Ancient Library of Alexandria One of Greatest Treasures of Mankind

By Patricia Claus

July 14, 2024

Library of Alexandria
The Serapeum at Alexandria. The building was used by the Library of Alexandria for extra storage of parchment scrolls after it ran out of space. The area is now a part of an archeological excavation. Credit: Daniel Mayer /CC BY-SA 4.0

The ancient Library of Alexandria, built in the city that was the brainchild of Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest wonders of the world, hosting scholars who explored science, history and all other areas of knowledge before its tragic destruction.

The Great Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the entire ancient world. It was part of a larger research institution called the Mouseion, which was dedicated to the Muses, who were the nine goddesses of the arts in Greek mythology.

In Greece, the Athenian ruler Peisistratos was said to have founded the first major public library in the sixth century BC. It was out of this mixed heritage of both Greek and Near Eastern book collections that the idea for the Library of Alexandria was born.

The idea of founding a library in Alexandria may have been proposed by Demetrius of Phalerum, an exiled Athenian statesman living in Alexandria, to the Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter, but the Library itself was most likely not built until the reign of his son, Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

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The Alexandrian Library, however, was unprecedented due to the scope and scale of the Ptolemies’ ambitions; their mission was to produce a repository of all knowledge known to mankind at the time.

The Library quickly acquired many papyrus scrolls, due largely to the Ptolemaic kings’ aggressive and well-funded policies for procuring texts. They dispatched royal agents with large amounts of money, ordering them to purchase and collect as many texts as they possibly could, about any subject and by any author.

In a famous story which has come down through the ages, it was decreed by Ptolemy II that any books found on ships that came into port were taken to the library, where they were copied by official scribes. It is unknown precisely how many such precious scrolls were housed at the Library at any given time, but estimates range from 40,000 to 400,000 at its height.

Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II Philadelphus, during whose reign the Great Library of Alexandria was founded. Bust excavated at the Villa of the Papyri. Credit: Marie-Lan Nguyen /CC BY 2.5

“The place for the cure of the soul”

In time, a medical school also was founded at the Library, in which scientific human dissections were first undertaken; this practice alone provided invaluable knowledge to the world of medicine.

Alexandria quickly came to be regarded as the capital of knowledge and learning, in great part because of its astonishing Library. Many important and influential scholars worked there during the third and second centuries BC.

However, the Library poses one of the greatest mysteries in the world, as Dr. Bob Brier, the chairman of the philosophy department at the University of Long Island, explains. “The amazing thing about the library in Alexandria is that it was the most important place of learning in the ancient world and we don’t know where it was or where it is now.

“We don’t know what it looked like. We don’t know the details of what books it had; we don’t know everybody who (worked) there. There’s more that we don’t know than what we do know. But it was the most important intellectual event perhaps in the history of mankind,” he stated in an interview with NBC News’ Roger Mudd.

Ancient Alexandria
A map of ancient Alexandria. The Library was located in the Royal Quarter, known as “Bruchium” in the central part of the city near the Great Harbor (“Portus Magnus” on the map). Credit: Friedrich Wilhelm Putzger, nach O. Puchstein in Pauly, Real-Encycl. – F. W. Putzgers Historischer Schul-Atlas/ Public Domain

During the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes, the original library’s collections had grown so large that a daughter library was established in the nearby Serapeum, a temple to the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis. The remains of that structure — the only concrete link we have to the Great Library — are still there in the city today.The Library was built in the Brucheion, or Royal Quarter, of Alexandria. Its exact layout is not known, but ancient sources describe it as comprising a collection of scrolls known as bibliothekai (βιβλιοθῆκαι), with the building featuring Greek columns, a peripatos walk, a room for shared dining, a reading room, meeting rooms, gardens, and lecture halls.

In short, it created a model for the concept of a university campus.

According to popular description, an inscription above the Library’s papyrus scroll shelves read: “The place of the cure of the soul.”

International scholars mingled freely, exchanging ideas

In addition to collecting works from the distant past, the Mouseion which housed the Library also served as home to a host of international scholars, poets, philosophers, and researchers, who, according to the first-century BC Greek geographer Strabo, were provided with a large salary, free food and lodging, and exemption from taxes.

The Library itself was directed by a scholar who served as head librarian, as well as tutor to the king’s son.The first recorded head librarian was Zenodotus of Ephesus, who lived from c. 325 to c. 270 BC. He is known to have written a glossary of rare and unusual words, which was organized in alphabetical order, making him the first person in the world known to have employed alphabetical order as a method of organization.

Meanwhile, the scholar and poet Callimachus compiled the Pinakes, a 120-book catalogue of various authors and all their known works. This library catalogue has not survived, but enough references to it and fragments of it have survived to allow scholars to reconstruct its basic structure.

According to legend, the Syracusan inventor Archimedes invented “Archimedes’ screw,” a pump for transporting water, while studying at the Library.

Jason and the Argonauts saga contains geographical knowledge derived from Library’s works

Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus then appointed Apollonius of Rhodes, who lived from c. 295 to c. 215 BC, a native of Alexandria and a student of Callimachus, as the second head librarian of the Library of Alexandria. He is best known as the author of the “Argonautica,” the epic poem about the voyages of Jason and the Argonauts, which has incredibly survived to the present in its complete form.The Argonautica displays Apollonius’ deep knowledge of history and literature and makes allusions to a vast array of events and texts, thanks to the riches available to him at the Library.

The third head librarian, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who was born c. 280 and lived to c. 194 BC, is best known today for his scientific works, including his seminal discovery of the circumference of the earth. However, the polymath was also a literary scholar. Eratosthenes also produced a map of the entire known world, which incorporated information taken from sources held in the Library, including accounts of Alexander the Great’s campaigns in India.

Ptolemy III had expensive copies of the plays written by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides made on the highest quality papyrus and sent back the copies to the Athenians — keeping the original manuscripts for the library.

As the Library expanded, it ran out of space, so it opened a satellite collection in the Serapeum, which was a temple dedicated to the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis, located near the royal palace.

The librarianship of Aristophanes of Byzantium saw the invention of the system of Greek diacritics, who also wrote important works on lexicography, and introduced a series of signs for textual criticism. He himself wrote introductions to many plays, some of which have survived in partially rewritten forms.

Alexandrian Library
This Latin inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. c. AD 79) mentions the “ALEXANDRINA BYBLIOTHECE” on line eight. Credit: Tomisti /Public Domain

However, it was also during the early second century BC that the political power of Ptolemaic Egypt began to decline. Consequently, many Greek scholars began to leave Alexandria for safer countries with more generous patronages. The Library of Alexandria was never to recover from this decline, although it had some noted successes thereafter in the brilliant contributions of its librarians.

Aristarchus of Samothrace, who lived from c. 216 to c. 145 BC, was the sixth head librarian. Earning a reputation as the greatest of all ancient scholars, he produced not only texts of classic poems and works of prose, but full hypomnemata, or long, free-standing commentaries, on them.

In 145 BC, however, Aristarchus became caught up in a dynastic struggle, resulting in Ptolemy VIII expelling all foreign scholars from Alexandria, forcing them to disperse across the Eastern Mediterranean world — enriching those areas and allowing scholarship to flourish there.

Aristarchus’ student Dionysius Thrax, who lived from c. 170 to c. 90 BC, even established a school on the Greek island of Rhodes. Thrax wrote the first book on Greek grammar, a work which remained the primary grammar textbook for Greek schoolboys until as late as the twelfth century AD.

Political struggles, the rise of a new empire contributed to the decline of Alexandria

The Romans based their own grammatical writings on it, and its basic format incredibly remains the basis for grammar guides in many languages even today.

Confronted with growing social unrest and other major political and economic problems, the later Ptolemies did not devote as much attention towards the Library and the Mouseion as their predecessors had, leading to its further decline

A shift in Greek scholarship as a whole took place around the beginning of the first century BC because by this time, all the major classical poetic texts had finally been standardized and extensive commentaries had already been produced on the writings of all the major literary authors of the Greek Classical Era.

Meanwhile, Alexandrian scholarship was probably introduced to Rome in the first century BC by Tyrannion of Amisus, a student of Dionysius Thrax, who lived from c. 100 to c. 25 BC, again — as so often seen throughout Greek history — enriching the cultural life of the rest of the world with its export.

Was the Library really burned?

The Roman general Julius Caesar was forced to set fire to his own ships during the Siege of Alexandria in 48 BC; many ancient writers report that the fire spread and destroyed at least part of the Library of Alexandria’s collections; however, it may well have either at least partially survived or been quickly rebuilt at that time.

The first-century AD Roman playwright and Stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger quotes Livy’s “Ab Urbe Condita Libri,” which was written between 63 and 14 BC, as saying that the fire started by Caesar destroyed 40,000 scrolls from the Library of Alexandria.

However, the Roman historian Cassius Dio, who lived from c. 155 to c. 235 AD, recorded that “Many places were set on fire, with the result that, along with other buildings, the dockyards and storehouses of grain and books, said to be great in number and of the finest, were burned.”Scholars have interpreted Dio’s wording to mean that the fire did not actually destroy the entire Library itself, but rather only a warehouse located near the docks being used by the Library to house scrolls. Whatever devastation Caesar’s fire must have caused in the city, the Library was evidently not completely destroyed at that time.

The geographer Strabo,who lived from c. 63 BC to c. 24 AD, mentions visiting the Mouseion, the larger research institution to which the Library was attached, in around the year 20 BC, indicating that it either survived the fire or was rebuilt soon afterward.

Still, the manner in which he speaks about the Mouseion shows that it was nowhere near as prestigious as it had been a few centuries prior.

A Latin inscription, seen above, regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome, who died around AD 79, mentions the “ALEXANDRINA BYBLIOTHECE” on line eight.

Library’s status diminished

The emperor Claudius, who ruled from 41–54 AD, is recorded to have built an addition onto the Library, but after Alexandria came under Roman rule, the city’s status gradually diminished.

The Library likewise tragically dwindled in importance during the Roman period, due to a lack of funding and support. Its membership appears to have ceased by the 260s AD. Between 270 and 275 AD, the city of Alexandria saw a Palmyrene invasion and an imperial counterattack that most likely destroyed whatever remained of the Library, if it still existed at that time.

Meanwhile, as the reputation of Alexandrian scholarship declined, the reputations of other libraries across the Mediterranean world improved, and other libraries also sprang up within the city of Alexandria itself; some — or even all — of the scrolls from the Great Library may have been used to stock some of these smaller libraries.

The Caesareum and the Claudianum in Alexandria are both known to have had major libraries by the end of the first century AD.

Mention of both the Great Library of Alexandria and the Mouseion that housed it disappear after the middle of the third century AD, however. The last known references to scholars being members of the Mouseion date to the 260s.

In 272 AD, the emperor Aurelian’s forces destroyed the Broucheion quarter of the city in which the main library was located. If the Mouseion and Library still existed at this time, they were almost certainly destroyed during the attack as well. If they had somehow survived that attack, then whatever was left of them would have been destroyed during the emperor Diocletian’s siege of Alexandria in 297.

Serapeum served as a daughter library to the Great Library

The Serapeum is often called the “daughter library” of Alexandria. As late as the beginning of the fourth century AD historians believe it held the largest collection of books in the city of Alexandria.

In the 370s and 380s, the Serapeum was still a major pilgrimage site for pagans, however. It remained a fully functioning temple, and had classrooms for philosophers interested in theurgy, the study of cultic rituals and esoteric religious practices.

Under the Christian rule of Roman emperor Theodosius I pagan rituals were outlawed, and pagan temples were destroyed. In 391 AD, Theophilus, the bishop of Alexandria ordered the destruction of the Serapeum and its conversion into a church. The pagans of Alexandria were incensed by this act of desecration, especially the teachers of Neoplatonic philosophy and theurgy at the Serapeum.

Its teachers took up arms and led their students and other followers in a guerrilla attack on the Christian population of Alexandria, killing many of them before being forced to retreat. In retaliation, the Christians of the city vandalized and demolished the Serapeum — although amazingly some parts of the colonnade were still standing as late as the twelfth century.

However, none of the accounts of the Serapeum’s destruction mention anything about it still having a library, and sources indicate that even that structure — the one surviving link to the library today — most likely did not have a significant collection of scrolls in it at the time of its destruction.

Not all knowledge was lost

As the course of history shows, power and knowledge ebb and flow from East to West, North to South, and libraries — perhaps even housing some of the precious scrolls that had been copied and housed at Alexandria — were popping up all over the Roman Empire.

By the fourth century AD, there were at least two dozen public libraries in the city of Rome alone.

In late antiquity, as the Roman Empire became Christianized, Christian libraries modeled directly on the Library of Alexandria and other great libraries of earlier pagan times began to be founded all across the Greek-speaking eastern part of the empire.

Among the largest and most prominent of these libraries were the Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, the Library of Jerusalem, and a Christian library in Alexandria.

Incredibly, these libraries held both pagan and Christian writings side-by-side and Christian scholars applied to the Christian scriptures the same philological techniques that the scholars of the Library of Alexandria had used for analyzing the Greek classics, proving that the wisdom of the ancients survived alongside the new Christian worldview.

Nonetheless, the study of pagan authors remained secondary to the study of the Christian scriptures until the Renaissance, when writers and philosophers would rediscover them, in effect bringing these ancient Greek thinkers back to life again in modern times.

Ironically, the survival of ancient texts — surely including many of the precious scrolls housed at the Great Library of Alexandria —  owes everything to the fact that they were exhaustingly copied and recopied, at first by professional scribes during the Roman period onto papyrus, and later by monks during the Middle Ages, onto parchment.

So in effect, the Library still lives on today, in the scholarship of researchers in every discipline, and in each and every library all around the world.

What really happened to the Library of Alexandria? - Elizabeth Cox

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National Hellenic Museum


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We are ancient Pelasgians! It is a great honor for us because our forefathers were the most dynamic generation in history. Although we bear various names according to gender (Achaeans, Ionians, Aeolians, Arcadians, Minoans, Mycenaeans, Macedonians, etc.) there were three main general names of the Greeks:

Pelasgians (from Pelasgos), Greeks (from Greek) and Greeks (from Greek) = Πελασγοί ( εκ του Πελασγού), Γραικοί ( εκ του Γραικού ) και Έλληνες ( εκ του Έλληνος ) And it would be unnecessary to emphasize our origin if the “well-wishers” did not proceed to the savage dismemberment and mutilation of our glorious Race, with the aim of annihilate numerically and make it a toddler in age….


He was the son of ZEUS and NIOBE, native grandfather of THESSALY And NOT an “Indo-European” from nowhere, or from Asia and Africa as some ignorant or malicious BARBARIANS claim]

The etymology of Pelasgos comes a/ from palai +gegaa = /α/ εκ του πάλαι +γέγαα =γίνομαι παλιόςto become old b/ from “Pelion Argos”= /α/ εκ του πάλαι +γέγαα =γίνομαι παλιόςold of old men (hence Argos Pelasgikon) c/ from stork=traveler d/ from perao= γ/ εκ του πελαργός=ταξιδευτής δ/ εκ του περάω= δ/ εκ του περάω=περνώ θάλασσαν (μετανάστης, θαλασσοπόρος )περνώ θάλασσαν (μετανάστης, θαλασσοπόρος )to cross the sea (immigrant) , seafarer ) e/ from plazo= ε/ εκ του πλάζω=περιπλανώμαι δια θαλάσσης( λαός της θάλασσαςwander through the sea (people of the sea) f/ from pelas= στ/ εκ του πέλας=πλησίον+άγω(οδηγώ, ηγούμαι μεταφέρω στους γειτονικούς λαούς)near+ago(lead, lead carry to the neighboring peoples) All the etymological elements of the name Pelasgos lead to the ancient, restless and daring people of the sea that migrates and travels (like Odysseus the polyglot)/

The first Pelasgians were Arcadians who survived the Deluge and rushed from there to the neighboring coasts (Italy, Asia Minor, Mediterranean etc.)


He was a pre-cataclysmic hero, son of Thessalus and great-grandson of Pelasgus who flourished before the Cataclysm of Deucalion. It is derived from “graios = old man or old man from the earth + flow or earth + era”[ The Const. Oikonomou from Oikonomon in “On the Authenticity of Pronunciation” p. 335 writes:

“A Greek is a man whose body is solid, strong, and whose genus is old, that is, old, ancient, ambassadorial and old” For the Greek he writes that he is from ela, eli, sun, saddle always mean the fast-moving and versatile light, However, our cradle is Thessaly with Mount Olympus as its focus.

***E L L E N

He was the son of Deucalion and is an evolution from the generation of the Pelasgians and Greeks “Greek, I was born of Zeus, because of Deucalion” And the country inhabited by the Greeks was named Hellas, “formerly called Pelasgia” [Herod. B! 56] Etymological versions a/ Hellas = the luminous chair, (sel+hellas) b/ Hellas= the luminous stone (sel+las)

According to Aristotle, it got its name from Dodoni in Epirus, where the Selloi lived and what were then called Greeks and now Greeks. The Parion Marmaron writes: “Greeks were called, before Greeks were called”

The name Pelasgians is general and includes a wider group that started from the same area centered on the Aegean Sea (the Greek Peninsula and the surrounding Aegean coasts) but spread throughout the Mediterranean basin, in Europe and in the whole world and over time it took on different names. And it is no exaggeration to say that the Pelasgians under various names are scattered in every corner of the planet.

Herodotus writes (Clio 58) the following: “I believe that the Greek peoples spoke the same language, but weakened after their separation from the Pelasgians, and starting at first from a small nucleus, they reached the enormous numbers they now represent by incorporation of various foreign nations, among whom were the Pelasgians. I do not believe that the Pelasgians, a barbarous people, ever became numerous or powerful.’ However, the difference of nation according to Herodotus means a difference of race rather than nation as we consider it today.

And I copy another passage from him (Clio 56) which confirms the truth of the statement: “Investigations showed that the Lacedaemonians were stronger than the Dorians and the Athenians than the Ionians. These two, of whom the first came from the Pelasgians, while the others from the Greeks”. But who believes that the Lacedaemonians did not belong to the Greek nation? According to Herodotus, the Athenian nation was Pelasgian, and the first Arcadians and the inhabitants of Croton and Troy and other cities were Pelasgians.

The division of the Greeks into several races (Dryopes, Leleges, Pelasgians, Kaucones, Thracians, Televoes, etc.) is due to their deep geographical separation, which even today creates communication problems at certain times of the year. Therefore, neither did they come to Greece from the north, nor are the Greeks Slavs who were Hellenized – as Falmereyer previously claimed – nor did they come from England, nonsense that Lord Bulwer Lytton expressed in his “novel” in 1842, and argued with them German scientist Muller. Exactly the opposite happens.

Europeans are descended from the Aegean Pelasgian Proto-Greeks, but this is not tolerated by the egoism of those who want at any cost to participate in the most brilliant civilization that man has made so far. It is unlikely that the Greeks had a foreign origin because before the glacial periods, as mentioned above, the whole of Northern Europe, beyond the Danube and beyond the lower Rhine and the Alps, but also the East – not even northern Persia and the Indies excepted – covered by glaciers.

But even after the melting of the glaciers, the lowlands were covered by water and mud. Therefore, it was impossible for the supposed IEs or Arians to live, and even more so to create civilization in the regions of Central Europe and later to transplant it to the Aegean Pelasgians. Because the latter had the privilege of living in the most temperate region of the world, “swimming” in the Mediterranean Sea and communicating with all the peoples of the then known world. And then, of course, today’s energy sources did not exist to support the northern civilization, as is the case today with the establishment of technological civilization.

The well-travelled Pelasgians

Pelasgus is so old that he is treated, according to mythology, as the son of Poseidon. This symbolism is consistent with the maritime origin of the Greek nation and the seamanship of the Greeks. But also Inachos, the “first man of the Peloponnese”, was the son of Oceanus and the sea goddess Tethys. There were no other advanced people at that time, who traveled not only by sea but by land north or east of the Danube. But how did the Ancient Greek Aegean Pelasgians learn to travel?

After the sinking of Aegis they found themselves cut off from their tribe and relatives on the islands and they desperately wanted to escape this isolation. This is how they learned to sail, first on tree trunks and then on ships. The Greeks have been closely associated with the sea since ancient times and literally thresh the Aegean and the Mediterranean sea.

From the Aegean and Asia Minor coasts, they progressively and radially penetrated – in a kind of fan – to the north, east, south and west and depopulated the underdeveloped tribes, when the climatic conditions allowed it. Back then sea travel was relatively easier and safer compared to land travel. After the sinking of Aegis, it is natural that the nomads around the Aegean moved north and east to find pastures for their flocks. They entered the drained plains after the waters receded.

Such reciprocating movements – unknown how many – certainly occurred during the millennia under the pressure of the needs of the populations of the time. But the main stream of migration was consistently oriented from the region of the Aegean and the Aemos Peninsula to the north, south, east and west, because the settlers were looking for new empty and virgin lands, initially for livestock and later for their agricultural exploitation. On the other hand, this trend towards immigration continues to our time (immigration waves to America, Australia, etc.) However, at the beginning they lived a nomadic lifestyle, just like the Sarakatsanaeans of Pindos, who we can say are the most authentic and ancient Proto-Greeks. Europeans”, descendants of the Pelasgians.

From Aegis the Culture

From Aegis all those peoples started, who appeared later in the surrounding areas of Asia Minor, the Caucasus and the Mediterranean as far as the Danube under various names, carrying their culture with them. It is, of course, impossible to determine how many years passed after the sinking of the Aegis, until these various groups which were saved on the shores or moved inland were formed into tribes. According to the testimonies of the Egyptian priests of Sain to Solon, as mentioned by Plato in “Timaeus”, they took their culture from the Ancient Greeks of the Aegean. This is evident from their performance in navigation, but also in the arts (advanced Cycladic statuary art). The propaganda fictions about the arrival of Phoenicians and others (“Black Athena”, Bernal), apart from lacking logic and sufficient documentation, have been scientifically debunked, since he himself admitted that his motive was profit and attracting attention.

The much-advertised story of the Mesopotamian Gilgamesh, which they wanted to present as proof of the ancient spiritual development of the various peoples of Mesopotamia, is a much more recent and shoddy construction, based on Greek traditions and myths. It is indeed a bad copying of what is mentioned about the flood of Deucalion, which, let it be noted, is older than the flood of Noah, if it also happened of course. Because everything written about Noah’s flood is monstrous, unscientific and suitable only for people who had no idea about the sea and navigation.

Contrary to the Orphic texts about the Ogygus flood, it is certified that no other ancient people has earlier memories and scientific evidence and has not recorded spiritual manifestations and other interesting findings (e.g. astronomical observations 11,000 years BC) like these contained in ancient Greek texts. As Erman Dils informs us [“Prosokratiki”, Ch. Orpheus, p. 3] the Aegean Ancient Greeks wrote down their observations several thousand years ago on thin boards, stones or shells (writing of Dispilios, Iuros, Alonissos, etc.), a fact that testifies that they were heiferous people (Homo Sapiens). The question that arises is why the younger supposedly “wise” researchers of the West had ignored or set aside such serious evidence?

It is certainly not a coincidence, because Greek Prehistory is on fire and they prefer to ignore it, put it aside and when it accidentally comes to the surface to silence it or even fake it. Because this area was inhabited not by 10, 20 thousand years ago – as the well-known Phoenicists claim for Mesopotamia or 35-40,000 years ago by the Afrocentrists – but 100, 800,000 years ago, but also millions of years ago, as proven by the investigations of Petraloni, of Triglia and Ptolemais, under the anthropologist-archaeologist Mr. Aris Poulianos. Therefore, the American research in the Frachthy cave of Ermioni, which brought to light elements of the civilization 25 thousand years ago, came to prove the existence and continuity of human development in the Greek area. The gaps that exist today in long periods of history do not mean a negative existence of life, but rather a lack of systematic research in this area.

The Culture of the Romans

The civilization is ancient and goes back to the time of the Etruscans and Tyrsines. But the main civilization of the Romans before they began their imperial course began mainly after the conquest of Greece (180-120 BC), i.e. from the time of Caesar. Previously the tribes of Central and Northern Italy were relatively primitive and uncultivated, did not know writing and even practiced cannibalism and human sacrifice in earlier times. Therefore, all Europeans owe culture and writing to the Pelasgians and Cretans. The Latin script is also Greek (Chalkidic alphabet) and the Roman Civilization is a copy – often a misprint – of the Greek Civilization. This proves the ancient common origin of the inhabitants of Northern and Western Europe (Teutons, Gauls, Swabians, Saxons, Iberians, etc.) from the Aegean Proto-Greeks.

These peoples still retain names of certain gods of Ancient Greece, words or word roots of their original mother tongue, or rather of their linguistic idiom which belongs to the Greek (Indo-European) homolingualism. Because over time they mixed with other peoples, but also due to different climatic and cultural conditions, it was necessary for them to diversify and move away from their original cultural cradle, the Aegean. Others of them in their new homelands were barbarized or assimilated in order to survive and remained undeveloped, as we find them later in the historical period, scattered in various countries of the north in tribes (Cimmerians, Scythians, Getae, Arimaspi, Gelones, Massagetae , Boudinii, Agrippai , Isidones, Sarmatians, Dacians, etc.). They later evolved under the influence of the Byzantine Empire and created the well-known nations of the north and east. Those who entered further east and beyond Lake Baikal, we later find them as Hyperboreans (or Gilaks).

A white race arrived in Japan time immemorial, the Ainu (=Ionians), while we meet scattered white races in Asia and the Far East. [See Vol. “PEOPLE OF THE EAST” “General Introduction” as well as “General Introduction” to the Second Book of John. Passa “THE ORPHICS” and the comments on the “Hymns of Orpheus”]. The Turks are a mosaic of peoples in the majority of indigenous peoples who have lived in the area since ancient times. The Turks are a small minority who came as nomads from the highlands of Central Asia, from the Altai region, to the Mediterranean. The latter are of Tatar-Mongolian origin and have remained untouched and uncivilized since their settlement in Asia Minor until today. This tribe was the ruling class of Ottoman Turkey, but also of today’s Kemal Turkey.

The Origin of the European Peoples

According to Athan. Stageritis [“OGYGIA”, Vol. B of Athan. Stageritis, Ed. Vienna 1808] the origin of all races – and of course the newer Nations of Northern, Western and Eastern Europe, as well as the whites of Russia and Central Asia – come from the Aegean, and specifically from the Greek cultural space, and not from the non-existent Indo-Europeans [See Diod. Sikeliotis, Bibl. A, Strabo, “Introduction” and Syre “The Great Mysteries”, Carlyle “The Heroes” (Odin) and Charles Berlitz “Mysteries from Forgotten Worlds”]. Examining the so-called Arian languages, as they are actually spoken today, they possess numerous Pelasgian elements, which undoubtedly come from their Pelasgian cradle, the Balkans, Lower Italy and Asia Minor.

When the same root is found in all languages, or in most of them, we must conclude that the object signified by that root was common to their ancestors, who once had the same culture. [For example, the word “Axon” exists corrupted in all the so-called Aryan languages, because these peoples all knew the wheeled carriage. Some improved it and put spokes on it over time, while others kept the traditional tree trunk wheel. So they diverged. Thus, with the addition of new words, the differentiation of the language and the identity of the peoples begins]. This is how the tribes gradually became differentiated from their original origin. In the end, common descent remains a myth. The myth of Atlantis, which is related to the ancient activity of the Greek race, as the various findings show, was once a reality. But not the artificial “myth” about the Indo-Europeans either.

The Myth of the Indo-Europeans

The descent of tribes from the North and East to the Greek Peninsula, in order to civilize the supposedly untouched Aegeans, is not justified either scientifically, or from a logical point of view, because the Aegeans were demonstrably a seafaring and highly civilized people who traveled, from the dawn of Prehistory , not only in the Mediterranean, but also in the Oceans. If we accept the beliefs about “Indo-Europeanists”, then their traces, their superior culture, their language and finally the historical spiritual monuments that they would leave behind in their original cradle should normally have been found somewhere. But such a thing has not been found. Nothing at all confirms their existence.

On the contrary, new overwhelming proofs and evidences from the Greek area and outside it – in the countries he traveled – are constantly coming to light, which confirm that the Aegean Proto-Greeks were the first to transmit their culture to all the peoples of the then known world. Of course, all these anti-scientific and dogmatic theories of the past have long since fallen, but they come back each time with a new wrapper in the news from the “scientific” establishment of international power. Because this myth is convenient for the perpetuation of their power.

Today we are in an upsurge of this phenomenon. Everywhere they seek to reduce the value and contribution of the insurmountable Greek factor in the creation of world Culture [See “PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY”, Vol. “GREECE” of Encyclop. “SUN”, by Ioannis Koumaris]. It is enough to repeat that “when the ancient Greeks were building the Parthenon, the ancestors of today’s English lived in caves or in virgin forests, while most of them and other northern peoples were still cannibals or made human sacrifices” [Stravo, book VI , pp. 226, 21] [Always the courageous and restless British nation behaved arrogantly and like a conqueror in Greece, imitating the supposedly blond Indo-European colonialists and civilizers]. Even in our neighboring Italy, even during the classical era, children were sacrificed on the feast of the Compitalia and Laralia, and it was not until the reign of Brutus that this custom was abolished. Stageiritis, B. Vol. p.480].

Therefore, such blatant falsification and perversion of the History and Prehistory of the Greeks is unacceptable and infuriating. Dodonaia the Cult of the Druids. According to earlier archaeological discoveries, it was discovered that during the Minoan period Cretan seafarers brought “Tin” to the Mediterranean from England. But they did not go there empty-handed. They transmitted to them their superior Cretan Minoan culture.

Recently, prehistoric Greek installations have been discovered in England, which show that the primitive and backward peoples of England accepted the influence of the Greeks and over time became civilized. Thus it is proved that the ancient worship of the Druids in Britain is of Greek origin, from the Oracle of Dodoni, and was brought there time immemorial. Greek Prehistory indeed presents an amazing mystery and a fascinating challenge to the one who will try to decipher it and delve into it.

The autochthony of the Greeks has been proven with eighty proofs by eminent anthropologists, such as John. Koumaris [See article “Physical Anthropology” Ioan. Koumari, A. Meros, Volume “GREECE”, Encyclop. “SUN” and Alexis Sinou “The Geographical Unity of the Greek Mediterranean Region” Part A. Pg. 94-95, Part B. P. 179-182 etc].

The European “Archman” of Petraloni

Unshakable evidence of the native origin of the Greek was recently brought to light by the internationally renowned anthropologist Aris Poulianos with the discovery of the “European Archman of Petralona of Chalkidiki” and the “Elephant Hunter of Ptolemais”, which we will talk about in another chapter. Orpheus says: “as far as Egypt, I expounded the sacred word”, that is, in Egypt and Libya, I taught, (expelled=expelled) the sacred word [“Argonautica” of the “Orphic” verses. 42-44 and 102 Ed. Leipzig TAUCHNIZIT 1829]. [It may be understood that “indoctrinated” does not mean “taught”, as undisciplined and ill-disposed writers have claimed].

Therefore, this proof blows to dust every other old and new dogmatic theory, the originators of which do not even bother to substantiate them with evidence. It is known that during the 8th millennium BC. there was a transport of Obsidian Stone by ships from the island of Milos in the Aegean Sea to Argolis, as evidenced by the finds of obsidian stone in the cave of Fraghtis of Argolis. So the Aegean people have been sailing since then. But also in the area of ​​Anat. The Proto-Hellenic Minoans and Mycenaeans have dominated the Mediterranean since time immemorial. [Ancient Achaean Cretans and Cypriots, the ancient Phoenicians and the Philistines and “Palaisati”, crossed the Mediterranean to settle in Palestine].

Isocrates proclaims that: “We are indigenous. We did not drive out others who were here, nor did we come from elsewhere to occupy it desolate of people, nor are we mixed and mingled with other nations, but we come from a good and genuine nation, so that we were born in this land, possess it and live all the time Cairo. Irrespective of whether throughout the 20th century the international power intrigues against Hellenism and by using Turkey as a “sieging battering ram” seeks the eviction of the Greek Nation from its ancient ancestral homes (Asia Minor, Cyprus, Aegean, Macedonia, Epirus). [The international power and its servants and handlers here want to mix us up and turn us into a wretched mess so that we lose our national identity. Some “Greeks” also allegedly contribute to this.

Source: diogeneis, conspiracyfeeds and diadrastika

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