutarch   (Problems 737)  considers naive the opinion that the letter “alpha” is Phoenician from “Aleph” which was called the boon  (considered the first of the necessary). According to the Great Etymological Dictionary, the letter “alpha” comes  from the verb alfo  (= to find), because “it was found first of all the other elements.”

IONIC THE PRESENT ALPHABET

Each city-state or region in the archaic Greek world had its own alphabet, (with slight variations from those of other cities.)  The current Greek alphabet is the Ionic, with 24 letters, which prevailed from 403 BC. on Lord Euclid . The Corinthian also has 24 letters, the Cretan 21, the Miletus 24, the Chalcidic 25, from which the current Latin came, after adaptation by the inhabitants of Latin Italy, (who, it seems, received it from Greeks of Kimi.)

From the Greek alphabet also came the Etruscan, the Cyrillic, the ancient Phrygian, the Lycian alphabet, the Lydian, the Armenian, the Coptic, the Gothic,  etc.

ANCIENT GREEK SCRIPTURES

  There are many sources for the  beginnings of Greek writing  , among which:

1) The sign of the Dispelion of Kastoria brought to light in 1993 by professor G. Hourmouziadis, which archaeologists both from the “Democritos” Research Center and the external ones dated to 5250 BC. 

Sign plate signature of Dispilio Kastoria, Macedonia 5,250 BC.(left a copy of the sign – right some of its letters and symbols)


2) “The Ostrakos in the Hermitage of Iura of the Sporades”, which was found by the archaeologist Adam Samson with a Greek inscription of 5500 BC, in which the letters A Y D are clearly visible 
 without any inscriptions, their phonetic value being known.

Writing on a shell of 5,500 BC, Cave of Cyclops, Iura SporadesGreek letters A, Y, D are visible


3) “The Ὄstrakos in the Pilikata area of ​​Ithaca”
 , 

 dating to 2700 BC. , on which there are engraved symbolic figures similar to those of Linear Scriptures A and B.

Writing on a shell of 2,700 BC. in Pelikata, Ithaca – Cross Museum of Ithaca


THE EPICS OF HOMER WERE TRANSFERRED IN WRITING

In this case, it is reasonable to ask  how it is possible for thousands of Homeric verses to be preserved and transmitted over many centuries unchanged with amazing precision . This is why  Mistriotis  in his work “History of the Homeric Epics” (Sakellariu Prints, Athens 1903, edition 2) mentions: ” The polymorphism and instability in the expansion and contraction of vowels cannot be attributed to the lack of writing .” ».

Professor  Gilbert Heigt  states that  a poem like the Iliad could not have been handed down without writing  (The Classical Tradition, MIET ed.), while the famous writer  Horst Blank (Papadima ed., p. 148) affirms that: ” Today a great part of philologists close to the hypothesis that the compilation of the Homeric Epics had already made the written consolidation of the text necessary… the rhapsodists carried with them their written manuscript copy . Also, the  French Hellenist Jacqueline De Romiguy  categorically states: ” Homer and writing coexist .”. (Why Greece, Ed. To “Asty”, p. 28.) The dactylic hexameter in the Homeric Epics is based on prosody (long and short vowels, double consonants, diphthongs, etc.). The opinion that the Phoenicians borrowed some consonants and immediately the Greeks wrote the Epis spelled, has no strong arguments , as the Dictionary Souda or Suida states (see Phoenician city).

WILLIAM DURANT: THE PHOENICIANS TOOK IT FROM THE GREEKS

   The reference of the  American historian/philosopher, editor of the world history of culture ,  William Durant, is also characteristic:  ” The Phoenicians were not the inventors of the alphabet, they only circulated it from place to place. They took it from the Cretans and transported it to Tyre, Sidon, Byblos and other cities of the Mediterranean. There were the “gyrologists” and not the inventors of the alphabet .”

The  archaeologist-epigraphist Apostolos Arvanitopoulos  had declared: ” The alphabet was invented and implemented by the Ancient Greeks … and they gifted it to the lost humanity as its common property.” There are several testimonies with texts of ancient historians and writers (after the time of Homer), which support that  there was a written Greek language (a variety of Grammika B’) around 1200 BC, i.e. before the Phoenician-Semitic Syllabary . However, evidence (eg inscriptions) for the existence of Greek writing dating back to this period does not exist.

GILBERT MURRAY: GREEK IS THE BEST LANGUAGE

For this  language of incomparable perfection that we ourselves have abused, while for foreign Greekists and linguists it is an object of admiration and study , the statement of the  distinguished Greek professor at the University of Oxford, Gilbert Murray, is characteristic : “[…]  a thought can be expressed with ease and grace in Greek, while it becomes difficult and heavy in Latin, English, French, German. Greek is the most perfect language, because it expresses the thoughts of the most perfect people .”

The distinguished  Hellenist and linguist Spanish professor FR Adrados , a foreign partner of the Academy of Athens, has repeatedly stated that  Western European languages ​​are Semi-Hellenic or Crypto-Hellenic .

THE INVENTOR OF TONES AND SPIRITS

It is also worth noting that  Aristophanes of Byzantium  (2nd century BC)  is considered the first to refine and apply tones and spirits .

THE FAISTUS DISC

“On the “disc of Phaistos” dating before 1200 BC.  (which was found in Crete and has not been deciphered until today)  the letters B G L Y are clearly “printed” .

CLAY DOCUMENTS 2,000 BC

Michael  Ventris  and  John Chadwick  argued for the first time that  the “baked clay tablets, from the second millennium BC, found at Pylos, Knossos, Mycenae and other places, contained Greek writings that came from the ancient Mycenaean Kingdoms”” .

The Mycenaeans , as  FR Adrados  recently pointed out (following others),  were Greek, written with the help of an ancient syllabic script that was subsequently forgotten .

OSWALD PANAGL: THE LINEAR VARIATION OF ANCIENT GREEK

Also, in his speech at the Academy of Athens (March 8-10, 2013), the distinguished Austrian linguist and Mycenologist  Osvald Panagl  mentioned that:  The above tablets (of Knossos, Pylos, Mycenae) were written in a primitive variant of ancient Greek, 500 years earlier of the linguistic idiom of the Homeric Epics. Consequently, their date goes back to around 1300 BC.

ICLAIN OF MESSINIA:  LINEAR II   OF 1450 BC.

The Archaeologist M. Kosmopoulos in Iklaina Messinia with Linear B of 1450 BC.

Recently in  Iklaina of Messinia  (14 km from Pylos) the archaeologist  Michael Kosmopoulos , a professor at the University of Missouri in the USA (responsible for excavations since 1998 in this area), found “among rubble and garbage”  the oldest clay tablet to date Linear B dated between 1450 and 1400 BC. , as he informed me in his relevant letter.

OINOCHOES OF DIPYLOS

Winemaker Dipylos Kerameikos of 740 BC. with the letters:”THE CURRENT ORCHESTRA ALWAYS PLAYS TODE KAN MIN…”which according to Babiniotis means “1. Which of the musicians dances more lightly than all 2a. this (the vessel, the wine-cup) belongs to him and if you [see him, wish him every happiness] 2b. let him take it (the vessel)”National Archaeological Museum

However, the  oldest alphabetic inscription , engraved on a clay vessel, in ” Oinochoi of Dipylus ” is from the 8th BC. aἰ.: ” THE CURRENT ORCHESTRA ALWAYS PLAYS THIS FOR TEN MINUTES “. However, in view of the above, this inscription should not be the oldest. Taking into account that to date less than 5% of the Greek Secretariat has been known, it is reasonable to expect that in the future new findings will be brought to light by the archaeological hoe.

INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGE

  According to the linguist professor at Charles Sturt University in Australia  George Kanarakis  (and other researchers), based on historical comparative linguistics,  “the Greek language does not belong to any of the language groups of the Indo-European family and is therefore classified as an isolated language within the context of its homolingualism.”  The term  Indo-Europeans was introduced in 1813 by the British linguist, physician and physicist Thomas Young  (1779-1829).

The top international linguist – Hellenist  FR Adrados  in his announcement at the Academy of Athens said that  the Minoans  “whom we do not know how to define with precision, but they were not Indo-Europeans – the people who wrote the “Phaeisto disc” were not Europeans ”, neither they where they wrote the Mycenaean script.”

aDNA

The prevailing opinion, contrary to that of Sir Arthur Evans (according to which Libyans and Egyptians immigrated to Crete developing the Minoan civilization), is that  the Minoans do not belong to the linguistically Indo-European populations that settled Europe in the Neolithic era . However, the research team of  Georgios Stamatogiannopoulos , Professor of Genetics and Genetic Medicine at G. Washington University , in collaboration with Greek and foreign scientists of various specialties,  isolated αDNA (ancient DNA) from Minoan remains 4,300 years old  and determined the polymorphisms of the mitochondrion, the who  they have the characteristics of European culture . Extremely interesting is a recent publication by him and his collaborators entitled ” Population Genetics and the Theory of the Alleged Extinction of the Greeks of the Peloponnese during the Middle Ages ” that I announced at the Academy of Athens (27/4/2017), which proves that the Population Genetics can clarify important issues of origin and history of the Human population.

SANSKRIT IS BASED ON GREEK

The distinguished German linguist  Franz Bopp  (editor of the Comparative Grammar in 1857) has argued that  Sanskrit is based on Greek, and not the other way around .

CONCLUSIONS  Based on the above, we can reach the following conclusions:1.  

Plato laid the foundations of the Etymology of the Greek language , which is 

 preeminently semantic  (conceptual), that is, there is a causal relationship between words and their etymological meaning.2. Research through  

aDNA  showed that there were expansions of population groups from the Russian steppes both to the West (toward Central and Western Europe) and to the East of Europe, through the Asian steppes. 

A genetic signature of migrations to Greece has not been confirmed until today , however, if such exists, according to the top linguist J. Mallory, it will be very small in relation to the  

indigenous population settled in Greece at the time.3.  

The term Indo-Europeans is purely linguistic and does not imply any racial type of person. The existence of an Indo-European race is strongly disputed  by leading specialist scientists, based on recent genetic data. 

It is time for the old Indo-European case to be removed from the textbooks .4. The inclusion of Proto-Greek in the Indo-European common language is not disputed, however,  

the mother-language of this common language remains unknown . However, as previously discussed,  

Proto-Greek seems to be superior to the other languages  ​​(including Sanskrit), however the question of the time of its appearance in the Greek space remains open (according to Dr. I. Lazaridis).5. In the Greek area, and specifically  

in Crete, the first writing system with ideograms  (hieroglyphs) appears 5,000 years ago,  

followed approximately 4,000 years ago by Linear A’  (which has not yet been deciphered),  

which is succeeded before 3,500 years (15th BC) the Linear B script  (including vowels), which was deciphered as Greek by the British architect M. Ventris. According to the famous linguist – Mycenologist 

 Osvald Panagl, the tablets of Knossos and Mycenae date from around 1300 BC, of ​​Pylos around 1200 BC, while the distinguished archaeologist 

 M. Kosmopoulos discovered in Iklaina (14 km from Pylos) the oldest to date clay tablet of Linear B, dated around 1450-1400 BC .6. In the Middle East and specifically  

in the former Phenicia it appears around 1150 BC. the so-called Phoenician-Semitic writing system, which is not an alphabet but a syllabary without vowels, with 22 consonants,  (which do not include the Greek consonants  

X, F, Ψ .)  

If there was writing during the time of the Trojan War (i.e. before 1200 BC), the hypothesis that the Greeks took the writing system (Syllabary) from the Phoenicians is shaky, lacking credibility .7.  

The first alphabet in the world is the Greek, from the 8th BC. aἰ Originally it had 27 letters, from 403 BC. 24 letters, after removing the digamma, Kopa and sabi . However, there are serious indications based on historical sources (Homeric Epistles, Mistriotis, etc.) and archaeological findings, that  the Greek alphabet is much more ancient, OLDER dating back to the years of the Trojan War  (Mistriotis, Apollodorus, etc.), it is much more  

THE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE VS “PHOENICIAN” DECEPTION.

H E R EAN EXAMPLE OF AN I D E N T I C A L- C L A S S I C A L VARIATION OF A STANZA …, …………….

********************** J U S T………………V O W E L S !!!! ********************

( A N C I E N T G R E E K // ATTICA DIALECT)

A YOUNG MOTHERS WISH TO HER BABY SON :

ΟΙΑ ΗΩ Ω ΥΙΕ ΑΕΙ ΕΙ” = AS THE DAWN MY SON, BE ALWAYS THE FLAME OF LIFE = ΟΠΩΣ Η ΑΥΓΉ ΝΑ ΕΙΣΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ ΥΙΕ ΜΟΥ Η ΦΛΟΓΑ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ (TRANSLATED INTO “NEW” GREEK).

ANALYTIC TRASLATION IN ORDER FROMANCIENT GREEK – NEW GREEK – ENGLISH

ΟΙΑ = ΟΠΩΣ= AS

ΗΩ = Η ΑΥΓΉ = THE DAWN

Ω ΥΙΕ = ΥΙΕ ΜΟΥ = OH MY SON

ΑΕΙ ΕΙ = ΝΑ ΕΙΣΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ = BE ALWAYS

(TRANSLATED INTO “NEW” GREEK) :

ΟΠΩΣ Η ΑΥΓΉ ΝΑ ΕΙΣΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ ΥΙΕ ΜΟΥ =

= AS THE DAWN MY SON, BE ALWAYS!!

Η ΦΛΟΓΑ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ=THE FLAME OF LIFE=2135

ΟΙΑ ΗΩ Ω ΥΙΕ ΑΕΙ ΕΙ = 2135

ATTENTION: – GO AFTER THE ANCIENT ALPHABET INDEX

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for“5”, “10”, “100”, “1000”, and “10,000”. Though there was some steam lining of its use. The (IONIAN)) Greek system of enumeration was a VERY SOPHISTICATED one, Like the ATTICA SYSTEM it was also DECIMAL Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception. ” Greek Enumeration and Basic Number Formation First, we note that the number symbols were the same as the letters of the Greek alphabet. symbol value symbol value symbol value ! 1 ” 10 # 100 $ 2 % 20 & 200 ‘ 3 ( 30 ) 300 * 4 + 40 , 400 – 5 . 50 / 500 6 0 60 1 600 2 7 3 70 4 700 5 8 6 80 7 800 8 9 90 900 where three additional characters, the (digamma), the (koppa), 1°c 2000, G. Donald Allen Greek Numbers and Arithmetic 2 and the (sampi) are used. Hence, &62 = 287 Larger Numbers Larger numbers were also available. The thousands, 1000 to 9000, were represented by placing adiacritical mark ! before a unit. Thus ! ‘&62 = 3287 In other sources we see the diacritical mark placed as a subscript before the unit. Thus ! ‘&62 = 3287 The uses of a M was used to represent numbers from 10,000 on up. Thus 9! = 50: 000 9″#&62 = 120: 287 Alternatively, depending on the history one reads 9 – = 50: 000 9!% ¢ &62 = 120: 287 Archimedes, in his book The Sand Reckoner, calculated the number of grains of sand to fill the universe”. This required him to develop an extention the power of Greek enumeration to include very large numbers. Fractions In the area of fractions, context was crucial for correctly reading a fraction. A diacritical mark was placed after the denominator of the (unit) fraction. So, $ ! = 1 2 ;<= +$ ! = 1 42 but this latter example could also mean 40 ! ” . More complex fractions could be written as well, with context again being important. The numerator was written with an overbar. Thus, .! 6* = 51 84 Numerous, similar, representations also have been used, with increasing sophistication over time. Indeed, Diophantus uses a fractional form identical to ours but with the numerator and denominator in reversed positions. 2The reader may ask, ”What universe?” It was the universe of Aristarchos the so called ‘ancient Copernicus’ because he proposed a sun centered universe with the earth and other planet orbiting it. More on this later. Greek Numbers and Arithmetic 3 # Calculation The arithmetic operations are complex in that so many symbols are used. However, as you can imagine, addition amounts to grouping and then carrying. For example 5+7= – + 2 = %$ = 12, not terribly unlike what we do. Multiplication was carried out using the distributive law. For example: &62 ¢ $ = (& + 6 + 2) £ $ = (200 + 80 + 7) £ 2 = 400 + 160 + 14 = 574 = /3* 

(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1

OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

INDEX:

ΓΡΆΜΜΑ=LETTERΑΞΊΑ=VALUEΓΡΆΜΜΑΑΞΊΑ=VALUEΓΡΆΜΜΑΑΞΊΑ=VALUEΓΡΆΜΜΑΑΞΊΑ=VALUE
Α´1Ι´10Ρ´100͵Α1000
Β´2Κ´20Σ´200͵Β2000
Γ´3Λ´30Τ´300͵Γ3000
Δ´4Μ´40Υ´400͵Δ4000
Ε´5Ν´50Φ´500͵Ε5000
Ϛ´6Ξ´60Χ´600͵Ϛ6000
Ζ´7Ο´70Ψ´700͵Z7000
Η´8Π´80Ω´800͵H8000
Θ´9Ϟ´90Ϡ´900͵Θ9000

A vast knowledge locked-coded into words because of mathematical values ​​they have. One of the pioneers on the matter was maximum Pythagoras.

The numbers, shapes, harmony and the stars have something in common, so respectively mathematics (numbers) geometry (shape), harmony (music) and astro-nomy (one star = a-choris- bracket + natural nomoipou govern ) were sisters sciences by Pythagoras, which in this series we discussed was the ladder to development (= ex -tou- helix, DNA) of mind-soul to the Creator.

A Creator who created based on these four disciplines. 27 symbols-figures in numerical value make up the Greek Alphabet, 3 groups of 9 numbers-symbols each group, totaling each group 45, 450, 4,500.
ALPHA = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle

To be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of words of ancient Greek tongue should first know a little about the actual Greek language.

The ancient Greek language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The ancient Greek language is a MATHEMATICAL MASTERPIECE that wè`ll try to approach.

The beginning of everything is the same as the Ancient Greek alphabet (which of course we did not get it from someone else as we shall see, because factually not possible). The letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole was 33 and as many vertebrae, the last five vertebrae (playing the role of the antenna) directly related to the brain and corresponding to the last 5 ineffable letters which only the priests knew * one of them It was the right (or Gammadion) which in Latin became swstika and the Nazis stole and name Swastika. This symbol is the life-giving Sun (Apollo), the Nazis reversed it to symbolize the opposite of life-giving Sun, ie dark death.

There were also some letters which over time abolished as Digamma (F, Qoppa (Q), stigma (S ‘), Saba (ϡ)
Pythagoras inform us about the 3 levels of Greek language which are:

1. Talking
2. Signifier (a. Signal b. Signified)
3. caches (a. Time b. Vibration c. Lexarithmos d. Tonarithmos)
-The First is the speech
-The Second is the relationship between the mark and the signified that we will analyze below.
-The Third is the interval (distance & time), vibration (which awakens the brain through resonance frequencies of the created pulses  – Pallas Athena) the lexarithmos (relation of letters and words with numbers) and tonarithmos (relation of letters and words of tunes )

Each letter corresponding to a number, and a musical tone so letter = number = tone (musician), which shows that in our language behind letters-words are numbers (lexarithmoi) and musical sounds (tonarithmoi).

The four sisters sciences by Pythagoras were:
1. Numbers (mathematics)
2. Shapes (Geometry – γεωμετρια); from: geo+metria=earth measure, meter.
3. Music (Harmony)(nine muses..)
4. Astronomy (Astro+nomia from nomos=law)

The above sciences are interrelated with the Ancient Hellenic Language and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.

1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony),shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.

2. Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.

PHOENICIAN “ALPHABET”:  AN HISTORICAL DECEPTION 

This theory:

1. Completely rejects the theorem that the Greek language came from another language (the so-called “Indo-European”!!!), since it is PROVEN to be the only NON-conventional language of the world. In other words, the only language where a relationship betweenthe “word” (as a form) and the “meaning of the word” is established.

2. Consequently, it is proven that Greek is the first and only created language of the human species which provided the basis for all “conventional” languages, as are all the other languages of the world (where there is no causative relationship between the form and the meaning). These other languages are a corrupt form of Greek.

3. This theory proves, without a doubt, that the alphabet was created by the Greeks so that the 24 or 27 code letters would aid in attributing the meanings of the Greek words (and only of these).

4. Comparatively, this theory shows that the symbols of the Phoenician writings and their nouns, e.g., “alef” = ox, “beth” = hut, “gimel = camel, etc., not only do not contain coded meaning, but are also associated or refer to [the] primitive animal conditions – [one would expect in a culturally backward society].

”Τό πού, πόθ’ όπερ κρίνεται τού χρόνου” !!!(ancient Greek=” Where, what is it that is judged by time ”)

(Χρυσό ενεπίγραφο φύλλο μυρτιάς ή δάφνης, τέλος 4ου αι. π.Χ./ Από το ανατολικό νεκροταφείο της Πέλλας/Φέρει στικτή επιγραφή σε τρεις στίχους: ΦΕΡΣΕΦΟΝΗΙ ΠΟΣΕΙΔΙΠΠΟΣ ΜΥΣΤΗΣ ΕΥΣΕΒΗΣ/Εφορεία Αρχαιοτήτων Πέλλας)

(Gold engraved leaf of myrtle or laurel, end of the 4th century BC / From the east cemetery of Pella / It has a dotted inscription on three lines: FERSEFONHI POSEIDIPPOS MYTIS EYSEVIS / Ephorate of Antiquities of Pella the capital of ancient Macedonia)

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Overwhelming evidence that one of the most important discoveries in the history of civilization is Greek ,a deception that usurps and distorts Greek History and Civilization. It is of utmost importance that the truth be restored not only for modern Greece, but also for thewhole of humanity.The deception that alphabetical script was discovered by the Phoenicians is a long-lived one.For the past 14 years [the Greek scholarly magazine] Davlos has published numerous articleson this problem. This prompted K. Katis to ask that we submit a relevant article for hismainstream daily so that this important issue would become known to a wider audience.

This article summarizes the strong evidence against the “Phoenician Deception,” and proves that the greatest discovery in the history of civilization is Greek. We believe it necessary to republish this article in [this issue of] Davlos exactly as it appeared in the daily.

A SCIENTIFIC MONSTROSITY.

According to linguistic theory, an “alphabet” is defined as “the sum of symbols following a specific sequence and order used to ascribe the essential utterances of a language, under thecondition that each utterance represents only one symbol and vice-versa”. Consequently, in alphabetical script (as an example, in the writings of the people of Europe, America,Australian, as well as the other parts of the world) each letter represents one essential sound.This is not true for the imperfect alphabets expressed through syllables where each symbolrepresents a syllable (with two or more voiced sounds). For example, in Greek Linear A and B, there is a symbol that represents the syllable ko (k + o), a symbol that represents the syllable po (p + o), etc. In Phoenician writing (which has only consonants and no vowels), this situation is even worse, as far as we can tell from the small amount of existing samples.

IN PHOENICIAN, EACH SYMBOL IS NOT EQUIVALENT TO ONE SPECIFIC SYLLABLE, BUT TO A VARIETY OF SYLLABLES, AND THUS THE READER CAN USE HIS IMAGINATION WHEN ATTEMPTING TO DECIPHER THE SOUNDS. FOR EXAMPLE, THERE ARE CONSONANTS WHICH CAN BE READ AS EITHER BA, BOU, BE, BI, BO, ETC. OTHERS  IS NOT AN ALPHABET, IT IS A LESS ADVANCED FORM OF WRITING THAT CAN BE READ AS GOU, GA, GE, GO, AND SO ON. CONSEQUENTLY, PHOENICIAN SCRIPT DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN ALPHABET, AND IS NOT EVEN AN ADVANCED FORM OF SYLLABIC SCRIPT NEARING THE PERFECTION OF THE EQUIVALENT GREEK SYLLABIC WRITINGS. IT IS TRULY AMAZING TO THINK THAT, IN THE ACADEMIC WORLD OF THE PAST 150 YEARS, THE ALMOST CONTRADICTORY TERM OF “PHOENICIAN ALPHABET” HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED, WHICH, IN REALITY REFERS TO A TYPE OF WRITING THAT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH AN ALPHABET. IT IS EVEN MORE UNBELIEVABLE TO THINK THAT THE SCIENTIFIC DOGMA THAT GREEK CAME FROM PHOENICIAN HAS BEEN ENFORCED. NOT ONLY THE PHOENICIAN IS NOT AN ALPHABET, IT IS A LESS ADVANCED FORM OF WRITING THAN GREEK LINEAR A AND B.

HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=DKCPURQQS2Y

GREEKNESS OF THE ALPHABET

A) ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE THE THEORY THAT THE ALPHABET IS A PHOENICIAN DISCOVERY HAS BEEN MAINTAINED THROUGH THE ARGUMENT, AMONG OTHER THINGS, THAT CERTAIN SYMBOLS OF PHOENICIAN WRITING ARE SIMILAR TO THE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET. FOR EXAMPLE, THE PHOENICIAN ALEF IS THE REVERSE OR SIDEWAYS GREEK “A.” THIS ARGUMENT WAS A STRONG ONE UNTIL ABOUT 100 YEARS AGO, WHEN LINGUISTS AND HISTORIANS STILL MAINTAINED THAT THE GREEKS DID NOT KNOW HOW TO WRITE BEFORE 800 B. C.! AROUND 1900 A.D., HOWEVER, ARTHUR EVANS EXCAVATED THE GREEK MINOAN CRETE AND DISCOVERED THE GREEK LINEAR WRITINGS, WHOSE SYMBOLS CORRESPONDED TO 17 OF THE 24 LETTERS OF THE GREEK ALPHABET. GIVEN THAT (A), THE MOST ANCIENT EVIDENCE OF THE GREEK SCRIPTS (LINEAR A AND LINEAR B) THAT WERE LATER DISCOVERED IN PYLOS, MYCENAE, MENIDI AND THEBES — BUT ALSO IN MORE NORTHERN AREAS UP TO THE DANUBE RIVER AS WELL — WERE DATED TO BEFORE 1500 B.C. AND (B), THAT THE PHOENICIANS AND THEIR WRITINGS APPEAR IN HISTORY NO EARLIER THAN 1300 BC, EVANS WAS THE FIRST PERSON TO EXPRESS DOUBTS ABOUT THE THEORY THAT THE GREEKS RECEIVED THEIR SCRIPT FROM THE PHOENICIANS. HE PUT FORWARD THE SCIENTIFIC SUSPICION THAT IT WAS PROBABLY THE OTHER WAY ROUND. THE DOUBTS PERTAINING AS TO WHO WAS FIRST — THE PHOENICIANS OR THE GREEKS — IN DISCOVERING WRITING, BECAME A CERTAINTY WHEN FRENCH PROFESSOR, PAUL FORE, AN INTERNATIONALLY ACCLAIMED SPECIALIST ON PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY, PUBLISHED A REPORT IN NESTOR (AN AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF INDIANA — 16TH YEAR, 1989, PAGE 2288). IN THIS REPORT, HE SUBMITS AND DECIPHERS PLATES WITH GREEK LINEAR WRITING FOUND AT THE CYCLOPEAN WALL OF PILIKATES, IN ITHACA, DATED, THROUGH THE USE OF MODERN SCIENTIFIC METHODS, BACK TO 2700 B.C., THE LANGUAGE OF THESE PLATES WAS GREEK, AND THE DECODING BY PROFESSOR FORE RESULTED IN THE FOLLOWING SYLLABIC TEXT, EXPRESSED PHONETICALLY: A]RE-DA-TI. DA-MI-U-A-.A-TE-NA-KA-NA-RE (IJA)-TE. THE PHONETIC EQUIVALENT OF THIS IS TRANSLATED, ALWAYS ACCORDING TO THE PROFESSOR, AS: “ΙΔΟΎ ΤΙ ΕΓΏ Η ΑΡΕΔΆΤΙΣ ΔΊΔΩ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΑΝΑΣΣΑΝ, ΤΗΝ ΘΕΆΝ ΡΈΑΝ: 100 ΑΊΓΑΣ, 10 ΠΡΌΒΑΤΑ, 3 ΧΟΊΡΟΥΣ” [HERE IS WHAT I, AREDATIS, GIVES TO THE QUEEN- GODDESS REA, 100 GOATS, 10 SHEEP, 3 PIGS]. (SEE, “DAVLOS” MAGAZINE, ISSUE 107, NOVEMBER 1990, PAGE 6103). THUS, FORE PROVED THAT THE GREEKS WERE WRITING AND SPEAKING GREEK AT LEAST 1400 YEARS BEFORE THE APPEARANCE OF THE PHOENICIANS AND THEIR SCRIPT IN HISTORY. BUT, THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN GREECE DURING THE LAST 15 YEARS HAVE GIVEN US MANY MORE GREAT SURPRISES: THE GREEKS WERE WRITING USING NOT ONLY LINEAR A AND B, BUT ALSO A TYPE OF WRITING IDENTICAL TO THAT OF THE ALPHABET SINCE AT LEAST 6000 B.C. IN FACT, AT DISPILIO, IN THE LAKE OF KASTORIA, IN NORTHERN GREECE, PROFESSOR G. HOUMOUZIADIS DISCOVERED A PLATE WITH WRITING VERY SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE ALPHABET, WHICH WAS DATED, USING RADIOACTIVE CARBON- 14 AND VISUAL PHOTOTHERMAL METHODOLOGY, BACK TO 5250 B.C. (SEE DAVLOS, ISSUE 147). THREE YEARS LATER, N. SAMSON, A CURATOR OF THE PREHISTORIC AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITIES DEPARTMENT, DISCOVERED SHARDS OF VASES (“OSTRAKA”) WITH LETTERS IDENTICAL TO THE PRESENT GREEK ALPHABET WHILE EXCAVATING AT THE “CYCLOP’S CAVE,” ON THE DESERTED ISLAND OF YIOURA, NEAR THE INHABITED ISLAND OF ALONNISSOS, IN THE NORTHERN SPORADES ISLAND COMPLEX. THESE VASES WERE DATED TO5,500 TO 6,000 B.C. WITH THE SAME METHODS (SEE “DAVLOS,” ISSUE 185, MAY 1997). THE SAME ARCHAEOLOGIST, WHILE PERFORMING EXCAVATIONS ON THE ISLAND OF MILOS, DISCOVERED VESSELS OF THE PROTO-CYCLADIC PERIOD (MID-3RD MILLENNIUM B.C.) WITH LETTERS IDENTICAL TO THE GREEK LETTERS:

“X,” “N,” “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [KSI],”Π” [P], “Ο,” & “Ε.” (SEE N. SAMSON’S INTERVIEW IN DAVLOS,ISSUE 204, DECEMBER 1998, PAGE 12749.)

IT IS APPARENT THAT THESE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES HAVE GIVEN A “COMICAL’ CHARACTER TO THE SO-CALLED “PHOENICIAN THEORY” ON THE DISCOVERY OF WRITING. IN ADDITION, THESE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES HAVE REVOLUTIONIZED CHRONOLOGICAL DATING OF GREEK HISTORY AS IT IS TAUGHT TODAY, AS WELL AS THE WORLD HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION ITSELF. (SEE ALSO THE BOOK BY CON. KOUTROUVELLI, “RE- ESTABLISHING THE CHRONOLOGY OF PREHISTORIC TIMES BASED PRIMARILY ON ASTRONOMICAL INFORMATION FROM ANCIENT WRITERS,” DAVLOS PUBLISHING, 1999.)

b) The somewhat mathematical proof

While the house-of-cards which provided “proof”‘ of the so-called “Phoenician alphabet” was being torn down by archaeological discoveries, another overwhelming piece of evidence surfaced. This evidence was offered to us by the 20-year long discreet and timid research of the Greek Language and Writing by a great researcher, Elias Tsatsomoiros. Unfortunately E.Tsatsomoiros passed away on December 19th 1991, after having, however, completed his revolutionary work, History of the Genesis of the Greek Language-from the hunter-gatherer to the time of Zeus-the Deciphering of the Greek Alphabet. The undersigned [writer of this article] had the honor of publishing and editing this work (Davlos Publishing, 1991), but also the honor of having worked closely with the researcher for more than a decade. We had long discussions on the numerous problems arising from the research, and we had published a series of articles in Davlos magazine. This memorable researcher proved in a remarkable way that every letter of the Greek alphabet contained a consistent code meaning, which is literally introduced either exactly or metaphorically within the general meaning of the Greek word it belongs to, as a partial meaning. Consequently, every (ancient) Greek word is basically an acronym (similar to D(imosia) E (picheirisi) H(lektrismou) [=ΔΕΗ in Greek, or as U(nited) N(ations), in English], where every letter provides a significant or less significant notional element, and then, they all together provide the logical definition of the meaning expressed bythe word. The “significant difference” of each word’s meaning is usually provided by the firstletter. Obviously, there is not enough space in this article to present the code meaning of the letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole, as they are analyzed in this revolutionary volume of research in the field of human speech. As an example, I will choose only one of the now days 24 letters (orinaly 27) of the Hellenic alphabet, “Ypsilon” = “Y” or, small case, “u” (pronounced, long-e “eepsilon,” the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet, and familiar to us as “Y” in the so-called “Latin” alphabet– which is nothing more than a variationof the Greek “Chalcidean” alphabet). Ypsilon, therefore, as its shape indicates, has the code meaning of “a cavity” οr, if reversed, of a “convexity.” This meaning is introduced into the words containing this letter, and sometimes, by extension into the meaning of liquids (which, through their natural flow end up filling the “cavity”). I will quickly mention some of the names of vessels and liquids (such as the amphiconical κ-Υ-πελλο which is dated back to 2700 B.C. and is displayed at the Heraklion Museum). One may add to the words mentioned there, many others, such as kot-Y-li, go-Y-ttos, tr-Y-blion, p-Y-xis, amphore-Y-s, b-Y-tion, l-Y-chnos, procho-Y-s, ske-Y-os, etc, all having the meaning of a curvedobject. Also, some other words such as k-Y-hsis (rounding of the stomach ofan eng-Y-os [pregnant] woman); k-Y-ma (curving on the surface of the ocean); cr-Y-pti (curving of the ground); the preposition [h-Y-po] Y-po (meaning under a certain level); h-Y-per (preposition meaning above acertain level); Y-psos =height; and all of the hundreds of words that have h-Y-po or h-Y-per as a prefix, as well as thousands of others. This discovery, which unfortunately has been officially ignored, is a continuation of the forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of language (see Plato’s Cratylus ).

 

THE HERODOTUS EXTRACT

ALL THE GREEK WRITERS WHO MENTION THE ALPHABET (THEY CALLED IT “GRAMMATA”) CONSIDER IT A VERY ANCIENT GREEK INVENTION (BY PROMETHEUS, PALAMEDES, LINUS, ETC). THE THEORY OF THE PHOENICIAN ALPHABET WAS ALWAYS, AND IS STILL, BASED ON AN EXCEPTION TO THIS GENERAL RULE. THISEXCEPTION IS AN EXCERPT FROM HERODOTUS, THAT HE HIMSELF PRESENTS AS HIS ‘PERSONAL OPINION’ (“ΩΣ ΕΜΟΙ ΔΟΚΕΕΙ” = “AS IT SEEMS TO ME”). THIS OPINION WAS FORMED BASED ON THE SAYINGS OF OTHERS, AS HE HIMSELF MENTIONS IN THE PREVIOUS PARAGRAPHS (“ΑΝΑΠΥΝΘΑΝΟΜΕΝΟΣ” = TAKING INFORMATION FROM OTHERS). LET US HAVE A LOOK AT THE HERODOTUS’ EXCERPT (HISTORY, E 58): [58. AS FAR AS THE PHOENICIANS, THEY, WHO ARRIVED WITH CADMUS, INCLUDING THE GEFIRAIOI, HAD LIVED IN MANY OTHER PLACES AND INTRODUCED ALSO ARTS (NEW AND UNKNOWN) TO THE GREEKS; IN FACT, AND ALSO (SOME) WRITING, WHICHHAD NOT BEEN KNOWN TO THE GREEKS BEFORE THAT, AS I THINK, FIRST THIS WRITING WHICH WAS USED BY ALL THE PHOENICIANS. WITH THE PASSING OF TIME, HOWEVER, THE PHOENICIANS CHANGED THIS TYPE OF WRITING ALONG WITH THEIR LANGUAGE.]

THE MOST IMPORTANT THING ABOUT THIS EXCERPT IS THAT IN THE CRITICAL PHRASE “… AMA TIN FONI METEVALLON KAI TON RHITHMON TON GRAMMATON,” IT IS DISCLOSED THAT THE PHOENICIANS-GEFIRAIOI THAT WENT TO VIOTIA WITH CADMUS BROUGHT SOME FORM OF WRITING WITH THEM. BUT, AS THE PHOENICIANS “CHANGED THEIR LANGUAGE” (THEY LEARNED GREEK, IN OTHER WORDS), THEY ALSO CHANGED THEIR WRITING (THEY STARTED WRITING, THEREFORE, WITH THE EXISTING ANCIENT GREEK WRITING THAT ALREADY EXISTED IN VIOTIA). ALTHOUGH THIS STATEMENT WAS MADE BY HERODOTUS, THE TRANSLATORS, SUBSEQUENTLY, PROVIDED THE TRANSLATION [MEANING] THAT THE LOCAL GREEK VIOTES AND NOT THE PHOENICIAN EMIGRANTS CHANGED THEIR LANGUAGE AND WRITING AND ADOPTED THE PHOENICIAN! THIS GENERALLY INCOHERENT REFERENCE TO THE ALPHABET, AS IT HAS BEEN SAVED, HAS BEEN OBVIOUSLY ALTERED AND MEDDLED WITH, WHO KNOWS BY WHOM AND WHEN. LET US LOOK AT THE SUSPICIOUS CONTINUATION OF THE TEXT, AS IT HAS ARRIVED TO US:

AROUND THEM (THE PHOENICIANS) LIVED AT THAT PLACE DURING THAT YEAR (YEAR OF CADMUS) IONIAN GREEKS, WHO RECEIVED THROUGH CONTACT OR THROUGH TEACHINGS BY THE PHOENICIANS THEIR WRITINGS, CHANGING THEIR OWN WRITING WHICH THEY USED LITTLE. WHEN USING THIS WRITING AND SINCE THIS WRITING HAD BEEN INTRODUCED TO GREECE BY PHOENICIANS, THEY CALLED IT PHOENICIAN.

IONIAN GREEKS LIVING AROUND THE PHOENICIANS RECEIVED THE PHOENICIAN WRITING AND, USING A FEW OF ITS LETTERS, SINCE THEY HAD ALTERED THEM AND SINCE IT WAS JUST, THEY CALLED IT PHOENICIAN-TO PAY TRIBUTE TO THE PEOPLE WHO BROUGHT IT TO GREECE, IS A STRIKING CONTRADICTION. CONSEQUENTLY, ONE CAN ASSUME THAT THIS IS A FORGED PARAGRAPH, HYPOTHETICALLY EXPLANATORY, WHICH AIMS TO REDUCE THE PREVIOUS STATEMENT “…AS THEY CHANGED THEIR LANGUAGE, THEY CHANGED THEIR WRITING,” TO AN UNIMPORTANT STATEMENT. THIS IS HOW THE “PHOENICIAN THEORY” WAS SUBSTANTIATED AND IS MAINTAINED AS AN OBVIOUS FORGERY.

IN ADDITION

THE “PHOENICIAN THEORY” WAS ESTABLISHED IN EUROPE DURING A TIME, WHEN, AS THE RENOWNED BRITISH CLASSICAL SCHOLAR, S. G. REMBROKE (THE LEGACY OF GREECE, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1984) WROTE, “THE PHOENICIANS WERE GIVEN AN INTERMEDIARY ROLE “THAT IS NOT BASED ON ANY HISTORICAL INFORMATION”. A ROLE, IN OTHER WORDS, OF THE TRANSPORTER OF WISDOM AND CIVILIZATION FROM THE “CHOSEN” PEOPLE OF ISRAEL TO THE “UNCIVILIZED” NATIONS, AND SPECIFICALLY THE GREEKS. THIS, OF COURSE, COULD BE FORGIVEN, SINCE THIS WAS ESTABLISHED AROUND THE END OF THE MEDIEVAL AGES, WHEN RELIGIOUS FANATICISM AND BACKWARDNESS HAD REACHED SUCH A POINT THAT THE DAUGHTER OF AGAMEMNON, IPHIGENIA, IS PRESENTED AS THE DAUGHTER OF IEPHTHA; DEUKALION IS PRESENTED (CENTURIES LATER & COPIED & TWISTED,..AS…”NOAH”(!!)???!!!. APPIS IS A CONSUL OF JOSEPH? APOLLO, PRIAMOS, TIRESIAS, AND ORPHEUS: OF MOSES?… THE STORY OF THE OF THE ISRAELITES FROM EGYPT TO PALESTINE, AND OTHER SIMILAR DISTORTIONS IS A VERY BAD & TWISTED COPPY OF THE ARGONAUTS IS THE CROSSING. THE ABOVE ARE NOTED BY REMBROKE.

AND WE CONCLUDE: AT THE TIME, HELLENISM WAS IN COMATOSE SPIRITUAL CONDITION REGARDING NATIONAL AND HISTORICAL AWARENESS, AND THEREFORE TOTALLY UNABLE TO DEFEND ITS HISTORY AND CIVILIZATION, AND FOR THIS REASON COULD NOT REACT AND DID NOT REACT. TODAY, IT IS WITH OURTOLERANCE THAT OUR LANGUAGE IS DEEMED “INDO-EUROPEAN,” AND OUR WRITING “PHOENICIAN,” OUR ATHENA AND OUR SOCRATES ARE PRESENTED AS “BLACKS,” AND OUR CIVILIZATION AS “AFRICAN.” WHAT SPIRITUAL SITUATION ARE WE IN NOW? [I.E., WHAT’S OUR EXCUSE THIS TIME?]

 NOTES: ON PAGE 13745 OF THIS ARTICLE, IS A PICTURE OF A PIECE OF SHARD [POTTERY] DATED TO 6,000 B.C., FOUND ON THE ISLET OF YOURA OF THE NORTH SPORADES ISLAND COMPLEX WITH GREEK ALPHABETICAL WRITINGS. ONE CAN SEE THE LETTERS “A,” “Y,” & “D” [ALPHA, EEPSILON, AND DELTA ], ALMOST IDENTICAL TO THE GREEK LETTERS OF THE CLASSICAL ALPHABETS. THIS FINDING PROVES THAT THE GREEK ALPHABET IS OLDER THAN THE GREEK LINEAR WRITINGS. THIS FINDING ALSO COMPLETELY AND DEFINITELY DISPROVES THE FALSE THEORY THAT THE GREEKS GOT THEIR ALPHABET FROM THE PHOENICIANS, WHO MADE THEIR HISTORICAL APPEARANCE AROUND 1300 B.C., IN OTHER WORDS ABOUT 4,500 TO 5,000 YEARS AFTER THE CREATION OF THIS PLAQUE AT YOURA. ON PAGE 13747 ARE SHOWN LETTER-SYMBOLS FROM THE PROTO-CYCLADIC VESSELS OF MILOS (MID-THIRD MILLENNIUM B.C.). ONE CAN DISTINGUISH THE [LETTER] “X” [CHI] TO THE LEFT AND THE [LETTER] “N” TO THE RIGHT. THESE LETTERS ARE WRITTEN JUST AS THE LETTERS OF THE GREEK ALPHABET ARE WRITTEN TODAY.

  THE SPEECH AND CLEAR CONFESSION OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT(ALEXANDROS O MEGAS) TO BOTH ATHENIANS AND PERSIANS.

-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘

Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander  the First was proud of his Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:
Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of
the Macedonians (“anêr Hellên – Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably

FIRSTLY WE INTEND TO EXAMINE THE ANCIENT EVIDENCE ON THE WAY THE ANCIENT MACEDONIANS WERE DEFINING THEMSELVES IN REFERENCE TO THEIR OWN IDENTITY. CONCERNING THEIR OWN BELIEFS ABOUT THEMSELVES WE SHALL REVIEW THE AVAILABLE EVIDENCE COMING FROM THE ANCIENT SOURCES, BOTH LITERARY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL.
A. THE LITERARY EVIDENCE
THE FIRST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE COMES FROM THE
MACEDONIAN KING ALEXANDER DURING HIS SPEECH TO ATHENEANS. ESSENTIALLY WE HAVE A CLEAR CONFESSION THAT ALEXANDER CONSIDERS HIMSELF A GREEK.
-HAD I NOT GREATLY AT HEART THE COMMON WELFARE OF GREECE I SHOULD NOT HAVE COME TO TELL YOU; BUT I AM MYSELF GREEK BY DESCENT, (“TE GAR HELLÊN GENOS EIMI TÔRCHAION“) AND I WOULD NOT WILLINGLY SEE GREECE EXCHANGE FREEDOM FOR SLAVERY. …IF YOU PROSPER IN THIS WAR, FORGET NOT TO DO SOMETHING FOR MY FREEDOM; CONSIDER THE RISK I HAVE RUN, OUT OF ZEAL FOR THE GREEK CAUSE,….I AM ALEXANDER OF MACEDON‘1

Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander I
was proud of his Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:
Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of
the Macedonians (“anêr Hellên – Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably… “

What the word EUROPE means?

  1. ..THEN one knows..What the word ΕΥΡΩΠΗ (EUROPE) means!!! ..Here: Europa being abducted by Zeus disguised as a bull, detail from an Attic (Attica was – & still is the county of Athens) krater(, 5th century; in the Tarquinia National Museum From the (ΛΕΞΙΣ)-LEΞΙΣ(=Word) ops(ωψ)… …comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (Europe = WIDE+ViIEW), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – steno+opos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon(= person), ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.

After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “euryopa” we saw in the beginning.

THE ISOLATED WORD IS  “ΕΥΡΎΟΠΑ” – “EVRYOPA” MEANING ONE WHO HAS WIDE EYES, WITH WHOM SUPERVISE EVERYTHING, THAT PERFORM AS THE “PANTEPOPTES”(=TOTAL CONTROLERS)..

In our mind now comes the Kyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.Ex: Optic etc.

And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς =(=γέρον=geron=elder, as geriatric ) + ωψ-ops  [=sight, up vision)] = one who suffers from (πρεσβυωπία)-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):

                                                 

THE ABOVE SCIENCES ARE INTERRELATED WITH THE ANCIENT HELLENIC LANGUAGE AND ARE INTO EACH ANOTHER LIKE RUSSIAN BAMPOUSKES. COMBINE ALPHABET ENCLOSING NUMBERS AND MUSICAL TONES WITH THESE 4 DISCIPLINES.

1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony),shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.

2.THE PYTHAGORAS HEARD THE HARMONY (MUSIC) OF THE CELESTIAL SPHERES THUS SPEAK A LANGUAGE THAT HAS TO DO WITH THE FLOW OF THE UNIVERSE.

THE ENORMOUS IMPORTANCE OF MUSIC FOR THE PYTHAGOREANS

 <<<<<<<<PYTHAGORAS AND MUSIC>>>>>>>

So it said that Pythagoras, and practice once, with the help spondiakou State played a piper, extinguished the rage of an intoxicated young Tafromenitou, who during the night attacked with loud voices against his mistress at the door of his rival by drawing to set fire to the house. And so, being in a tizzy and he is steady due to the Phrygian melody lumen. This passion has rapidly healed Pythagoras, who happened at that moment, at an inappropriate time, to deal with the laws governing the stars. Then said the piper to turn the Phrygian melody spondaic, with which the young man, having calmed down, returned immediately and decency in his house, and just now not only tolerated by Pythagoras or admonition, but with fury and insults He had refused to meet him.

Ancient Greek Language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The Ancient Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that will try to approach

Written text 7270 YEARS THAT FOUND IN KASTORIA overturns ALL!

GREEKS discover ALPHABET

Once again  is the Phoenician Deception Revealed!

The MYTH about the … “Phoenician … Alphabet” !!!
The first written text in Europe – In 1998 Professor. G.. Hourmouziadis said the publication of the text is impossible!

It is evident that any official publication would upset the entire history of discovery on scene of writing, imprinting the articulate voice of man with letters (and not ideograms) and even in the territory of Greece, in the territory of Europe.

It overturned ie the theory that the Greeks were they, light from the east (from Babylonian, Sumerian, palm trees, etc. !!) And we had to fill the big gap of four thousand years, ie when the Eastern peoples expressed by ideograms The Greeks wrote with syllables as today. It is obvious that indicates early stage thought and culture.

According to today’s theory – taught in Greek schools – the Greeks learned writing around 800 BC “by the …..Phoenicians”(!!).

What they can NOT explain to us how the Ancient Greek language may have 800,000 entries, first language on the planet, when the next has 250,000 entries.

How can the Homeric epics were written around 800 BC ie when they learned to write Greek?

Suddenly encountered the ancient Greeks on the historical scene in the 8th century BC, with the language of hundreds of thousands of entries, which is required to create linguistic prehistory least 10,000 years (according to official American linguistic exposure).

The English language is 1,600 years old and has 48% Greek words with a total of 240,000 entries. The German is 1,700 years old and has 250,000 entries with Greek words 46%.

What troubles the historians, or because they were not lost in the dust of history and the Greeks as the Canaanites, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Phoenicians, etc .;

The oldest organized written text found in the land of Europe and dates from before 7254 years (!) Today revealed the lake of Kastoria.

It is a wooden plaque engraved with an unknown message from a Neolithic fisherman or dealer limniaiou prehistoric settlement in dispilio, written two thousand years before the written findings of the Sumerians and four thousand years before cretomycenean clay tablets of linear writing. The shocking announcement made yesterday during the archaeological conference for this year’s excavation work in Northern Greece Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Mr. George Hourmouziadis, the document revealed during excavation last summer.

The wooden sign with the inscription dated accurately by the method of carbon-14 in the “Democritus” in 5260 (!) BC, at the end of the Middle Neolithic period.

Mr. Hourmouziadis scientific arguments concluded that the engravings of the inscription, which is organized into verses should not be decorative, but “letters” that can be integrated into the palaioeuropean system.
Linear B tablets from Pylos. Used by Ventris to decipher language as Greek. 13th century BC


Tip: Astronomy = astir + Law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern weometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.

Tip 2: Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres
So to speak the Ancient Greek language that has to do with the flow of the universe.
It`s is the only language, that can be used for H / Y due mathimatica and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS(=Position: Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc  if now these words to translate in English are totally unrelated.

That is not the Alphabet to be copied from somewhere else seen from that in the year 900 before the beginning of the Christian dating, Homer already available to the 6.5 million primary words (present tense and first person singular) that if the multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.
IF we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth in time 100,000 years ago, 500,000 years ago? Who knows…
But the ultimate proof is mathimatikotita itself of which does not exist in any other language of the world.
Do not even forget that Creation uses mathematics, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1). Also the same mathematics have not been anywhere else as you read the following article by clicking HERE
But before the “crypt” is the “means”, ie the connection of words with meanings. We said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that the subject of so and so will call it “X”, which makes the languages ​​sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.
How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? Especially the multiple aspects of this? Can not. Here’s why it all started here. It means then is the connection between the mark and the signified, that the word itself is created in a way that describes the meaning esokleinei inside.
Example: the naming of the word curry (Walnut) comes from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with their ker.ata hear the “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name hold or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). Curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.
The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe relevant concepts, which are derived from observation of nature ie of Creation, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers and yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones hide inside Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?
Let’s analyze grammatically the word  ΕΡΩΣ (“EROS”=”LOVE”)
Ε= Εκπορευόμενη Δύναμις (του φωτός)  = emanating Force (light)
Ρ= Ροή πρωτίστως Φωτοενεργειών, = flow primarity    Photoenergy
Ω= Ο πλανήτης – γήινο πεδίο The planet = The Earth Field
Σ= Το εσωτερικόν θεώμενον = The inner being viewed

The word ΕΡΩΣ – EROS O + S is the flow of the power of light (life-knowledge) from the universe to the earthly plane and into the depths of ourselves.
In Hesiod’s Theogony the update is one of the three authorities (Chaos, Gaia, Eros). Light encloses the knowledge, life, beauty, beauty, serenity, happiness, goodness, love, harmony, etc ..

Eros is not only that which exists between a man and a woman if CHAOS EROS GAIA preexisting human. EROS between the universe to the earth, harmony of nature eg rain and vegetation, even in combination with the human element, eg a man and a beautiful evening sunset or generally anything that offers harmony and therefore bliss.
One aspect of Eros is also the harmony between man and woman which yields the holy genesis. The harmony stems from the duality of 0/1, Masculine (1) and the Feminine (c). The 0/0 or 1/1 not create because it is cosmic disharmony. The word then “Eros” means nothing aphrodisiac (sexual) but a higher spiritual state, do not forget that the word priest comes from there.
Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “PRINCIPLE OF WISDOM The NAMES EPISKEPSIS”.

The Greek alphabet became the basis for the creation of the Latin alphabet. Indeed, the Latin alphabet comes from the Etruscan alphabet which in turn, and in line with the prevailing view today, based on the Greek.

The development of the alphabet
The Alexandrian grammar classifying sixteen letters in the first Greek alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, R the S, T and Y. Later followed the I, P and X. By adding the letters G, O, D, H and Z was born the Ionic alphabet. In ancient Greek inscriptions found three variants of the alphabet: the Aeolian or Dorian, the Attic and Ionic.

The wind and the Doric alphabet is found in inscriptions of Thera, Milos, Peloponnese, Boeotia and Great Greece, in Sicily and Southern Italy. The Attic alphabet (the Attic letters) we find the inscriptions in Attica before the era of Euclid (402 BC). The Ionic alphabet is found in inscriptions in Ionian Sea and in Asia Minor.

Other uses
The letters of the Greek alphabet used in Greek numerals. The Greek alphabet is widely used as a symbol tank for use in science or as internationally agreed symbols (eg: π=3,14) or for any suitable use.
Like the Latin alphabet, the Greek used for the count (especially when you are interested in our series), eg All 24 rhapsodies of Odyssey numbered with small letters of the alphabet, while the Iliad to uppercase. Particularly in Astronomy the Greek alphabet used to count the stars, ie alpha Centauri is the brightest star of the constellation Centaurus, while Omega is the 24th in brightness. After the end of Greek letters follow Latin and then followed by Arabic numerals.

Visit the: www.the phoenician deception

Xenophon Zolotas

Prof. Xenophon Zolotas is a well-known Greek economist. The speeches that follows were given to a foreign audience, at the closing session of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, on September 26, 1957 and on October 2, 1959. Prof. Zolotas held the positions of the Governor of the bank of Greece and the Governor of the Funds for Greece, at that time.

“I always wished to address this Assembly in Greek, but I realized that it would have been indeed Greek to all present in this room. I found out, however, that I could make my address in Greek which would still be English to everybody. With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I shall do it now, using with the exception of articles and prepositions only Greek words.”

First speech

“Kyrie(=Lord),

I eulogize the archons of the Panethnic Numismatic Thesaurus and the Ecumenical Trapeza for the orthodoxy of their axioms, methods and policies, although there is an episode of cacophony of the Trapeza with Hellas.

With enthusiasm we dialogue and synagonize at the synods of our didymous Organizations in which polymorphous economic ideas and dogmas are analyzed and synthesized.

Our critical problems such as the numismatic plethora generate some agony and melancholy. This phenomenon is characteristic of our epoch. But, to my thesis, we have the dynamism to program therapeutic practices as a prophylaxis from chaos and catastrophe.

In parallel, a panethnic unhypocritical economic synergy and harmonization in a democratic climate is basic.

I apologize for my eccentric monologue. I emphasize my eucharistia to you Kyrie, to the eugenic and generous American Ethnos and to the organizers and protagonists of this Amphictyony and the gastronomic symposia.”

Second speech

“Kyrie,

It is Zeus’ anathema on our epoch for the dynamism of our economies and the heresy of our economic methods and policies that we should agonise between the Scylla of numismatic plethora and the Charybdis of economic anaemia.

It is not my idiosyncrasy to be ironic or sarcastic but my diagnosis would be that politicians are rather cryptoplethorists. Although they emphatically stigmatize numismatic plethora, energize it through their tactics and practices.

Our policies have to be based more on economic and less on political criteria.

Our gnomon has to be a metron between political, strategic and philanthropic scopes. Political magic has always been antieconomic.

In an epoch characterised by monopolies, oligopolies, menopsonies, monopolistic antagonism and polymorphous inelasticities, our policies have to be more orthological. But this should not be metamorphosed into plethorophobia which is endemic among academic economists.

Numismatic symmetry should not antagonize economic acme.

A greater harmonization between the practices of the economic and numismatic archons is basic.

Parallel to this, we have to synchronize and harmonize more and more our economic and numismatic policies panethnically.

These scopes are more practical now, when the prognostics of the political and economic barometer are halcyonic.

The history of our didymous organisations in this sphere has been didactic and their gnostic practices will always be a tonic to the polyonymous and idiomorphous ethnical economics. The genesis of the programmed organisations will dynamize these policies. I sympathise, therefore, with the aposties and the hierarchy of our organisations in their zeal to programme orthodox economic and numismatic policies, although I have some logomachy with them.

I apologize for having tyrannized you with my hellenic phraseology.

In my epilogue, I emphasize my eulogy to the philoxenous autochthons of this cosmopolitan metropolis and my encomium to you, Kyrie, and the stenographers.”

Mr Xenophon Zolotas

ETYMOLOGY OF SOME ANCIENT GREEK NAMES.

The word “Macedonia” is of Greek origin. The etymology is: The resident of the ancient area “Makednon” in ancient Greek called “Makednos” (eg, see. Herodotus’ Histories, Book 1, §56: «Makednon kaleomenon”). The root “Mak-” comes from “makos”, the Doric type Atticus “length” (which is the modern Greek word). In short, the “Makednos” meant “tall man”. In the new Greek the word “long”. The same root is the source of the English prefix “macro-“, which identifies several words to mean long (macro; biotic, macro instruction;) or large (macro; cosm, macro; molecule).

The name Alexander (“the Great”) is also of Greek origin. The “Alexander”, consists of two parts in Greek:
the “alex-” is a prefix meaning “protector” so we have modern Greek words “bulletproof (protects from bullets),” lightning rod “(protects from lightning), and” parachute “(protect from falling) .
and “Andreas” is the general word “man.” Homer Odyssey begins as follows:
“Man ennepe muse Polytropon me …” etc. In English the root “andro-” passed in words like “androgynous”, “android”, “Andrew”, and a few more.

Briefly, the “Alexander” means “protector of men”

But any other known ancient Macedonian name is also Greek origin! For example, take the name of Philip, Alexander’s father, started the expansion of the ancient Macedonian nation. And this is Greek. In Greek consists of two parts:
The prefix “pro” meaning “one who likes” or “having a friendly relationship with.” This root passed into English words such as “philosophy”, “philanthropy”, and even in “Philadelphia” and “Philippines”.

And the suffix “-ippos” ie. “Horse”. This root passed into Latin as “hippo-” (the initial h is the performance of the pronunciation of the Greek CSCE), and from there into English words such as “hippopotamus” (hippopotamus; literally “river horse”) and “hippocampus” (hippocampus).

Briefly, “Philip” means “friend of horses”
PHILIP
From the Greek name Philip (Philippos) which means “friend of horses”, composed of the elements friend (philos) “friend” and horse (hippos) “horse”(Ex. Hipppodrome, Hippocrate etc.). This was the name of five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great. The name appears in the New Testament belonging to two people who are regarded as saints. First, one of the twelve apostles, and second, an early figure in the Christian church known as Philip the Deacon.

ALEXANDER
Latinized form of the Greek name Alexander (Alexandros), which meant “defending men” from Greek Alexis (alexo+andros=of the man:genetivus of aner) “to defend, help” and man (aner-(ἀνήρ`= man)) “andros” (-“ander” in Latin much later). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. There he spred with the MOST civilized manners the Greek  Civilization & Culture.

He was Highily educated in Philosophy, Astronomy, Music & Martial strategic tactics(the latest from his father). Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.
AMYNTAS
Derived from Greek amyntor (amyntor) meaning “defender”. This was the name of several kings of Macedon.

Agathosthenis <good courage + = good (on actions and intellect) + power = the person holding power to think and to do good.
Agoraklis <purchase + market + = glory = glory he has fame in the market
Agorakritos <= purchase about judgment: he judged from the market
Athanasios <a (withdrawal) + at death – death = immortal (gilts. Immortality, Euthanasia etc;)
Athena Atheonoa = <a (superlative) + + God = mind that from the supreme mind (the goddess Athena, xepidise from the head of Zeus). The original name was Athena and is Pelasgic origin
Catherine <del + = always clean cleared
Alexander <Alexia + man (b. The man) = defender, protector men (gilts. Alexandra)

Its complicated by p. Alexis’ spurn – protect “; + a man, so Alexandros originally meant” one who protects the people. ” Somehow many associate some verb Alexis to remove, giving Alexandros the importance of “he who repels men ‘. The importance of this verb is “protect” and we find eg in ancient anthroponymia Aleximvrotos (from vrotos) and Alexinor (ἀνήρ`=the man) which mean “the protector of mortals.” Note that as they have shown great linguists, the name Alexandros is ancient, as already answered in Mycenaean Greek.

Amaryllis = The Shining(from: Amarysso-αμαρυσσω=shine, radiate
Amphiaraos <amfo + ara + st (suffix) = one who mitigates the curse – misfortune

Amphibios(Amphi+Bios=life)
Anargyros <a (withdrawal) + silver (money) = a nonprofit (gilts. ANARGYRON)
Anastasios <at + stasis = the reborn, the eternal (gilts. Anastasia)
Andreas <man (b. Man) = the brave, real man, brave warrior
Andromache <man (b. The man) + fight = the fighting men (ie. The great and fearless warrior) (gilts. Andromache)
Andronikos <man (b. The man) win + = one who conquers men (gilts. Andro+niki)
Antigonus <+ instead gignomai (born) = the worthy with generator father (gilts. Antigone)
Apollo <a (superlative) + + pole las (light bulbs – they lampsis) = one who shines everywhere. According to others: a (withdrawal) many + = one who does not belong to the many
Virtue <a (withdrawal) + = risis unparalleled, perfect, unique
Aristarchus <archo excellent + = one who initiates (heads) of optimum
Aristides <+ excellent OPD (vague: I saw) = the best on the face, the very good looking
Aristomachos <excellent + = the battle honors fighting (gilts. Aristomachos)
Aristonicus <+ excellent victory = one who manages the perfect victory (gilts. Aristonicus)
Aristotle <+ excellent end (purpose) = the perfectionist, one who intends to excellent
Aristophanes <+ excellent Fimios (say, trumpets, spread word) = one who speaks excellent
Artemis <air + = intersect that cuts – crosses the air
Archimedes <start + midomai (meditate) = the ruler of thought
Aspasia <= female kissing the arch. adjective aspasios = happy, happy (male. Aspasios)
Venus <foam + dito (= emerge) = emerging from the foam (sea)
Basil <vasielefs = one who belongs to the king (gilts. Basel)
Speedwell (Veronica) <from the ancient Macedonian name Fereniki> fetch = + victory that brings victory
George <Ca + work = the cultivator of the land, he produced work in the land, the farmer (gilts. Georgia)
Glafkonomi <Owl (or glaucous) + Act = brilliant – wise law
Gregory <= quickly awake, sleepless revved
Damocles <township glory + = the doxazomenos by the municipality (people), the popular
Damofili <township friend + = girlfriend municipality (people), that he loves his people
Despina <= overtop dominant, lady
Demaratus <township + weigh (= heave) = one who elevates (morally) the municipality (population)
Dimaretis <+ municipality virtue (> a + risis) = one who (with his deeds) benefit the municipality (people) (gilts. Dimareti)
Dimitra <da (Doric formula of “land” is a variant of “ca”) + mother = mother earth
Dimitrios = the dedicated to the goddess Demeter
Democritus <township judgment: + = one who is from the municipality (population)
Dimoniki <township + win = win municipality (population)
Demosthenes <township vigor + = one who gives strength to the municipality (population)
Dimostratos <+ troop municipality = one who is called the municipality (population)
Popular (see. Damofili)
Diagoras <Zeus (b. Zeus) + plead one running a speech by the power of Zeus
Dikaiarchou <archo righteous + = one who is righteous ruler
Dikaioklis <righteous glory + = one who glorifies the law
Dikaiopolis <righteous + polis = the righteous citizen
Diogenes <Zeus (b. Zeus) + = the maiden originating from Jupiter
Diocles <Zeus (b. Zeus) + = the glory glorifies Jupiter
Diomedes <Zeus (b. Zeus) + midomai (think =) = the thinking to the will of Zeus
Dionysus <Zeus (born of Zeus) + = the mind come from the mind of Zeus
Peace = eiro (hook)
Helen <elon (B vague weigh = destroy) + nafs (ISO. The NDI = ship) = one for which ships destroyed
Eleftherios <El (name of the Olympians) + ef + summer = one who with his coming will mean better and offered to the gods, in another interpretation:> Elefsis (> el + fair + quake – move) + courage = he who with courage and strength of the gods move everything in a good way
Hermes <EPDM (= ratio) = one who takes the floor
Hermogenes <Hermes (b. Hermes) + = the maiden originating from Mercury genus
Home <through + God = one rushes in (home)
Evangelia <ef + ad = good news, good news
Evangelos <ef = + angel messenger who brings good news
Eyboulos <+ ef parliament (House) = having the benevolent desire
Eunomia <ef Law + = one who defines good laws (gilts. Eunomia)
Eupolis <+ fair city = good citizen
Evridiki <= range + righteous one possessed of great justice (male. Eurydice)
Eurycleia <width + = glory that has great glory (male. Evryklis)
Eurynome <= range + Law that knows many laws (male. Eurynome)
Happiness <+ fair chance that has good luck (male. Eftychios)
Zafirios <sapphire (sapphire) = precious (gilts. Zafiria)
Zeus <Zeo (= life-giving) + ef = the provider good life
Zenobia <Jean (Dorian type of Zeus = Jupiter) + life = that lives thanks to Jupiter
Hegesistratos <lead + = army that led the army (male. Igistratos)
Ira <day (idiom of the word “earth – earth”). In others, an anagram of the word “air”
Herophilus <Ira + = girlfriend that loves Hera
Heron <Ira + s = he who belongs to Hera
Hephaestus <the (increase thanks euphony) + F (Achaean type “to” = light) + istimi (= possess good) = one who is well aware of the fire
Theodore <god + gift = one who is a gift from God
Thersites <Tarshish = one who is impudent
Thrasivoulos <Tarshish + desire = the one who has tharreti (up supercilious) desire
Jason <= Iasis therapist
Hipparchus <= horse + archo he led the horses
Hippodameia <horse + SAMe-oh = one tames horses
Hippocrates <horse + territory-oh = those who control horses
Hippolyte <= horse + unfasten that releases the horses (male. Hippolytus)
Isocrates <= equal + I hold he kept equidistant – equality
Calliope <beauty + hole (= hole mouth in a sense) = the sweet-voiced
Kleovoulos <glory + House = he who wants glory
Kleogenis <glory + = genus-derived glorified genus
Kosmas <comely = he who is kind and kalotropos
Laodice <people + trial = trial people
Laomideia <+ people = midomai the thought of people
Leonidas <lion + = he himself like the lion
Lysistrata <unfasten (future. Solve) + = army that dissolves the army
Maria <glitter (= lighten) = one sparkles [-> Mary (S48 Iliad, Odyssey l326) -> Maria (exevraismos the Greek name)] (male. Marios)
Mede <= midomai the thinking (gilts. Midia)
Nikareti <= victory + virtue that beats with virtue (male. Nikaretos)
Nikiforos <victory fetch = + he made wins
Nikolaos <win + people = one who gives victory to the people (female does not exist in ancient Greek. The new Greek is Nicoletta, epanellinismos the Frankish Nikolette)
Xenokratis <stranger hold + = one who keeps (away) foreign
Xenophanes <stranger fainymi + = one who resembles foreign
Odefssefs <betake + = essomai those found in the street, the Wandering
Homer <OMMA + APD = he who loses his eye, the blind
Orestes <term stand + = one who is on the mountain, the man of the mountain, the Hillbilly
Periandros <+ on man (b. The man) = one who is above the other men
Pericles <+ on = the glory yperdoxos, the amply
Peter <= the stone stable, the steadfast
Penelope <pini (thread) + lepo (unfold) = the weaver
Plato <width + s (= existing) = one who is broad (The philosopher Plato took this name because she had broad chest and forehead. Originally his name was Aristocles.
Pleistonikis <pleistos (superlative of “long”) + win = one who has many victories, the POLYNIKI
Poliarchos <city archo + = one who initiates the town
Poseidon <potos (= river) + yielding one running gives rivers
Prodikos <pre trial + = the chief justice
Protagoras <first market + = one who is first in the market (ie. In common)
Pythagoras <Pytho (= update -> Pytheas) market + = one who informs the market
Sophia <= wisdom, erudition, profound knowledge
Sophocles <wise glory + = glorious for its wisdom
Spyridon <spyris (b. Spyridon = psarokofino) = one who makes baskets for fish
Stratoklis <military glory + = the glorious soldier
Stylianos <column = constant as the column, that one can rely on it (gilts. Styliani)
Socrates <wise + keep one running observes wisely
Sotirios <= savior savior
Telemachus <tele battle + = one who gives battles from afar
Phaedra <= blithe cheerful
Filareti <friend + = virtue that loves virtue (male. Filaret)
Philip <horse friend + = one who loves horses
Philodemus <township friend + = one who loves the municipality (population)
Philostratus <army friend + = one who loves the army
Chariklia <thanks + = the famous glory for the sake of
ANTIGONUS
From the Greek Antigonus (Antigonos) which meant “against the ancestor”, from anti (anti) “against” and parent (goneus) “ancestor”. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander died, he took control of most of Asia Minor.
ARCHELAUS
Latinized form of the Greek name Archelaos (Archelaos), which meant “master of the people” from Aarhus (archos) “master” and Laos (laos) “people”. This was the name of a son of Herod the Great. He ruled over Judea, Samaria and Idumea.
ARISTOTLE
From the Greek name Aristotle (Aristoteles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from excellent (aristos) “best” and the end (telos) “purpose, aim”. This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.
KLEITOS
Means “splendid, famous” in Greek. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals.

https://youtube.com/watch?v=LKL3qWXZWUw%3Ffeature%3Doembed

CLEOPATRA
FROM THE GREEK NAME CLEOPATRA (KLEOPATRA) WHICH MEANT “GLORY OF THE FATHER”, DERIVED FROM GLORY (KLEOS) “GLORY” COMBINED WITH FATHER (PATROS) “OF THE FATHER”. THIS WAS THE NAME OF QUEENS OF EGYPT FROM THE PTOLEMAIC ROYAL FAMILY, INCLUDING CLEOPATRA VII, THE MISTRESS OF BOTH JULIUS CAESAR AND MARK ANTONY. AFTER BEING DEFEATED BY AUGUSTUS SHE COMMITTED SUICIDE BY ALLOWING HERSELF TO BE BITTEN BY AN ASP. SHAKESPEARE’S TRAGEDY ‘ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA’ (1606) IS BASED ON HER.

HTTP://WWW.BEHINDTHENAME.COM/GLOSSARY/VIEW/ANCIENT_GREEK_NAMES

THE MACEDONIAN NAME PERDIKKAS OBVIUSLY MEANS “FAMOUSLY JUST” [CA (T) – + RIGHTEOUS], BUT TO ACCEPT IT WE MUST “PROVE” SOMEHOW THE DOUBLING OF THE LETTER “K” IN THE THEME “TRIAL”, MEANING “JUSTICE”.

HELLENIC QUEST CALLED AN E-LEARNING PROGRAM THAT GREEK AS CNN BEGAN DISTRIBUTING WORLDWIDE AND INTENDED INITIALLY FOR ENGLISH SPEAKERS AND SPANISH SPEAKERS.
THE TEACHING METHOD IS TO VIEW INFORMATION ON THE SCREEN OF THE / Y WHILE SOUND AND MOVING IMAGE TRANSMISSION.

CNN, IN COLLABORATION WITH THE APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY PREPARED A GREEK EASY TUTORIAL AND ENGLISH-SPEAKING US HISPANICS. THE RATIONALE BEHIND THIS INITIATIVE WAS THAT THE GREEK INTENSIFIES RATIONAL SPIRIT, SCRAPES ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ENCOURAGES CITIZENS TO CREATIVITY.
THE PROGRAM IS PRODUCED BY THE LARGE CORPORATION THE H / Y APPLE, O CHAIRMAN OF WHICH JOHN SCULLY SAID: WE DECIDED TO PUSH THE GREEK TUTORIAL, BECAUSE OUR SOCIETY NEEDS A TOOL THAT WILL ALLOW TODISCOVER SO FAR.
IN OTHER WORDS, THIS IS A MANIFESTATION OF THE TENDENCY TO RETURN TO THE SPIRIT WORLD CULTURE AND LANGUAGE OF THE ANCENT GREEKS.
ANOTHER RELATED EVENT: THE ENGLISH BUSINESSMEN MOTIVATE SENIOR EXECUTIVES TO LEARN ANCIENT GREEK BECAUSE THEY CONTAIN A SPECIAL MEANING FOR THE AREAS OF ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT COMPANIES.
IN THIS CONCLUSION ALREADY LED AFTER BRITISH SPECIAL FINDINGS THAT THE GREEK LANGUAGE REINFORCES THE LOGIC AND STIMULATES LEADERSHIP ABILITIES. SO IT HAS GREAT VALUE, NOT ONLY IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY, BUT ALSO IN ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ..

THESE PROPERTIES OF GREEK LED THE CALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY IRMAIN TAKE THE HOARDING OF WEALTH … HEAD OF PROGRAM PLACED THE LINGUIST –ELLINISTRIA- MAC NTONALI AND TEACHERS E BRUNNER AND PAKARI.
IN THE H/ Y IMYKO WERE EVALUATED 6 MILLION VERBAL FORMULAS OF THE ANCIENT GREEK O LANGUAGE WHEN ENGLISH HAS A TOTAL OF 490,000 WORDS AND 300 … 000 TECHNICAL TERMS, IE AS A LANGUAGE IS ONLY 1/100 OF OUR OWN. IN IMYKO CATEGORIZED 8,000 4,000 ANCIENT GREEK WRITINGS AND THE WORK CONTINUES.
TALKING ABOUT IT PROFESSOR BRUNNER SAID: ANYONE WHO WONDER WHY SO MANY MILLIONS OF DOLLARS FOR THE HOARDING OF WORDS OF GREEK RESPOND: BUT THIS IS THE LANGUAGE OF OUR ANCESTORS. AND OUR CONTACT WITH THEM WILL IMPROVE THE HELLENIQUE=GREEK)  CULTURE.
THE PROMOTERS OF THE PROGRAM ESTIMATE THAT THE GREEK VERBAL TYPES WILL REACH THE 90 MILLION, COMPARED WITH NINE MILLION LATIN. INTEREST IN THE GREEK RESULTED FROM THE RECORDING OF INFORMATION AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS THAT THE H / PC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ACCEPT AS SIGN LANGUAGE ONLY THE GREEK.

ALL OTHER LANGUAGES ​​FEATURED SEMANTIC.
SIGN LANGUAGE IS CONSIDERED THE LANGUAGE IN WHICH THE SIGNIFIER, THAT IS THE WORD, AND THE SIGNIFIED, THAT IS, THE WORD EXPRESSES (THING, IDEA, STATE), HAVE AMONG THEIR PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP. WHILE SEMANTIC IS THE LANGUAGE IN WHICH ARBITRARILY DEFINED THAT AMERICAN THING (SIGNIFIED) MEANT BY AM (SIGNIFIER).
IN OTHER WORDS, THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE IS THE ONLY LANGUAGE WHOSE WORDS HAVE PRIMOGENITURE, WHILE IN ALL OTHER, WORDS ARE SYMMATIKES MEAN, THAT IS SOMETHING, JUST BECAUSE IT ‘AGREED’ AMONG THOSE WHO USE IT.
ALL OF THE WORDS IN GREEK MEANS EG THE WORD
ENTHUSIASM = EN+THEO – ΕΝ-ΘΕΏ (=IN-GOD)
GEOMETRY = EARTH + COUNT – ΓAIA +ΜΕΤΡΏ – GAI+METRO

ANTHROPOS(=MAN = THE INARTICULATE (THE ARTICULATED REASON)(ΆΝΘΡΩΠΟΣ = Ο ΆΝΑΡΘΡΩΝ (Ο ΑΡΘΡΏΝΩΝ ΛΌΓΟ)..
WE SAY CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORD-THING, WHICH IS NONEXISTENT IN OTHER LANGUAGES.

THE MOST PERFECT IMYKOS PROGRAMS KNOWLEDGE AND NEWTON REPRESENT THE VERBAL FORMULAS OF INTEGRALS IN GREEK AND IN PERFECT REPRESENTATIONAL SHAPES, WHICH CAN NOT DO IN OTHER LANGUAGES.
THIS IS BECAUSE THE GREEK HAS A MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURE THAT ALLOWS THE HARMONIOUS GEOMETRICAL DISPLAY. <> PARTICULARLY USEFUL ARE THE GREEK SUFFIXES AS:
TELE, LANDI = … LAND, GEO … NANO, MICRO, MEGA, PURPOSE … .ISMOS, ELECTRO …., CYCLO …., TUNER …., MACRO …., SMALL …., TRAY …., WRITES … LETTER … PLUS … … SYM, ETC .. EXAMPLE:
THE KNOWN TO ALL CD = COMPACT DISK = DISK SYMPAKTOMENOS
COMPUTERS CONSIDER THE GREEK LANGUAGE “NOT MARGINAL ‘, IE THAT ONLY IN THAT THERE ARE NO LIMITS AND SO IT IS NECESSARY TO NEW DISCIPLINES SUCH AS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ELECTRONICS, THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHERS.
THESE SCIENCES ONLY IN THE GREEK LANGUAGE FIND MENTAL EXPRESSIONS THEY NEED, WITHOUT WHICH SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT IS UNABLE TO PROCEED.
FOR THESE REASONS THE SPANISH MEPS SOUGHT TO INTRODUCE GREEK AS THE OFFICIAL EUROPEAN UNION BECAUSE TO SPEAK OF A UNITED EUROPE WITHOUT THE GREEK IS LIKE TALKING TO A BLIND MAN ABOUT COLORS.

OF COURSE, IT CAN`T THAT ALL SUDDENLY IT BECOMES ‘OUT OF NOWHERE’ TO DISPLAY A HOMER AND WRITTEN TWO LITERARY MASTERPIECES, IT IS OBVIOUS THAT LONG AGO SHOULD HAVE BEEN A LANGUAGE (AND WRITING) HIGH LEVEL. INDEED, FROM THE ANCIENT GREEK SECRETARIAT KNOW THAT HOMER WAS NOT THE FIRST BUT THE LAST AND MOST FAMOUS OF A LONG LINE OF EPIC POETS, WHOSE NAMES HAVE SURVIVED (KREOFYLOS, PRODIKOS, ARKTINOS, ANTIMACHUS, KINAITHON, CALLIMACHUS) AND THE NAMES OF THEIR WORKS (FORONIS, FOKAIS, DANAIS, NEGRESS, PROGENY, OEDIPAL, THEBES …) HAVE NOT YET BEEN RESCUED THEMSELVES THEIR PROJECTS.
POSSIBLE CREATION OF NEW WORDS
THE POWER OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS ITS ABILITY TO BE MOLDED NOT ONLY PREFIX OR CONCLUSIVE BUT VARYING IN SOME CASES UP TO THE ROOT OF THE WORD (EG, “RUN” AND “WHEEL” EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE FROM THE SAME FAMILY DIFFER SLIGHTLY THE ROOT).
THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS QUALIFIED TO CREATE COMPOUND WORDS WITH INCREDIBLE POTENTIAL USES, MULTIPLYING THE VOCABULARY.
THE INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY WEBSTER’S (WEBSTER’S NEW INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY) SAYS: “THE LATIN AND GREEK, ESPECIALLY THE GREEK, AN INEXHAUSTIBLE SOURCE OF MATERIAL FOR CREATING SCIENTIFIC TERMS,” ​​WHILE THE FRENCH LEXICOGRAPHERS JEAN BOUFFARTIGUE AND ANNE-MARIE DELRIEU EMPHASIZED: “SCIENCE FINDS CONSTANTLY NEW OBJECTS OR CONCEPTS. HE NAMED THEM. THE TREASURE OF THE GREEK ROOTS IN FRONT OF HER AS LONG AS YOU DRAW FROM THERE. IT WOULD BE VERY SURPRISING NOT TO FIND THOSE IN NEED. “
THE FRENCH WRITER JACQUES LAKARRIER, STUNNED IN FRONT OF THE GRANDEUR OF GREEK, HAD DECLARED RELATIVELY: “THE GREEK LANGUAGE HAS THE CHARACTERISTIC TO OFFER ON THE WONDERFUL EXPRESSION OF ALL HIERARCHIES WITH A SIMPLE ROTATION OF THE FIRST COMPONENT. ONE HAS ONLY TO PUT A PAN – FIRST – INITIAL OVER- OR ANY OTHER INTENTION IN FRONT OF A SUBJECT. AND IF YOU COMBINE TOGETHER THESE PREFIXES, IT TAKES AN ENDLESS VARIETY OF GRADATIONS. THE PREFIXES ENCLOSED IN THE HAND, NOT AS A SEMANTIC SCALE, WHICH RISES TOWARDS THE SKY OF WORDS. “
IN HOMER’S ILIAD THETIS MOURNING THAT WILL GET THE SON OF KILLING HECTOR “DIONE AND DYSARISTOTOKEIAN IT CALLS”. THE WORD ITSELF IS A DIRGE, DYS + EXCELLENT + WHELP (= CALVE) AND MEANS SUCH ANALYZES ETYMOLOGICUM MEGA “, WHICH GAVE BIRTH TO EVIL EXCELLENT.”
A FEW YEARS AGO WAS RELEASED IN SWITZERLAND IN DICTIONARY NONEXISTENT WORDS (DICTIONNAIRE DES MOTS INEXISTANTS) PROPOSING TO REPLACE FRENCH WITH CIRCUMLOCUTIONS MONOLECTIC TERMS FROM THE GREEK. EG ANDROPREIE(=MANACTING), BIOPALESTE, DYSPAREGORETE, ECOGENIARCHE, ELPIDOPHORE(=HOPE+CARRY), GLOSSOCTONIE, PHILOMATHEEM(=LEARNLOVING) TACHYMATHIE(=QUICK LEARNING), THEOPEMPTE ETC. ABOUT 2,000 ENTRIES WITH SCOPE FOR FURTHER ENRICHMENT.
NOT FOR CHAUVINISTIC REASONS,
BUT TO LEARN SLOWLY ARE UNAWARE OF THE TRUTH!

 That is not the Alphabet is copied from elsewhere seen in that in the year 2300 BC by Homer already at the disposal of 6,500,000 primary words (first person singular present tense &) which if you multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.The Greek language is the only one that can be used for H / Y due mathematical and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS(=position): Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc etc if now these words the English translation is completely unrelated.

IF WE COMPARE NOW EG THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE HAS 80,000 WORDS, OF WHICH 80% ARE GREEK AS WE INFORM THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES, AND MEASURE THAT THIS STERILE LANGUAGE EVOLVES 1000 YEARS, WE EFFORTLESSLY DRAW THE CONCLUSION THAT HOMER RECEIVES A LANGUAGE WHICH HAS A DEPTH THE YEAR 100,000 BC; 500,000 BC; WHO KNOWS …

But the ultimate proof is the same of the mathematic structure, which does not exist in any other language of the world. Do not even forget that the Creator uses math to create, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1).

BUT BEFORE THE “CRYPT” IS THE “SIGNIFIER”, IE THE CONNECTION OF WORDS WITH MEANINGS. HE SAID EARLIER THAT FOREIGN DIALECTS DEFINED BY AGREEMENT, IE SOME AGREED THAT SUCH AND SUCH A SUBJECT WOULD CALL IT “X”, WHICH MAKES THE LANGUAGES ​​STERILE, SO THEY CAN GIVE BIRTH TO NEW WORDS, SO THERE MATHIMATIKOTITA THEREFORE CAN NOT DESCRIBE NEW CONCEPTS THAT EXIST IN NATURE, RESULTING IN THE BRAIN WHERE IT CAN NOT DESCRIBE THROUGH NEW WORDS NEW MEANINGS REMAIN IN THE DARK, SO THE NEURONS OF THE BRAIN DOES NOT GENERATE NEW AS OPPOSED TO THOSE WHO USE THE GREEK.

HOW COULD EG THE ENGLISH OR THE FRENCH OR THE X, Y WITH A WORD THAT HAS 10 CONCEPTS TO DESCRIBE ACCURATELY AND THEREFORE CLEARLY A DEEPER MEANING? LET ALONE THE MULTIPLE ASPECTS OF THIS? IT CAN NOT BE SO WHY ALL STARTED HERE. IT MEANS THEREFORE IS CONNECTING THE SIGNAL TO THE SIGNIFIED, THAT THE WORD ITSELF IS GENERATED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT DESCRIBES THE MEANING ESOKLEINEI INSTRUMENTS.

EXAMPLE: THE NAMING OF THE WORD CURRY (WALNUT), AS WE READ IN THESECRETREALTRUTH, FROM AN OBSERVATION OF NATURE (AS ALL WORDS), IE WHEN TWO HORNED ANIMALS (RAMS, GOATS ETC.) TRA.KAR.OUN WITH KER.ATA THEIR SOUNDS “CRACK” OR “FEM”, THE SOUND HE GAVE THE NAME “HORN” (HORN) THE HORN GAVE THE NAME OF THE STATE OR SKULL (HEAD) AND THE NICKNAMES OF THIS CURRY (SMALL HEAD). CURRY (NUT) LOOKS AMAZING TO THE HUMAN HEAD AND THE INTERIOR OF THE BRAIN.
Y IS THE ROOT OF THE VERB YO (RAIN) WHERE Y IS CONCAVITY (OR CONVEXITY) THAT MATES SOMETHING, RAIN (WATER ELEMENT) ENTERS (NEST) INTO THE EARTH.

THE MUSICAL – NUMERIC ALPHABET CREATES MUSICAL – MATHEMATICAL WORDS THAT DESCRIBE RESPECTIVE CONCEPTS WHICH COME FROM THE OBSERVATION OF NATURE IE OF CREATION SO BY EXTENSION OF THE SAME CREATOR, BUT THE QUESTION IS HOW MANY MILLENNIA MAY BE NEEDED TO CREATE THIS PERFECT MATHEMATICAL COMPLEX LETTERS ARE NUMBERS, YET MUSICAL TONES AND WORDS THAT ALL THE NUMBERS AND MUSIC TONES INTO THEIR HIDE EXCEPT FOR COMPLEX MUSICAL HARMONIES, CONCEPTS WHICH ARE NOT RANDOM AT ALL BUT AFTER EXTENSIVE OBSERVATION OF NATURE?

ARGUABLY, THEREFORE OUR ANTISTHENES RECALLS “WISDOM AUTHORITY NAMES VISITATION”DE GROOT (NETHERLANDS HOMERIC TEXTS PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTREAL)

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE HAS CONTINUITY AND TEACHES TO BE OWNERLESS AND GOT A GLORY, THAT AN OPINION. IN THIS LANGUAGE THERE IS NO ORTHODOXY. SO EVEN IF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM WANTS PEOPLE LAW-ABIDING – A MOLD – THE SPIRIT OF ANCIENT TEXTS AND LANGUAGE IN LEARNING TO BE A BOSS. “
JAMES JOYCE (FAMOUS IRISH AUTHOR, 1882-1941)

“ALMOST AFRAID TO TOUCH THE ODYSSEY, THE OPPRESSIVE BEAUTY IS UNBEARABLE.”
THE GREAT FRENCH WRITER JACQUES LAKARRIER SAID:

“IN GREEK THERE IS A VERTIGO OF WORDS, BECAUSE ONLY SHE EXPLORED, RECORDED AND ANALYZED THE INNERMOST PROCESSES OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, MORE THAN ANY OTHER LANGUAGE.”
THE GREAT FRENCH ENLIGHTENER VOLTAIRE HAD SAID

“MAY THE GREEK LANGUAGE TO BECOME COMMON ALL PEOPLES.”
THE FRENCH PROFESSOR AT THE SORBONNE SAID CHARLES FORIEL

“THE GREEK HAS HOMOGENEITY AS THE GERMAN, BUT RICHER THAN THAT. HE HAS THE CLARITY OF THE FRENCH, BUT IT HAS GREATER PRECISION. IT IS MORE FLEXIBLE THAN THE ITALIAN AND MUCH MORE HARMONIOUS THAN THE SPANISH. IS THAT WHAT IT TAKES TO BE CONSIDERED THE MOST BEAUTIFUL LANGUAGE OF EUROPE. “
MARIANNA MCDONALD, PROFESSOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AND HEAD OF TLG SAID

“KNOWLEDGE OF GREEK IS ESSENTIAL FOUNDATION OF HIGH CULTURAL CULTIVATION.”
THE BLIND AMERICAN WRITER HELEN KELLER HAD TOLD

“IF THE VIOLIN IS THE MOST PERFECT MUSICAL INSTRUMENT, THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS THE VIOLIN OF HUMAN THOUGHT.
JOHN GOETHE (THE GREATEST POET OF GERMANY, 1749-1832)

“I LISTENED TO ST. PETER’S IN ROME THE GOSPEL IN ALL LANGUAGES. THE GREEK RESONATED STAR GLOWING IN THE NIGHT. “
DIALOGUE OF GOETHE WITH HIS DISCIPLES:

-DASKALE WHAT TO READ TO BECOME WISE AS YOU?

-THE GREEK CLASSICS.

-AND WHEN WE FINISH THE GREEK CLASSICS WHAT TO READ?

-OLD GREEK CLASSICS.
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW (GREAT IRISH PLAYWRIGHT, 1856-1950)

“IF THE LIBRARY OF YOUR HOME YOU DO NOT HAVE THE WORKS OF ANCIENT GREEK AUTHORS, THEN YOU LIVE IN A HOUSE WITHOUT LIGHT.”
MARK TILLIOS CICERO (THE FOREMOST MAN OF ANCIENT ROME, 106-43 BC)

“IF THE GODS SPEAK, THEN CERTAINLY USE THE LANGUAGE OF THE GREEKS.”
HUMPHREY KITTY (ENGLISH PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL, 1968)

“IT’S THE NATURE OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS CLEAN, PRECISE AND COMPLEX. THE AMBIGUITY AND LACK OF DIRECT ENORASEOS FEATURING SOMETIMES ENGLISH AND GERMAN, IS COMPLETELY FOREIGN TO THE GREEK LANGUAGE. “
IRINA KOVALEVA (MODERN RUSSIAN PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY LOMONOSOV, 1995)

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS BEAUTIFUL LIKE HEAVEN TO THE STARS.”
RH ROBINS (CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH LINGUIST, PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON)

“OF COURSE NOT ONLY IN LINGUISTICS WHERE GREEKS WERE PIONEERS IN EUROPE. OVERALL EUROPE’S SPIRITUAL LIFE GOES BACK TO THE WORK OF GREEK THINKERS.

EVEN TODAY WE RETURN UNCEASINGLY IN GREEK HERITAGE TO FIND STIMULATION AND ENCOURAGEMENT. “
FREDERICK SAGKREDO (BASQUE LINGUISTICS PROFESSOR – CHAIRMAN OF THE GREEK ACADEMY OF VASKONIAS)

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS THE BEST LEGACY THAT HAS BEEN AVAILABLE TO THE MAN ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE BRAIN. AGAINST ALL GREEK AND INSIST ALL LANGUAGES ARE INADEQUATE. “

“THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE SHOULD BECOME THE SECOND LANGUAGE OF ALL EUROPEANS, ESPECIALLY THE CULTURED PEOPLE.”

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS OF DIVINE ESSENCE.”
HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN (RENOWNED AMATEUR ARCHAEOLOGIST, 1822-1890)

“EVERYTHING I WANTED PASSIONATELY TO LEARN GREEK. I DID NOT DO IT BECAUSE I WAS AFRAID THAT THE DEEP CHARM OF THIS MAGNIFICENT LANGUAGE WOULD ABSORB SO MUCH THAT WOULD HAVE REMOVED MY OTHER ACTIVITIES. “(THE SCHLIEMANN SPOKE 18 LANGUAGES SEAMLESSLY. FOR TWO YEARS DID NOTHING OTHER THAN THE STUDYING 2 POEMS OF HOMER).
IBN KHALDOUN (LARGEST ARAB HISTORIAN)

“WHERE IS THE SECRETARIAT OF THE ASSYRIANS, THE CHALDEANS, THE EGYPTIANS? ALL MANKIND HAS INHERITED THE SECRETARIAT OF THE GREEKS ALONE. “
WILL DURANT (AMERICAN HISTORIAN AND PHILOSOPHER, PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLUMBIA)

“OUR ALPHABET CAME FROM GREECE BY KIMI AND ROME. OUR LANGUAGE IS LITTERED GREEK WORDS. OUR SCIENCE ESFYRILATISE MIAN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE BY THE GREEK TERMS. OUR GRAMMAR AND OUR RHETORIC, EVEN THE PUNCTUATION AND THE DIVISION AREAS PARAGRAPHS … IS GREEK INVENTIONS. OUR GENRES ARE GREEKS – THE LYRIC, THE ODE, THE ROMANCE, THE NOVEL, THE ESSAY, THE PROSFONISIS, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY AND ABOVE ALL THE VISION. AND ALMOST ALL OF THESE WORDS ARE GREEK. “
JACQUELINE DE ROMIGY (MODERN FRENCH ACADEMICIAN AND AUTHOR)

“ANCIENT GREECE OFFERS US A LANGUAGE, WHICH WILL SAY THAT IT IS UNIVERSAL.”

“EVERYONE NEEDS TO LEARN GREEK, BECAUSE THE GREEK LANGUAGE HELPS US FIRST OF ALL TO UNDERSTAND OUR OWN LANGUAGE.”
BRUNO SNELL (DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAMBURG)

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS THE PAST OF THE EUROPEANS.”
FRANGKISKOS LIGKORA (MODERN ITALIAN UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR AND PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY FOR THE DISSEMINATION OF CULTURE)

“GREEKS CAN BE PROUD TO SPEAK THE GREEK LANGUAGE ALIVE AND THE MOTHER OF ALL OTHER LANGUAGES. DO NOT NEGLECT, SINCE THIS IS ONE OF THE FEW GOODS WE HAVE LEFT AND ALSO YOUR PASSPORT TO THE WORLD CIVILIZATION. “
THE. VANTROUSKA (PROFESSOR OF LINGUISTICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA)

“FOR A JAPANESE OR TURKISH, ALL EUROPEAN LANGUAGES ARE NOT SEEN AS SEPARATE BUT AS DIALECTS OF ONE AND THE SAME LANGUAGE, GREEK.”
PETER JONES (PHD – PROFESSOR AT OXFORD UNIVERSITY WHO DRAFTED LESSONS OF ANCIENT GREEK WITH READERSHIP, FOR PUBLICATION IN THE NEWSPAPER «DAILYTELEGRAPH»)

THE GREEKS OF ATHENS IN THE 5TH AND 4TH CENTURY HAD REACHED THE LANGUAGE TO THE POINT THAT WITH HER TO EXPLORE IDEAS SUCH AS DEMOCRACY AND THE ORIGINS OF THE UNIVERSE, CONCEPTS SUCH AS SULFUR AND LAW. IT IS A WONDERFUL AND GREAT LANGUAGE. “
GILBERT MURRAY (PROFESSOR, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD)

“THE GREEK IS THE PERFECT LANGUAGE. OFTEN ONE FINDS THAT A THOUGHT CAN BE EXPRESSED WITH EASE AND GRACE IN GREEK, AND BECOMES DIFFICULT AND SEVERE IN LATIN, ENGLISH, FRENCH OR GERMAN. IT IS THE PERFECT LANGUAGE, BECAUSE IT EXPRESSES THE THOUGHTS MOST PERFECT PEOPLE. “
MAX VON LAYE (NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS
)

“I GRACES IN DIVINE PROVIDENCE, BECAUSE IT PLEASED TO TEACH ANCIENT GREEK, WHO HELPED ME TO PENETRATE DEEPER INTO THE MEANING OF SCIENCE.”
E, NORDEN (THE GREAT GERMAN PHILOLOGIST)

“IN ADDITION TO CHINESE AND JAPANESE, ALL OTHER LANGUAGES WERE FORMED UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF GREEK, FROM WHICH THEY TOOK, BESIDES MANY WORDS, RULES AND GRAMMAR.”
MARTIN HEIDEGGER (GERMAN PHILOSOPHER, OF THE MAIN REPRESENTATIVES OF EXISTENTIALISM IN THE 20TH CENTURY)

“THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE BELONGS TO THE STANDARDS THROUGH WHICH SHOWCASE THE SPIRITUAL FORCES OF CREATIVE GENIUS, BECAUSE WITH RESPECT TO THE POSSIBILITIES PROVIDED IN THOUGHT, IS THE MOST POWERFUL AND YET THE MOST WITTY OF ALL LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD.”
DAVID CRYSTAL (AKA ENGLISH PROFESSOR, AUTHOR OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CAMBRIDGE FOR THE ENGLISH)

“IT’S AMAZING TO SEE HOW MUCH MORE WE RELY ON THE GREEK, TO TALK ABOUT ENTITIES AND EVENTS AT THE HEART OF MODERN LIFE.”
MICHAEL VENTRIS (THE MAN WHO DECIPHERED THE LINEAR B)

“THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE WAS AND IS HIGHER ALL THE OLD AND NEW LANGUAGES.”
R.H. ROBINS (LINGUIST AND AUTHOR)

“THE GREEK TRIUMPH IN THE SPIRITUAL CULTURE IS THAT GAVE SO MUCH TO SO MANY SECTORS […]. THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE FIELD OF LINGUISTICS WHICH WAS EXTREMELY STRONG, IE THE THEORY OF GRAMMAR AND GRAMMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGE IS STRONG ENOUGH TO MERIT AND TO WITHSTAND CRITICISM. ALSO BE SUCH AS TO INSPIRE GRATITUDE AND OUR ADMIRATION. “
LUIS JOSÉ NAVARRO (DEPUTY TO THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM “EVROKLASSIKA” OF THE EU)

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE FOR ME IS LIKE COSMOGONY. IT IS NOT JUST A LANGUAGE … “
JUAN JOSE PUHANA ARZA (BASQUE HELLENIST AND POLITICIAN)

“WE MUST PROCLAIM THAT THERE HAS BEEN IN THE WORLD A LANGUAGE WHICH CAN BE COMPARED TO THE CLASSICAL GREEK.”
D’EICHTAL (FRENCH AUTHOR)

“THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS A LANGUAGE WHICH HAS ALL THE FEATURES, ALL THE CONDITIONS OF AN INTERNATIONAL TONGUE … TOUCHES THESE SAME BEGINNINGS OF CIVILIZATION … WHICH NOT ONLY THERE WAS NO STRANGER TO NONE OF THE MAJOR EVENTS OF THE HUMAN SPIRIT, RELIGION, IN POLITICS, IN LITERATURE, THE ARTS, THE SCIENCES, BUT WAS ALSO THE FIRST TOOL – TO SCAN ALL THESE – SO TO SPEAK, THE WOMB … LANGUAGE LOGIC WHILE EUPHONIC, AMONG ALL THE OTHER … “
THEODORE F. BRUNNER (TLG FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR UNTIL 1997)

“ANYONE WHO WONDER WHY SO MANY MILLIONS OF DOLLARS SPENT ON THE HOARDING OF GREEK WORDS, WE REPLY: BUT THIS IS THE LANGUAGE OF OUR ANCESTORS AND CONTACT WITH THEM WILL IMPROVE OUR CULTURE.”
JACQUES LANG (FRENCH MINISTRY OF EDUCATION)

“I WOULD LIKE TO SEE TO LEARN ANCIENT GREEK, WITH THE SAME ZEAL THAT WE DEMONSTRATE, AND GREEK SCHOOLS.”
IN HIS WORK “A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE” BY THE FAMOUS LINGUIST A.. MEILLET, SUPPORTED STRONGLY THE SUPERIORITY OF GREEK OVER OTHER LANGUAGES.

 

The name of Apollo itself—though not Paean, a possible name of a precursor god to or epithet of him—is generally considered to be absent from the Linear B (Mycenean Greek) texts although it is possible that the name is in fact attested in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo-[ (Linear B: ]-[) on the KN E 842 tablet.The spelling Ἀπόλλων (pronounced [a.pól.lɔːn] in Classical Attic) had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form Apellon (Ἀπέλλων), is more archaic, derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων. It probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios (Ἀπελλαῖος), and the offerings apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai (ἀπέλλαι).According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella (ἀπέλλα), which originally meant “wall,” “fence for animals” and later “assembly within the limits of the square.”[ Apella (Ἀπέλλα) is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta,[9] corresponding to the ecclesia (ἐκκλησία). R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun.Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo’s name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), “to destroy”. Plato in Cratylus connects the name withἀπόλυσις (apolysis), “redeem”, with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), “purification”, and with ἁπλοῦν ([h]aploun), “simple”, in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀειβάλλων (aeiballon), “ever-shooting”. Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα (apella), which means “assembly”, so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos), “fold”, in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the Ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means “stone,” and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα (Pella,[14] the capital of Ancient Macedonia) and Πελλήνη(Pellēnē/Pallene)

Language

7270-year-old Tablet Found in Kastoria Calls into Question History of Writing

Back in 1993, in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in the Kastoria Prefecture, professor George Hourmouziadis and his team unearthed the Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or the Dispilio Disk), a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata) that has been carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP (5260 BC).

In February 2004, during the announcement of the Tablet’s discovery to the world, Hourmouziadis claimed that the text with the markings could not be easily publicized because it would ultimately change the current historical background concerning the origins of writing and articulate speech depicted with letters instead of ideograms within the borders of the ancient Greek world and by extension, the broader European one.

According to the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the markings suggested that the current theory proposing that the ancient Greeks received their alphabet from the ancient civilizations of the Middle East (Babylonians, Sumerians and Phoenicians etc) fails to close the historic gap of some 4,000 years. This gap translates into the following facts:  while ancient eastern civilizations would use ideograms to express themselves, the ancient Greeks were using syllables in a similar manner like we use today.

The currently accepted historic theory taught around the world suggests that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. However, a question emerges among scholars: how is it possible for the Greek language to have 800,000 word entries, ranking first among all known languages in the world, while the second next has only 250,000 word entries? How is it possible for the Homeric Poems to have been produced at about 800 BC, which is just when the ancient Greeks learned to write? It would be impossible for the ancient Greeks to write these poetic works without having had a history of writing of at least 10,000 years back, according to a US linguistic research.

The tablet is 2,000 years older than the written findings from the Sumerian era and 4,000 years older than the Cretan-Mycenean linear types of writing.

The markings on the tablet did not resemble the human figures, the sun and moon or other figures ideograms usually depict. They actually showed signs of advanced apheresis, which indicates they are the result of cognitive processes.

The tablet was partially damaged when it was exposed to the oxygen-rich environment outside of the mud and water in which it was immersed for a long period of time, and it is now under conservation. The full academic publication of the tablet apparently awaits the completion of the work of conservation

– See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/07/16/7270-year-old-tablet-found-in-kastoria-calls-into-question-history-of-writing/#sthash.o0yDtSd4.dpuf

Main article: Ancient Macedonian language

The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT – ”Medallion” East of the Empire, Beroia (provincial capital of Macedonia, the Heart of Greece), 3rd century A.D., Gold, Diam. 54 mm; 96.3 g
Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa

The obverse shows the diademed head of Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC). This posthumous and idealized portrait includes symbols of Alexander’s deification, one of which is the ram’s horn, characteristic of the Egyptian god Amon. This iconography derives from the type of coin introduced by one of Alexander’s immediate successors, King Lysimachos of Thrace (297-281 BC).

The reverse shows a hunting scene, with the hunter’s spear piercing a wild boar that is being attacked by two dogs. The legend “King Alexander”, which appears to the left and above, identifies the hunter.

The “medallion” is part of a treasure including twenty similar pieces found in Aboukir, Egypt, in 1902. The designation “medallion” is purely a matter of convention based on the piece’s morphology and size, as the use given to such pieces cannot be definitively established.

THE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE VS “PHOENICIAN” DECEPTION.

H E R EAN EXAMPLE OF AN I D E N T I C A L- C L A S S I C A L VARIATION OF A STANZA …, …………….

********************** J U S T………………V O W E L S !!!! ********************

( A N C I E N T G R E E K // ATTICA DIALECT)

A YOUNG MOTHERS WISH TO HER BABY SON :

ΟΙΑ ΗΩ Ω ΥΙΕ ΑΕΙ ΕΙ” = AS THE DAWN MY SON, BE ALWAYS THE FLAME OF LIFE = ΟΠΩΣ Η ΑΥΓΉ ΝΑ ΕΙΣΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ ΥΙΕ ΜΟΥ Η ΦΛΟΓΑ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ (TRANSLATED INTO “NEW” GREEK).

ANALYTIC TRASLATION IN ORDER FROMANCIENT GREEK – NEW GREEK – ENGLISH

ΟΙΑ = ΟΠΩΣ= AS

ΗΩ = Η ΑΥΓΉ = THE DAWN

Ω ΥΙΕ = ΥΙΕ ΜΟΥ = OH MY SON

ΑΕΙ ΕΙ = ΝΑ ΕΙΣΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ = BE ALWAYS

(TRANSLATED INTO “NEW” GREEK) :

ΟΠΩΣ Η ΑΥΓΉ ΝΑ ΕΙΣΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ ΥΙΕ ΜΟΥ =

= AS THE DAWN MY SON, BE ALWAYS!!

Η ΦΛΟΓΑ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ=THE FLAME OF LIFE=2135

ΟΙΑ ΗΩ Ω ΥΙΕ ΑΕΙ ΕΙ = 2135

ATTENTION: – GO AFTER THE ANCIENT ALPHABET INDEX

The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for“5”, “10”, “100”, “1000”, and “10,000”. Though there was some steam lining of its use. The (IONIAN)) Greek system of enumeration was a VERY SOPHISTICATED one, Like the ATTICA SYSTEM it was also DECIMAL Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception. ” Greek Enumeration and Basic Number Formation First, we note that the number symbols were the same as the letters of the Greek alphabet. symbol value symbol value symbol value ! 1 ” 10 # 100 $ 2 % 20 & 200 ‘ 3 ( 30 ) 300 * 4 + 40 , 400 – 5 . 50 / 500 6 0 60 1 600 2 7 3 70 4 700 5 8 6 80 7 800 8 9 90 900 where three additional characters, the (digamma), the (koppa), 1°c 2000, G. Donald Allen Greek Numbers and Arithmetic 2 and the (sampi) are used. Hence, &62 = 287 Larger Numbers Larger numbers were also available. The thousands, 1000 to 9000, were represented by placing adiacritical mark ! before a unit. Thus ! ‘&62 = 3287 In other sources we see the diacritical mark placed as a subscript before the unit. Thus ! ‘&62 = 3287 The uses of a M was used to represent numbers from 10,000 on up. Thus 9! = 50: 000 9″#&62 = 120: 287 Alternatively, depending on the history one reads 9 – = 50: 000 9!% ¢ &62 = 120: 287 Archimedes, in his book The Sand Reckoner, calculated the number of grains of sand to fill the universe”. This required him to develop an extention the power of Greek enumeration to include very large numbers. Fractions In the area of fractions, context was crucial for correctly reading a fraction. A diacritical mark was placed after the denominator of the (unit) fraction. So, $ ! = 1 2 ;<= +$ ! = 1 42 but this latter example could also mean 40 ! ” . More complex fractions could be written as well, with context again being important. The numerator was written with an overbar. Thus, .! 6* = 51 84 Numerous, similar, representations also have been used, with increasing sophistication over time. Indeed, Diophantus uses a fractional form identical to ours but with the numerator and denominator in reversed positions. 2The reader may ask, ”What universe?” It was the universe of Aristarchos the so called ‘ancient Copernicus’ because he proposed a sun centered universe with the earth and other planet orbiting it. More on this later. Greek Numbers and Arithmetic 3 # Calculation The arithmetic operations are complex in that so many symbols are used. However, as you can imagine, addition amounts