About Konstantin

Konstantin Schönros C.V 1970-72 studied art history at Stockholm University. Took lessons in sculpture (most abstract) by prof. Albert Jusui at the Art Academy of Stockholm. 1970-73 In parallel studies, attended lectures at the School's Key, ABF, Arts and the school's advertising Beckman. 1974-80 Spent most of those years in Indonessia to study art, practice of various batik techniques, and woodcarving (Java Solo, Yo-Jakarta & Bali); these parallel with Wushu (and other Asian martial arts, sorinji kempo, muai-taj plus QiGong ( several different types of QiGong: Some of the: Xing Sheng Zuang,BU-jung, Iron Shirt, Tao Healing, Six Healing Sounds, Fusion of the FiveElements, Ba Gua Zhan). (including the: Fumie Tanaka, Mantak Chia, WangJi, David Sheng in Asia - Lui Linn in Stockholm) - Ashtanga, Raja, HathaYoga. 1980-82 sold their own creations (mostly prototypes), in both jewelry ("artitan")and clothing (WEARABLE ART). Since he was mostly in southeast Asia, he advanced in the esoteric martial arts (Tai Chi, Pa-qua and Tao healing,Qigong). 1982 Started the "Bird of Paradise" both, as show-room, shop and businesswith his talented designer and life partner Rose Marie Samuelsson Schönros., The volcanic island of Santorini in the Greek Archipelago. Both landscape and ruins (Ia & Akrotiri), has been the major source of inspiration for the creation of the warm earth colors of the batik & pressure, which was later engraved for some years to come, most of the "Bird of Paradise” profile. 1988 "Artitan" Exhibition in Oslo Norway at "Norway Designs' Gallery. 1989 "Art on Silk & Titan" Exhibition on ("Kulture Huset") in Stockholm, along with some other Swedish-Greek artists. 1990 Various arts and crafts mission abroad and Qi Gong instructor until 2004 1986-93. Rose-Marie and Constantine opens his own business inc. atelier in Stockholm (Södermalm) 1993-now Wushu Academy, with legendary SIFU Lui Linn 1991-95 Training in CAD design, information line, marketing. organized by theCulture AF. 1991-1997 Kompedium "The Tao of Green Gourmet" and cooperation with the Swedish Veg.Society and Health Promotion 1994-95 Single Mission on Textile & Batik (Nitor). 1995-2002 A): Renovation & Style Called "Interiorigin" (paintings, decco,gilding, marbling, carpentry, mosaic etc), apartments, houses, museums, only organic paints and solvents options! B) Silk Screen suitable for individual motives for roads, cabinets, etc. 2002 Special Education in Medical Boards (massage) 2002 Development of "HYDROBICS" & "HYDRODYNAMICS"; research Hydrotherapia, Dolphin & Vibration therapy from Asclepios doctrine, which was taught in various cities: Cos (Head Quarter), Samos, Cnidus, , Effesos). Asklipios School was estbl. At 12.th century BC). Hippocrates studied 435 f Kr. at Asclepios School. Since 2003 main subject, for Konstantin was to studie & research more about Asklipios & Hipocrates, - the whole knowledge - integrating T.C.M, with Western medicine & nutrition, as a part of the quantum physics together with Dolphin therapy, parallel with physical exercises mainly Hydrobics, QiGong, TaiJi quen, Yoga etc, depending individually. Innovations into the "Green Gourmet" To eat wholesome is not enough! To enjoy, is very important, as well (By R-M Schönros)

******* T P O I A ******Ι Λ Λ Ι Ο Ν***** “T R O Y”

Trojan (alias Ilion) Historical facts vs. “Acces”, Pseudohistorians-“Scholars” etc..

H E R E: 

**** THIS CIVIlL WAR BETWEEN THE GREEKS IS ROMANTICIZED DUE TO THE ABDUCTION OF HELENA OF SPARTA

THIS CIVIlL WAR BETWEEN THE GREEKS IS ROMANTICIZED DUE TO THE ABDUCTION OF HELENA OF SPARTA

The ACHAEANS and DANAEANS, who lived, in WEST GREECE at that time, united and with their ships and army went to CONQUER TROY.
Thus began the Trojan War which lasted ten years. It was the greatest war of antiquity and led to the death of countless TROJANS and ACHAEANS(OR DANAEANS).
The occasion was a woman, the beautiful HELEN, the queen of SPARTA.
Many great LADS FOUGHT in this war. ACHILLES, the son of THETIS, HECTOR the leader of the TROJANS, the FEARLESS DIOMEDES,
the strong AEDAS, MENELAUS, the husband of HELEN, his brother AGAMEMNON, who was the LEADER of the ACHAEANS, the versatile Odysseus and many others. . We will meet
all of them in the following lessons. ALSO, we will meet ANDROMACHE, HEKTOR’S BEAUTIFUL WIFE, HIS RESPECTED PARENTS, HECABE and PRIAMOS, and MANY others!

What should ONE remember FIRST of all that happened. The myths that mention them are so charming, that it is worth reading them and remembering them forever.

. Paris prepared a fast boat and left for Sparta. He arrived at Menelaus’ palace bearing rich gifts. There everyone welcomed him and hosted him, as befits the king of Troy. However, Paris, with the help of Aphrodite, outwitted Helen and convinced her to follow him. And one day when Menelaus was away, they left for Troy.The abduction of Helen by Paris. Among them is the winged god Eros.
From an ancient Greek vas

1. The apple of ERIS
Many years ago , in ancient times, when the twelve gods lived in Olympus, Zeus decided to marry the king of Phthia, Peleus, to a sea fairy, Thetis, the daughter of Nereus. The wedding took place in Pelion and all the gods and goddesses were invited. Only Eris , the goddess of strife, was not invited, because wherever she went she sowed hatred and quarrels. She got very angry and went to the wedding unseen and left an all-gold apple on the table, on which she had written: “to the most beautiful”. Immediately Hera, Athena and Aphrodite began to argue about who was the most beautiful who would get the apple. They also asked Zeus, but he did not want to upset any of the three goddesses. That is why he told them to go to the mountain Ida, next to Troy, where Paris, the son of King Priam, was grazing his flock on a slope, so that he could choose the most beautiful goddess. So the three goddesses, together with Hermes, flew to Ida and stood in front of the startled king. Hermes told him the will of Zeus and gave him the golden apple of Eris. Then Hera ordered him to make him the greatest king, Athena the bravest and wisest warrior and Aphrodite to find him the most beautiful woman to marry. Paris, after thinking about it, gave the golden apple to Aphrodite. Hera and Athena left angry, while Aphrodite revealed to Paris that the beautiful Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the king of Sparta, was the most beautiful in the world and advised him to go and get her.

The Paris crisis. On the right is Paris, in the center the god Hermes, followed by the three goddesses:
Aphrodite, Athena, Hera. From an ancient Greek vase

A compass on a white background, c. 465–460 BC. with a height including the cover of 17.2 cm. Compasses were a kind of “toilet” and “jewellery box, clay and later ivory or metal vessels, usually round with a separate lid. They were used more by women to store cosmetics or jewelry. They got their name from the wooden Corinthian boxes that were made from the hard and durable wood of the boxwood, a durable evergreen shrub (box), which can reach up to 6 m. From this Greek word came the Latin buxus: box-box and the English box.

This compass is said to have been excavated circa 1906 at Kymi (Cumae, the first ancient Greek colony of Magna Graecia on mainland Italy founded by settlers from the Euboean city of the same name in the 8th century BC). It passed through several buyers until it was acquired by the MET, The Metropolitan Museum of Art NY, 07.286.36a .

In her performances, she has scenes from the crisis of Paris, on a white background.

By the middle of the 5th century BC, the white ground technique was commonly used for the beautiful white lekyths, (bottles for scented oil, perfumes, wine for funerary rites and then placed as offerings in tombs) and for fine vessels of other shapes . As classical painters sought to achieve increasingly complex dramatic depictions with the limited capabilities of the red-figure technique, the white background gave new emphasis to glaze lines and polychrome, making the representations resemble frescoes. Their white color is due to a thin layer of white clay (kaolin) which after firing gave this effect and on top of which they were decorated with additional colors.

The decoration of this compass, which has three elegant short legs as a base, reflects the ease with which an accomplished artist like the “Painter of Penthesilea” to whom it is attributed, depicted a traditional subject: the judgment of Paris. I know you all know the legend, but if you want to “refresh” it, it’s in the 1st comment.

The moment of crisis is represented in successive scenes: One scene shows Pari, a young virgin, sitting on a rock wearing a petasos, a hiker’s and shepherd’s hat. He converses with Hermes, easily recognizable by his caduceus and winged sandals. Behind him a grown man is perhaps Zeus or Priam. Turning the compass clockwise, Athena is depicted, holding a spear in one hand and her helmet in the other, talking to Hera. The latter holds a royal scepter, as the mother and breath of the gods. Then Aphrodite converses with her son, the winged love with the beautiful ethereal rendering of wings. Below EROS the inscription: “O PAIS KALOS” (The young man is handsome).

[The well-known charming myth of the crisis of Paris, which gave rise to your famous Trojan War, is well known. But you can “refresh” its occasions, as well as the faces that appear on the compass]: Zeus, the king of the gods, gave a banquet for the marriage of the sea nymph Thetis with the mortal Peleus (by whom she gave birth to Achilles). Eris, goddess of discord, was uninvited. Angered by this “blockage”, she caused trouble at the feast when she threw a golden apple (the Apple of Strife), on which was the inscription “the beauty” (for the most beautiful). Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. They asked Zeus to judge which of them was more beautiful. Zeus, unwilling to favor any claim himself, decided that the mortal Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, would judge. Led by Hermes, the three candidate goddesses appeared before Paris (by teleportation) on Mount Ida of the Troas. Each of them tried with their powers to bribe the handsome but carefree king, who had been removed from the city to graze flocks, because they had bad omens. Hera proposed to him to make him king of Europe and Asia, Athena would offer him wisdom and skill in war and Aphrodite offered the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta, wife of the Greek king Menelaus. Paris accepted Aphrodite’s gift and awarded her the apple, taking with Helen the enmity of the Achaeans. The mission of the Achaeans to Troy, to recapture Helen from Paris, is the mythological basis of the Trojan War. Later in the war, Paris will fatally wound Achilles in the heel with an arrow, as Achilles’ mother Thetis, who tried unsuccessfully to prevent him from going to war, had fearfully predicted…

No photo description available.

The beautiful helen

. Paris prepared a fast boat and left for Sparta. He arrived at Menelaus’ palace bearing rich gifts. There everyone welcomed him and hosted him, as befits the king of Troy. However, Paris, with the help of Aphrodite, outwitted Helen and convinced her to follow him. And one day when Menelaus was away, they left for Troy.The abduction of Helen by Paris. Among them is the winged god Eros.
From an ancient Greek vase.

When Menelaus heard the news, that Paris took Helen from him, and he wanted to take revenge on him and bring her backhe left Crete and went straight to Mycenae to his brother Agamemnon. Then, together with the wise Nestor the king of Pylos, they decided to send an invitation to all the kings and heroes in every part of Greece, to take part in this campaign which was a matter of honor. The rapist had to be punished, or no one could henceforth be sure of his wife, when the sacred institutions of hospitality were thus violated. It was therefore necessary for everyone to consider the insult that Paris did to Menelaus as personal. However, the fates and the oracles of the oracles played their role here as well: those who knew their destiny, hardly decided to follow the campaign. Odysseus, the resourceful and brave son of Laertes and king of Ithaca, knew from then on that it would be twenty years before he would see his people again, so he pretended to be mad when Agamemnon and Palamedes went to call him. He was newly married and had just had a son, Telemachus. So, dressed funny and acting crazy they found him plowing his field. The cunning Palamedes revealed his pretense by placing the young Telemachus before the plough, Naturally, Odysseus did not step over the child’s body, but stopped ploughing. There went the old Nestor, the king of Pylos, Idomeneus from Crete, Aeandas from Salamis, the other Aeandas from Locris, Diomedes from Argos, Philoctetes, the friend of Herakles, from Magnesia, the Odysseus from Ithaca and Achilles, the son of Peleus and Thetis from Phthia with his friend Patroclus and the brave Myrmidons. They chose Agamemnon as their leader.

*******’*************T H E T R O J A N S = OI Τ Ρ Ω Ε Σ

The fortress of Troy was located on the Ida mountain, beyond the Hellespont.

IT WAS BUILT BY THE COURITES, FROM CREATAE 5000BC..
BUT THE LEGACY IS SAYING, THAT
Poseidon and Apollo had built it for Laomedon. At the time when the events that will be mentioned next took place, Laomedon’s son Priam, who had Hekabe as his wife, reigned in Troy. Priam was originally called Podarkis (good-footed) and was the brother of Isione who had followed Telamon to Salamis, married him and gave birth to Teucros and Aedes who both took part in the Trojan War. Achaeans and Trojans seem to have been members NOT only of the SAME branch of Greeks race (same language, religion and customs) BUT ALSO THE SAME FAMILY In the fortress of Troy Priam raised a royal family with so many children that no other like it is mentioned. He gave birth to fifty sons, besides daughters. The first-born was Hector, followed by Paris, Diiphobus, Helen, Polydoros, Troilus, etc. Of the daughters, the most famous are Kreusa, Laodiki, Polyxeni and Cassandra who had fortune-telling abilities.

Troy, the hero who gave his name to the Trojan people, is the son of Erichthonius, the grandson of Dardanus, and his mother was Astyochus. He married Callirroi, daughter of Scamandros and had a daughter Cleopatra (the name Cleopatra is Greek) and three sons: Ilos who founded the citadel of Ilium, Assarakos and Ganymede whom Zeus loved.

.Priam had originally married Arisbe from whom he had fathered Aesacus. He then abandoned her and proceeded to marry Hekavi. Hekabi was extremely fertile. Although ancient writers do not agree on the number of children she bore, the family she raised with Priam was very large.Hector, King Priam and Queen Hecuba – Trojan War – Red Figure AmphoraPriam had originally married Arisbe from whom he had fathered Aesacus. He then abandoned her and proceeded to marry Hekavi. Hekabi was extremely fertile. Although ancient writers do not agree on the number of children she bore, the family she raised with Priam was very large.

Opposite page: Peleus assigns the Centaur Chiron to educate the young Achilles. (Black-figure lekythos around 500 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum).

.

Sitting on their throne, Priam and Hecabe accept with lively gestures the sad news of the murder of their son Troilus. (Clazomenian hydria shell, around 540 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum)
Paris and Helen of Menelau
s

AgamemnonThe king of Mycenae, had married Clytemnestra and Menelaus had married Helen. Menelaus reigned in Sparta and there he received Paris and his entourage when he visited, bringing with him rich gifts. When Paris saw Helen, he was dazzled by her beauty. Menelaus honored the foreign king according to the customs of hospitality, but on the tenth day he was forced to leave for Crete. Then Paris found the opportunity and approached Helen who could not resist the power of Aphrodite. So she accepted the treasures that Paris gave her and followed him at night. The couple left secretly and arrived in Troy where their wedding was celebrated. Then Iris, the messenger of the gods, brought the news to Menelaus who was in Crete.

Helen and Paris in a design by the French Nadar.

The Achaean campaign in Troy Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world at that time was desired by all the princes of Greece. Tyndareus, her father, had a hard time deciding. Then, according to Odysseus’ idea, Tyndareus decided to bind all prospective grooms with an oath, that they would accept the election of Helen herself and that they would rush to help if the honor of the husband happened to be threatened. This oath was invoked by the Atreides in requesting the participation of so many heroes in the campaign. On the subject of Helen the Fair, Euripides wrote in 412 BC. the tragedy “Helen”. The Italian neoclassical sculptor Antonio Canova created the “Helen of Troy” statue.

But also the brave Achilles, the greatest figure of this war, was sent by his mother to hide in the palace of the king of Skyros, Lycomedes, dressed as a woman, among his cousins. This was revealed by the trick of Odysseus, who went with women’s dresses and ornaments to the palace, gifts for the king’s daughters among whom were hidden a spear and a shield. As Odysseus showed the lyuses to the maidens, he caused the war trumpet to sound the sound of battle. Then Achilles, unrestrained, grabbed the weapons he had been wandering around before and prepared for an attack. This is how the expeditionary force was revealed and followed to Avlida. It took ten years for the flower of valor and martial art to be concentrated in the port of Avlida at that time. Among the heroes were the king of Pylos the wise Nestor, Diomedes the hero of Aetolia, Aedas the son of Telamon, Aedas the Locros, Idas, the king of Crete Idomeneas and others.

Achilles prepares for the great Trojan campaign: he wears his shins and Thetis holds his spear and shield. (Black-figure plaque, 560 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum).

Hephaestus, who made Achilles’ weapons, gives them to Thetis.

A sign of the goddess’s favor, was sacrificed amid the cheers of the troops. Immediately the winds blew the sails of the ships and the Greek fleet set sail from Avlida bound for Troy to wash away Helen’s shame.

Menelaus against Paris. Paris, Louvre

Trojan War – Iliad

The Achaeans, faithful to their religion and traditions, made a sacrifice before the start of the Trojan war so that the gods would reveal signs about the future and its outcome. During the sacrifice, a snake was presented whose spine was red as blood. This snake came out of the altar and climbed the plane tree that was nearby. On the highest branch was a sparrow with her young. The snake swallowed the eight sparrows in turn and then their mother. Once he had swallowed all nine birds, he was turned into stone, by Zeus. The seer Calchus interpreted this unnatural event as follows: the siege of Troy would last nine years and in the tenth it would fall.

Troy or Ilion was the site of these deadly battles, protected by Apollo with the silver bow. The first dead of the war was Protesilaus, on the side of the Achaeans, to whom they erected a monument and honored him. The goddesses Athena and Hera helped the Achaean troops. In Homer’s epic, the Iliad, many of the events that took place in the Trojan War are mentioned. The most important of these have as their protagonist the brave Achilles whose fame of exploits has spread far and wide.

Protesilaos, the first casualty of the Trojan War, was a Thessalian and indeed one of Helen’s potential suitors. He took part in the war with a fleet of forty ships. While jumping off the ship, he was struck by Hector.

ACHILEUS and AJAX.-NEPHEW OF PRIAM) Two heroes with a lot in common, in morals, bravery and mental cultivation. The great Heracles once passed through the kingdom of Telamon and begged Zeus to make invulnerable the new-born AJAX he had wrapped with his lioness. AJAX indeed became invulnerable except for the shoulder, the ribs and the armpit, that is, the points corresponding to those covered by the quiver on the body of Hercules.

Zeus was warned of a prophecy that Thetis would have a son who would grow up to be greater than his father. Worried by this, Zeus arranged for Thetis to marry a mortal man so that her child couldn’t challenge his power. In another version of the story, Thetis rejects Zeus’s advances and a furious Zeus decrees that she will never marry a god. Either way, Thetis ends up married to the mortal Peleus and Achilles is born.
Standing figure of woman with man and lion either side pressing against her
Terracotta relief showing Peleus and Thetis, c. 490–470 BC. Thetis tries to resist marriage to Peleus by transforming her body into powerful elements such as fire and wild beasts, here a lion

Thetis attempts to make the baby Achilles immortal, by dipping him in the River Styx (the river that runs through the underworld), while holding him by his heel. The one part of his body left untouched by the waters becomes his only point of weakness, hence the phrase ‘Achilles heel.

The learned centaur Chiron instructs the boy Achilles in the playing of the lyre. He rests upon his equine haunch and wears an animal-skin cloak and wreath of laurel.

Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game
540-530 BCE.
Terracotta amphora. Height 2 feet
(Musei Vaticani, Rome). ARCHAIC BLACK-FIGURE POTTERY
Exekias
Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game
540-530 BCE.
Terracotta amphora. Height 2 feet

(Musei Vaticani, Rome)
An example of black-figure painting is Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game on an amphora signed by Exekias as both potter and painter (at left is written: Exekias epoiesen = ΕΞΕΚΊΑΣ ΕΠΟΊΗΣΕΝ =
“Exekias made [me or it].” At right is also written, less relevantly, O Netorides kalos = Ο ΝΕΤΟΡIΔHΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ =
“Onetorides is beautiful”).
The central image is a narrative scene, with geometric patterns subsumed into border devices. In the panel framed by a lustrous black “glaze,” Ajax (Aiantos = “of Ajax [Aias]”) and Achilles (Akhileos = “of Akhilleus”) are depicted playing a board game during a lull in the Trojan War. In a symmetrical and deceptively tranquil scene, the Homeric heroes bend over a table and call out the scores of the game (which are written before their lips – tesara = 4, for Achilles, tria = 3, for Ajax) 


Achilles prepares for the great Trojan campaign: he wears his shins and Thetis holds his spear and shield. (Black-figure plaque, 560 BC, Athens, Archaeological Museum).

Hephaestus, who made Achilles’ weapons, gives them to Thetisa doe, a sign of the goddess’s favor, was sacrificed amid the cheers of the troops. Immediately the winds blew the sails of the ships and the Greek fleet set sail from Avlida bound for Troy to wash away Helen’s shame.

The father Peleus advises his son, Achilles,
as he leaves for war.

“Aien exceletuein…”, that is,
“always be first and surpass all in battle”
.

Peleus, because Achilles was still very young, sent with him and his teacher, the Phoenix, to advise him:

“Be able in words and worthy in deeds” /Homer, Iliad

Achilles.From an ancient Greekvase.

And the gods looked on from Olympus. Poseidon, Hera, Athena were with the Achaeans. Ares,

Aphrodite, Apollo with the Trojans. And Zeus sometimes with the Achaeans and sometimes with the Trojans.
In the last year of the war, when food was scarce and the army was starving, Agamemnon sent a ship to bring the Oenotropics to Troy. They, however, leaving Delos, begged the god Dionysus to help them. And Dionysus turned them into doves and they flew away and returned to DELOS

 The father of the Oinotropes, Anios.
From an ancient Greek vase.

 The Achaeans reach Troy
Traveling to Troy, the Achaeans passed through Delos. There, in the temple of Apollo, Anios was a priest who had three daughters, the Oinotropes. The soil that Spermo touched became wheat. The soil touched by Oino became wine and the soil touched by Elaida became oil. Anius, who was also a soothsayer, told the Achaeans that in ten years they would take Troy and invited them to stay nine years in Delos and in the tenth year to go to Troy. However, they did not accept.
So the Achaeans left Delos and in a few days they reached Troy. There reigned Priam and Hecabe who had fifty sons and many daughters. One of their daughters was Cassandra who was a fortune teller. However, Apollo had punished her and no one believed her words.
The Trojans, seeing the countless ships of the Achaeans, took their weapons and ran to the shore to fight them. Their leader was Priam’s eldest son, Hector, the brother of Paris. None of the Achaeans dared to set foot on land. Thetis had told them that the first one to set foot on Troy’s soil would fall dead. Then Odysseus threw his shield on the land and with one leap stood on it. Fooled by his trick, Protesilaos jumped second and stepped on the ground. And immediately he fell dead from Hector’s pole. Then began a terrible battle. The Trojans were defeated and shut up in the city walls. The Achaeans pulled their ships ashore and made a camp which they closed with a wooden wall, because they understood that it would take a long time before they could conquer Troy
The anger of Achilles
For nine years the Achaeans fought in Troy, but Priam’s castle was unoccupied and the Trojans, led by Hector, defended it bravely. In the tenth year , however, Achilles and Agamemnon quarreled over two beautiful slaves, Chrysis and Briseis. This brought many calamities to the Achaeans. Chrysis was Agamemnon’s slave . Chrysis`s father, who was a priest of Apollo, came supplicating to the Achaean camp, bearing rich gifts, the golden rod and the god’s sacred wreaths. He fell at Agamemnon’s feet and begged him to give Chrysis back to him. Agamemnon did not respect the old man and angrily kicked him out. Chrysis then begged Apollo to punish the Achaeans severely. Apollo heard him from Olympus and immediately took his bow and went to the camp of the Achaeans . He sat aside and, unseen, he shot animals and people with his arrows. Then a terrible disease fell among them and the Achaeans died, one after the other.

. Apollo shoots his arrows. From an ancient Greek vase.

The evil lasted nine days . On the tenth day the kings asked the soothsayer Calchas to tell them why such calamity befell them. He said that Apollo was angry because Agamemnon did not respect Chrysis. To stop the evil, Agamemnon sent Chryseis back to her father. However,Chrysis, her father, who was a priest of Apollo, came supplicating to the Achaean camp, bearing rich gifts, the golden rod and the god’s sacred wreaths. He fell at Agamemnon’s feet and begged him to give Chryseis back to him. Agamemnon did not respect the old man and angrily kicked him out. Chrysis then begged Apollo to punish the Achaeans severely. Apollo heard him from Olympus and immediately took his bow and went to the camp of the Achaeans . He sat aside and, unseen, he shot animals and people with his arrows. Then a terrible disease fell among them and the Achaeans died, one after the other he ordered Achilles’ slave, Briseis, to be brought to his tent. Achilles became very angry, hatred and rage filled his soul. He wanted to kill Agamemnon for insulting him, but the goddess Athena ran and restrained him. However, embittered, he closed himself in his tent and swore never to fight again.

Chrysis leaves Achilles’ tent to surrender to Agamemnon.
The seated figure on the right is Achilles. From an ancient Greek vase.









The death of Patroclus
Achilles was no longer fighting and the Trojans took courage. Fierce battles took place outside Troy’s walls and countless Achaeans fell dead.
Desperate then, Agamemnon sent to Achilles the old Phoenicus, Achilles’ teacher, Aiades, the strongest warrior of the Achaeans, and the versatile Odysseus, to beg him to return to the battle and would give him back Brisida and countless gifts. But Achilles did not accept and said that he would fight only if the Trojans reached his ships.
The fighting continued more fiercely. The Trojans chased the Achaeans to their camp. Hector smashed the wooden gate of the camp with a huge stone and the Trojans rushed in and set fire to a ship. The Achaeans were saved by Aedas, who wounded Hector and the battle stopped for a while.
Seeing the suffering of the Achaeans, Patroclus went to his friend Achilles. “Achilles,” he said to him, “the Trojans are burning our ships. Since you do not fight, they fear no one. Give me your armour, your chariot with your immortal horses and your brave Myrmidons, that I may fight in your place.’
Achilles agreed and advised him to drive the Trojans out of the camp and turn back.

Patroclus rushed with the brave Myrmidons into battle. The Trojans, whethey saw him, thought it was Achilles and ran away towards Troy.  Achilles tends tthe wounded Patroclus.
From an ancient Greek vase.

Patroclus forgot Achilles’ advice and chased the Trojans to the walls of Troy. But Hector met him there, he went close and they started to fight.
Then Apollo struck Patroclus on the back. He fell down and Hector killed him and took Achilles’ divine weapons from him.
There was a fight around the dead body. The immortal horses of Achilles, Xanthus and Valios, which Poseidon had given him, as if they saw Patroklos dead, bowed their heads and wet the earth with their tears. The Achaeans took the dead Patroclus and brought him to the ships. Achilles, seeing his friend dead, burst into lamentation. His mother Thetis heard him and came out of the sea to comfort him. And she herself went to Olympus and brought him new armor, which Hephaestus had made for him.

The Lament of Achilles
The news of Patroclus’ death was brought to Achilles by Nestor’s son, Antilochus.”Patroklos has fallen, and his turn for the dead is beaten,naked, because Hector has taken his chariots!”.
On hearing this, Achilles’ pain bursts forth wildly: without hesitation the hero pours black ash on his head with both hands, and then, with his beautiful face strained, his divine robe soiled, he falls and lies on the ground, pulling and tearing out his hair. For fear, lest in his despair he draw his sword and be killed, Antilochus is forced to hold his hands. Achilles does not speak, only moans loudly. Homer, Iliad S 20-35

The shield of Achilles
Hephaestus puts all his art into making Achilles’ new armor. But mostly he worked on the round shield. In the picture we see him handing it over to Thetis.
 He puts first the earth, the sea and the sky with the sun, the moon and all the stars. And then he starts drawing two states side by side. In the first, people have peace. They marry their children with songs and joys and settle their differences with judges. In the other state they have a war. Inside the city the women, children and old men have stayed, while outside the walls two armies have fallen into battle. The wounded and the dead lie all around. So Hephaestus tells the story of the joys of peace and the miseries of war. Then he puts the farmers plowing their fields, the laborers harvesting with sickles, he puts vines laden with grapes and people who harvested them while singing, he puts shepherds tending their flocks , features dancing boys and girls with flowers in their hair. And all around he makes the vast Ocean sparkle. And when he is done, he stands to look at her. He knows that if people notice the beauty of the shield, they will no longer want to fight. They will want to dance and sing, plow their fields, harvest their vines and tend their flocks. They will want to live in peace. And this shield of Achilles is the first, the only weapon ever made that invites not war but peace.

Rage and despair together filled the heart of Achilles after the death of Patroclus and he wanted to take revenge on Hector, who killed his fraternal friend. The next day he put on his new armor, harnessed his immortal horses to his chariot, and with his Myrmidons went to war.
I

 Hector bids farewell to Andromache and Astyanaktas.
From an ancient Greek vase.

Inside the castle of Troy, Hector said goodbye to Andromache, his wife, took in his arms for the last time his little son, Astyanactus, and he too went out to fight. The Trojans were outside their walls ready for battle. However, seeing Achilles arriving, they were frightened. Half ran inside the walls to save themselves and the other half ran to the plain. Achilles chased them and a fierce battle ensued. The Trojans fell dead one after the other. Priam, who was watching the battle from the walls, ordered and the gates were opened for the army to enter to save itself. Only the brave Hector did not shut himself up in the walls, but remained to face the enemy. Priam and Hecabe, his mother, and the beautiful Andromachi high above the walls. At some point Achilles saw him and rushed at him like a beast. Hector lost it and started running. Three times he ran around the city and Achilles chased him. At last Hector stopped running and stood to face him. Achilles rushed at him and the fight began.
They fought hard, for both were brave lads. Finally, Achilles struck Hector in the neck with his pole and threw him to the ground. Troy’s bravest warrior was now dead. High from the walls the Trojans looked and mourned. But Priam and Hecabe, his mother, and the beautiful Andromache mourned more.

Achilles-Hector duel. From an ancient Greek vase

Immediately Achilles took the dead man’s weapons, tied his legs with leather straps from the chariot and let his head drag on the ground. Then he struck his horses and they galloped towards the ships, dragging the dead Hector with them.
The next day the Achaeans burned the dead Patroclus. Achilles cut his long hair and put it in Patroclus’ hands, to be burned with him. He washed his bones with wine and placed them in a golden vessel, which his mother Thetis had given him.
The dead Hector remained unburied for eleven days, until Priam went to Achilles, fell at his feet and begged him to give him the body of his child to bury. Achilles was moved. He ordered the dead body to be washed and adorned, and gave it to the old king, to be taken to Troy. And he ordered the war to cease for eleven days, so that the Trojans could mourn and burn the dead, as was their custom.

Priam comes bearing gifts to Achilles’ tent and begs him. From an ancient Achaean vase.

Parents’ dreams for their children
Hector, before clashing with Achilles, enters the castle of Troy and bids farewell to his family. There he meets his wife Andromache and his young son Astyanaktas.As soon as he opened his arms to his son, the little one was frightened by the weapons and helmet and pulled away. Then Hector and Andromache laughed. He took off the brilliant helmet and laid it on the ground.
He then took the son, kissed him, danced with him in his arms,
and so he prayed to Zeus and to the other gods:
“Father Zeus and you other gods, give this one,
my son, as I shine among the Trojans to become
a strong man, and to rule Troy with great power.
and one should say: “much better than this one’s parent,”
as if he were returning from the war with bloody spoils of
an enemy he had killed, and his mother would be deeply rejoicing.”/ Homer, Iliad G 474-481
,

Games to honor Patroklos
Achilles, after the burial of Patroklos, organizes games to honor his dead friend. The competitions are many: chariot racing, boxing, wrestling, road, armed combat, discus, archery, javelin. All the Achaean lads took part in the games and won great prizes from the hands of Achilles. Spectators participate by shouting and placing bets. In the last race, Achilles gives Agamemnon the first prize without letting him compete, since everyone knew that he was the first among the Greeks both in strength and in chariots. Thus the two rivals reconcile, after the destruction caused by their conflict. Patroclus was honored like no other hero. Everyone will remember his power and want to be like him. This was also the purpose of the epitaph matches.// Homer, Iliad Ps 258-897 (adaptation
).

Winners and losers cry together
And as both of them remembered their pain, Priam wept the manly Hector, huddled before Achilles’ feet, and Achilles wept with his father and Patroclus, and the lamentations echoed all around.

Homer, Iliad Ω 509-512 (free translation by G. Economides).

The end of Achilles
After Hector’s burial , the war outside Troy’s walls resumed. Achilles killed the Trojan warriors one after another. One day, however, when he was outside the Shadow Gates, the largest gate of the castle of Troy, Apollo saw him and advised Paris to shoot him with his arrows in his right heel. His
mother , Thetis, when he was young, had made him immortal by immersing him in the enchanted waters of Lake Styx. However, his right heel was not wet, because it was holding him back from there. So Paris marked Achilles and stuck a medicated arrow in his right heel. Groaning, the hero knelt on the ground. With pained cries he tried to pull the arrow from his heel. After a while he collapsed dead. A fierce battle took place around his dead body . The Trojans were fighting to take him. However, Odysseus and Aedas grabbed him and brought him to the ships. All the Achaeans mourned the loss of the hero. Suddenly there was a terrible roar from the sea and out of the waves came Thetis and the Nereids, her sisters. They all stood around the dead body. For seventeen days they cried and cursed him. Then they burned his body, put his bones in the same pot as those of Patroclus, and, to honor him, held games. After a few days Paris was also killed. He was killed by Philoctetes with one of the poisoned arrows that Herakles had given him.

 The death of Achilles.
Modern sculpture.

ACHILLES AT THE COURT OF KING LYCOMEDES (rear end panel of sarcophagus).
MARBLE. Ca 240 CE.
Inv. No. Ma 2120.
PARIS, LOUVRE MUSEUM .
PRIVATE COLLECTION, BORGHESE.
ORIGIN: BY ATHENIAN ATHENODOROS.
*** ROME./ FROM ATHENS WORKSHOP.
THE SARCOPHAGI HAD BEEN SAW ED UP TO FOUR PLATS WHICH WERE INSTALLED INTO THE FACADE OF VILLA BORGHESE. THE PLATES HAD BEEN MOVED TO THE LOUVRE, WHERE THE SARCOPHAGOS WAS RECONSTITUTED IN INTEGRITY
.

Data: museum annotation

Burial customs
They wash the dead body, anoint it with oil, wrap it in a white sheet and decorate it. He is laid on the funeral bed and mourned by relatives and friends. Close friends and relatives cut their hair to show their mourning. They raise a wooden structure from logs and dry branches. They place the deceased on top with many of his personal items (kterismas). After the fire is lit and burns people, slaughtered animals and objects, they put it out and carefully collect the bones of the deceased. They wash them, place them in a vase and finally raise a mound of earth and stones covering all the remains. In the end they all eat together. Homer, Iliad (adaptation

Achaeans despaired. They did not believe that they would succeed in conquering Troy. Then Odysseus, the resourceful, thought that Troy would not fall by arms but by cunning. So he advised the Achaeans to make a large wooden horse, hollow inside, the Trojan horse. So the Achaeans
made it and wrote on it: “Gift of the Achaeans to Athena”. And one dark night Odysseus, Menelaus, Diomedes, Neoptolemus, who was the son of Achilles, and some other brave Achaeans got into the horse. Agamemnon with the rest of the army, after burning the camp, got into the ships and went and hid behind Tenedos.
In the morning the Trojans, looking from the walls, could not believe their eyes. The Achaeans had left and left behind only a large wooden horse by the shore! So they came out of the walls, approached it and saw that it was a dedication to Athena. Many said that they had to raise it on the citadel of Troy, so that the goddess would protect them. Cassandra was unfair , shouting that Achaeans were hidden inside his belly. No one believed her. And a Trojan, Laocoondas, who was a priest of Apollo, said: ” “Fear the Achaeans even if they bring you gifts.

Immediately two huge snakes sent by Poseidon came out of the sea and drowned Laocoon with his children.
Seeing this miracle, the Trojans were frightened and dragged the horse into the city. In order to enter, they also demolished a part of its walls. Then they ate, drank and feasted happily all day. At night they fell asleep tired from dancing and drinking.
At midnight the Achaeans emerged from the horse’s belly. They ran and lit fires high on the walls and opened the gates. Soon the army returned from Tenedo. All the Achaeans entered Troy, killed the warriors and took the children and women as slaves. Menelaus ran to Priam’s palace and took Helen back. Then they set fire and burned the city, not even respecting the temples of the gods.
In the morning they loaded their ships with booty and set off to return home.

 Laocoon and his two sons.
Ancient Greek sculpture.

NEOPTOLEMOS IS KILLING PRIAMOS

Neoptolemus was the son of the hero Achilles and the princess Deidamia .Achilles’ mother, the goddess Thetis, had foreseen that her son would die in a great war; afraid for him, she took him to the court of King Lycomedes at the island of Scyros, and disguised him as a woman. While there, Achilles had an affair with the princess Deidamia; from this union, Neoptolemus was born.

Helenus, a Trojan seer, was captured by the Achaeans and was forced to tell them that Troy would fall if the Achaeans acquired the arrows of Heracles and the Palladium, and if they also convinced Neoptolemus to join the war. After acquiring the two artifacts, the Achaeans sent Odysseus to get the young Neoptolemus, who eventually joined the war. During the Trojan War, Neoptolemus turned out to be a brutal person, who killed Priam, Eurypylus, Polites and Astyanax, among others; he also made Andromache his concubine. After the end of the war, Neoptolemus took Andromache and Helenus and went to Epirus, where he became the king. With Andromache, Neoptolemus had a son, Molossus.

When he attempted to take Hermione from Orestes; the latter killed him.

Scene from the tragedy Andromache by EuripidesOrestes kills Neoptolemus at the altar of Apollo in Delphi. Despairing Hermione, wife of Neoptolemus but previously promised to Orestes, kneels at the foot of the altar.Greek fresco in Pompeii

Upon returning to main land of West Greece, Orestes reclaimed the throne of his father, becoming the ruler of Mycenae. He died after being bitten by a snake in Arcadia.


AJAX(=ΑΙΑΣ) CARRYING THE BODY OF ACHILLES. Amphora Vase Ancient Greek Pottery by EXEKIAS

May be an image of text

From an ancient Greek vase.

How did the news of the destruction of Troy reach MycenaeWhen Troy fell to the Achaeans, Agamemnon notified Clytemnestra overnight. His men lit a great fire on the top of Ida, in Troy, and many fires, one after the other, carried the message from mountain to mountain to Mycenae:Ida -> Lemnos -> Athos -> Evia -> Kithairon -> Mycenae.

Aeschylus, Agamemnon, verses 280 – 316 (arrangement)So we see that the people of that time had discovered a very fast means of communication, sending their messages with fire. In the hills and mountains near the cities, there were specific people who were responsible for lighting the fires, in order to communicate.

5. The sufferings of warThe Trojan War, which had lasted ten whole years, was over. However, he left behind dead people, destroyed houses, widows and orphans. Like any war. The ancient poet Euripides in his work “Troades” talks about the suffering and pain that war brings to people:Queen Hekave and the captive Trojan women mourn what they have lost and worry about the suffering they have to endure hereafter. Cassandra becomes Agamemnon’s slave. Andromache falls into the hands of Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. Her son, Astyanaktas, was thrown from the walls of Troy, so that he would not seek revenge later.The poet does not miss the opportunity to emphasize the miseries that await the victors on the return journey. Because whoever destroys states and does not respect the temples of the gods, it will not be long before disaster strikes.

Euripides, Troas (arrangement)

THE GOLDEN MASK OF AGAMEMNON, THE KING OF MYCENAE: THE MASK OF AGAMEMNON IS AN ARTIFACT DISCOVERED IN MYCENAE IN 1876 BY THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGISTS HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN.
THIS MASK IS MADE OF GOLD AND IS A FUNERAL MASK FOUND OVER THE FACE OF A DEAD BODY IN A BURIAL PLACE AT MYCENAE. SCHLIEMANN THOUGHT, THAT THE BODY AND THE MASK ARE OF THE LEGENDARY KING AGAMEMNON.
THIS MASK IS CRAFTED OUT OF PURE GOLD AND SUCH MASKS WERE PUT ON THE FACE OF DECEASED KINGS AND ROYAL PEOPLE. 
AGAMEMNON WAS THE SON OF KING ATREUS OF MYCENAE AND QUEEN AEROPE. HE WAS THE LEADER OF THE ACHAEANS-DANAOI OF WEST GREEKS DURING THE CIVIL WAR WITH TROES (TROJANS), AS MYCENAE WAS THE MOST POWERFUL WEST GREEK TOWN AT THAT TIME. HE WAS ALSO THE BROTHER OF MEN ELAUS AND THE HUSBAND OF CLYTEMNESTRA. AGAMEMNON HAD THREE DAUGHTERS AND ONE SON . – (ONE OF HIS DAUGHTERS, IPHIGENIA, WAS THE PROTAGONIST IN EURIPIDES PLAY-DRAMA). WHEN AGAMEMNON RETURNED TO HIS KINGDOM, AFTER THE END OF THE TROJAN WAR, HE WAS MURDERED BY HIS WIFE CLYTEMNESTRA AND HER LOVER AEGISTHUS.

THE AUTHENTICITY OVER THIS MASK REMAIN TILL TODAY. THIS GOLDEN EXHIBIT IS CURRENTLY ON DISPLAY AT THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM IN ATHENS. IN SPITE OF ALL THE DOUBTS, THIS DISTINGUISHED MASK OF GOLD, WHICH IS ABOUT 12 INCHES IN HEIGHT IS STILL KNOWN, AS THE MASK OF AGAMEMNON AND IS ONE OF THE MOST PRIZED DISCOVERIES FROM THE ANCIENT MYCENAEAN AGES

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Electra, daughter of King Agamemnon, wants to avenge her father’s death. After his return from the Trojan War, he was murdered by his wife Klytaimnestra and her lover Aigisthos. Elektra is waiting for one day to get her revenge and for her brother Orestes, sent away to be raised elsewhere, to come home and help her.

IN THE ROYAL PALACE IN MYCENE
Clytaimnestra’s handmaidens talk about Elektra. They think she behaves frighteningly and dangerously. The youngest of them defends Elektra and the others beat her. Elektra becomes lonely. She remembers her father, relives the murder and imagines the rites of dance and blood sacrifice when the father is once avenged.

Her younger sister Chrysothemis warns her about the mother who wants to have Elektra thrown in prison. Chrysothemis can’t stand the confined life in the palace anymore. She wants to be human and woman. Alarms from inside the house announce the arrival of Klytaimnestra. Elektra wants to talk to her.

Clytaimnestra is tormented by dreams. She asks Elektra for advice. Klytaimnestra’s confidants warn her about her daughter. Elektra, first introduces herself and speaks kindly to the mother. Finally, she loses control and declares that the only cure for the anxiety dreams is the death of Klytaimnestra. Then someone whispers a message to Klytaimnestra. Her death throes turn into triumph.

Chrysothemis returns and tells her that two strangers have come with the message that Orestes is dead. Elektra can’t believe it at first. A servant sets off to break the news to Aigisthos. Elektra realizes that she must complete the revenge herself and tries to convince her sister to kill Klytaimnestra and Aigisthos with her that same night. But she fails to break Chrysothemi’s resistance. Elektra has hidden away the ax with which her father was murdered. Now she picks it up.

Shortly thereafter, a stranger arrives. He tells of the death of Orestes – but it is Orestes himself. The siblings recognize each other; he has come to Mycenae to avenge his father’s death. Orestes’ companions remind that Klytaimnestra is waiting for them in the palace. Orestes enters. Elektra breathlessly follows the events from outside. Klytaimnestra’s death scream is heard.

Orestes was the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra , who was hunted by the Erinyes after he killed his mother.

The story of Orestes is the main topic of various ancient Greek plays. After the Trojan War, Orestes’ father, Agamemnon, returned to Mycenae (or Argos), along with his prize, the Trojan princess Cassandra. Cassandra had the gift of foretelling the future, but was also cursed not to be believed by anyone. Despite Cassandra’s warnings about what was about to happen, Agamemnon entered his palace, only to be murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus, who was Agamemnon’s cousin. Orestes, a young boy at the time, was not present at the palace, but had run away with his sister Electra and found refuge at the court of Athens.

When Orestes became an adult, he was urged by his sister and the god Apollo to avenge their father’s death; Orestes, assisted by his friend Pylades, returned to the city, and murdered his mother and her lover. However, committing matricide was a horrible act that brought the fury of the Erinyes upon him. He was driven mad and was pursued by them.

Orestes sought refuge at the temple of Apollo, but even the god was powerless to stop the Erinyes. In the end, Athena accepted his pleas and organised a formal trial to be held before twelve judges. The Erinyes asked that the perpetrator be punished, while Orestes said that he followed Apollo’s orders. When the judges voted, the result was a tie; however, Athena’s vote, who was the chief justice, broke ties, leading to Orestes’ acquittal. Grateful, Orestes dedicated an altar to Athena, while the Erinyes were appeased by getting a new ritual, during which they were worshipped as the Venerable Ones.

According to a different source, while Orestes was still pursued by the Erinyes, Apollo told him to go to the land of Tauris and bring back a statue of Artemis, which had fallen from the sky. Orestes agreed and went to Tauris, accompanied by his friend Pylades. There, they were captured by the cult of Artemis, who was told to sacrifice all Greeks to the goddess. When the priestess of Artemis heard that two Greeks had been captured, she offered to help one of them escape if they would agree to carry a letter to her brother; Orestes demanded that Pylades should go, while Orestes would stay behind to be slain. Pylades reluctantly agreed, but when he received the letter, he realised who the priestess really was. All three of them eventually escaped, carrying with them the statue of Artemis. Aegisthus being murdered by Orestes and Pylades – The Louvre

Aigisthos arrives and meets Elektra outside the palace gate. Elektra’s terrifying supervision and unexpected kindness scares him. On his way in, he is murdered by Orestes.

Chrysothemis joyfully recounts the battle between Aigisthos’s friends and those who sided with Orestes. The brother has won. Elektra has achieved her goal in life. Vengeance has been exacted. She begins her ritual dance and sinks dead to the ground.

Alexander the Great laid the foundations for scientific mapping. A pioneer explorer, who laid the foundations of scientific mapping, was Alexander the Great. With his campaign in the East, he inspired his contemporaries and later cartographers to record in detail the areas through which he passed. The cartographic and exploratory work of the army of Alexander the Great and his descendants was studied by 15th century explorers, who sought to discover new worlds. Savvas Demertzis, a map collector and historian, spoke about its importance at an event at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. “Alexander the Great’s campaign not only had a military dimension, but also included an important task of searching for and recording new information. “The Macedonian king arrived in unknown countries at that time and played a very decisive role in their mapping,” Savvas Demertzis told “Demokratia” during the event. Teachings The contribution of Alexander the Great to cartography comes from Aristotle, who taught him to love knowledge. In his campaign he was accompanied by Eumenes, also a student of Aristotle, who was the first person to make real geographical measurements with the help of the body of “walkers”, which he recommended. “These were educated young people, who with a special technical regulation of breathing walked a lot of kilometers and so Eumenes calculated the distances” explains Mr. Demertzis. Eumenes mapped the areas where Alexander the Great arrived, while his work was continued by descendants of the Macedonian mercenary. The Seleucid and Egyptian contributions were important in the mapping, as they bordered areas that were unexplored. An additional important role in the development of cartography was played by the creation of large libraries in Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamon and Pella. “15th century explorers studied maps of the descendants of Alexander the Great, who had mapped areas beyond India and Africa. They helped them in their exploratory work and so they reached America “, adds Mr. Demertzis. No maps have survived from the time of Alexander the Great. They were destroyed when the library of Alexandria burned down. However, there are copies that give important information about the exploratory work of the great recruiter.

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Akragas. Anfora attica a figure nere del Pittore Taleides: Teseo uccide il Minotauro; intorno si trovano due coppie, con uomini nudi e armati di lancia e donne interamente vestite. Scoperto ad Agrigento e infine pervenuto al MET Museum di New York, il vaso presenta la firma di Taleides e la scritta “Klitarchos kalos” (Klitarchos bello). 540-530 a.C.

THE H A R P HISTORICAL FACTS..

Dedicated to God Apollo

HARP = AΡΠΑ: symphonic stringed musical instrument. It comes from the ancient Greek verb άρπω/arpo and
ΑΡΠΑΖΩ/ARPAZO(=SNATCH)
and in
ἍΡΠΗ/ARPE = a kind of bird of prey, as it was considered that the instrument is played with the use of all the fingers imitating a bird of prey.
The oldest Greek musical instruments are avloi (lyre), which is dating back to the Neolithic Age. The three civilizations of the Aegean, which are the Cycladic, the Minoan and the Mycenaean, provide evidence of the importance of music in their cultures such as Cycladic marble figures representing lyre players.

The harp has legendary origins: in Greek mythology, it was invented by the god Apollo. Charmed by the sound of Artemi’s bow, he gave her strings to attach to the weapon, creating a new instrument. The harp, played by angels and by kings, amazes us with its delicate and crystalline sound.

Orpheus, the son of Apollo, whose “rich clear words and the silvery notes from his harp were so enchanting that they … had a magical effect on everything around him. His songs could charm even rocks and rivers as well as humans and animals.

Hermes is said to have created the lyre. As the story goes, Hermes used the instrument to steal 50 of Apollo’s prize cattle, offering up the lyre to the latter when Apollo became angry. Thus, the lyre is now a historic attribute to the god of music and prophecy, symbolizing wisdom and moderation.

The Aeolian harp has a long history of being associated with the numinous, perhaps for its vibrant timbres that produce an ethereal sound. Homer relates that Hermes invented the lyre from dried sinews stretched over a tortoise shell. It was able to be played by the wind.
In Later centuries came The psalterion (Greek ψαλτήριον) is a stringed, plucked instrument, an ancient Greek harp. Psalterion was a general word for harps in the latter j part of the 4th century B.C. It meant “plucking instrument”.

An early ancestor to the harp appeared Greece, and later in spread in India , China and Burma. During the Middle Ages, it was played all over Europe and became very popular in the Celtic nations. The harp was the instrument of the troubadours, and accompanied their narratives throughout their journeys.

Monarchs have also played the harp, from Sapho, Queen Marie Antoinette, as well as innumerable poets. Often richly decorated, it can be as much a statement of wealth as a musical instrument. But the palette of sounds that the harp produces gives it true status. Refined, sparkling, and subtle, the sound of the harp is dreamy and enchanting.

Ancient Greek warrior playing the Salpygum (Salpyx) , late 6th–early 5th century BC, Melanomorph vase at Lykythos.

In the 6th century e.g. music becomes the object of a systematic theoretical approach by philosophers, although at first their interest is indirect. The first mentioned is Pythagoras from Samos and his students, who lived in Magna Graecia Croton in Lower Italy. Believing that the world is made of whole numbers, the Pythagoreans described the harmonious sound of a melody and its effect on the human soul as a result of numerical proportions. They even reduced musical harmony to a theoretical model of the general harmony of the universe and performed acoustic experiments. [20] Their texts, however, like the texts of Lasso from Hermione , who taught music in Athens and is said to have written the first treatise on music, have not survived. Their views are fragmentarily known from vague information that reached later writers. Music must have had a similarly important place in the philosophical work of Philolaus from Croton , Damon from the municipality of Oa in Attica and Democritus from Abdira , but their relevant works have not survived. Finally, the presence of music in the extant work of PLATO and ARISTOTLE is prominent , although neither of the two great philosophers wrote a treatise exclusively dedicated to music.
The ancient Greek term music (inv. art ) appeared to initially declare instrumental music ( κροῦσις ), song ( ᾠδὴ ), speech (λεξις) and rhythmic movement ( ὄρχησις ) as an inseparable performance unity, but also in general education, spiritual cultivation and eloquence, which were under the protection of the Muses . Musician as an adjective meant “cultivated”. Already in the Homeric Epics , the practice of music symbolizes the peaceful life and culture of an organized society in contrast to the brutality of wa.

How can we understand the present if we don’t look at the past? says a proverb. And very wisely he says, because we must always look back, to our roots, so that we can excel in the future and never make the same mistakes as our ancestors in the present, creating an eternal chain of repetition. So with music. We should look back to see the musical history of our people as well as the world musical history, to perceive on the one hand the beginning of music and its evolution but also on the other to be able to have the knowledge to spread the musical feats of our ancestors.

Regarding the etymology of the word music : the word, according to the writings of the ancient Greek poets and philosophers, is derived from the word muse . The word muse, again, is derived from maousha = muse. ” ma ” is the root of the verb mao-mo which means to devise or search or ask mentally . (In the Doric dialect, the word ” muse ” is ” moses “).

Lyres appear in Greek mythology as an instrument played by the gods Hermes and Apollo, and by the Greek hero Orpheus. All three were famous as superb lyre players.

Orpheus played the lyre, a harplike instrument that had been given to him by the god Apollo. Most legends relate that Orpheus’ mother was one of the Muses; most often she is said to be Calliope, the patron of epic poetry

The nine muses. Originally these deities were mountain and water nymphs. Hesiod in Theogony recounts: ” Memory slept in Pieria with the son of Cronus and gave birth to these virgins . “

An important point in world music history is the flourishing period of ancient Greek music. When geometry and mathematics contributed to the study of music but also to the construction of the first musical instruments, instrumental music began to develop in ancient Greece, since until the 6th century we have mainly vocal music as a means of expression. This shift towards instrumental music is confirmed by the work ” Pythic Law “, which is the most important court law of the music of ancient Greece and described the fight between Apollo and the dragon Python . It was Sakada ‘s invention , and perhaps the first example of purely programmatic (descriptive) music.

The amount of information that has survived to this day about ancient Greek music allows us a systematic classification of the sources, which applies not only to Greek antiquity but to the history of music in general. The first and basic category of sources are written sources and they are divided into two separate categories, practical and theoretical . Practical sources are called surviving fragments of music in musical notation. From these sources mainly hymns have survived in fragments and have been transcribed into today’s musical writing (two Delphic hymns of Apollo , the Epitaph of Sicily, etc.). These passages about ancient Greek music are few (about 50 in total) and above all short and often with gaps and deficiencies in the notation. Texts about music are called theoretical sources. Theoretical sources include, in addition to special treatises on music theory, the numerous references to music and musical life contained in literary, philosophical and historical works. Theoretical sources of this category are often called here philological sources . The theoretical, as opposed to the practical, are numerous and contain valuable and often extensive information on many issues, yet there are gaps and difficulties in understanding them. The main works are those of Aristoxenus , Euclid , Nicomachus and Alypius , who gives us detailed tables of ancient Greek musical writing.

The lyre represents the peace of Elysium, the paradise where heroes were sent after they were appointed immortality by the gods. As for Orpheus, he acquired the lyre from his father, Apollo, who taught Orpheus how to play

In addition to written sources, another very important category of sources is pictorial testimonies or pictorial sources (depictions of scenes of musical life on vases), as well as the remains of musical instruments found in excavations . The number of pictorial testimonies is great and this fact in itself is testimony to the importance of music in the daily life of the ancient Greeks.
Lyra: the most widespread stringed instrument of ancient Greece, a musical instrument particularly popular since it was not necessarily an instrument of professionals. A symbol of Apollo, the lyre was not used in public events, while it was the instrument par excellence for training the young. It can be characterized as the national organ of the ancient Greeks.
 

A typical example is the Harpist in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, a marble statue of Proto-Cycladic art (2800 – 2300 BC) that represents a seated harpist playing a type of harp.

Lyres are found in the palace of Pylos and in Crete (1400 BC). The lyre was identified with Apollo. According to mythology, Hermes invented it: When Apollo (Fig.) discovered that Hermes had stolen his oxen, he chased him. Running to hide, he accidentally stepped on a turtle shell. Noticing that the raven made the sound louder, he made the first lyre and gave it to Apollo, appeasing his anger.
The flute, the diaulos, the askalos, the syrigus of Pan, the salpyx, the drum and the rattle, the cymbals, the rattles, the seistro, the croupezio, the whisper and the chalkeophone are some of the wind and percussion instruments.

Lyra: the most widespread stringed instrument of ancient Greece, a musical instrument particularly popular since it was not necessarily an instrument of professionals. A symbol of Apollo, the lyre was not used in public events, while it was the instrument par excellence for training the young. It can be characterized as the national organ of the ancient Greeks. The lyre was the civilised instrument of the cultured Apollo, while the pipe or flute was used by the wilder, nature-dwelling deities. On one occasion the god Pan, boasting of his mastery of the pipes, was foolish enough to challenge Apollo to a contest.

Apollo the Guitarist” seated on a rock, holding his lyre and key. (Detail from the sides).
Roman copy of a Greek original of the 4th BC. h. The work can be dated to the late Hadrian-Antonine period (mid 2nd century AD). It is possible that it was placed in a temple as a gift from the emperor, the only one who could dispose of such a precious material in large quantities as porphyry or porphyry.
Purchased by the Farnese from the Sassi family, it was located in the Palazzo in Campo dei Fiori. The earliest Farnese catalogs specify the “metal or bronze” construction of the head, arms and legs. These parts were removed and replaced by what is visible today in white marble, the work of Carlo Albacini (1734-1813), on the occasion of the sculpture’s transfer to Naples in 1805. Napoli Museo Nazionale – Piano Terra – Collezione Farnese – sala I .
The god, clothed in a long tunic of purple porphyry, held by a belt below the breast, sits on a rock holding the lyre in the left hand and the key in the right (in white marble, inserted by Albacini). His costume, which resembles a woman’s, is the festive costume of the Pythians, worn by the performers taking part in the music competition.
From 1850 BC at Minoan Knossos large column bases of some variety of porphyry are found. And the ancient Egyptians used varieties of this stone in their constructions. It is a volcanic rock that forms when magma cools slowly below the earth’s surface. It has a unique texture and “luxurious” color, which was especially valued during the Roman period to satisfy the love of luxury of the Roman elite. It was red-brown to red-purple in color, like the color dyed with the material from the rare sea snails with the ancient Greek name “porphyres”, hence its name. The purple porphyry was also called “imperial” and had been discovered in an isolated location in Egypt in 18 AD by a Roman legionnaire, according to Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, 23-79), in his “Natural History” (Naturalis Historia) . Like the purple cloth, it was characteristic of the emperors (e.g. their “tongas” were made from it in their busts). But also later, it was used by the emperors of the Eastern Roman state, called Byzantium by the historians, in their sarcophagi and in Byzantine imperial monuments.This stone is also valued for its versatility.It can be cut and carved into various shapes and sizes , making it ideal for a range of applications.Its use continues later, in the constructions of Western European emperors and kings.

The harp has legendary origins: in Greek mythology, it was invented by the god Apollo. Charmed by the sound of Artemi’s bow, he gave her strings to attach to the weapon, creating a new instrument. The harp, played by angels and by kings, amazes us with its delicate and crystalline sound.

FRENCH INNOVATIONS
The first pedals were the invention of the Bavarian luthier Hochbrücker at the beginning of the 18th century. Several instrument makers in France developed new innovations and patents, including one by the writer, watchmaker, diplomat and businessman Pierre Beaumarchais. The famous piano maker Sebastien Érard gave the harp seven pedals in the 19th century, one per note of the scale
.

In the 20th century, the innovations continued. At the beginning of the century, the Pleyel House patented a harp without pedals, called the chromatic harp, at the request of several musicians. This harp was used in a composition by Claude Debussy, the Sacred Dance and Secular Dance. Although it was not a commercial success, the piece is very interesting for the history of music and is a masterpiece of chamber music.

Ravel
Maurice Ravel with the harpist Lily Laskine at a performance of Ravel’s Introduction et allegro in 1935.
French involvement in the development of this instrument is still strong today! The French harpist Anja Linder, who was paralyzed following an accident, invented the “Anjamatic”, an electro-pneumatic harp without pedals. Anja teaches the “Anjamatic” at the Strasbourg Conservatory. She was named a Knight of the National Order of Merit in 2016.

The history and development of the harp is bursting with as many notes, high and low, as the instrument itself is capable of. The most exciting part of the harp’s history is what’s still to come for this ancient instrument.

The word music, according to the writings of the ancient Greek poets and philosophers, is derived from “Musa”. Musa again, is produced from maousa = Musa. “ma” is the root of the verb mao-mo = to devise or search or ask mentally. (In the Doric dialect the word “Muse” is “Moses”).

The word music The word music, in today’s time, means the art of sounds, unlike the ancient Greeks who gave the word music a different meaning, they meant the indissoluble unity of sound and speech, something that does not exist nowadays.

With sport the body is exercised, while with music the spirit.

Music, the gift of the Muses, in ancient Greece, defined and characterized the man who acts, thinks and feels. Thus, as a means of spiritual maturation, the word that would characterize ancient Greek music is not the word “art” but the words education and power. This can also be seen from the fact that the one who played the flute e.g. he was called a piper and not a musician, i.e. he was considered a simple performer. But after the separation of music from speech, language, which happened shortly after Plato, we see the use of the concept musician. This change was to be the birth of an autonomous art which, as mentioned above, was embedded within discourse.

Ancient Greek Music

Ancient Greek music holds a special place among the musical cultures of Antiquity. The main reason for this is certainly the fact that the historical evidence and sources for the study of ancient Greek musical culture are more than for any other musical culture of antiquity. However, apart from this, and perhaps thanks to this, the ancient Greek musical culture exerted a great influence on later musical cultures in Europe and also in the Middle East, mainly on the Arab musical culture. This effect concerns, at least in the case of European music, the aesthetics of music, music creation, music education and more generally the place of music in education, music theory and other fields, which are today, as well as the former subject of musicology.

The influence of ancient Greek music on later musical cultures is not only due to any historical testimonies and sources regarding it. It is due, and in fact to a large extent, to the overall effect of the ancient Greek and Roman civilization on modern Europe, especially during the Renaissance years, but not only then. Ancient Greek music became for the humanists, but often also for the musicians of the Renaissance, the ideal model of music. Thus, as often happens in similar cases, a myth was created around ancient Greek music, based more on the musical reality of later times and on historical fallacies, than on the positive knowledge of the sources that survived. This myth was certainly productive for the development of modern music, as it shows e.g. the genesis of opera. However, for the knowledge of ancient Greek music itself, it had several negative consequences, which musicological research began to overcome from the middle of the 19th century. and so on. From this time, a systematic research of ancient Greek music, freed from the distorting lenses of later periods, began.

SOURSES

The abundance of surviving information on ancient Greek music allows a systematic classification of sources, which is not only valid for Greek antiquity, but for the history of music in general and is used to classify sources at least until the end of the Middle Ages.

The first and basic category of sources are written sources. Written sources are divided into two separate categories, practical and theoretical sources.

Practical sources are called surviving fragments of music in musical notation. From the practical sources mainly hymns survived in fragments and have been transcribed into today’s musical writing (two Delphic hymns of Apollo, the epitaph of Sicily, etc.). These passages about ancient Greek music are few (about 50 in total) and above all short and often with gaps and deficiencies in the notation.

Texts about music are called theoretical sources. Theoretical sources include, in addition to special treatises on music theory, the numerous references to music and musical life contained in literary, philosophical and historical works. Theoretical sources of this category are often called here philological sources. The theoretical as opposed to the practical are many and contain valuable and often extensive information on many issues, yet there are gaps and difficulties in understanding them. The main works are by Aristoxenus, Euclid, Nicomachus and Alypius (who gives us detailed tables of ancient Greek musical writing).

In addition to written sources, another very important category of sources is pictorial evidence or pictorial sources (depictions of scenes of musical life on vases), as well as the remains of musical instruments found in excavations. The number of pictorial testimonies is great and this fact in itself is testimony to the importance of music in the daily life of the ancient Greeks.

Historical Overview

It is difficult for anyone to determine the temporal and geographical boundaries of the musical culture of ancient Greece. A key difficulty is the dissociation between the temporal origins of different kinds of sources. Thus, the surviving theoretical sources, as well as the surviving nuggets of practical sources, date almost exclusively to the first post-Christian centuries. On the contrary, the philological and pictorial sources are abundant already from the period of greatest flowering of this culture – that is, from the 7th to the 4th BC. century or so. therefore, following a demarcation that is more or less generally accepted and corresponds in general terms to the geographical and temporal demarcation of the period of birth and heyday of the ancient Greek culture, we can say that ancient Greek music covers a period of time that begins in the last centuries of 2nd millennium BC and ends at the end of the 4th century BC. (i.e. at the beginning of the Hellenistic Period), and developed mainly in the main part of Greece and in the Greek cities of Asia Minor and Lower Italy. The period of more than a thousand years determined by the above time limits corresponds to various periods of ancient Greek history. Thus the history of ancient Greek music can be subdivided into two major periods:

Aphrodite is , as well associated with the harp. Though she wasn’t an actual goddess, Calliope is often depicted with one. The character of Orpheus, again not regarded as a god, was a harpist (or probably more accurately, the lyre)

Orpheus, ancient Greek from Thraca legendary hero endowed with superhuman musical skills. He became the patron of a religious movement based on sacred writings said to be his own. Traditionally, Orpheus was the son of a Muse (probably Calliope, the patron of epic poetry) and Oeagrus, a king of Thrace (other versions give Apollo). Apollo, as the god of music, gave Orpheus a golden lyre and taught him to play it. Orpheus’s mother taught him to make verses for singing. (Orpheus name derives fro the verb root *h₃erbʰ- ‘to change allegiance, status, ownership’. Cognates could include Greek: ὄρφνη (órphnē; ‘darkness’) and ὀρφανός (orphanós; ‘fatherless, orphan’) from which comes English ‘orphan’ through Latin.

The story of Orpheus has resonated through the millennia and has been a popular subject of art, music and literature for more than 2,500 years. The Greek legend was flourishing by the mid-sixth century B.C., and variations of his story appear in the ancient writings of Aristophanes, Plato, Aristotle, Apollodorus, Virgil and Ovid. According to one version of the myth, Orpheus was the son of the muse Calliope. Given a lyre (a form of ancient harp) by the god Apollo and instructed in its use by the Muses, he became so skilled at creating music with it that he was able to charm and placate elements of both the natural and supernatural world. Animals, trees, rocks and even some of the gods themselves were moved by the music from his golden harp, and ancient images of him often depict scenes in which Orpheus is surrounded by a variety of tranquil creatures, both real and mythical.

Abode
SymbolLYRE
Personal information
BornPIMPEIAPIERIA
DiedPangaion HillsOdomantice
ParentsOeagrus and Calliope
SpouseEURYDIKE
ChildrenMUSAEUS
Orpheus and Eurydice in Palais GarnierParis. ΟΡΦΕΥΣ (Orpheus) and ΕΥΡΥΔΙΚΗ (Eurydice).

The power of Orpheus’s music led Jason and his fellow Argonauts to seek his aid on their quest for the Golden Fleece, but the primary story associated with Orpheus concerns his wife, a nymph named Eurydice. According to legend, she was killed after being bitten by a poisonous snake. Devastated by her death and determined to recover his lost love, Orpheus descends into the underworld, where he uses the power of his music to charm Charon, the ferryman who brings the dead across the River Styx, in order to gain passage to the underworld. As he continues, he also enchants the monstrous guardian of the gates to the underworld, the three-headed dog Cerberus.

Glancing back however is often a symbol of a reluctance to look forward, to be distracted, dwell on the past and remain static. To the ancient Greeks, Orpheus was a legendary prophet, poet and musician. Because the moral behind both stories is “Don’t look back.” Orpheus wanted to bring his wife, Eurydice, back to life and was told not to look back or he would lose everything. Lot was told by God that he must not look back or he would turn to ashes. Of course his wife didn’t listen and she became a pile of ash/salt

His music and grief so moves Queen Persephone that she pleads with her grim consort, Hades, to release Eurydice and allow Orpheus to bring his wife out of the underworld. The god of the underworld grants this request, but only on the condition that Orpheus trust that Eurydice is following him; he must not look back at her until they pass beyond the realm of Hades’ domain and into the world of the living. Their escape is depicted in Sir Edward John Poynter’s dramatic 1862 oil-on-canvas Orpheus and Eurydice. At the last moment, Orpheus is unable to resist looking back at his love, and thus he is forced to watch as she is once again transported back to the world of the dead..

*******A R I O N

Arion was a lyric poet from Mithymna (Molyvos) in Lesvos. We do not even know the year of his birth and death. The information about him and his life comes mainly from the historian Herodotus. He left Lesbos early and lived near the tyrant of Corinth Periandros (625 – 585 BC).

He was the best guitar player of his time and contributed to the development of the dithyramb, the hymn of Dionysian worship, which was the forerunner of tragedy. Arion was the first to compose a dithyramb, gave it a lyrical form and narrative content and presented it at the court of the art-loving tyrant Periander, in Corinth. Arion presented the dancers disguised as Satyrs, i.e. with characteristics of goats, which is why he was called the “inventor of the tragic way”. As a poet and composer, he wrote chants (hymns) and preludes (guitar rules), of which not a single verse has survived. According to Herodotus Arion had won a musical competition in Sicily.

Arion, playing his kithara and riding dolphins. Sculpture by Jean Raon (Grove of the Domes [fr], Gardens of Versailles)

There is a story about his life, which is more like a fairy tale, and it was bequeathed to us by Herodotus. Once, Arion decided to travel to Sicily for a living. There, after having collected a lot of money and wealth through his art, he started the return journey in a Corinthian ship. During the voyage the sailors decided to rob him and throw him overboard. Arion offered to give them money to save his life, but in vain. Then, he begged them to do him one last favor. To let him sing before his death. The sailors accepted. Arion, having put on his good clothes, took the guitar in his hands, stood on the prow of the ship and sang the “standing law”, a hymn to Standing Artemis and others a hymn to Apollo the god of music. His song attracted dolphins around the ship. At the end of the song he threw himself into the sea. A dolphin enchanted by his song took him on its back and took him out to Cape Tainaro. From there, Arion went on foot to Corinth, where he reported everything to Periander, the tyrant of Corinth. He ordered the sailors, who had meanwhile returned to Corinth, to be arrested and put to death.

Arion, riding a dolphin; from the statue by Ernest-Eugene Hiolle. Illustration for The Chefs-D’Oeuvre d’Art of the International Exhibition, 1878, edited by Edward Straham (Gebbie & Barrie, c 1878).

Greek mythology is intended to serve as an education for the people of Ancient Greece, and with the Myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, they are taught two things. First, you need to stay true to your word. And, second, always be respectful to the gods.

He was the best guitar player of his time and contributed to the development of the dithyramb, the hymn of Dionysian worship, which was the forerunner of tragedy. Arion was the first to compose a dithyramb, gave it a lyrical form and narrative content and presented it at the court of the art-loving tyrant Periander, in Corinth. Arion presented the dancers disguised as Satyrs, i.e. with characteristics of goats, which is why he was called the “inventor of the tragic way”. As a poet and composer, he wrote chants (hymns) and preludes (guitar rules), of which not a single verse has survived. According to Herodotus Arion had won a musical competition in Sicily.

There is a story about his life, which is more like a fairy tale, and it was bequeathed to us by Herodotus. Once, Arion decided to travel to Sicily for a living. There, after having collected a lot of money and wealth through his art, he started the return journey in a Corinthian ship. During the voyage the sailors decided to rob him and throw him overboard. Arion offered to give them money to save his life, but in vain. Then, he begged them to do him one last favor. To let him sing before his death. The sailors accepted. Arion, having put on his good clothes, took the guitar in his hands, stood on the prow of the ship and sang the “standing law”, a hymn to Standing Artemis and others a hymn to Apollo the god of music. His song attracted dolphins around the ship. At the end of the song he threw himself into the sea. A dolphin enchanted by his song took him on its back and took him out to Cape Tainaro. From there, Arion went on foot to Corinth, where he reported everything to Periander, the tyrant of Corinth. He ordered the sailors, who had meanwhile returned to Corinth, to be arrested and put to death.

THE O A T T H OF HIPPOCRATES

One of the oldest binding documents in history, the Oath written by Hippocrates is still held sacred by physicians: to treat the ill to the best of one’s ability, to preserve a patient’s privacy, to teach the secrets of medicine to the next generation, and so on.There are many versions of the Hippocratic Oath. We here present two versions. First, the “classic” version (or more precisely, one translation of the original oath). And then, following it, is presented one of the fine “modern” versions of the Hippocratic Oath.

 Ο Όρκος του Ιπποκράτη (The Oath of Hippocrates)

ὌΜΝΥΜΙ ἈΠΌΛΛΩΝΑ ἸΗΤΡΌΝ ΚΑΊ ἈΣΚΛΗΠΙΌΝ ΚΑΊ ὙΓΕΊΑΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΝΆΚΕΙΑΝ ΚΑΊ ΘΕΟΎΣ ΠΆΝΤΑΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΆΣΑΣ, ἽΣΤΟΡΑΣ ΠΟΙΕΎΜΕΝΟΣ, ἘΠΙΤΕΛΈΑ ΠΟΙΉΣΕΙΝ ΚΑΤΆ ΔΎΝΑΜΙΝ ΚΑΊ ΚΡΊΣΙΝ ἘΜΉΝ ὍΡΚΟΝ ΤΌΝΔΕ ΚΑΊ ΞΥΓΓΡΑΦΉΝ ΤΉΝΔΕ.ἩΓΉΣΕΣΘΑΙ ΜΈΝ ΤΌΝ ΔΙΔΆΞΑΝΤΆ ΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΤΈΧΝΗΝ ΤΑΎΤΗΝ ἼΣΑ ΓΕΝΈΤΗΙΣΙΝ ἘΜΟΙ͂ΣΙ, ΚΑΊ ΒΊΟΥ ΚΟΙΝΏΣΕΣΘΑΙ, ΚΑΊ ΧΡΕΩ͂Ν ΧΡΗΊΖΟΝΤΙ ΜΕΤΆΔΟΣΙΝ ΠΟΙΉΣΕΣΘΑΙ, ΚΑΊ ΓΈΝΟΣ ΤΌ ἘΞ ΑΥ̓ΤΟΥ͂ ἈΔΕΛΦΕΟΙ͂Σ ἼΣΟΝ ἘΠΙΚΡΙΝΈΕΙΝ ἌΡΡΕΣΙ, ΚΑΊ ΔΙΔΆΞΕΙΝ ΤΉΝ ΤΈΧΝΗΝ ΤΑΎΤΗΝ, ἭΝ ΧΡΗΊΖΩΣΙ ΜΑΝΘΆΝΕΙΝ, ἌΝΕΥ ΜΙΣΘΟΥ͂ ΚΑΊ ΞΥΓΓΡΑΦΗ͂Σ, ΠΑΡΑΓΓΕΛΊΗΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΊ ἈΚΡΟΉΣΙΟΣ ΚΑΊ ΤΗ͂Σ ΛΟΙΠΗ͂Σ ἉΠΆΣΗΣ ΜΑΘΉΣΙΟΣ ΜΕΤΆΔΟΣΙΝ ΠΟΙΉΣΑΣΘΑΙ ΥἹΟΙ͂ΣΙ ΚΑΊ ΤΟΙ͂ΣΙ ΤΟΥ͂ ἘΜΈ ΔΙΔΆΞΑΝΤΟΣ ΚΑΊ ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ͂ΣΙ ΣΥΓΓΕΓΡΑΜΜΈΝΟΙΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΊ ὩΡΚΙΣΜΈΝΟΙΣ ΝΌΜΩΙ ἸΗΤΡΙΚΏ, ἌΛΛΩΙ ΔΈ ΟΥ̓ΔΕΝΊ.ΔΙΑΙΤΉΜΑΣΊ ΤΕ ΧΡΉΣΟΜΑΙ ἘΠ᾿ ὨΦΕΛΕΊΗΙ ΚΑΜΝΌΝΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΆ ΔΎΝΑΜΙΝ ΚΑΊ ΚΡΊΣΙΝ ἘΜΉΝ, ἘΠΊ ΔΗΛΉΣΕΙ ΔΈ ΚΑΊ ἈΔΙΚΊΗΙ ΕἼΡΞΕΙΝ.ΟΥ̓ ΔΏΣΩ ΔΈ ΟΥ̓ΔΈ ΦΆΡΜΑΚΟΝ ΟΥ̓ΔΕΝΊ ΑἸΤΗΘΕΊΣ ΘΑΝΆΣΙΜΟΝ, ΟΥ̓ΔΈ ὙΦΗΓΉΣΟΜΑΙ ΞΥΜΒΟΥΛΊΗΝ ΤΟΙΉΝΔΕ˙ ὉΜΟΊΩΣ ΔΈ ΟΥ̓ΔΈ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΊ ΠΕΣΣΌΝ ΦΘΌΡΙΟΝ ΔΏΣΩ.ἉΓΝΩ͂Σ ΔΕ ΚΑΊ ὉΣΊΩΣ ΔΙΑΤΗΡΉΣΩ ΒΊΟΝ ΤΌΝ ἘΜΌΝ ΚΑΊ ΤΈΧΝΗΝ ΤΉΝ ΕΜΉΝ.ΟΥ̓ ΤΕΜΈΩ ΔΕ ΟΥ̓ΔΈΝ ΜΗΝ ΛΙΘΙΩ͂ΝΤΑΣ, ἘΚΧΩΡΉΣΩ ΔΕ ἘΡΓΆΤΗΙΣΙΝ ἈΝΔΡΆΣΙΝ ΠΡΉΞΙΟΣ ΤΗ͂ΣΔΕ.ἘΣ ΟἸΚΊΑΣ ΔΕ ὉΚΌΣΑΣ ἌΝ ἘΣΊΩ, ἘΣΕΛΕΎΣΟΜΑΙ ἘΠ᾿ ὨΦΕΛΕΊΗΙ ΚΑΜΝΌΝΤΩΝ, ἘΚΤΌΣ ἘΏΝ ΠΆΣΗΣ ἈΔΙΚΊΗΣ ἙΚΟΥΣΊΗΣ ΚΑΊ ΦΘΟΡΊΗΣ ΤΗ͂Σ ΤΕ ἌΛΛΗΣ ΚΑΊ ἈΦΡΟΔΙΣΊΩΝ ἜΡΓΩΝ ἘΠΊ ΤΕ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΊΩΝ ΣΩΜΆΤΩΝ ΚΑΊ ἈΝΔΡΕΊΩΝ, ἘΛΕΥΘΈΡΩΝ ΤΕ ΚΑΊ ΔΟΎΛΩΝ.Ἅ Δ᾿ ἌΝ ἘΝ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΊΗΙ Ἤ ΊΔΩ Ἤ ΑΚΟΎΣΩ, Ἤ ΚΑΊ ἌΝΕΥ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΊΗΣ ΚΑΤΆ ΒΊΟΝ ἈΝΘΡΏΠΩΝ, Ἅ ΜΉ ΧΡΉ ΠΟΤΕ ἘΚΛΑΛΈΕΣΘΑΙ ἜΞΩ, ΣΙΓΉΣΟΜΑΙ, ἌΡΡΗΤΑ ἩΓΕΎΜΕΝΟΣ ΕἾΝΑΙ ΤΆ ΤΟΙΑΥ͂ΤΑ.

Ὅρκον μέν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι καί μή ξυγχέοντι εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καί βίου καί τέχνης, δοξαζομένῳ παρά πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τόν αἰεί χρόνον˙ παραβαίνοντι δέ καί ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τουτέων.

TRANSLATION form ancient Greek:

Hippocratic Oath: 

I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art – if they desire to learn it – without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

Hippocrates

 

Hippocrates: “What keeps health is equitable distribution and precise mixing within body forces (= egalitarianism) of dry, liquid, cold, sweet, bitter, sour and salty. The disease causes the predominance of one (= monarchy). Treatment is accomplished by restoring the disturbed balance, the method of the opposite of excess power. “

These concepts we find intact to Hippocrates. The exact mix, equality before the law, symmetry, harmony, are the basis of the doctrines of the Pythagoreans and Ippokrati.Grafei features Hippocrates: “In man there is the bitter and salty, sweet, sour, astringent and the the bland … and these components when mixed and combined together, neither shown nor affect humans. But when some of all separated and left alone it seems to cause harm “.

If we eat a lot of sweets and hydrocarbons and has become our body chocolate and patisserie, there has been an imbalance. The prevalence of fresh weight of bitter will pay dearly indeed. The volumes are full of zachari.Afto demonstrated the Warburg. In 2001 a medical conference in Karlsruhe, Germany, confirmed the adage: “that is bitter in the mouth, it is good for the stomach.” It was stressed that the bitter substances, contributing decisively to the overall process of digestion.

The movements of the stomach and intestine are intensifying and promoting food accelerating. Stimulate the secretion of bile and pancreatic, improve digestion albums, proteins and lipon.Meionetai sense of blowing and prevented fermentation and decay processes occurring in the intestines. Through B12 absorption improvement, bitter substances supporting blood production, promote the absorption of fat soluble components, like iron. The bitter substances support and creating bases (alkaline high pH) in the body. And act m “thereby against peroxidation

The Law of Hippocrates

1. Medicine is of all the arts the most noble; but, owing to the ignorance of those who practice it, and of those who, inconsiderately, form a judgment of them, it is at present far behind all the other arts. Their mistake appears to me to arise principally from this, that in the cities there is no punishment connected with the practice of medicine (and with it alone) except disgrace, and that does not hurt those who are familiar with it. Such persons are the figures which are introduced in tragedies, for as they have the shape, and dress, and personal appearance of an actor, but are not actors, so also physicians are many in title but very few in reality.

2. Whoever is to acquire a competent knowledge of medicine, ought to be possessed of the following advantages: a natural disposition; instruction; a favorable position for the study; early tuition; love of labor; leisure. First of all, a natural talent is required; for, when Nature leads the way to what is most excellent, instruction in the art takes place, which the student must try to appropriate to himself by reflection, becoming an early pupil in a place well adapted for instruction. He must also bring to the task a love of labor and perseverance, so that the instruction taking root may bring forth proper and abundant fruits.

3. Instruction in medicine is like the culture of the productions of the earth. For our natural disposition, is, as it were, the soil; the tenets of our teacher are, as it were, the seed; instruction in youth is like the planting of the seed in the ground at the proper season; the place where the instruction is communicated is like the food imparted to vegetables by the atmosphere; diligent study is like the cultivation of the fields; and it is time which imparts strength to all things and brings them to maturity.

4. Having brought all these requisites to the study of medicine, and having acquired a true knowledge of it, we shall thus, in traveling through the cities, be esteemed physicians not only in name but in reality. But inexperience is a bad treasure, and a bad fund to those who possess it, whether in opinion or reality, being devoid of self-reliance and contentedness, and the nurse both of timidity and audacity. For timidity betrays a want of powers, and audacity a lack of skill. They are, indeed, two things, knowledge and opinion, of which the one makes its possessor really to know, the other to be ignorant.

5. Those things which are sacred, are to be imparted only to sacred persons; and it is not lawful to impart them to the profane until they have been initiated into the mysteries of the science.

And we will adopt the tactics of the University Hippocrates who told us that we are what we eat … But what happens there nowadays this spate of cancer? Let us know the Hippocratic anticancer defense, which is based on a balance of four basic tastes. The almond oil is obtained from the fruit of the kernel. Rich in vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, B17, and trace elements. Vitamin B17 is vitamin. It is the old name of amygdalin, as we read in an article news portal.

Amygdalin is the bitter component of almonds and a potential toxin as it can release cyanide in the body. The amygdalin is considered to have anticancer properties, but this has not been proven scientifically.

It has been argued that the exclusion of bitter substances – only delight and pleasure in our throat is our motto – we excluded one of the four primary tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet. Many have rejected and sour and have chosen the salty and sweet. So balance (isorropia). Hippocrates emphasized the balance, influenced by the father of Greek medicine doctor Alkmaion.

He is considered the peak of Greek medicine because he first dealt with the anatomy and physiology and formulated as follows perceptions of health and illness, adopted by

Hippocrates:“What kee ps health is equitable distribution and precise mixing within body forces (= egalitarianism) of: dry, liquid, cold, sweet, bitter, sour and salty. The disease causes the predominance of one (= monarchy). Treatment is accomplished by restoring the disturbed balance, the method of the opposite of excess power. “

These concepts we find intact to Hippocrates. The exact mix, equality before the law, symmetry, harmony, are the basis of the doctrines of the Pythagoreans and Ippokrati.Grafei features Hippocrates: “In man there is the bitter and salty, sweet, sour, astringent and the the bland … and these components when mixed and combined together, neither shown nor affect humans. But when some of all separated and left alone it seems to cause harm “.

If we eat a lot of sweets and hydrocarbons and has become our body chocolate and patisserie, there has been an imbalance. The prevalence of fresh weight of bitter will pay dearly indeed. The volumes are full of zachari.Afto demonstrated the Warburg. In 2001 a medical conference in Karlsruhe, Germany, confirmed the adage: “that is bitter in the mouth, it is good for the stomach.” It was stressed that the bitter substances, contributing decisively to the overall process of digestion.

The movements of the stomach and intestine are intensifying and promoting food accelerating. Stimulate the secretion of bile and pancreatic, improve digestion albums, proteins and lipon.Meionetai sense of blowing and prevented fermentation and decay processes occurring in the intestines. Through B12 absorption improvement, bitter substances supporting blood production, promote the absorption of fat soluble components, like iron. The bitter substances support and creating bases (alkaline high pH) in the body. And act m “thereby against peroxidation

Hippocrates was the first who took into account the environment, working conditions and weather. A special place in medicine Hippocrates had nature. When the father of modern medicine, is inherent in man an animal power, which determines the balance of the body and is none other than nature. Therefore, investigating the natural environment of the patient. Residence, the atmosphere in which he lived, and the weather changes its place. Proper nutrition and diet were also key requirements for good human health.

The Hippocratic Oath (Ορκος) is perhaps the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards. It also strongly binds the student to his teacher and the greater community of physicians with responsibilities similar to that of a family member. In fact, the creation of the Oath may have marked the early stages of medical training to those outside the first families of Hippocratic medicine, the Asclepiads of Kos, by requiring strict loyalty.

Over the centuries, it has been rewritten often in order to suit the values of different cultures influenced by Greek medicine. Contrary to popular belief, the Hippocratic Oath is not required by most modern medical schools, although some have adopted modern versions that suit many in the profession in the 21st century. It also does not explicitly contain the phrase, “First, do no harm,” which is commonly attributed to it.

BELOW:

ASKLIPIOS SCHOOL (Est.1200years B.C.) at the island of KOS

The Aphorisms of Hippocrates – Most Important

BEFORE SOMEONE IS BELIEVING THAT (HE OR SHE) KNOWS ABOUT HIPPOCRATES ….

AT FIRST HAS TO STUDY About  ASCLEPIOS , HIPPOCRATES & THIS Aphorisms, his philosophy, the four elementsetc etc!..(Just read more about in this site)

START NOW!!

THE APHORISMS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS. IT WAS THE SUBJECT OF ADMIRATION OF DOCTORS OF ALL TIME AND DISTRIBUTEDO WIDELY OVER THE CENTURIES, WAS COPIED MORE THAN ALL THE OTHER WORKS OF ANCIENT GREEK MEDICAL LITERATURE. IT IS ELEMENTARY EPITOME SEMIOTICS, DIETARY, THERAPEUTIC AND PROGNOSTIC OF KOAN MEDICAL SCHOOL.

 

THE DESIGNER READILY UNDERSTANDS THAT THESE THOUGHTS WISE AND EXPERIENCED PHYSICIAN AND TEACHER, BUT NOT RECORDED BY THE SAME, THEREBY CONTAIN REPETITIONS AND BE UNCLASSIFIED.

 

IT IS LIKELY TO BE A PATTERN USED BY HIPPOCRATES FOR TEACHING. LATER STUDENTS FOUND IT AND INCLUDED IT IN HIS WORKS. SO THIS IS THE AUTHENTIC FATHER OF MEDICINE PROJECT:

 

 

IN THE FIRST PART, CONTAINED IN A SUMMARY MATTERS REGARDING GENERAL MEDICAL AND DIETARY-THERAPEUTIC AND GENERAL ON AUTOMATIC AND EVOKED STOOLS AND NUTRITION. “THE LIFE IS SHORT AND THE ART LONG, AND THE WEATHER SHARP, AND THE EXPERIENCE ERRONEOUS AND THE JUDGMENT TOUGH”. FAMOUS APHORISM THAT HAS BEEN FOREFRONT IN MEDICAL SCHOOLS, MEDICAL EMBLEM ON MANY PROJECTS AND HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF COMMENTS LARGE SAGES OF ANTIQUITY, SUCH AS GALEN, LUCIAN, SENECA AND YOUNGER PHYSICIANS AND PHILOSOPHERS SUCH AS GOETHE, ETC.

 

IN THE SECOND SECTION, INCLUDED APHORISMS RELEVANT TO PROGNOSIS OF DISEASE IN GENERAL. FIRST MENTIONED PREDICTIVE SYMPTOMS FOR SLEEP, WORTHY GREAT CLINICIAN, FOR EXAMPLE HIGH RISK OF DISEASES AGGRAVATED BY SLEEP. WISE ALSO OBSERVATION IS THAT BOTH EXCESSIVE INSOMNIA AND EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS ARE UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS. ALSO SUDDEN FATIGUE HERALDS IASTHENEIA, OBESE ARE MORE AT RISK OF SUDDEN DEATH FROM THE WEAK, THOSE WHO OFTEN FEEL TOO TIRED FOR NO REASON, DYING. THESE ARE ALL WISE PHYSICIAN EXPERIENCED OBSERVATIONS.

 

THE THIRD SECTION REFERS TO THE INFLUENCE THAT THE APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER OF THE DISEASE THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND AGE.

 

IN THE FOURTH SECTION, ON TREATMENT WITH EMETICS AND LAXATIVES AND DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION PARTICULARLY FEBRILE ILLNESSES, INCLUDING BANS RELEVANT TO THE PURGES, INTENTIONAL OR NOT, IN CONNECTION WITH PREGNANCY, SEASONS, THE MAKEUP OF THE INDIVIDUAL, AND NATURE OF THE DISEASE. VERY INTERESTING ARE THE APHORISMS MENTIONED IN FEVERS: SIXTHS, LABORIOUS, FEVERS TWIST NECK, INTERMITTENT, NON-INTERMITTENT, WITH SHIVERING, KAFSODEIS ETC.

 

IN THE FIFTH SECTION INCLUDES APHORISMS ON THE EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD ESPECIALLY IN SURGICAL DISEASES AND GYNECOLOGICAL DISEASES. SOME REFER AND CONVULSIONS, THE TETANIC CONVULSIONS AND EPILEPSY, OTHERS TO BREAST DISEASES. OTHERS RELATE MILK STERILIZATION, DISEASE OF THE UTERUS, MENSTRUATION. IN THIS SECTION ARE THE FAMOUS APHORISMS, UNDER WHICH THE OCCURRENCE OF SEIZURES IN TRAUMA IS FATAL PROGNOSIS, THE TABES AFFECTS PEOPLE AGED 18-35 YEARS, HEMOPTYSIS BLOOD FOAMED FROM LUNG, DIARRHEA IS DEADLY SYMPTOM IN CONSUMPTIVE, SUDDEN SLIMMING BREAST PREGNANT HERALDS SHEDDING ETC.

 

SECTION SIX REFER APHORISMS RELATED TO THE SYMPTOMS OF SURGICAL DISEASES. PRECIOUS ARE THOSE WHO SAID THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER IN THE ELDERLY DIFFICULT TO TREAT, THAT THE INJURIES TO THE BRAIN, BLADDER, INTESTINES, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ABDOMEN AND LIVER ARE FATAL.

 

FINALLY IN THE SEVENTH SECTION ARE MANY REPETITIONS APHORISMS FROM PREVIOUS PARTS. AMONG THE MOST IMPORTANT IS THE ONE THAT STATES THAT THE ENDS OF FREEZING IS DEADLY PROGNOSTIC IN SEVERE FEBRILE ILLNESSES, AS WELL AS DEADLY PREDICTOR IS THE APPEARANCE OF VOMITING, HICCUP, SPASM OR DELIRIUM IN THE ILEUM.

 

FINALLY, THE FOLLOWING APHORISM IS USUALLY MOUNTED IN OPERATING ROOMS:

  « ‘ὈΚΌΣΑ ΦΆΡΜΑΚΑ ΟΥ̓Κ ἸΗΤΑΙ, ΣΊΔΗΡΟΣ ἼΗΤΑΙ, ὍΣΑ ΣΊΔΗΡΟΣ ΟΥ̓Κ ἸΗΤΑΙ, ΠΥ͂Ρ ἼΗΤΑΙ ὍΣΑ ΔΈ ΠΥ͂Ρ ΟΥ̓Κ ἼΗΤΑΙ, ΤΑΥ͂ΤΑ ΧΡΉ ΝΟΜΊΖΕΙΝ ἈΝΊΑΤΑ». – 

 

 

 

APHORISMS SECTION FIRST

 

 1. LIFE IS SHORT BUT THE MEDICAL LONG, OPPORTUNITY FLEETING, EXPERIENCE FALLACIOUS, CORRECT DIFFICULT CRISIS. THE PHYSICIAN MUST THEREFORE NOT ONLY TO OFFER THE SICK THAN APPROPRIATE, BUT HAS ITS OWN HELP, THE HELP OF PEOPLE AROUND HIM AND APPROPRIATE FOR THE OCCASION CONDITIONS.

 

2. DIGESTIVE DISORDERS AND VOMITING THAT OCCUR ON THEIR OWN IF THE PATIENT EXPELS WHAT SHOULD BE EXPELLED, THE STOOLS AND VOMITING ARE USEFUL AND EASILY TOLERATED “DIFFERENT IS THE OPPOSITE. THE SAME APPLIES TO ARTIFICIAL STOOLS VASCULAR AND ORGAN [BLEEDING, INDUCED VOMITING, LAXATIVES ACTIVE]. IF DONE THE RIGHT WAY, THEY ARE USEFUL AND EASILY TOLERATED “DIFFERENT IS THE OPPOSITE. SO TO JUDGE WHETHER THESE STOOLS ARE BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL, WE MUST BE KEPT IN MIND THE PLACE, TIME, AGE AND TYPES OF DISEASES.

 

3. EXCESSIVE WELFARE OF ATHLETES IS DANGEROUS IF EVEN REACHES THE UTMOST LIMITS “STAY IN THE SAME PLACE IS IMPOSSIBLE” SO, SINCE NO ONE STANDING STILL AND NOR IS THERE ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT, THE ONLY QUESTION LEFT IS EPIDEINOISI ‘FOR THESE REASONS ,

 

4. THE AUSTERE AND STRICT DIET IS ALWAYS RISKY AND LENGTHY ILLNESSES AND HEAVY, WHICH IS NOT ACCEPTED. MOREOVER, THE DIET THAT LEADS THE UTMOST SLIMMING LIMITS IS HARMFUL, BECAUSE THE DAMAGE IS CORRECTED WHEN IT HAS REACHED ROCK BOTTOM, IS VERY DIFFICULT.

 

5. WHEN FOLLOWING A STRICT DIET, PATIENTS MAKE MISTAKES AND THEREFORE SUFFER MORE “EVERY MISTAKE, WHATEVER IT IS, BECOMES EVEN MORE SERIOUS THAN WHAT IF IT WERE IN A LESS STRICT DIET. FOR THIS REASON, AND EVEN HEALTHY PEOPLE, THE VERY AUSTERE AND STRICT DIETS THAT ARE GOVERNED BY RULES ARE DOUBTFUL RESULT, BECAUSE EVERY DEVIATION FROM THEM BECOMES MORE DIFFICULT TOLERATED BY THE PATIENT. SO THE SIMPLE AND STRICT DIETS ARE MORE HARMFUL THAN THE LESS STRINGENT.

 

6. IN SEVERE DISEASE, THE ABSOLUTE PRECISION AND REFINEMENT IN THE TREATMENT IS THE BEST METHOD.

 

7. WHEN THE DISEASE IS TOO HEAVY, MANIFESTED IMMEDIATELY MORBID SYMPTOMS IN THE PEAK AND THE NEED TO IMMEDIATELY IMPLEMENT THE MOST STRICT DIET “IF IT DOES NOT, PERMITTED A LESS STRICT” SEVERITY RELAXES, AS THE DISEASE IS MILDER.

 

 

8. WHEN THE DISEASE IS THE MOST CRITICAL POINT, THEN IT MUST BE APPLIED VERY STRICT DIET.

 

9. WE MUST EXAMINE THE PATIENT AND DETERMINE WHETHER IT IS ABLE TO TOLERATE THE DIET UNTIL THE MOST CRITICAL POINT OF THE DISEASE AND WHICH OF THE TWO POSSIBILITIES WILL HAPPEN: IT WILL RUN OUT FIRST AND THE PATIENT WILL NOT BE ABLE TO TOLERATE OR FIRST SUBSIDES DISEASE AND WILL DIMINISH.

 

10. SO WHEN THE ILLNESS REACHES FROM THE START IN THE MOST CRITICAL POINT, WE RECOMMEND AMESOIS UNASSUMING MANNER NUTRITIONAL IF THIS COME LATER, SHOULD THE CRISIS PERIOD OR SHORTLY BEFORE THAT TO REMOVE SOME OF THE FOOD ‘THE PREVIOUS PERIOD BUT HAVE THE DIET SHOULD BE ABUNDANT, TO ENABLE THE PATIENT TO EFFECTIVELY DEAL WITH THE ILLNESS.

 

11. DURING EXACERBATIONS OF THE DISEASE, SHOULD BE REDUCED FOOD, BECAUSE THE INCREASE OF THE SUPPLY OF FOOD HARMS GENERALLY DURING EXACERBATIONS OF ALL DISEASES WHICH PERIODICALLY RECUR, SHOULD CUT THE FOOD.

 

12. EXACERBATIONS AND REMISSIONS DEPEND ON THE TYPE OF DISEASE, THE SEASON OF THE YEAR, THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE VARIOUS PERIODS BETWEEN THEM, WHETHER THEY OCCUR EVERY DAY OR EVERY OTHER DAY OR OVER A LONGER DISTANCE, AS WELL AS FROM SUCH SYMPTOMS, IF THE PLEURAL ELIMINATION OF SPUTUM BEGIN IMMEDIATELY, SHORTENING THE DURATION OF ILLNESS “IF IT STARTS LATER, THE ILLNESS ALSO PARATEINETAI-, URINE, FAECES AND SWEATS ARE, DEPENDING ON THE WAY THEY ARE PRESENTED, AN INDICATION OF WHETHER A DISEASE IT WILL GO HARD OR EASY, THOUGH IT WILL LAST MORE OR LESS.

 

13. THE ELDERLY, MORE EASILY TOLERATE FASTING, HARDEST MATURE MEN, AND FEW YOUNG CHILDREN TOLERATE WITH DIFFICULTY, ESPECIALLY VIVID.

 

14. ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE DEPLOYED INHERENTLY MORE HEAT AND THEREFORE NEED MORE FOOD “OTHERWISE THEIR BODIES WITHER” OLDER PEOPLE NEED SMALL AMOUNT OF FUEL, BECAUSE THEY HAVE LESS HEAT: HIGHER AMOUNT WILL EXTINGUISH. FOR THE SAME REASON FEVERS ARE NOT AS HIGH IN THE ELDERLY BECAUSE THEIR BODIES ARE COLD.

 

15. IN WINTER AND SPRING THE BELLY IS BY NATURE VERY WARM AND SLEEP TAKES TOO LONG “AND SHOULD THEREFORE FOOD IS MORE ABUNDANT, BECAUSE IF WE CONSIDER THAT THE INNATE HEAT IS TOO GREAT, NEEDS MORE FOOD. PROOF YOUNG PEOPLE AND ATHLETES.

 

16. THE LIQUID DIET BENEFITS THOSE WHO DEVELOP FEVER, ESPECIALLY CHILDREN, AND THOSE ACCUSTOMED TO SIMILAR DIETS.

 

17. WE MUST ALSO BE CAREFUL WHEN TO ARE FED ONCE A DAY AND WHEN BOTH, WHEN MORE AND WHEN LESS, OR IN SMALL DOSEIS- ALL THIS MUST BE ADJUSTED ACCORDING TO THE HABITS OF THE PATIENT, TIME, PLACE AND AGE.

 

18. IN THE SUMMER AND AUTUMN, THE FOOD IS HARDLY TOLERABLE “VERY EASILY DONE IN WINTER AND SECONDLY IN THE SPRING.

 

19. DURING EXACERBATIONS PRESENTED AT CERTAIN TIMES SHOULD NOT GIVE ANYTHING UTENA RECOMMEND ANYTHING, BUT IS REMOVABLE PORTION OF THE FOOD THAT WE GAVE BEFORE THE CRISES.

 

20. DISEASES MARCHING SMOOTHLY TO THE CRISIS OR HAVE CONCLUSIVELY DETERMINED NOT TO BE HINDERED IN THEIR COURSE OF INNOVATIVE METHODS NOR WITH LAXATIVES OR OTHER IRRITANTS IN, BUT N ‘LEFT IN THEIR NATURAL DEVELOPMENT.

 

21. THE LIQUID TO BE CLEAN, THERE SHOULD DRIVE THEM WHERE MAINLY INCLINED BY APPROPRIATE ROADS.

 

22. CLEAN AND PUT IN MOTION THE MATURE LIQUID, NOT THE IMMATURE, NOR THE BEGINNING OF THE DISEASE, UNLESS THERE IS IRRITATION, WHICH FOR THE MOST PART DOES NOT EXIST.

 

23. THE DISCHARGED LIQUID SHOULD NOT BE JUDGED BY QUANTITY, BUT BY THE NATURAL OR UNNATURAL MANNER DISCHARGED, AS WELL AS FROM THE EASE WITH WHICH TOLERATED “AND WHEN THE NEED ARISES TO PROMOTE ABORTION TO FAINT, YOU SHOULD NOT HESITATE, WHERE THE PATIENT MAY BE TOLERATED IN THIS TEST.

 

24. IN SEVERE DISEASE ADMINISTER LAXATIVES LITTLE AT THE BEGINNING, AND THIS ONLY AFTER CAREFUL CONSIDERATION.

 

25. IF THE VACANCY IS AS IT SHOULD BE, THEN IT IS BENEFICIAL AND THE PATIENT ACCEPTS WITH RELIEF “OTHERWISE, IS IN PREDICAMENT.

 

 

 

APHORISMS SECOND PART

 

1. IF THE DISEASE CAUSES DISCOMFORT SLEEP, THE DISEASE IS FATAL. IF SLEEP RELIEVES, NOT FATAL.

 

2. IT’S A GOOD SIGN, WHEN SLEEP STOPS DELIRIUM.

 

3. WHEN SLEEP OR INSOMNIA EXCEED MODERATE SYMPTOMS ARE BAD.

 

4. NEITHER HYPERALIMENTATION NEITHER STARVATION NOR ANYTHING ELSE IS FINE IF EXCEED THE NORMAL RANGE.

 

5. FATIGUE MANIFESTED SUDDENLY HERALDS DISEASE.

 

6. THOSE WHO ACHE SOMEWHERE IN THE BODY, BUT DO NOT FEEL PAIN, SUFFER PSYCHOLOGICALLY.

 

7. THE STRENGTHENING OF THE BODY IS WEAKENED IN A LONG TIME SHOULD BE DONE SLOWLY “IN CONTRAST, FAST SHOULD BE THE STIMULATION OF BODIES WEAKEN IN THE SHORT TERM.

 

8. IF A PERSON EATS DURING RECOVERY, BUT STRONGER, IT MEANS THAT THE BODY NEEDS MORE FOOD • IF NOT STRONGER BECAUSE IT HAS NO APPETITE TO EAT, THEN WE MUST HAVE IN MIND THAT YOU NEED A LAXATIVE.

 

9. WHEN WE WANT TO CLEAN THE BODY, WE MUST FACILITATE THE ELIMINATION OF URINE AND STOOL.

 

10. THE MORE WE FEED THE BODY WITHOUT PARALLEL CLEARANCE, THE MORE HARM.

 

11. IT IS EASIER TO STIMULATE THE BODY IN LIQUID RATHER THAN SOLID FOOD.

 

12. WHEN AFTER THE CRISIS REMAIN MORBIDLY DATA, THE DISEASE RECURS.

 

13. THE CRISIS IS CAUSING DISTRESS THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FINAL FRENZY IF THE CRISIS OCCURRED THE NEXT DAY, THE SITUATION IS USUALLY MORE BEARABLE.

 

14. ON DIARRHEA VARIATIONS OF STOOLS OFE AMUSEMENT, THOUGH OF COURSE THESE CHANGES DO NOT GET MALIGNANT FORM.

 

15. WHEN THE NECK HURTS OR RASHES OCCUR IN THE BODY, WE MUST EXAMINE THE STOOLS • IF CHOLODEIS, THE WHOLE BODY IS SICK • IF NORMAL, THEN WE CAN GRANT FEARLESSLY FOOD.

 

16. WHEN FOOD IS LITTLE, WORK SHOULD NOT BE PAINFUL.

 

17. IF YOU EAT MORE THAN YOU ALLOW THE AGENCY WILL GET SICK • IT WILL LOOK AND FROM TREATMENT.

 

18. THOSE WHO EAT VERY QUICKLY AND HAVE FASTER BOWEL MOVEMENTS.

 

19. IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO PREDICT DEATH OR SALVATION OF A PERSON SUFFERING FROM SERIOUS ILLNESS, WITHOUT THE RISK OF MAKING A MISTAKE.

 

20. THOSE EFFECTED EASILY WHEN THEY ARE YOUNG, THEY BECOME CONSTIPATED AS THEIR AGE PROCEEDS • CONVERSELY, THOSE WHO ARE CONSTIPATED YOUNG, ARE EFKOILIOI, AS THE YEARS PASS.

 

21. DRINKING CUTTING HUNGER.

 

22. DISEASES CAUSED BY GASTRIC EMPTYING LOAD TREATED BY THE INTESTINAL TRACT, THOSE CAUSED BY INADEQUATE DIET OVERFED ‘IN GENERAL THE TREATMENT IS TO THE OPPOSITE OF THE ROOT CAUSES OF DISEASE.

 

23. SEVERE ILLNESSES APPEAR WITHIN FOURTEEN DAYS.

 

24. OF THE FIRST SEVEN DAYS OF ILLNESS INDICATIVE OF THE COURSE OF THE FOURTH DAY. INDICATOR IS ALSO THE EIGHTH, THAT THE PRINCIPLE OF THE SECOND WEEK. DURING THE SECOND WEEK, YOU SHOULD BEWARE OF THE ELEVENTH DAY, IT IS THE FOURTH OF THE SECOND WEEK; WE SHOULD ALSO CONSIDER IF THE DISEASE CONTINUES ITS SEVENTEENTH DAY, IT IS THE FOURTH OF THE THIRD AND SEVENTH WEEK AFTER THE ELEVENTH DAY.

 

25. TETARTAIOI FEVERS ARE USUALLY SHORT SUMMER, AUTUMN TETARTAIOI ARE LONG-TERM, ESPECIALLY THOSE THAT OCCUR IN THE WINTER.

 

26. FEVER AFTER SEIZURES ARE BETTER THAN SPASMS AFTER FEVER.

 

27. WE SHOULD NOT TRUST IMPROVE NOT PROGRESSING WELL OR TOO AFRAID ABNORMAL DETERIORATION BECAUSE USUALLY THESE MORBID CONDITIONS ARE UNCERTAIN AND HAVE NO STABILITY AND DURABILITY.

 

28. IN THE NOT TOO SLIGHT FEBRILE UGLY STAYS BODY IN THE SAME STATE WITHOUT LOSS OR EXCESSIVE WEAR • THE FORMER CASE IS INDICATIVE OF THE DURATION OF THE DISEASE AND THE SECOND ATTENUATION OF THE PATIENT.

 

29. IF AT THE BEGINNING OF THE DISEASE IT IS APPROPRIATE TO CHALLENGE MOVEMENT OF JUICE, WE CAN DO IT • BUT WHEN THE DISEASE IS AT ITS PEAK, IT IS PREFERABLE TO LEAVE THE SICK IN PEACE.

 

30. THE MORBID SYMPTOMS ARE ASTHENESTATA AT THE BEGINNING AND END • ALL ARE POWERFUL ACNE DISEASE.

 

31. IF THE PATIENT EATS DURING CONVALESCENCE AND HIS BODY STRONGER, IS UNPLEASANT SYMPTOM.

 

32. AS ALWAYS, ALL THE PATIENTS, WHEN EATING THE TOP OF APPETITE AND DO NOT STRENGTHEN ALL EVENTUALLY LOSE THEIR APPETITE. BUT THOSE WHO IN PRINCIPLE MAKE STRONG DIET AND THEN START AND EAT, HEAL BETTER.

33. IN ANY DISEASE, MENTAL CLARITY AND RETENTION OF APPETITE IS A GOOD SIGN “THE OPPOSITE IS BAD.

 

34. ON VARIOUS DISEASES, THOSE WHO EXPRESS CONDITION THAT SUITS THE NATURE, HABITS, AGE AND SEASON OF THE YEAR, ARE AT LOWER RISK THAN THOSE WHO DO NOT SHOW THIS SIMILARITY.

35. IN ALL DISEASES ARE USEABLE AREA OF ​​THE NAVEL AND THE LOWER ABDOMEN TO MAINTAIN THEIR THICKNESS, AND IS UNCOMFORTABLE THESE REGIONS TOO SLIMMER AND DRY • THIS ALSO IS NOT CONDUCIVE AT ALL AND ADMINISTERING LAXATIVES.

 

36. HEALTHY PEOPLE TAKING LAXATIVES EFFECTED QUICKLY AND FADE DURING THE PERIOD OF STOOLS, AS WELL AS PEOPLE-EATING HARMFUL FOODS.

 

37. THOSE WHO HAVE HEALTHY BODY, HARDLY TOLERATE LAXATIVES.

 

38. PREFERENCE SHOULD BE GIVEN FOOD OR DRINKS WHICH, ALTHOUGH NOT AS GOOD QUALITY, BUT IT IS PLEASANT TO THE TASTE OF DRINKS OR FOOD OF BETTER QUALITY BUT WITH NOT SO PLEASANT TASTE.

 

39. THE ELDERLY USUALLY DO NOT GET SICK AS MUCH AS THE YOUNG, BUT CHRONIC DISEASES THAT OCCUR IN THIS AGE, ARE USUALLY FOLLOWED UNTIL THEIR DEATH.

 

40. BRONCHIAL CATARRH AND CORYZA ARE NOT CURED IN VERY ELDERLY.

 

41. THOSE WHO SUFFER FREQUENT AND SEVERE FAINTING WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, SUDDENLY DIE.

 

42. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO CURE SEVERE STROKE DIFFICULT BUT CURED AND LIGHTLY.

 

43. IF APANCHONISMENOS WHO DOWNLOAD FROM THE GALLOWS HAS NOT YET DIED, NOT SAVED FROM DEATH IF FOAMING AROUND THE MOUTH.

 


MEDICAL APHORISMS OF HIPPOCRATES ~ (MEDICAL ADVICE) SECTION 3 & 4

 

 

THE APHORISMS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS. IT WAS THE SUBJECT OF ADMIRATION OF DOCTORS OF ALL TIME AND KYKLOFOROUMENO WIDELY OVER THE CENTURIES, WAS COPIED MORE THAN ALL THE OTHER WORKS OF ANCIENT GREEK MEDICAL LITERATURE. IT IS ELEMENTARY EPITOME SEMIOTICS, DIETARY, THERAPEUTIC AND PROGNOSTIC OF KOAN MEDICAL SCHOOL.

 

THE DESIGNER READILY UNDERSTANDS THAT THESE THOUGHTS WISE AND EXPERIENCED PHYSICIAN AND TEACHER, BUT NOT RECORDED BY THE SAME, THEREBY CONTAIN REPETITIONS AND BE UNCLASSIFIED.

 

IT IS LIKELY TO BE A PATTERN USED BY HIPPOCRATES FOR TEACHING. LATER STUDENTS FOUND IT AND INCLUDED IT IN HIS WORKS. SO THIS IS THE AUTHENTIC WORK OF THE FATHER OF MEDICINE:

 

 

IN THE FIRST PART, CONTAINED IN A SUMMARY MATTERS REGARDING GENERAL MEDICAL AND DIETARY-THERAPEUTIC AND GENERAL ON AUTOMATIC AND EVOKED STOOLS AND NUTRITION. “THE LIFE IS SHORT AND THE ART MAKRI, AND THE WEATHER SHARP, AND THE EXPERIENCE ERRONEOUS AND THE JUDGMENT: ALEPPO”. FAMOUS APHORISM THAT HAS BEEN FOREFRONT IN MEDICAL SCHOOLS, MEDICAL EMBLEM ON MANY PROJECTS AND HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF COMMENTS LARGE SAGES OF ANTIQUITY, SUCH AS GALEN, LUCIAN, SENECA AND YOUNGER PHYSICIANS AND PHILOSOPHERS SUCH AS GOETHE, ETC.

 

IN THE SECOND SECTION, INCLUDED APHORISMS RELEVANT TO PROGNOSIS OF DISEASE IN GENERAL. FIRST MENTIONED PREDICTIVE SYMPTOMS FOR SLEEP, WORTHY GREAT CLINICIAN, FOR EXAMPLE HIGH RISK OF DISEASES AGGRAVATED BY SLEEP. WISE ALSO OBSERVATION IS THAT BOTH EXCESSIVE INSOMNIA AND EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS ARE UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS. ALSO SUDDEN FATIGUE HERALDS IASTHENEIA, OBESE ARE MORE AT RISK OF SUDDEN DEATH FROM THE WEAK, THOSE WHO OFTEN FEEL TOO TIRED FOR NO REASON, DYING. THESE ARE ALL WISE PHYSICIAN EXPERIENCED OBSERVATIONS.

 

THE THIRD SECTION REFERS TO THE INFLUENCE THAT THE APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER OF THE DISEASE THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND AGE.

 

IN THE FOURTH SECTION, ON TREATMENT WITH EMETICS AND LAXATIVES AND DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION PARTICULARLY FEBRILE ILLNESSES, INCLUDING BANS RELEVANT TO THE PURGES, INTENTIONAL OR NOT, IN CONNECTION WITH PREGNANCY, SEASONS, THE MAKEUP OF THE INDIVIDUAL, AND NATURE OF THE DISEASE. VERY INTERESTING ARE THE APHORISMS MENTIONED IN FEVERS: SIXTHS, LABORIOUS, FEVERS TWIST NECK, INTERMITTENT, NON-INTERMITTENT, WITH SHIVERING, KAFSODEIS ETC.

 

IN THE FIFTH SECTION INCLUDES APHORISMS ON THE EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD ESPECIALLY IN SURGICAL DISEASES AND GYNECOLOGICAL DISEASES. SOME REFER AND CONVULSIONS, THE TETANIC CONVULSIONS AND EPILEPSY, OTHERS TO BREAST DISEASES. OTHERS RELATE MILK STERILIZATION, DISEASE OF THE UTERUS, MENSTRUATION. IN THIS SECTION ARE THE FAMOUS APHORISMS, UNDER WHICH THE OCCURRENCE OF SEIZURES IN TRAUMA IS FATAL PROGNOSIS, THE TABES AFFECTS PEOPLE AGED 18-35 YEARS, HEMOPTYSIS BLOOD FOAMED FROM LUNG, DIARRHEA IS DEADLY SYMPTOM IN CONSUMPTIVE, SUDDEN SLIMMING BREAST PREGNANT HERALDS SHEDDING ETC.

 

SECTION SIX REFER APHORISMS RELATED TO THE SYMPTOMS OF SURGICAL DISEASES. PRECIOUS ARE THOSE WHO SAID THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER IN THE ELDERLY DIFFICULT TO TREAT, THAT THE INJURIES TO THE BRAIN, BLADDER, INTESTINES, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ABDOMEN AND LIVER ARE FATAL.

 

FINALLY IN THE SEVENTH SECTION ARE MANY REPETITIONS APHORISMS FROM PREVIOUS PARTS. AMONG THE MOST IMPORTANT IS THE ONE THAT STATES THAT THE ENDS OF FREEZING IS DEADLY PROGNOSTIC IN SEVERE FEBRILE ILLNESSES, AS WELL AS DEADLY PREDICTOR IS THE APPEARANCE OF VOMITING, HICCUP, SPASM OR DELIRIUM IN THE ILEUM.

 

THE FOLLOWING APHORISM IS USUALLY MOUNTED IN OPERATING ROOMS:

 

” OKOSA DRUGS CDR IITAI, IRON IITAI, WHAT IRON CDR IITAI PY IITAI FIND NOT FIRE CDR IITAI, NO MONEY NOMIZEIN BOREDOM. “

 

 

 

 

APHORISMS THIRD SECTION

 

1. THE DISEASES MAINLY CAUSED BY THE CHANGES OF THE SEASONS AND THE SEASONS, THANKS TO EXTREMES OF COLD AND HEAT. IN OTHER CASES ALSO CAUSED SIMILARLY.

 

2. THE TEMPERAMENTS OF PEOPLE ARE BY NATURE SOMETIMES GOOD, SOMETIMES IN POOR CONDITION IN THE SUMMER, WITH STILL OTHER HAPPENS IN THE WINTER THE SAME.

 

3. SOME DISEASES AND SOME GROUPS IS INHERENTLY GOOD OR BAD SITUATION ONE WAY OR THE OTHER TIME, IN ONE OR ANOTHER PLACE, ACCORDING TO ONE OR THE OTHER LIFESTYLE.

 

4. WHEN THE VARIOUS SEASONS OF THE YEAR WE HAVE THE SAME DAY WHEN HOT, WHEN COLD, MUST WAIT ILLNESSES FALL.

 

5. SOUTHERLY WINDS CAUSE HEARING LOSS, BLACKOUTS, WEIGHT IN THE HEAD, DROWSINESS AND EXHAUSTION OF THE BODY. SUCH MORBID PHENOMENA OCCUR WHEN THESE WINDS PREVAIL. OIVORIADES CAUSE COUGH, SORE THROAT, CONSTIPATION, DYSURIA WITH CHILLS, PAIN IN THE SIDE AND CHEST • PREVAIL THESE WINDS SHOULD EXPECT SUCH MORBID PHENOMENA.

 

6. WHEN SUMMER IS THE SAME AS IN THE SPRING, WE SHOULD EXPECT COPIOUS SWEATS IN FEBRILE ILLNESSES.

 

7. DROUGHT SEASONS MANIFESTED HIGH FEVER • IF THE DROUGHT COVERING MUCH OF THE YEAR, THESE WILL BE THE EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN BODY AND SUCH DISEASES MOSTLY HAVE TO WAIT.

 

8. WHEN THE SEASONS ROTATE SMOOTHLY AND STEADILY MANIFESTED MINOR ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT IS EASY “BUT WHEN THE SWITCH BECOMES ABNORMALLY, DISEASES CAUSED UNEVEN AND REFRACTORY.

 

9. AUTUMN DISEASES MANIFESTED BY ACUTE AND USUALLY FATAL FORM • SPRING IS VERY HEALTHY AGE AND MORTALITY DURING VERY LIMITED.

 

10. AUTUMN IS BAD SEASON FOR CONSUMPTIVE.

 

11. ABOUT SEASONS, ALTHOUGH IN WINTER IT DOES NOT RAIN AND THE WINDS ARE NORTHERLY, WHILE SPRING IS RAINY AND SOUTHERLY WINDS, THE SUMMER WILL OCCUR NECESSARILY HIGH FEVERS, OPHTHALMIA AND DYSENTERY, ESPECIALLY AMONG WOMEN AND MEN WITH LIQUID MAKEUP.

 

12. IF THE WINTER HAS SOUTHERLY WINDS AND RAINY AND MILD, AND COME NEXT SPRING WITHOUT RAIN AND NORTHERLY WINDS, WOMEN TO GIVE BIRTH IN THE SPRING, ELIMINATE THE SLIGHTEST REASON • AS MANY AGAIN LAY NORMALLY GIVE BIRTH TO WEAK AND SICKLY CHILDREN , DYING IMMEDIATELY OR LIVE STUNTED AND WITH WEAK CONSTITUTION • THE REST OF THE POPULATION AFFECTED BY DYSENTERY AND DRY EYES AND ELDERLY FROM CATARRHAL DISEASES RESULTING IN DEATH WITHIN A SHORT TIME.

 

13. IF THE SUMMER DROUGHT TO NORTH WINDS PREVAIL, AND AUTUMN RAINS TO SOUTH, WINTER OCCURRING HEADACHES, COUGH, HOARSE AND CORYZA, AND SOME PEOPLE ARE INFECTED WITH TUBERCULOSIS.

 

14. BUT IF THE AUTUMN WINDS BLOW AND THERE RAIN, BENEFITING LIQUID DIATHESES AND WOMEN S OTHER PEOPLE WILL BE INFECTED WITH DRY EYE, HIGH FEVERS, CORYZA AND SOMETIMES EVEN BY PAROXYSMS OF MELANCHOLY.

 

15. SINCE THE WEATHER YEAR GENERALLY DRY WEATHER HEALTHIER BY LIQUID AND MORTALITY UNDER THESE CONDITIONS ARE MORE LIMITED.

 

16. THE DISEASES MANIFEST THEMSELVES IN RAINY WEATHER ARE FOR THE VERY LONG-TERM FEVERS, GASTRIC CATARRH, SEPSIS, SEIZURES, STROKES, AND DISEASES OF THE THROAT • DROUGHT CAUSES TUBERCULAR CONDITIONS, EYE, ARTHRITIS, STRANGURIA AND DYSENTERY.

 

17. FROM DAILY WEATHER CONDITIONS, WINDS MAKE THE BODY TAUT, GIVE STRENGTH, AGILITY, GOOD COLOR, IMPROVE HEARING, DRY BELLY, IRRITATE EYES AND, IF EXISTED A CHEST PAIN IS BECOMING FIERCER • THE SOUTHERN WET AND DISSOLVE THE BODY, WEAKENS THE HEARING, CAUSE BURDEN ON THE HEAD AND DIZZINESS, DIFFICULT EYE MOVEMENTS AND BODY AND CAUSE CONSTIPATION.

 

18. ABOUT THE SEASONS, SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER, CHILDREN AND PEOPLE WHO ARE CLOSER TO CHILDHOOD, FEEL WONDERFUL AND HAVE GREAT HEALTH ‘SUMMER AND PART OF AUTUMN, SO FEEL THE ELDERLY • REST OF AUTUMN AND WINTER FEEL GOOD MIDDLE AGED.

 

19. ALL DISEASES OCCUR ALL BUT -SOME SEASONS MANIFEST THEMSELVES AND REACH THEIR PAROXYSM IN SOME SEASONS.

 

20. IN THE SPRING PREVAILING MANIA SITUATIONS, MELANCHOLY AND EPILEPSY • BLEEDING, SORE THROAT, RUNNY NOSE, HOARSENESS, COUGH, LEPROSY, LICHENS, ALFOI, MANY RASHES WOUNDS, SWELLING AND ARTHRITIC DISEASES.

 

21. THE PREVAILING SUMMER SOME OF THE PREVIOUS CONDITIONS, PERSISTENT FEVERS, BURNING, MANY TRITAIA FEVERS, VOMITING, DIARRHEA, EYE, PAIN IN THE EARS, MOUTH SORES, ROTTING GENITALS AND SWEAT.

 

22. AUTUMN PREVAILING SUMMER MANY DISEASES TETARTAIOI FEVERS, INTERMITTENT FEVERS, SWOLLEN SPLEEN, GOUTS, TABES, STRANGURIA, LEIENTERIES, DYSENTERY, SCIATICA, ANGINA, ASTHMA, ILEUS, EPILEPSY, MANIA AND MELANCHOLY SITUATIONS.

 

23. IN WINTER PREVAILING PLEURISY, PNEUMONIA, CORYZA, HOARSE COUGHS, CHEST PAINS, RIBS AND WAIST, HEADACHES, DIZZINESS, SEIZURES.

 

24. DEPENDING ON THE AGE, THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS APPEAR: CHILDREN, YOUNG AND INFANTS, THRUSH, VOMITING, COUGH, INSOMNIA, TREMORS, INFLAMMATION NAVEL, SUPPURATION IN THE EARS.

 

25. WHEN APPROACHING THE TIME OF TEETHING, THE GUMS APPEAR IRRITATIONS, FEVERS, CONVULSIONS, DIARRHEA, ESPECIALLY WHEN CANINES GROW, ESPECIALLY IN VERY OBESE CHILDREN AND IN CONSTIPATED.

 

26. IN SOMEWHAT MORE ADVANCED AGE APPEAR TONSILLITIS, DISPLACEMENT FORWARD OF THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA, ASTHMAS, STONES, ROUND INTESTINAL PARASITES, ROUNDWORMS, MOLES, BUMPS NEAR THE EARS, SWELLING OF THE GLANDS OF THE NECK AND OTHER SWELLINGS, BUT MOSTLY EVERYTHING EXPLAINED PREVIOUSLY.

 

27. IN THE MORE ADVANCED AGE, AND THE APPROACHING PUBERTY, APPEAR MANY PREVIOUS ILLNESSES, AND EVEN MAINLY LONG-TERM FEVERS AND EPISTAXIS.

 

28. MOST CHILDHOOD DISEASES ARE CONSIDERED OTHER FORTY DAYS, OTHERS IN SEVEN MONTHS, OTHERS IN SEVEN YEARS AND THE OTHER AS APPROACHING PUBERTY • BUT MANY INSIST AND DO NOT DISAPPEAR IN BOYS DURING PUBERTY IN GIRLS AND AGE OF ONSET OF MENSTRUATION, USUALLY BECOME CHRONIC.

 

29. YOUNG PEOPLE APPEAR HEMOPTYSIS, PHTHISIS, HIGH FEVERS, SEIZURES AND OTHER DISEASES, BUT MOSTLY PAST.

 

30. IN PEOPLE WHO HAVE PASSED THIS AGE, MANIFESTED ASTHMA, PLEURISY, PNEUMONIA, LETHARGY, FRENZY, HEARTBURN, CHRONIC DIARRHEA, CHOLODEIS DIARRHEA, DYSENTERY, LEIENTERIES, HEMORRHOIDS.

 

31. IN OLDER PEOPLE MANIFESTED DYSPNEA, COUGH WITH CATARRH, STRANGURIA, DYSURIA, PAIN IN JOINTS, NEPHRITIS, DIZZINESS, SEIZURES, DEPRESSION, ITCHING ALL OVER THE BODY, INSOMNIA, WETNESS ABDOMEN, EYES AND NOSE, AMBLYOPIA, WATERFALLS, AIDS.

  

  

 

APHORISMS FOURTH CHAMBER

  

1. IF THERE IS ORGASM, PREGNANT WOMEN CAN TAKE MEDICATION [EMETICS AND LAXATIVES] FROM THE FOURTH UNTIL THE SEVENTH MONTH, BUT LESS THIS LATTER • IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE CAREFUL ABOUT GIVING MEDICINES.

 

2. GRANTING OF LAXATIVES SHOULD BE DISCARDED MATERIALS THAT ARE USEFUL AND WHEN DISCHARGED FROM THEM; ALONE MUST STOP MANY HAVE DIAFORETIKOCHARAKTIRA.

 

3. IF THE STOOLS BECOME SO NORMAL, THE PATIENT FEELS BETTER AND EASILY TOLERATES • OTHERWISE FEEL BAD.

 

4. SUMMER ADMINISTERED EMETICS AND LAXATIVES WINTER.

 

5. AT THE TIME OF KINOS BEFORE, LAXATIVES IMPACT DIFFICULT.

 

6. IN LEAN PEOPLE DO VOMIT EASILY BE ADMINISTERED EMETICS • BUT THE CLEARANCE SHOULD BE DONE WITH CAUTION IN WINTER.

 

7. THE MORE OBESE PEOPLE WHO MAKE DIFFICULT VOMITING SHOULD NOT TAKE LAXATIVES AND CLEARANCE MUST BE DONE WITH CAUTION IN SUMMER.

 

8. INDIVIDUALS PREDISPOSED TO TUBERCULOSIS SHOULD USE VERY CAREFULLY EMETIC DRUGS.

 

9. THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM MELANCHOLY SHOULD BE GRANTED EFFECTIVE LAXATIVES FOR THE LOWER PART OF THE INTESTINE AND IN THE SAME PARAGRAPH TO FOLLOW A DIFFERENT PATH FOR THE OPPOSITE CASES.

 

10. IN VERY SEVERE ILLNESSES CLEARANCE MUST BE ON THE SAME DAY, IF THERE IS ORGASM, BECAUSE IT IS VERY DANGEROUS TO PROCRASTINATE IN THESE CASES.

 

11. COLIC, PAIN AROUND THE NAVEL AND LUMBAGO THAT DOES NOT GO WITH EITHER LAXATIVE OR OTHERWISE, ALL OF THEM END UP IN DRY DROPSY (OBVIOUSLY MEANT SWELLING VISCERA, BUT THERE PERITONEAL FLUID).

 

12. IN WINTER THE ADMINISTRATION EMETIC DRUGS HARMS INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING FROM LEIENTERIKES BLUETONGUE.

 

13. WHEN ADMINISTERING THE ELLEVOROU ​​(PLANT USED AS A PURGATIVE, CAUSING VOMITING) MUST, BEFORE GRANTING THE MEDICINE TO WET THE BODY OF PEOPLE WHO FIND IT DIFFICULT TO CLEAN THE MOUTH, SUGGESTING ABUNDANT FOOD AND REST.

 

14. WE RECOMMEND TO THOSE WHO HAVE DRUNK ELLEVORO MOVE MORE, SLEEP AND N ‘RESTED LESS • THE BOAT TRIP THAT REVEALS THE MOVEMENT AGITATES THE VARIOUS ORGANS OF THE BODY.

 

15. WHEN WE WANT TO ACT MORE THE ELLEVOROS RECOMMEND THE PATIENT TO MOVE • WHEN WE WANT TO HALT ITS ACTIVITIES, RECOMMEND SLEEP AND REST.

 

16. ELLEVOROS IS DANGEROUS FOR THOSE WHO HAVE STRONG OWN BRAND, BECAUSE IT CAUSES SPASMS.

 

17. W PERSON IS AFEBRILE, ANOREXIA, HEARTBURN, THE BLACKOUTS, THE BITTERNESS IN THE MOUTH INDICATE THAT ADMINISTRATION EMETIC NECESSARY.

 

18. PAINS ABOVE THE DIAPHRAGM INDICATE THE NEED CLEANSING THE BODY WITH EMETIC • PAINS WHILE BELOW IT, THE NEED FOR CLEANSING WITH A LAXATIVE.

 

19. THOSE WHO DO NOT FEEL THIRST AFTER ADMINISTRATION LAXATIVE SHOULD CONTINUE THE STOOLS UNTIL THIRST.

 

20. IF THERE IS NO FEVER, THE COLIC, WEIGHT KNEE AND BACK PAIN SHOW THAT SHOULD BE GIVEN A LAXATIVE FOR THE LOWER PART OF THE INTESTINE.

 

21. STOOLS DARK AS BLOOD, SHOWN WITHOUT CAUSES DISEASE WITH OR WITHOUT FEVER, IS VERY UNPLEASANT AND • AN INDICATION AS MUCH WORSE ARE THE COLORS, THE MORE UNCOMFORTABLE THE SYMPTOM IS “IF IT OCCURS AFTER TAKING CATHARTIC, THEN SITUATION IS BETTER AND COLOURFULNESS IN THIS CASE DOES NOT INDICATE BAD.

 

22. THE ELIMINATION OF BLACK BILE FROM ABOVE OR BELOW THE TOP OF THE DISEASE IS FATAL INDICATION.

 

23. IF THE PERSON EXHAUSTED FROM A SERIOUS OR CHRONIC ILLNESS, TRAUMA OR ANY OTHER REASON, ELIMINATE BLACK BILE OR BLACK BILE AS BLOOD, DYING THE NEXT DAY.

 

24. DYSENTERY STARTING WITH BLACK BILE, IS LETHAL PROGNOSIS.

 

25. THE EXPULSION OF BLOOD FROM THE MOUTH, FROM OPOIADI EVER REASON, IS UNPLEASANT SIGN • ELIMINATION FROM BELOW, IT’S GOOD, LIKE BLACK STOOLS.

 

26. THE EXPULSION OF FECES, LIKE FLESH FROM SICK SUFFERING FROM DYSENTERY IS DEADLY SYMPTOM.

 

27. WHEN SITUATIONS OCCUR IN FEBRILE COPIOUS BLEEDING FROM ANYWHERE, DURING CONVALESCENCE PATIENTS AFFECTED BY GASTRIC CATARRH.

 

28. CHOLODEIS STOOLS STOP IF MANIFEST DEAFNESS, AND DEAFNESS SUBSIDE, IF THEY OCCUR CHOLODEIS STOOLS.

 

29. IF A FEBRILE ILLNESS OCCUR CHILLS THE SIXTH DAY, THE CRITICAL PHASE OF THE DISEASE WILL BE. BAD.

 

30. ON ILLNESSES MANIFESTING CONVULSIONS, IF THE FRENZY STOPS A CERTAIN TIME AND COME BACK THE NEXT DAY AT THE SAME TIME, THE CRISIS IS DIFFICULT.

 

31. WHEN IN FEBRILE CONDITIONS THERE FEELING TIRED, ABSCESSES ARE FORMED MAINLY IN JOINTS AND NEAR THE JAW.

 

32. IF THE PATIENT STARTS RECOVERING AND FEEL PAIN AT SOME POINT OF THE BODY AT THAT POINT WILL BE FORMED AN ABSCESS.

 

33. HOWEVER, IF SOME POINT ACHED BEFORE THE DISEASE, THERE IS THE FOCUS OF EVIL.

 

34. IF DURING FEVER OCCURS SUDDENLY CHOKING THROAT WITHOUT SWELLING, THE SYMPTOM ARE DEADLY.

 

35. IF DURING FEVER OCCURS SUDDENLY TWIST IN THE NECK, WITHOUT SWELLING AND THE PATIENT FINDS IT DIFFICULT TO SWALLOW, THE SYMPTOM ARE DEADLY.

 

36. ON FEVERISH SITUATIONS SWEATS BENEFIT THE THIRD DAY, FIFTH, SEVENTH, NINTH, ELEVENTH, FOURTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, TWENTY-FIRST, THE TWENTY-SEVENTH, THE THIRTY-FIRST, THIRTY-FOURTH “OF THE SWEATS THOSE JUDGED DISEASES • BUT SWEATS, NOT APPEARING THESE DAYS, HERALD PAIN, PROLONGED SUFFERING AND RELAPSES.

 

37. THE COLD SWEAT WITH A HIGH FEVER HERALDS DEATH • DURING MILDER DISEASE, THE PROLONGED SUFFERING.

 

38. IN POINT OF THE BODY THAT IS MANIFESTED PERSPIRATION, IS ALSO THE GOAL OF DISEASE.

 

39. THE DISEASE IS IN THE BODY THAT IS HOT OR COLD.

 

40. IF CHANGES OCCUR THROUGHOUT THE BODY, THAT IS IF IT FREEZES AND THEN THAWS, OR CHANGES COLOR, IT MEANS THAT WILL EXTEND THE DURATION OF THE DISEASE.

 

41. IF AFTER SLEEPING DISPLAYED ABUNDANT SWEAT WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, IT MEANS THAT THE BODY CONSUMES MORE FOOD [THAN WHAT] • IF THIS HAPPENS TO A PERSON WHO DOES NOT EAT, IT MEANS THAT NEEDS EMPTYING.

 

42. THE ABUNDANT SWEATING, COLD OR HOT, FLOWING INCESSANTLY MEAN HEAVIER OR LIGHTER DISEASE RESPECTIVELY “

 

43. THE CONTINUOUS FEVERS EXHIBIT SEIZURES EVERY THIRD DAY ARE DANGEROUS • FADING OF FEVER, IN WHATEVER FORM, SUGGESTING THAT THE FEVERS SUCH IS HARMLESS.

 

44. THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM LONG-TERM FEVERS, EXHIBIT SWELLING OR PAIN IN THE JOINTS.

 

45. IF THE PERSON AFTER FEVER EDEMA OR JOINT PAINS, RECEIVES EXCESSIVE AMOUNT OF FOOD.

 

46. ​​IF RIGORS OCCUR IN A PATIENT ALREADY EXHAUSTED BY FEVER, NOT MAGAZINE, THIS SYMPTOM IS DEADLY.

 

47. EXPECTORATIONS NON PERIODIC FEVERS, AS TAN, BLOODY, AND SMELLY CHOLODEIS, BAD SIMADI- HOWEVER, IF SPUTUM DISCHARGED SMOOTHLY, INDICATIONS ARE FAVORABLE AS VENTRICULAR STOOLS AND URINE • IF NOT ELIMINATED BUT SOMETHING TO BE EXPELLED FROM THESE POINTS, THIS IS BAD.

 

48. IF THE CONSTANT FEVERS EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE BODY IS COLD AND THE INTERNAL BURNING, YET THE PATIENT IS THIRSTY, SYMPTOM ARE DEADLY.

 

49. IF A NON-PERIODIC FEVER BENT LIP OR EYEBROW, THE EYE OR THE NOSE, OR IF DISTURBED VISION OR HEARING, WHILE THE PATIENT IS EXHAUSTED, DEATH IS NEAR, WHICHEVER IT MAY BE THE SYMPTOM WILL MANIFEST.

 

50. WHEN A NON-PERIODIC FEVER MANIFESTED WHEEZING AND DELUSION, THIS IS DEADLY SIGN.

 

51. FEBRILE ABSCESSES ARE NOT DISSOLVED IN THE FIRST JUDGMENT, INDICATING EXTENSION OF THE DISEASE.

 

52. IT IS WORRYING IF SOMEONE HAS FEVER OR OTHER ILLNESS, WEEPING INTENTIONALLY • BUT MORE WORRYING IF WEEPING UNINTENTIONALLY.

 

53. WHEN THE TEETH FEVERISH CONDITIONS BECOME GREASY, FEVER RISES FURTHER.

 

54. THOSE WHO HAVE FEVERS CAUSTIC AND PERSISTENT HAWK, CAUSING SHORT IRRITATION, NOT TOO HUNGRY.

 

55. FEVERS MANIFESTED BY SWELLING IN THE GROINS ARE ALL BAD, UNLESS LAST ONE DAY.

 

56. WHEN IN FEBRILE DISEASES MANIFESTED SWEATING WITHOUT CONCOMITANT DECLINE OF FEVER, THE SYMPTOM IS UNPLEASANT ILLNESS • PROLONGED AND THIS IS A SIGN OF EXCESSIVE MOISTURE.

 

57. FEVER OCCURS IN SICK AFFLICTED WITH CONVULSIONS OR TETANIC CONTRACTIONS, CURES THE DISEASE.

 

58. IF PATIENT IS SUFFERING FROM HEARTBURN EXPERIENCED CHILLS, CURED.

 

59. THE SMOOTH TERTIAN IS THE MOST IN SEVEN YEARS.

 

60. IF DURING FEBRILE ILLNESS WEAKEN THE HEARING AND PRESENTED EPISTAXIS OR DIARRHEA, ILLNESS CURED.

 

61. IF THE FEVER DOES NOT LEAVE THE SICK IN AN ODD NUMBER OF DAYS, USUALLY RECURS.

 

62. JAUNDICE OCCURRING IN FEVERS BEFORE THE SEVENTH DAY IS A BAD SIGN, UNLESS A MISCARRIAGE FLUID FROM THE ABDOMEN.

 

63. WHO DEVELOP FEVERS CHILLS EVERY DAY ALSO FALL EVERY DAY.

 

64. JAUNDICE OCCURRING IN FEVERS SEVENTH, NINTH, ELEVENTH OR FOURTEENTH DAY IS A GOOD SIGN, AS LONG AS THE RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC NOT BE DIFFERENT HARDNESS, IS NOT GOOD.

 

65. UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE IS THE EXCESSIVE HEAT AROUND THE ABDOMEN AND HEARTBURN.

 

66. SEIZURES AND STRONG PAINS IN THE BOWELS ARE BAD SYMPTOMS IN HIGH FEVERS.

 

67. IN FEVERS UNPLEASANT SYMPTOMS ARE TREMORS OR CONVULSIONS AFTER SLEEPING.

 

68. THE DASHED BREATHING DURING FEVERS ARE BAD SIGN BECAUSE IT HERALDS SPASMS.

 

69. WHEN THE PATIENT EXPELS URINE THICK WITH CLOTS AND SCARCE, WITHOUT FEVER, ALTHOUGH FOLLOW LARGE AMOUNT OF DILUTE URINE, RELIEVED • THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE FOR THOSE WHO HAVE THE AUTHORITY, OR SHORTLY SEDIMENT IN URINE.

 

70. THOSE FEVERS TO ELIMINATE CLOUDY URINE, SIMILAR TO THE PACK-ANIMALS, OR WILL DEVELOP HEADACHES.

 

71. IN MANY PEOPLE THE DISEASE IS TO BE JUDGED TINEVDOMI DAY, HAVE THE FOURTH URINE CLOUD, RED AND OTHER SIMILAR SYMPTOMS.

 

72. THE TRANSPARENT, COLORLESS URINE IS BAD • MAINLY OCCUR IN CASES OF FRENZY.

 

73. WHEN A HYPOCHONDRIAC SWELL, APPEAR COOING AND FOLLOW PAIN, OCCURS EFKOILIATITA UNLESS OBSERVED GASES ABUNDANT URINARY EXCRETION OF THESE SYMPTOMS OCCUR IN FEBRILE STATES.

 

74. THOSE EXHIBITING THE LIKELIHOOD OF ABSCESS FORMATION IN THE JOINTS, ARE EXEMPT FROM THE ABSCESS AFTER EXPELLING ABUNDANT AND VERY DENSE AND WHITE URINE AS STARTING FEATURE IN SOME CASES PAINFUL TETARTAION FEVERS IF FURTHER BLOOD RUN FROM THE NOSE, THE ABSCESS SUBSIDES QUICKLY.

 

75. THE EXPULSION OF BLOOD OR PUS IN THE URINE MEANS SORE KIDNEY OR BLADDER.

 

76. WHEN ALONG WITH THICK URINE EXCRETED FINELY FLESH PIECES LIKE HAIR, ELIMINATION FROM THE KIDNEYS.

 

77. WHEN URINE TOGETHER WITH DENSE SEDIMENT DISCHARGED LIKE BRAN, THE CYST IS INFECTED WITH SCABIES.

 

78. SUDDEN BLOOD URINATION INDICATES RUPTURE SMALL VEIN IN THE KIDNEY.

 

79. IF THE URINE SEDIMENT EXHIBIT OF SAND, SUFFERING FROM BLADDER STONES.

 

80. IF THE PERSON URINATES BLOOD CLOTS, HAS STRANGURIA AND FEELS PAIN IN ABDOMEN AND PERINEUM, THERE IS DISEASE IN THE BLADDER AREA.

 

81. WHEN THE URINE IS MIXED WITH BLOOD, PUS, SCALES AND SMELL BAD, SUGGEST THAT THERE IS WOUND IN THE BLADDER.

 

82. IN THOSE MANIFESTED BUMPS URETHRA IF FORMED PUS AND OPEN, THE DISEASE IS CURED.

 

83. THE ABUNDANT NOCTURIA HERALDS FEW ABDOMINAL STOOLS.

 

APHORISMS FIFTH SECTION

 

1. IF THE DOWNLOAD ELLEVOROU ​​(= LAXATIVE HERB) CAUSE CONVULSIONS, THE SYMPTOM IS DEADLY.

 

2. THE APPEARANCE OF CONVULSIONS AFTER INJURY MEANS DEATH.

 

3. THE APPEARANCE OF CONVULSIONS OR HICCUP AFTER PROFUSE BLEEDING, BAD SIGN.

 

4. IF SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH EXCESSIVE DIARRHEA OCCUR SPASMS OR HICCUPS, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR.

 

5. IF A DRUNK SUDDENLY LOST HIS VOICE, DIES IN CONVULSIONS, UNLESS FOLLOW FEVER OR IF THE TIME USUALLY LEAVES DRUNKENNESS REGAIN HIS VOICE.

 

6. THOSE INFECTED WITH TETANUS DIE IN FOUR DAYS • IF YOU EXCEED THE TIME LIMIT, TREATED.

 

7. EPILEPSY MANIFESTED BEFORE TEENS CAN BE CURED • HOWEVER, THIS OCCURS IN THE AGE OF TWENTY FIVE YEARS USUALLY ACCOMPANIES THE SICK UNTIL HIS DEATH.

 

8. IF THE PLEURAL CHEST NOT CLEAN WITH EXPECTORATION WITHIN FOURTEEN DAYS, FORMED EMPYEMA.

 

9. TABES OCCURS MAINLY FROM THE EIGHTEENTH TO THE THIRTY-FIFTH BIRTHDAY.

 

10. THOSE WHO TREAT THE ANGINA AND THE DISEASE TURNS TO THE LUNG, THEY DIE WITHIN SEVEN DAYS • IF YOU PASS THIS TIME, MANIFESTED EMPYEMA.

 

11. IF WE TAKE THE SPUTUM, ELIMINATING ANYONE WHO SUFFERS FROM TUBERCULOSIS, OVER COALS AND FOUND TO HAVE A HEAVY ODOR, WHILE FALL AND HIS HAIR, THE PROGNOSIS IS FATAL.

 

12. CONSUMPTIVE POSING AFFECTED BY HAIR LOSS AND DIARRHEA, THEY DIE.

 

13. THE ELIMINATION OF BLOOD FOAMED ORALLY MEANS THAT THE CAUSE IS THE LUNG.

 

14. IF PRESENT TUBERCULAR DIARRHEA, IS A SIGN OF DEATH.

 

15. THOSE AFTER PLEURISY SHOW EMPYEMA, TREATED IF THEIR BREASTS CLEAN FORTY DAYS AFTER THE RUPTURE OF EMPYEMA • OR, ILLNESS VARIES IN TUBERCULOSIS.

 

16. FREQUENT USE OF HEAT CAUSES THE FOLLOWING DAMAGE: RELAXATION OF THE FLESH, WEAKENING OF NERVE, CLOUDING THE MIND, BLEEDING, FAINTING • ALL LETHAL.

 

17. THE COLD CAUSES SPASMS, TETANIC CONTRACTIONS, BRUISING, FEVER, CHILLS.

 

18. THE COLD IS HOSTILE TO BONES, TEETH, NERVES, BRAIN, SPINAL CORD • CONTRARY HEAT IS BENEFICIAL.

 

19. WE MUST BE HEAT FROSTED PARTS, EXCEPT THOSE WHO ARE BLEEDING OR WILL BLEED.

 

20. IN TRAUMA COLD CAUSES PAIN LIKE BITES, SKIN HARDENS AROUND, BRINGS PAINS THAT DO NOT CAUSE SUPPURATION, BRUISING THE FLESH AND CAUSES FEVER CHILLS, CONVULSIONS, AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS.

 

21. BURLY NEO TETANIC CONTRACTIONS OCCUR WITHOUT TRAUMA DURING THE SUMMER, SO ABUNDANT COLD SHOWER • RESETS THE TEMPERATURE AND HEAT CURE SUCH DISEASES.

 

22. THE HEAT CAUSES SUPPURATION, BUT NOT ALL WOUNDS • WHEN THIS HAPPENS, IT SEEMS A MAJOR TREATMENT INDICATION • SOFTENS THE SKIN WEAKENS, RELIEVES PAIN, SOOTHES CHILLS, CONVULSIONS, AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS • THE SAME EFFECT HAS AND HEAD AND ELIMINATES THE WEIGHT OF “IS EXTREMELY USEFUL IN BONE FRACTURES, PARTICULARLY IN THE STRIPPED AND ESPECIALLY TO WOUNDS OF THE HEAD • BENEFIT TO EVERYTHING THAT CAUSES DEATH OR ULCERS OF THE COLD, THE EXPANSIVE HERPES, ANUS, GERM ORGANS, UTERUS, BLADDER “ALL THAT FAVORS THE HEAT AND CONTRIBUTES TO THE CRISIS AND ILLNESS, WHILE COLD IS HOSTILE AND DEADLY.

 

23. THE COLD SHOULD BE TREATED IN THE FOLLOWING CASES: WHERE THERE IS OR WILL BE MANIFESTED BLEEDING, NOT ON THE SAME POINTS BUT ROUND SPOTS, FROM WHERE THERE IS OVERLAPPING • IN ALL INFLAMMATIONS AND SURFACE INFLAMMATION THAT TEND TO AND ALMOST BLOODY RED COLOR DUE TO RECENT STILL BLOOD, BECAUSE THE COLD BRUISING OF OLD INFECTIONS • TO ANEMOPYROMA WITHOUT TRAUMA BECAUSE THE COLD CERTAINLY HURT THE ANEMOPYROMA TRAUMA.

 

24. GENERALLY COLD, AS SNOW AND ICE, DAMAGING THE CHEST AND CAUSE COUGHING, RUNNY NOSE AND BLEEDING.

 

25. THE SWELLING AND JOINT PAIN WITHOUT TRAUMA, AND GOUT. THE STRAINS OF MUSCLES, USUALLY RELIEVED BY COPIOUS CHILLING, WHICH REDUCE SWELLING AND ALLEVIATE PAIN • MODERATE SEDATION IS ABLE TO TURN AWAY THE PAIN.

 

26. THE WATER HEATS AND COOLS QUICKLY, IS VERY SLIGHT.

 

27. IF THOSE WHO ARE THIRSTY TOO DURING THE NIGHT FEEL THE NEED TO DRINK, AND THEN RETURN TO SLEEP, IS GOOD.

 

28. AROMATIC FUMIGATIONS ARE EMMENAGOGUE AND WOULD BE VERY USEFUL IN OTHER DISEASES, ALTHOUGH NOT CAUSING HEADACHE.

 

29. IF THERE IS ORGASM, PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD TAKE EMETICS AND LAXATIVES FROM THE FOURTH UNTIL THE SEVENTH MONTH, BUT LESS IN THE LAST • INFANTS AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE CAREFUL ABOUT GIVING MEDICINES.

 

30. IF A PREGNANT WOMAN SUFFERING FROM A SERIOUS ILLNESS, THE CONDITION IS FATAL.

 

31. IF IT BLEED A PREGNANT, THE WOMAN EXPELS • THE CHANCES OF MISCARRIAGE IS MORE, THE LARGER THE FETUS.

 

32. A WOMAN DOING HEMOPTYSIS BLOOD STOPS WHEN THE PERIOD DISPLAY.

 

33. IN A WOMAN WHO HAS NO MENSES, THE EMERGENCE OF NOSE BLEEDING ARE GOOD INDICATION.

 

34. IF A PREGNANT WOMAN SUFFERED INTENSE DIARRHEA, COULD BE ELIMINATED.

 

35. IF SNEEZING OCCURS IN WOMAN SUFFERING FROM DISEASES OF THE UTERUS OR DYSTOCIA, A GOOD SIGN.

 

36. MENSTRUAL FLOW INDETERMINATE COLOR, WHICH DOES NOT ALWAYS OCCUR AT REGULAR INTERVALS, INDICATING THAT THE WOMAN IN NEED OF LAXATIVE.

 

37. IF, UDDERS PREGNANT WEAKEN SHARPLY, THE WOMAN EXPELS.

 

38. IF A PREGNANT WITH TWINS WEAKEN EACH BREAST, WILL ELIMINATE ONE OF THE TWO EMBRYOS • THOUGH WEAKENED THE RIGHT BREAST, THE MALE EXPELS • IF THE LEFT, THE FEMALE.

 

39. IF A WOMAN WHO IS EITHER PREGNANT OR HAS GIVEN BIRTH HAS MILK, MEANS THAT MENSTRUATION HAS STOPPED.

 

40. IN WOMEN, BLOOD CONGESTION MASTOUSPROANANGELLEI INSANITY.

 

41. IF YOU WANT TO DETERMINE IF A WOMAN IS PREGNANT, THE TIME YOU GO TO SLEEP WITHOUT DINING, GIVE HER TO DRINK NEROMELO • IF YOU FEEL PAIN IN THE ABDOMEN, ARE PREGNANT, IF NOT, NOT.

 

42. IF A PREGNANT WOMAN IS PREGNANT WITH A BOY, HAS GOOD COLOR • COLOR IS UGLY, IF A PREGNANT GIRL.

 

43. IF A PREGNANT ANEMOPYROMA PRESENT IN THE UTERUS, THE PROGNOSIS IS FATAL.

 

44. IN CASE OF PREGNANCY VERY THIN WOMEN EXPEL IF NOT FATTEN.

 

45. THOSE WOMEN WITH NORMAL PHYSIQUE EXCRETE THE SECOND OR THIRD MONTH WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, THE COTYLEDONS ARE FILLED MUCUS, THEY CAN NOT HOLD THE WEIGHT OF THE FETUS AND BREAK.

 

46. ​​IN OBESE WOMEN WHO ARE UNABLE TO CONCEIVE, OMENTUM PRESSES THE ORIFICE OF THE DIE AND DO NOT POSE ONLY WHERE WEAKEN.

 

47. IF THE MATRIX, BASED ON HIP, DIAPYITHEI, WE MUST USE GAUZE.

 

48. THE MALE FETUSES ARE PROBABLY RIGHT WHILE FEMALES LEFT THE DIE.

 

49. FOR THE EXPULSION OF THE PLACENTA ADMINISTER MEDICATION SNEEZING AND PRESSING SHUT THE NOSTRILS AND MOUTH OF MATERNITY.

 

50. IF WE ARE TO STOP A WOMAN’S PERIOD, PLACE THE BREASTS OF A MAXIMUM POSSIBLE SUCTION CUP.

 

51. DURING PREGNANCY THE ORIFICE OF THE DIE IS CLOSED.

 

52. IF THE BREASTS PREGNANT RUN MILK IN BULK, THIS MEANS THAT THE EMBRYO IS WEAK • IF THE BREASTS ARE TOUGH, MEAN THAT THE FETUS IS IN GOOD CONDITION.

 

53. THE BREASTS OF WOMEN, WHICH ARE TO ELIMINATE, SOFTEN BUT IF XANASKLIRYNOUN, WILL MANIFEST PAIN IN THE BREASTS OR HIPS, EYES OR KNEES, AND THEN IT WILL NOT ELIMINATE.

 

54. WOMEN WHO HAVE HARD ORIFICE DIE NECESSARILY DISABLE THIS ORIFICE.

 

55. IN PREGNANT WOMEN WHO DEVELOP FEVERS AND SLIMMER TOO WITHOUT APPARENT CAUSE, CHILDBIRTH IS DIFFICULT AND DANGEROUS EPIKINDYNOS- ALSO AND EJECTIONS.

 

56. IF DURING THE MENSTRUAL FLOW OCCUR CONVULSIONS AND BLACKOUTS, THIS IS A BAD SIGN.

 

57. IF THE MENSTRUAL FLOW BECOME ABUNDANT, OCCURRING ILLNESSES • IF THERE IS NO MENSTRUATION, THEN WOMEN’S DISEASES FROM MATRIX.

 

58. WHEN INFLAMMATION OF THE COLON AND UTERUS STRANGURIA OCCURS, AS IN THE PERFUSION OF THE KIDNEYS TO LIVER INFLAMMATION MANIFESTED HICCUP.

 

59. IF A WOMAN CONCEIVES AND WE WANT TO SEE IF YOU CAN CAPTURE, THE WRAP WITH BLANKETS AND BURN BENEATH FRAGRANCES • IF ODOR GIVES THE IMPRESSION THAT PENETRATES THE BODY AND REACHES THE NOSE AND MOUTH, WE KNOW THAT IS NOT STERILE BY OWN FAULT.

 

60. IF A PREGNANT DISPLAY PERIOD, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THAT THE EMBRYO IS HEALTHY.

 

61. IF A WOMAN STOPPED PERIOD WITHOUT SUFFER CHILLS OR FEVER, THOUGH IT ALSO HAS NAUSEA, THEN KEEP IN MIND THAT SHE IS PREGNANT.

 

62. WOMEN WITH COLD AND TIGHT MATRIX DO NOT CAPTURE THE SAME HAPPENS TO WOMEN WHO HAVE A LOT OF FLUID IN THE WOMB BECAUSE THE SPERM IS LOST THERE • NOR CAPTURE THOSE WITH MATRIX RATHER DRY AND VERY WARM, BECAUSE THEN THE SEED IS DESTROYED FROM LACK OF • FERTILE FOOD ARE THOSE THAT HAVE BALANCED CONSTITUTION BETWEEN THE TWO SITUATIONS.

 

63. SIMILAR APPLIES TO MEN OR • DUE TO LOOSENESS OF THE BODY THE AIR EXITS TO THE OUTSIDE AND DOES NOT DIRECT THE SPERM TO THE DESTINATION OR THE BODY IS TIGHT AND SEMINAL FLUID CAN BE PUSHED OUT OR THE BODY IS COLD AND SEMEN IS NOT HEATED ENOUGH TO CONCENTRATE ON THE APPROPRIATE PLACE • THE SAME HAPPENS IF THE BODY IS WARM.

 

64. MILK HURTING THOSE SUFFERING FROM HEADACHE “ALSO HURTS THOSE WHO HAVE FEVER, SWOLLEN AND FULL OF HYPOCHONDRIAC COOING, AND THOSE WHO FEEL THIRST • HURTS EVEN PATIENTS WITH HIGH FEVER EXHIBITING CHOLODI FECES AND THOSE WHO EARN A LOT OF BLOOD UNDERNEATH • MILK BENEFITS THE TUBERCULOUS NOT HAVE HIGH FEVER “IS ALSO USED IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT FEVERS AND LONG TERM WHEN THERE IS NONE OF THE ABOVE SYMPTOMS, BUT ALSO WHEN THEY ARE OVERLY EXHAUSTED.

 

65. THE WOUNDS ACCOMPANIED BY EDEMA, DO NOT EXPOSE THE PATIENT TO THE RISK OF CONVULSIONS OR DELIRIUM • BUT WHEN THESE FALL SHARPLY, IF THAT WERE IN THE BACK PARTS OF THE BODY, MANIFESTED CONVULSIONS AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS • IF YOU WERE IN FRONT, MANIFESTED DELUSIONS, STRONG FLANK PAIN, SUPPURATION OR DYSENTERY, ALTHOUGH SWELLING WAS RATHER KOKKINOCHROMA.

 

66. IF AFTER STRONG AND SERIOUS INJURY NOT APPEAR EDEMA, IS A VERY BAD SIGN.

 

67. THE SOFT LESIONS ARE BENIGN, MALIGNANT HARD.

 

68. THE PAIN IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD IS RELIEVED BY OPENING THE FRONT VERTICAL VEIN.

 

69. IN FEMALES CHILLS STARTING WAIST RATHER ARRIVE AT THE HEAD FROM THE BACK • IN MEN, RATHER THAN THE REAR THAN THE FRONT PARTS OF THE BODY, AS WELL AS FROM THE FOREARMS AND MIROUS- SKIN OF MEN IS LOOSE, AS SEEN FROM THE BRISTLES.

 

70. THOSE AFFECTED BY TETARTAIOUS FEVERS, USUALLY THERE ARE OVERCOME BY CONVULSIONS • IF PREVIOUSLY INFECTED, EXEMPT IF THEY OCCUR LATER QUARTAN.

 

71. PATIENTS WITH SKIN TAUT, DRY AND HARD, DIE WITHOUT SWEAT IF THE SKIN IS SOFT AND LOOSE, DIE WITH PERSPIRATION.

 

72. JAUNDICED NOT USUALLY SUFFER FROM GAS.

 

  

 

APHORISMS PART SIXTH

  

1. WHEN CHRONIC LEIENTERIES MANIFESTED SOUR NOT EXISTED, THE SYMPTOM IS FAVORABLE.

 

2. PERSONS WHO ARE BY NATURE WET NOSE AND DILUTE SEMEN DOES NOT HAVE AS GOOD HEALTH • OTHERWISE, THE WINE IS HEALTHIER.

 

3. LONG DYSENTERY ANOREXIA SYMPTOM IS UNPLEASANT AND EVEN WORSE, WHEN THERE IS FEVER.

 

4. THE WOUNDS AROUND WHICH HAIRS FALL, ARE MALIGNANT.

 

5. WHEN MANIFEST PAIN IN THE RIBS, CHEST, AND ELSEWHERE, WE MUST ASCERTAIN WHETHER THE PATIENTS SHOW LARGE SHIFTS [IN HOURS].

 

6. THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND THE BLADDER DIFFICULT TO TREAT THE ELDERLY.

 

7. SUPERFICIAL PAINS BELLY IS LIGHTER, MORE SERIOUS INTERNAL.

 

8. WOUNDS ARE PRESENTED IN THE BODY OF THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM DROPSY, DIFFICULT TO TREAT.

 

9. WIDE RASHES DO NOT CAUSE A LOT OF ITCHING.

 

10. EVEN THE STRONGEST HEADACHES SUBSIDE, IF RUN PUS, WATER OR BLOOD FROM NOSE, MOUTH OR EARS.

 

11. MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS OR KIDNEY DISEASES, THE OCCURRENCE OF HEMORRHOIDS HAS FAVORABLE IMPLICATIONS.

 

12. IF SOMEONE HEAL FROM CHRONIC HEMORRHOIDS AND THE DOCTOR DID NOT LEAVE A THERE IS A RISK TO MANIFEST DROPSY OR PHTHISIS.

 

13. HICCUP DISAPPEARS WITH SNEEZING.

 

14. DROPSY CURED IF RUN FLUID FROM THE VEINS INTO THE INTESTINES.

 

15. VOMITING THAT SUDDENLY APPEARS IN A PATIENT WITH PROLONGED DIARRHEA CURE THE DISEASE.

 

16. IF A PATIENT WITH PLEURISY OR PNEUMONIA DIARRHEA PRESENT, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR.

 

17. IN A PATIENT SUFFERING FROM AN EYE, THE OCCURRENCE OF DIARRHEA HAS FAVORABLE RESULTS.

 

18. THE WOUNDS OF THE BLADDER, BRAIN, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ONE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, STOMACH OR LIVER IS FATAL.

 

19. IF CUT BONE, CARTILAGE, NERVE, THIN SECTION OF THE JAW OR THE FORESKIN, OR REGENERATION IS NOT ANNEAL.

 

20. IF THE INTESTINES SPILLED UNEXPECTEDLY BLOOD, WILL NECESSARILY CAUSE SUPPURATION.

 

21. THE APPEARANCE OF VARICOSE VEINS OR HEMORRHOIDS CURE THOSE SUFFERING FROM INSANITY.

 

22. BACKACHES TRANSPORTED ELBOWS, TREATED WITH PHLEBOTOMY.

 

23. IF THE FEELINGS OF FEAR OR SADNESS EXTENDED FOR A LONG TIME, THEN TREAT MELANCHOLY.

 

24. IF CUT A PORTION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, NO LONGER JOINED.

 

25. IF ANEMOPYROMA THAT HAS SPREAD OUTSIDE, TURNED INWARDS, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR • IF TURNED INSIDE OUT, THE PROGNOSIS IS GOOD.

 

26. DELIRIUM STOPS THE TREMORS MANIFESTED IN SENSATION.

 

27. EMPYIMATIKOI OR DROPSY WHICH OPERATED ON OR CAUTERIZE CERTAINLY DIE IF THE PUS OR FLUID EXPELLED ALL TOGETHER.

 

28. THE EUNUCHS ARE NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT OR ARE BALD.

 

29. THE WOMAN IS NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT, UNLESS MENSTRUATION TO CEASE.

 

30. THE CHILD SUFFERS GOUT BEFORE COPULATE.

 

31. PAIN IN THE EYE TREATED WITH UNBRIDLED WINE BATH, STEAM ROOM, PHLEBOTOMY OR TAKING LAXATIVE.

 

32. STUTTERER OFTEN AFFECTED BY LONG-TERM DIARRHEA.

 

33. PEOPLE WHO HAVE SOUR, NOT USUALLY ATTACKED BY PLEURISY.

 

34. THE BALD DOES NOT USUALLY FORM LARGE VARICES • IF THIS HAPPENS, BEING RE SHAGGY.

 

35. IF THOSE SUFFERING FROM DROPSY DEVELOP COUGH, THE SYMPTOM IS BAD.

 

36. THE BLEED CURE DYSURIA • SHOULD HOWEVER BE OPENED VEINS TO THE INNER SURFACE OF THE ARM.

 

37. IF ANYONE WHO SUFFERS FROM ANGINA, FORM EXTERNAL SWELLINGS IN THE NECK, THE CONSEQUENCES ARE FAVORABLE.

 

38. IT IS PREFERABLE NOT TO APPLY ANY TREATMENT TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM HIDDEN CANCERS • YOU UNDERGO TREATMENT, THEY WILL DIE QUICKLY • IF LEFT UNTREATED, THEIR LIVES EXTENDED.

 

39. SEIZURES CAUSED OR OVERLOAD THE STOMACH OR EMPTINESS • ITSELF AND HICCUPS.

 

40. WHEN THE AREA OF ​​SUBCHONDRAL HURTS WITHOUT INFLAMMATION, PAIN PASSES IF FEVER OCCURRED.

 

41. IF AT ANY POINT OF THE BODY IS NOT DISCLOSED PUS., THIS IS DUE TO THE THICKNESS OF THE SIGN.

 

42. THE HARDENING OF THE LIVER IN PATIENTS WITH JAUNDICE IS A BAD SIGN.

 

43. IF SUFFERING FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN EXPRESS DYSENTERY, AND WHEN EXTENDED, SHOWN DROPSY OR LEIENTERIA AND PATIENTS DIE.

 

44. PATIENTS AFTER STRANGURIA SUSCEPTIBLE ILEUM DIE WITHIN SEVEN DAYS UNLESS MANIFEST FEVER AND FOLLOW ABUNDANT DIURESIS.

 

45. WHEN THE WOUNDS LAST A YEAR OR LONGER NECESSARILY THE BONE CUT AND SCARS SAG.

 

46. ​​IF SOMEONE SUFFERED KYPHOSIS BEFORE ADOLESCENCE AFTER ASTHMA OR COUGH, DYING.

 

47. INDIVIDUALS WHO BENEFIT FROM PHLEBOTOMY OR LAXATIVE MUST. APPLY THESE TREATMENTS SPRING,

 

48. THE DISPLAY DYSENTERY FAVORS THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN.

 

49. IN PATIENTS WITH GOUTY DISORDERS INFLAMMATION SUBSIDES WITHIN FORTY DAYS AND TREATED.

 

50. THE WOUNDS OF THE BRAIN NECESSARILY ACCOMPANIED BY FEVER AND VOMITING CHOLODI.

 

51. IF HEALTHY PERSON SUDDENLY FEEL HEADACHE, SUDDENLY LOST HIS VOICE AND DROPPED TO RATTLE, DIED WITHIN A WEEK, UNLESS MANIFESTED FEVER.

   

52. IT SHOULD ALSO EXAMINE THE STATUS OF THE EYES AT THE TIME OF YPNOU- IF, AS THE EYELIDS ARE LOWERED, IT SEEMS, AMONG THEM A SHARE OF THE WHITES OF THE EYE, AND THERE EXISTED DIARRHEA OR HAS BEEN CATHARTIC, THE PROGNOSIS IS DEVASTATING AND DEADLY.

 

53. INSANITIES ACCOMPANIED BY LAUGHTER IS NOT AS DANGEROUS AS THOSE THAT OCCUR WITH GLOOM.

 

54. IN SEVERE FEBRILE DISEASE INTERMITTENT BREATHING IS A BAD SIGN.

55. GOUTY DISEASES USUALLY OCCUR IN SPRING AND AUTUMN.

 

56- ON MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS MOVEMENTS JUICE HAZARD FOR STROKE EVENT OR CONVULSIONS OR INSANITY OR BLINDNESS.

 

57. STROKE OCCURS MAINLY AT THE AGE OF FORTY TO SIXTY.

 

58. IF UNSTUCK OMENTUM NECESSARILY WILL ROT.

 

59. PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM SCIATICA, THEY SHIFT THE HIP AND GO BACK INTO POSITION LATER FORMED SLIME.

 

60. THE SHIFTING OF THE HIP IN HUMANS WITH CHRONIC SCIATICA, CAUSES ATROPHY OF LIMB, THEREBY START LIMP UNLESS BE CAUTERIZED.

61. IF A WOMAN STOPPED PERIOD WITHOUT SUFFER CHILLS OR FEVER, THOUGH IT ALSO HAS NAUSEA, THEN KEEP IN MIND THAT SHE IS PREGNANT.

 

62. WOMEN WITH COLD AND TIGHT MATRIX DO NOT CAPTURE THE SAME HAPPENS TO WOMEN WHO HAVE A LOT OF FLUID IN THE WOMB BECAUSE THE SPERM IS LOST THERE • NOR CAPTURE THOSE WITH MATRIX RATHER DRY AND VERY WARM, BECAUSE THEN THE SEED IS DESTROYED FROM LACK OF • FERTILE FOOD ARE THOSE THAT HAVE BALANCED CONSTITUTION BETWEEN THE TWO SITUATIONS.

 

63. SIMILAR APPLIES TO MEN OR • DUE TO LOOSENESS OF THE BODY THE AIR EXITS TO THE OUTSIDE AND DOES NOT DIRECT THE SPERM TO THE DESTINATION OR THE BODY IS TIGHT AND SEMINAL FLUID CAN BE PUSHED OUT OR THE BODY IS COLD AND SEMEN IS NOT HEATED ENOUGH TO CONCENTRATE ON THE APPROPRIATE PLACE • THE SAME HAPPENS IF THE BODY IS WARM.

 

64. MILK HURTING THOSE SUFFERING FROM HEADACHE “ALSO HURTS THOSE WHO HAVE FEVER, SWOLLEN AND FULL OF HYPOCHONDRIAC COOING, AND THOSE WHO FEEL THIRST • HURTS EVEN PATIENTS WITH HIGH FEVER EXHIBITING CHOLODI FECES AND THOSE WHO EARN A LOT OF BLOOD UNDERNEATH • MILK BENEFITS THE TUBERCULOUS NOT HAVE HIGH FEVER “IS ALSO USED IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT FEVERS AND LONG TERM WHEN THERE IS NONE OF THE ABOVE SYMPTOMS, BUT ALSO WHEN THEY ARE OVERLY EXHAUSTED.

 

65. THE WOUNDS ACCOMPANIED BY EDEMA, DO NOT EXPOSE THE PATIENT TO THE RISK OF CONVULSIONS OR DELIRIUM • BUT WHEN THESE FALL SHARPLY, IF THAT WERE IN THE BACK PARTS OF THE BODY, MANIFESTED CONVULSIONS AND TETANIC CONTRACTIONS • IF YOU WERE IN FRONT, MANIFESTED DELUSIONS, STRONG FLANK PAIN, SUPPURATION OR DYSENTERY, ALTHOUGH SWELLING WAS RATHER KOKKINOCHROMA.

 

66. IF AFTER STRONG AND SERIOUS INJURY NOT APPEAR EDEMA, IS A VERY BAD SIGN.

 

67. THE SOFT LESIONS ARE BENIGN, MALIGNANT HARD.

 

68. THE PAIN IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD IS RELIEVED BY OPENING THE FRONT VERTICAL VEIN.

 

69. IN FEMALES CHILLS STARTING WAIST RATHER ARRIVE AT THE HEAD FROM THE BACK • IN MEN, RATHER THAN THE REAR THAN THE FRONT PARTS OF THE BODY, AS WELL AS FROM THE FOREARMS AND MIROUS- SKIN OF MEN IS LOOSE, AS SEEN FROM THE BRISTLES.

 

70. THOSE AFFECTED BY TETARTAIOUS FEVERS, USUALLY THERE ARE OVERCOME BY CONVULSIONS • IF PREVIOUSLY INFECTED, EXEMPT IF THEY OCCUR LATER QUARTAN.

 

71. PATIENTS WITH SKIN TAUT, DRY AND HARD, DIE WITHOUT SWEAT IF THE SKIN IS SOFT AND LOOSE, DIE WITH PERSPIRATION.

 

72. JAUNDICED NOT USUALLY SUFFER FROM GAS.

 

  

 

APHORISMS PART SIXTH

  

1. WHEN CHRONIC LEIENTERIES MANIFESTED SOUR NOT EXISTED, THE SYMPTOM IS FAVORABLE.

 

2. PERSONS WHO ARE BY NATURE WET NOSE AND DILUTE SEMEN DOES NOT HAVE AS GOOD HEALTH • OTHERWISE, THE WINE IS HEALTHIER.

 

3. LONG DYSENTERY ANOREXIA SYMPTOM IS UNPLEASANT AND EVEN WORSE, WHEN THERE IS FEVER.

 

4. THE WOUNDS AROUND WHICH HAIRS FALL, ARE MALIGNANT.

 

5. WHEN MANIFEST PAIN IN THE RIBS, CHEST, AND ELSEWHERE, WE MUST ASCERTAIN WHETHER THE PATIENTS SHOW LARGE SHIFTS [IN HOURS].

 

6. THE DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND THE BLADDER DIFFICULT TO TREAT THE ELDERLY.

 

7. SUPERFICIAL PAINS BELLY IS LIGHTER, MORE SERIOUS INTERNAL.

 

8. WOUNDS ARE PRESENTED IN THE BODY OF THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM DROPSY, DIFFICULT TO TREAT.

 

9. WIDE RASHES DO NOT CAUSE A LOT OF ITCHING.

 

10. EVEN THE STRONGEST HEADACHES SUBSIDE, IF RUN PUS, WATER OR BLOOD FROM NOSE, MOUTH OR EARS.

 

11. MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS OR KIDNEY DISEASES, THE OCCURRENCE OF HEMORRHOIDS HAS FAVORABLE IMPLICATIONS.

 

12. IF SOMEONE HEAL FROM CHRONIC HEMORRHOIDS AND THE DOCTOR DID NOT LEAVE A THERE IS A RISK TO MANIFEST DROPSY OR PHTHISIS.

 

13. HICCUP DISAPPEARS WITH SNEEZING.

 

14. DROPSY CURED IF RUN FLUID FROM THE VEINS INTO THE INTESTINES.

 

15. VOMITING THAT SUDDENLY APPEARS IN A PATIENT WITH PROLONGED DIARRHEA CURE THE DISEASE.

 

16. IF A PATIENT WITH PLEURISY OR PNEUMONIA DIARRHEA PRESENT, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR.

 

17. IN A PATIENT SUFFERING FROM AN EYE, THE OCCURRENCE OF DIARRHEA HAS FAVORABLE RESULTS.

 

18. THE WOUNDS OF THE BLADDER, BRAIN, HEART, DIAPHRAGM, ONE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, STOMACH OR LIVER IS FATAL.

 

19. IF CUT BONE, CARTILAGE, NERVE, THIN SECTION OF THE JAW OR THE FORESKIN, OR REGENERATION IS NOT ANNEAL.

 

20. IF THE INTESTINES SPILLED UNEXPECTEDLY BLOOD, WILL NECESSARILY CAUSE SUPPURATION.

 

21. THE APPEARANCE OF VARICOSE VEINS OR HEMORRHOIDS CURE THOSE SUFFERING FROM INSANITY.

 

22. BACKACHES TRANSPORTED ELBOWS, TREATED WITH PHLEBOTOMY.

 

23. IF THE FEELINGS OF FEAR OR SADNESS EXTENDED FOR A LONG TIME, THEN TREAT MELANCHOLY.

 

24. IF CUT A PORTION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE, NO LONGER JOINED.

 

25. IF ANEMOPYROMA THAT HAS SPREAD OUTSIDE, TURNED INWARDS, THE PROGNOSIS IS POOR • IF TURNED INSIDE OUT, THE PROGNOSIS IS GOOD.

 

26. DELIRIUM STOPS THE TREMORS MANIFESTED IN SENSATION.

 

27. EMPYIMATIKOI OR DROPSY WHICH OPERATED ON OR CAUTERIZE CERTAINLY DIE IF THE PUS OR FLUID EXPELLED ALL TOGETHER.

 

28. THE EUNUCHS ARE NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT OR ARE BALD.

 

29. THE WOMAN IS NOT AFFECTED BY GOUT, UNLESS MENSTRUATION TO CEASE.

 

30. THE CHILD SUFFERS GOUT BEFORE COPULATE.

 

31. PAIN IN THE EYE TREATED WITH UNBRIDLED WINE BATH, STEAM ROOM, PHLEBOTOMY OR TAKING LAXATIVE.

 

32. STUTTERER OFTEN AFFECTED BY LONG-TERM DIARRHEA.

 

33. PEOPLE WHO HAVE SOUR, NOT USUALLY ATTACKED BY PLEURISY.

 

34. THE BALD DOES NOT USUALLY FORM LARGE VARICES • IF THIS HAPPENS, BEING RE SHAGGY.

 

35. IF THOSE SUFFERING FROM DROPSY DEVELOP COUGH, THE SYMPTOM IS BAD.

 

36. THE BLEED CURE DYSURIA • SHOULD HOWEVER BE OPENED VEINS TO THE INNER SURFACE OF THE ARM.

 

37. IF ANYONE WHO SUFFERS FROM ANGINA, FORM EXTERNAL SWELLINGS IN THE NECK, THE CONSEQUENCES ARE FAVORABLE.

 

38. IT IS PREFERABLE NOT TO APPLY ANY TREATMENT TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM HIDDEN CANCERS • YOU UNDERGO TREATMENT, THEY WILL DIE QUICKLY • IF LEFT UNTREATED, THEIR LIVES EXTENDED.

 

39. SEIZURES CAUSED OR OVERLOAD THE STOMACH OR EMPTINESS • ITSELF AND HICCUPS.

 

40. WHEN THE AREA OF ​​SUBCHONDRAL HURTS WITHOUT INFLAMMATION, PAIN PASSES IF FEVER OCCURRED.

 

41. IF AT ANY POINT OF THE BODY IS NOT DISCLOSED PUS., THIS IS DUE TO THE THICKNESS OF THE SIGN.

 

42. THE HARDENING OF THE LIVER IN PATIENTS WITH JAUNDICE IS A BAD SIGN.

 

43. IF SUFFERING FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN EXPRESS DYSENTERY, AND WHEN EXTENDED, SHOWN DROPSY OR LEIENTERIA AND PATIENTS DIE.

 

44. PATIENTS AFTER STRANGURIA SUSCEPTIBLE ILEUM DIE WITHIN SEVEN DAYS UNLESS MANIFEST FEVER AND FOLLOW ABUNDANT DIURESIS.

 

45. WHEN THE WOUNDS LAST A YEAR OR LONGER NECESSARILY THE BONE CUT AND SCARS SAG.

 

46. ​​IF SOMEONE SUFFERED KYPHOSIS BEFORE ADOLESCENCE AFTER ASTHMA OR COUGH, DYING.

 

47. INDIVIDUALS WHO BENEFIT FROM PHLEBOTOMY OR LAXATIVE MUST. APPLY THESE TREATMENTS SPRING,

 

48. THE DISPLAY DYSENTERY FAVORS THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM SWELLING OF THE SPLEEN.

 

49. IN PATIENTS WITH GOUTY DISORDERS INFLAMMATION SUBSIDES WITHIN FORTY DAYS AND TREATED.

 

50. THE WOUNDS OF THE BRAIN NECESSARILY ACCOMPANIED BY FEVER AND VOMITING CHOLODI.

 

51. IF HEALTHY PERSON SUDDENLY FEEL HEADACHE, SUDDENLY LOST HIS VOICE AND DROPPED TO RATTLE, DIED WITHIN A WEEK, UNLESS MANIFESTED FEVER.

   

52. IT SHOULD ALSO EXAMINE THE STATUS OF THE EYES AT THE TIME OF YPNOU- IF, AS THE EYELIDS ARE LOWERED, IT SEEMS, AMONG THEM A SHARE OF THE WHITES OF THE EYE, AND THERE EXISTED DIARRHEA OR HAS BEEN CATHARTIC, THE PROGNOSIS IS DEVASTATING AND DEADLY.

 

53. INSANITIES ACCOMPANIED BY LAUGHTER IS NOT AS DANGEROUS AS THOSE THAT OCCUR WITH GLOOM.

 

54. IN SEVERE FEBRILE DISEASE INTERMITTENT BREATHING IS A BAD SIGN.

55. GOUTY DISEASES USUALLY OCCUR IN SPRING AND AUTUMN.

56- ON MELANCHOLIC SITUATIONS MOVEMENTS JUICE HAZARD FOR STROKE EVENT OR CONVULSIONS OR INSANITY OR BLINDNESS.

 

57. STROKE OCCURS MAINLY AT THE AGE OF FORTY TO SIXTY.

 58. IF UNSTUCK OMENTUM NECESSARILY WILL ROT.

 

59. PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM SCIATICA, THEY SHIFT THE HIP AND GO BACK INTO POSITION LATER FORMED SLIME.

 

60. THE SHIFTING OF THE HIP IN HUMANS WITH CHRONIC SCIATICA, CAUSES ATROPHY OF LIMB, THEREBY START LIMP UNLESS BE CAUTERIZED.

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A N A X A G O R A S

 According to Plutarch in his work On exile, Anaxagoras is the first Greek to attempt the problem of squaring the circle, a problem he worked on while in prison. He is considered to be both the geographical and theoretical successor to the earliest Ionian philosophers, particularly Anaximenes. Eventually, Anaxagoras made his way to Athens and he is often credited with making her the home of Western philosophical and physical speculation. 

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Anaxagoras (/ˌænækˈsæɡərəs/; Greek: Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagóras, “lord of the assembly”; c. 500 – c. 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Born in Clazomenae at a time when parts of IONIA(= “Asia Minor”) came under the control of the Persian Empire, untill when later Alexander the Great liberated and became Greek again Anaxagoras came to Athens. Although Anaxagoras lived in Athens when Socrates was a youth and young adult, there are no reports that Anaxagoras and Socrates ever met.

About 480 Anaxagoras moved to Athens, then becoming the centre of Greek culture, and brought from Ionia the new practice of philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry. He was a philosopher of nature remembered for his cosmology and for his discovery of the true cause of eclipses. He was associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles. Although Anaxagoras proposed theories on a variety of subjects, he is most noted for two theories. First, he speculated that in the physical world everything contains a portion of everything else. His observation of how nutrition works in animals led him to conclude that in order for the food an animal eats to turn into bone, hair, flesh, and so forth, it must already contain all of those constituents within it. The second theory of significance is Anaxagoras’ postulation of Mind (Nous) as the initiating and governing principle of the cosmos.

After 30 years’ residence in Athens, he was prosecuted on a charge of impiety for asserting that the Sun is an incandescent stone somewhat larger than the region of the Peloponnese. The attack on him was intended as an indirect blow at Pericles, and, although Pericles managed to save him, Anaxagoras was compelled to leave Athens. He spent his last years in retirement at Lampsacus.

T H A L E S & P Y T H A G O R A S

****************T H A L E S

Thales of Miletus - Wikipedia

Thales of Miletus was a Greek mathematician who lived 2600 years ago. He formulated a theorem with the following meaning: Every triangle inscribed in a circle has a right angle if one of the sides of the triangle is the diameter of the circle. One easy way to construct a right-angled triangle, is to use Thales’ theorem. Thales theorem states that if one of the sides of a triangle is along the diameter of a circle, and if the third vertex also lies on the circle, then the angle at the third vertex is a right angle.The triangle A B C is inscribed in a circle in such a way.

The Pythagorean theorem

pythagoras
Behold! Dynamic proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

For a right-angled triangle with shorter sides a and b, and the hypotenuse c, following holds:

c2=a2+b2�2=�2+�2

Conversely, if three positive numbers abc satisfy c2=a2+b2�2=�2+�2; then the numbers can be the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle.

There are many proofs of the Pythagorean theorem that are based on interpreting the square of a number as the area of a square. You then prove that the area of the two smaller squares in the image below, have the same total area as the large square.

Pythagorean Theorem

One of the easiest proofs is shown in the worksheet above. A more difficult proof where the smaller squares are cut and then put together as a larger square is shown below.

pythagoras
Animated Pythagoras’ Theorem Jigsaw Puzzle. Change the topmost slider to see the translations.

Exercise 1

Use the picture above to prove Thales’ theorem!

Dynamic Pythagoras’ tree

Pythagoras' tree

By using Thales theorem, it is possible to make a dynamic variant of a fractal called Pythagoras tree.

Exercise 2

Pythagoras' tree construction
  • Input two points A� and B� and a slider α� representing an angle. Use the tool icon Regular Polygon to make a square as in the picture above.
  • Use the tool icon Midpoint or Centre to make the midpoint E� between C� and D�. Use the tool icon Rotate, to rotate C� around E� by the angle α�. Move the slider to see the point C′�′ move. Make a triangle as in the picture above. The triangle will be a right-angled triangle due to Thales’ theorem.
  • Pick Tools -> Create New Tool. Make a tool that has the objects C�, C′�′, D�, and the two polygons as output objects. The tool will have A�, B�, and α� as input objects.
  • Build a tree by using the tool. Start by clicking two points, then enter α in the input box that shows up.

You can make variations of Pythagoras’ tree. For some examples see Variations on Pythagoras’ Tree.

Pythagoras' tree variants

Much of our modern science, and astronomy in particular, has roots in the ancient world. In particular, the Greek philosophers studied the cosmos and tried to use the language of mathematics to explain everything. The Greek philosopher Thales was one such man. He was born around 624 BCE,from (Miletus was a Greek island in Ionia Asia Minor, now modern Turkey) and he came from a distinguished family.

It is difficult to write about Thales since none of his own writing survives. He was known to be a prolific writer, but as with so many documents from the ancient world, his vanished through the ages. He is mentioned in other people’s works and seems to have been quite well-known for his time among fellow philosophers and writers. Thales was an engineer, scientist, mathematician, and philosopher interested in nature. He may have been the teacher of Anaximander (611 BC – 545 BCE), another philosopher.

Some researchers think Thales wrote a book on navigation, but there is little evidence of such a tome. In fact, if he wrote any works at all, they did not even survive until the time of Aristotle (384 BCE- 322 BCE). Even though the existence of his book is debatable, it turns out that Thales probably did define the constellation Ursa Minor.

Despite the fact that much of what is known about Thales is mostly hearsay, he was definitely well-respected in ancient Greece. He was the only philosopher before Socrates to be counted among the Seven Sages. These were philosophers in the 6th century BCE who were statesmen and law-givers, and in Thales’s case, a natural philosopher (scientist). 

There are reports that Thales predicted an eclipse of the Sun in 585 BCE. While the 19-year cycle for lunar eclipses was well known by this time, solar eclipses were harder to predict, since they were visible from different locations on Earth and people were not aware of the orbital motions of the Sun, Moon, and Earth that contributed to solar eclipses. Most likely, if he did make such a prediction, it was a lucky guess based on experience saying that another eclipse was due.

After the eclipse on 28 May, 585 BCE, Herodotus wrote, “Day was all of a sudden changed into night. This event had been foretold by Thales, the Milesian, who forewarned the Ionians of it, fixing for it the very year in which it took place. The Medes and Lydians, when they observed the change, ceased fighting, and were alike anxious to have terms of peace agreed on.”

Impressive but Human

Thales is often credited with some impressive work with geometry. It is said he determined the heights of pyramids by measuring their shadows and could deduce the distances of ships from a vantage point onshore.

How much of our knowledge of Thales is accurate is anyone’s guess. Most of what we know is due to Aristotle who wrote in his Metaphysics: “Thales of Miletus taught that ‘all things are water’.” Apparently Thales believed the Earth floated in water and everything came from water.

Like the absent-minded professor stereotype still popular today, Thales has been described in both glowing and derogatory tales. One story, told by Aristotle, says Thales used his skills to predict that the next season’s olive crop would be bountiful. He then purchased all the olive presses and made a fortune when the prediction came true. Plato, on the other hand, told a story of how one night Thales was gazing at the sky as he walked and fell into a ditch. There was a pretty servant girl nearby who came to his rescue, who then said to him “How do you expect to understand what is going on up in the sky if you do not even see what is at your feet?”

Thales died about 547 BCE in his home of Miletus.

Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

D E M O C R I T O S = Δ Η Μ Ο Κ Ρ Ι Τ Ο Σ =”DEMOCRITUS”

Bust of Democritus. Villa of the Papyri.

Born c. 460 BC Abdera, Thrace

Era Pre-Socratic philosophy Region Western philosophy

School Atomism

Main interests Nature

Notable ideas Atoms and the void as the fundamental constituents of the physical world

Democritus (/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/, dim-OCK-rit-əs; Greek: Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning “chosen of the people”; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher from Abdera, primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

FEW of Democritus’ original work has survived, MOST references. Many of these references come from ARISTOTELES, who viewed him as an important rival in the field of natural philosophy

Atomic hypothesis
See also: Atomism
We have various quotes from Democritus on atoms, one of them being:

δοκεῖ δὲ αὐτῶι τάδε· ἀρχὰς εἶναι τῶν ὅλων ἀτόμους καὶ κενόν, τὰ δ’ἀλλα πάντα

Δημόκριτος, DEMOKRITOS, meaning “chosen of the people”; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an ANCIENT-GREEK PRE-SOCRATIC philosopher from THRACE/ABDERA, primarily remembered today for HIS FORMULATION of an atomic theory of the universe.
Democritus knew that if a stone was divided in half, the two halves would have essentially the same properties as the whole.Therefore, he reasoned that if the stone were to be continually cut into smaller and smaller pieces then; at some point, there would be a piece which would be so small as to be indivisible. He called these small pieces of matter “atomos,” the Greek word for indivisible. Democritus, theorized that atoms were specific to the material which they composed. In addition, Democritus believed that the atoms differed in size and shape, were in constant motion in a void, collided with each other; and during these collisions, could rebound or stick together. Therefore, changes in matter were a result of dissociations or combinations of the atoms as they moved throughout the void. Although Democritus’ theory was remarkable, it was rejected by Aristotle, one of the most influential philosophers of Ancient Greece; and the atomic theory was ignored for nearly 2,000 years.

None of Democritus’ original work has survived, except through second-hand references. Many of these references come from Aristotle, who viewed him as an important rival in the field of natural philosophy.

Along with Leucippus the most important representative of the ancient atomic theory (compare atomic theory). According to Democritus and his teacher Leucippus – whose ideas cannot be separated from Democritus – reality consists of an infinite number of indivisible bodies, atoms,

LIFE
Although many anecdotes about Democritus’ life survive, their authenticity cannot be verified and modern scholars doubt their accuracy. Democritus was said to be born in the city of Abdera in Thrace, an Ionian colony of Teos. Ancient accounts of his life have claimed that he lived to a very old age, with some writers claiming that he was over a hundred years old at the time of his death.
Ancient accounts of his life have claimed that he lived to a very old age, with some writers claiming that he was over a hundred years old at the time of his death.

PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE
Christopher Charles Whiston Taylor [de] states that the relation between Democritus and his predecessor Leucippus is not clear; while earlier ancient sources such as Aristotle and Theophrastus credit Leucippus with the invention of atomism and credit its doctrines to both philosophers, later sources credit only Democritus, making definitive identification of specific doctrines difficult.

Atomic hypothesis
See also: Atomism
We have various quotes from Democritus on atoms, one of them being:

δοκεῖ δὲ αὐτῶι τάδε· ἀρχὰς εἶναι τῶν ὅλων ἀτόμους καὶ κενόν, τὰ δ’ἀλλα πάντα νενομίσθαι [δοξάζεσθαι]. (Diogenes Laërtius, Democritus, Vol. IX, 44) Now his principal doctrines were these. That atoms and the vacuum were the beginning of the universe; and that everything else existed only in opinion. (trans. Yonge 1853)

The theory of Democritus held that everything is composed of “atoms,” which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between atoms, there lies empty space; that atoms are indestructible, and have always been and always will be in motion; that there is an infinite number of atoms and of kinds of atoms, which differ in shape and size. Of the mass of atoms, Democritus said, “The more any indivisible exceeds, the heavier it is.” However, his exact position on atomic weight is disputed. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases.

Democritus, along with Leucippus and Epicurus, proposed the earliest views on the shapes and connectivity of atoms. They reasoned that the solidness of the material corresponded to the shape of the atoms involved.Using analogies from humans’ sense experiences, he gave a picture or an image of an atom that distinguished them from each other by their shape, their size, and the arrangement of their parts. Moreover, connections were explained by material links in which single atoms were supplied with attachments: some with hooks and eyes, others with balls and sockets.

The Democritean atom is an inert solid (merely excluding other bodies from its volume) that interacts with other atoms mechanically. In contrast, modern, quantum-mechanical atoms interact via electric and magnetic forces and are dynamic.

Correlation with modern science
The theory of the atomists appears to be more nearly aligned with that of modern science than any other theory of antiquity. However, the similarity with modern concepts of science can be confusing when trying to understand where the hypothesis came from. Classical atomists could not have had an empirical basis for modern concepts of atoms and molecules.

The atomistic void hypothesis was a response to the paradoxes of Parmenides and Zeno, the founders of metaphysical logic, who put forth difficult-to-answer arguments in favor of the idea that there can be no movement. They held that any movement would require a void—which is nothing—but a nothing cannot exist. The Parmenidean position was “You say there is a void; therefore the void is not nothing; therefore there is not the void. The position of Parmenides appeared validated by the observation that where there seems to be nothing there is air, and indeed even where there is not matter there is something, for instance light waves.

The atomists agreed that motion required a void, but simply rejected the argument of Parmenides on the grounds that motion was an observable fact. Therefore, they asserted, there must be a void.

Democritus held that originally the universe was composed of nothing but tiny atoms churning in chaos, until they collided together to form larger units—including the earth and everything on it. He surmised that there are many worlds, some growing, some decaying; some with no sun or moon, some with several. He held that every world has a beginning and an end and that a world could be destroyed by collision with another world.

MATHEMATICS

Democritus argued that the circular cross-section of a cone would need step-like sides, rather than being shaped like a cylinder.
Democritus was also a pioneer of mathematics and geometry in particular. According to Archimedes, Democritus was among the first to observe that a cone and pyramid with the same base area and height has one-third the volume of a cylinder or prism respectively, a result which Archimedes states was later proved by Eudoxus of Cnidus. Plutarch also reports that Democritus worked on a problem involving the cross-section of a cone that Thomas Heath suggests may be an early version of infinitesimal calculus.

ANTHROPOLOGY
Democritus thought that the first humans lived an anarchic and animal sort of life, going out to forage individually and living off the most palatable herbs and the fruit which grew wild on the trees. They were driven together into societies for fear of wild animals, he said. He believed that these early people had no language, but that they gradually began to articulate their expressions, establishing symbols for every sort of object, and in this manner came to understand each other. He says that the earliest men lived laboriously, having none of the utilities of life; clothing, houses, fire, domestication, and farming were unknown to them. Democritus presents the early period of mankind as one of learning by trial and error, and says that each step slowly led to more discoveries; they took refuge in the caves in winter, stored fruits that could be preserved, and through reason and keenness of mind came to build upon each new idea.

ETHICS AND POLITICS
The ethics and politics of Democritus come to us mostly in the form of maxims. As such, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has gone as far as to say that: “despite the large number of ethical sayings, it is difficult to construct a coherent account of Democritus’s ethical views,” noting that there is a “difficulty of deciding which fragments are genuinely Democritean.”

AESTHETICS
Later Greek historians consider Democritus to have established aesthetics as a subject of investigation and study,[8] as he wrote theoretically on poetry and fine art long before authors such as Aristotle. Specifically, Thrasyllus identified six works in the philosopher’s oeuvre which had belonged to aesthetics as a discipline, but only fragments of the relevant works are extant; hence of all Democritus’s writings on these matters, only a small percentage of his thoughts and ideas can be known.

WORKS
Diogenes Laertius attributes several works to Democritus, but none of them have survived in a complete form.
,,That Organisms first came from moist soil.

Everything that exists in man is made up of atoms.

The SOUL=PSYCHE=ΨΥΧΗ consists of very small, smooth, round atoms, like fire.

Spirit, soul, vital heat, vital principle are all one and the same thing.

They are not limited to humans or animals, but are scattered throughout the world.

And in man and other animals, the intellectual atoms, with which we think, are distributed throughout the body.

However, these subtle atoms, which make up the soul, are the noblest and most wonderful part of the body.

The wise man cultivates thought, frees himself from passion, superstition, and fear, and seeks in contemplation and understanding the humble happiness that exists in human life.

Happiness does not come from external goods.

Man must get used to finding within himself the sources of pleasure!!

Cultivation is better than riches.

No power and no treasure can compare with the expansion of our knowledge.

Happiness is fickle and carnal pleasure provides only short-term satisfaction.

We achieve lasting satisfaction by gaining calmness, cheerfulness, mediocrity and some order and symmetry in our lives.

We can learn a lot from animals – spinning from the spider, thrift from the swallow, singing from the nightingale and the swan.

But strength of body is kindness only to beasts of burden, but strength of character is kindness to man.

Like the heretics of Victorian England, Democritus raises above his scandalous metaphysics a very presentable morality.

Good deeds must be done not out of compulsion, but out of conviction, not out of hope of reward, but for their own sake.

Man should feel more shame towards himself when he does evil, than towards the whole world.

Eventually Democritus proved his principles and perhaps vindicated his advice by living to the age of 109.

Diogenes Laertius narrates that when Democritus publicly read his greatest work, the <<Great Diacosmos>>, the city of Abdira gave him a hundred talents!!

But perhaps Abdera had undervalued their currency.

When someone asked him what was the secret of his longevity, he replied that he ate honey daily and bathed his body in olive oil.

Finally, when he lived long enough, he daily reduced his food, determined to die of starvation.

He was very old, Diogenes tells us, and he looked like he was dying.

His sister mourned him because she would die on the feast of Thesmophoria, which would prevent her from fulfilling her duties to the goddess.

He then reassured her and ordered her to bring him daily warm breads or some honey and by bringing these into his nostrils he was kept alive during the holy festival.

But when three days had passed since the feast, he breathed his last without pain, as Hipparchus assures us, having lived 109 years!!!

His city issued him at public expense, and Timon the Athenian praised him.

Democritus did not found a school, but formulated the most famous scientific hypotheses and gave philosophy a system, which, despite being denounced by many, survived everyone and reappears in every generation!!!!

Historical editing: Giorgos Giwrgos Chavales

H I P P A R H O S

 

Bornc. 190 BC
NicaeaKingdom of Bithynia
(modern-day İznik, Bursa, Turkey)
Diedc. 120 BC (around age 70)
Rhodos
Greece
OccupationsAstronomerMathematicianGeographer

Hipparchus (/hɪˈpɑːrkəs/GreekἽππαρχοςHipparkhos; c. 190 – c. 120 BC) was a Greek astronomergeographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidental discovery of the precession of the equinoxes. Hipparchus was born in NicaeaBithynia, and probably died on the island of Rhodes, Greece. He is known to have been a working astronomer between 162 and 127 BC.

Hipparchus is considered the greatest ancient astronomical observer and, by some, the greatest overall astronomer of antiquity. He was the first whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon survive. For this he certainly made use of the observations and perhaps the mathematical techniques accumulated over centuries by Meton of Athens (fifth century BC), TimocharisAristyllusAristarchus of Samos, and Eratosthenes, among others.

He developed trigonometry and constructed trigonometric tables, and he solved several problems of spherical trigonometry. With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry, he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses.

His other reputed achievements include the discovery and measurement of Earth’s precession, the compilation of the first known comprehensive star catalog from the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, as well as of the armillary sphere that he may have used in creating the star catalogue. Hipparchus is sometimes called the “father of astronomy”, a title conferred on him by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre in 1817]

Life and work

Hipparchus was born in Nicaea (Greek: Νίκαια), in Bithynia. The exact dates of his life are not known, but Ptolemy attributes astronomical observations to him in the period from 147 to 127 BC, and some of these are stated as made in Rhodes; earlier observations since 162 BC might also have been made by him. His birth date (c. 190 BC) was calculated by Delambre based on clues in his work. Hipparchus must have lived some time after 127 BC because he analyzed and published his observations from that year.

In the second and third centuries, coins were made in his honour in Bithynia that bear his name and show him with a globe.

Relatively little of Hipparchus’s direct work survives into modern times. Although he wrote at least fourteen books, only his commentary on the popular astronomical poem by Aratos was preserved by later copyists. Most of what is known about Hipparchus comes from Strabo‘s Geography and Pliny‘s Natural History in the first century; Ptolemy’s second-century Almagest; and additional references to him in the fourth century by Pappus and Theon of Alexandria in their commentaries on the Almagest.

Hipparchus’s only preserved work is Commentary on the Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus (Greek: Τῶν Ἀράτου καὶ Εὐδόξου φαινομένων ἐξήγησις). This is a highly critical commentary in the form of two books on a popular poem by Aratus based on the work by Eudoxos.[Hipparchus also made a list of his major works that apparently mentioned about fourteen books, but which is only known from references by later authors. His famous star catalog was incorporated into the one by Ptolemy and may be almost perfectly reconstructed by subtraction of two and two-thirds degrees from the longitudes of Ptolemy’s stars. The first trigonometric table was apparently compiled by Hipparchus, who is consequently now known as “the father of Trigonometry

 Eudoxus in the 4th century BC and Timocharis and Aristillus in the 3rd century BC already divided the ecliptic in 360 parts (our degrees, Greek: moira) of 60 arcminutes and Hipparchus continued this tradition. It was only in Hipparchus’s time (2nd century BC) when this division was introduced (probably by Hipparchus’s contemporary Hypsikles) for all circles in mathematics. Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), in contrast, used a simpler sexagesimal system dividing a circle into 60 parts. Hipparchus also adopted the Aristarhus astronomical Greek πῆχυς pēchys) that was equivalent to 2° or 2.5° (‘large cubit’).

Hipparchus’s long draconitic lunar period (5,458 months = 5,923 is post-Hipparchus so the direction of transmission is not settled by the tablets.

Geometry, trigonometry and other mathematical techniques

Hipparchus was recognized as the first mathematician known to have possessed a trigonometric table, which he needed when computing the eccentricity of the orbits of the Moon and Sun. He tabulated values for the chord function, which for a central angle in a circle gives the length of the straight line segment between the points where the angle intersects the circle. He may have computed this for a circle with a circumference of 21,600 units and a radius (rounded) of 3,438 units; this circle has a unit length for each arcminute along its perimeter. (This was “proven” by Toomer, but he later “cast doubt“ upon his earlier affirmation. Other authors have argued that a circle of radius 3,600 units may instead have been used by Hipparchus.) He tabulated the chords for angles with increments of 7.5°. In modern terms, the chord subtended by a central angle in a circle of given radius R equals R times twice the sine of half of the angle, i.e.:chord⁡�=2�⋅sin⁡12�{\displaystyle \operatorname {chord} \theta =2R\cdot \sin {\tfrac {1}{2}}\theta }The now-lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria‘s fourth-century commentary on section I.10 Trigonometry was a significant innovation, because it allowed Greek astronomers to solve any triangle, and made it possible to make quantitative astronomical models and predictions using their preferred geometric techniques.

Hipparchus must have used a better approximation for π than the one given by Archimedes of between 3+1071 (≈ 3.1408) and 3+17 (≈ 3.1429). Perhaps he had the approximation later used by Ptolemy, sexagesimal 3;08,30 (≈ 3.1417) (Almagest VI.7).

Hipparchus could have constructed his chord table using the Pythagorean theorem and a theorem known to Archimedes.

The stereographic projection was ambiguously attributed to Hipparchus by Synesios (c. 400 AD), and on that basis Hipparchus is often credited with inventing it or at least knowing of it. However, some scholars believe this conclusion to be unjustified by available evidence.The oldest extant description of the stereographic projection is found in Ptolemy‘s Planisphere (2nd century AD)

There are several indications that Hipparchus knew spherical trigonometry, but the first surviving text discussing it is by Menelaus of Alexandria in the first century, who now, on that basis, commonly is credited with its discovery. (Previous to the finding of the proofs of Menelaus a century ago, Ptolemy was credited with the invention of spherical trigonometry.) Ptolemy later used spherical trigonometry to compute things such as the rising and setting points of the ecliptic, or to take account of the lunar parallax. If he did not use spherical trigonometry, Hipparchus may have used a globe for these tasks, reading values off coordinate grids drawn on it, or he may have made approximations from planar geometry, or perhaps used arithmetical approximations developed by Pythagoras.

The now lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria’s 4th-century commentary on section Trigonometry was a significant innovation, because it allowed Greek astronomers to solve any triangle, and made it possible to make quantitative astronomical models and predictions using their preferred geometric techniques.

Hipparchus must have used a better approximation for π than the one from Archimedes of between ​3 10⁄71 (3.14085) and ​3 1⁄7 (3.14286). Perhaps he had the one later used by Ptolemy: 3;8,30 (sexagesimal)(3.1417) (Almagest VI.7), but it is not known whether he computed an improved value himself.

H I P P O C R A T E S A S C L E P I O S D I O S C U R I D E S

H I P P O C R A T E S AND A S C L E P I O S

Hippocrates (d. 460 BC-360 BC) was a curious Greek physician, the first to systematically classify medicine and attempt a methodical treatment of diseases. He was Koos, Asclepiades by birth and son of Heraklides and Phainaretis or Praxithea daughter of Phainaretis according to others. He was the 20th descendant of Herakles from his mother and the 18th descendant of Asclepius from his father. Initially he was a student of his own father, then of Herodikos, Gorgias, the orator Leontinus and Democritus of Abderitis, although several researchers claim that his relationship with Gorgias and Democritus was a spiritual communication and not a discipleship relationship.

*******Facts and assumptions

2500 YEARS AGO HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED BRAIN AND HEART SURGERY…

DESPITE THE ALMOST NON-EXISTENT MEANS OF HIS TIME, HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED DIFFICULT SURGERIES. HE AND HIS STUDENTS SUCCESSFULLY TREAT ED ORTHOPEDIC, CARDIAC AND BASIC SURGERY CASES. HIPPOCRATES EVEN PERFORMED OPERATIONS ON THE HUMAN SKULL, AS WE READ IN SEVERAL OF HIS WORKS … IN ADDITIO TO THE OPERATION ITSELF, HIPPOCRATES ATTACHED GREAT IMPORTANCE TO THE REPARATION OF THE PATIENT AND THE OPERATING ROOM.

IN THE WORK KAT’IATREION, HE DESCRIBES IN DETAIL HOW THE PATIENT SHOULD BE PREPARED BEFORE THE OPERATION, HOW THE TOOLS ARE STERILIZED, HOW THE SPACE IS SHAPED , BUT ALSO HOW ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL LIGHT IS USED DURING THE OPERATION …

AMERICAN ARCHAEOBOTANISTS WERE ABLE FOR THE FIRST TIME TO STUDY AND ANALYZE THE CONTENTS OF PILLS MADE BY DOCTORS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND WHICH WERE DISCOVERED 20 YEARS AGO, IN A GREEK SHIPWRECK OFF THE COAST OF TUSCANY...

DNA ANALYZES SHOWED, THAT EACH PILL WAS A MIXTURE OF AT LEAST TEN DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS, INCLUDING HIBISKUS AND CELERY. “FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE NOW HAVE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE OF WHAT IS CONTAINED IN THE WRITINGS OF THE ‘ANCIENT GREEK PHYSICIANS DIOSCORIDIS AND GALENOS, CARRIED OUT.

“BALANCING ELECTROMAGNETIC CONVECTION FLUIDS OF THE BODY” TREATMENTS BY REGULATING THE ALKALINITY AND ACIDITY OF THE ORGANS,THAT THEY WERE MAKING CURSE USING “LEFT-HANDED AMINO ACIDS” (ANTIBIOTICS) OBTAINED FROM PLANTS, FULLY KNOWING, THAT ONLY RECENTLY DID MOLEKYLAR BIOLOGY DISCOVER THE ACTION-REACTION OF LEFT-HANDED AMINO ACIDS (ANTIBIOTICS) AMINO ACIDS (ORGANISM PROTEINS).

EVERY SICKNESS START FROM THE PSYCHE(= ΨΥΧΗ=SOUL) AND AFTER FINISH IN THE BODY.
HIPPOCRATES.

The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in the Caduceus of Mercury. Legend says that Mercury once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around her and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes  etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – Hermeneutis = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted Asclepius and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated in the sense of koutalini snake control rod to the spine, the energy of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.

The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in
KHPYKEIO /KIRYKIO (=Messangers rod) The SYMBOL of HERMES κῆρυξ
ΚΗΡΎΚΕΙΟ from the verb: κηρύσσω=I inform, I announce.
KIRYKIO SYMBOL or
(“CADUCEUS” Later in Latin & West later) of HERMES or “MERCURY”LATER in LATIN)>>>>>>>>>>
HERMES once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around it and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – HERMENEUTIS = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted ASCLEPIUS and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated as DNA in the sense of controling the rod to the spine, the genetic energy and of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.
So, like HERMES, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
HERCULES, from INFANT he managed to DROWN two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the CHAMPS ELYSEES ( “Ylisia pedia”Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of HERCULES let it also leaked and that, as Pais of ZEUS, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given.


So, like Hermes, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
Hercules, from infancy he managed to drown two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the Champs Elysees (Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of Hercules, let it also leaked and that, as Pais of Zeus, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given to him against the Offit Atlanteans, those we call Satan today.

THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS BECAME VERY POPULAR AND THE CULT CENTRES (KNOWN AS AN ASCLEPIEION) WERE USED BY PRIESTS TO CURE THE SICK. INVALIDS ALSO CAME TO THE SHRINES OF ASCLEPIUS TO FIND CURES FOR THEIR AILMENTS (IN THE SAME FASHION PILGRIMS VISIT LOURDES TODAY.) THE PROCESS OF HEALING WAS KNOWN AS INCUBATION. THE PATIENT WOULD SPEND THE NIGHT IN A DORMITORY. DURING THE NIGHT THEY WOULD SUPPOSEDLY BE VISITED BY THE GOD IN A DREAM. PRIESTS WOULD INTERPRET THE DREAMS AND THEN RECOMMEND A REMEDY OR GIVE ADVICE ON HOW THEY COULD BE CURED WITH PERHAPS A RECOMMENDED VISIT TO THE BATHS AND GYMNASIUMS. THERE WERE MANY CENTRES AND SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE, FROM TRIKKIS IN THESSALY TO THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS BELIEVED THAT HIPPOCRATES, A GREAT DOCTOR OF ANTIQUITY, PLIED HIS TRADE ON THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS ALSO SAID THAT HIPPOCRATES WAS A DESCENDANT OF ASCLEPIUS.

THE ROMANS ADOPTED THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS, BUT CHANGED HIS NAME TO LATIN; THEY CALLED HIM AESCULAPIUS.

THE  DOUGHTERS & SONS of ASKLIPIOS

.

HYGEIA -ΥΓΕΙΑ =  HEALTH: from: “ygiiros” related to “wet” = hydro. This liquid state, the “ygriis” is healthy. “Healthy esti temperateness of juice in us” … Always health characterized as liquid, juicy, while illness and death have the common characteristic dryness, stiffness.

–  IASO (Ιασώ: from: IAOMAI = I HEAL ιάομαι = θεραπεύω).

–  AKESO (Ακεσώ: from: AKEOMAI = I HEAL with a sharp instrument) ακέομαι

–  PANAKEA (Πανάκεια:Παν+akeia =The Everything Healer)

– AIGLI (Αίγλη) φως ηλίου – phos Heliou -, δόξα ‘ from: Aiso – αϊσσω + λίαν. = the Radiation of the Health.

MAHAON – Μαχάων from: Mahomai=I fight – mahi =battle example: Andromach the doughter of Priamos king of Troja, meaning=the battle against man— mahaira = knife, surgeon (χειρουργός).

PODALEIRIOS  (Ποδαλείριος) FROM: pous = foot – πους + leirion – λείριον (field flower). he had permentaly his feetinto  withwild field flowers – Botanic Doctor. (ιατρός – iatros=doctor + rootcuter ριζοτόμος)”

asklipio_tis_ko.jpg

The two sons of Asclepius, returning unharmed from the Trojan war, continued to travel and, posthumously deified, like his father. Established places of worship and healing, dedicated to Asclepius, named “Asclepiea”. Ancient Asklepion considered that the Trikke in Thessaly, while the most famous was despite Epidaurus. Equally famous was the Asklepion of Kos, which was famous for Asclepiadae and particularly of course, for the father of medicine Hippocrates.

Even mentioned that:

“Animals temples of Asclepius was the serpent (όφις), who symbolizes the periodic of renewal and is an emblem of wisdom, truth and intelligence (ευφυΐα), the cock, symbol of vigilance, the dog, symbol of faith, intelligence and vigilance and whoever in the Asclepiea healed lambent Tina diseased, the Aix (=Goat) which breastfed Asclepius and calculus because tartar became mythological legend that nourished Asclepius in his childhood.

MEDICAL IN ANCIENT GREECE – ASKLIPIOS – HIPPOCRATES – GALENOS – Dioscouridis & More

Asclepius, god of medicine, son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas who lived at the foot of Mount Pelion, brought up by the wise centaur Chiron, is the most famous healer of diseases that plague people in antiquity, and the power arrives by raising the dead … Daughter of course, the Health ..

“Asclepius: God of Medicine, worshiped everywhere in ancient Greece.

The two snakes – actions that express our nervous system, formed in the Caduceus of Mercury. Legend says that Mercury once saw two snakes fighting and put the rod between them and wrapped them around her and stopped hostile. The name of Hermes  etymolocaly means, “one who interprets”, (Eρμηνευτής – Hermeneutis = “performer. The performer is our mind, the logic that processes and knowledge, thus developing the consciousness and the evolutionary level of the divine.
The snake symbol adopted Asclepius and Hippocrates as a symbol, which apart from the body were doctors and doctors of the soul. The rod with which control the snake, is the power of authority and control over this energy, the body electromagnetism, which is disturbed. This can be translated in the sense of koutalini snake control rod to the spine, the energy of the lower instincts, the brute, who is as influential mentioned through the spinal cord like a snake runs along the spine, the and ancient Serpent called.


So, like Hermes, reconciles these forces, and balancing the distribution of energy in the body occurs and healing, the mind admonishes and guides his passions.
Hercules, from infancy he managed to drown two snakes, that put under its control, to tame and dominate the forces that make us vulnerable and vulnerable, and became a demigod hero went to the Champs Elysees (Ηλυσια πεδια). Through this myth of Hercules, let it also leaked and that, as Pais of Zeus, the possession of a power of the heavenly, not only dominate through the mind and intellectual contact with the Divine earthly, bodily instincts, but and implied a mission given to him against the Offit Atlanteans, those we call Satan today.

THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS BECAME VERY POPULAR AND THE CULT CENTRES (KNOWN AS AN ASCLEPIEION) WERE USED BY PRIESTS TO CURE THE SICK. INVALIDS ALSO CAME TO THE SHRINES OF ASCLEPIUS TO FIND CURES FOR THEIR AILMENTS (IN THE SAME FASHION PILGRIMS VISIT LOURDES TODAY.) THE PROCESS OF HEALING WAS KNOWN AS INCUBATION. THE PATIENT WOULD SPEND THE NIGHT IN A DORMITORY. DURING THE NIGHT THEY WOULD SUPPOSEDLY BE VISITED BY THE GOD IN A DREAM. PRIESTS WOULD INTERPRET THE DREAMS AND THEN RECOMMEND A REMEDY OR GIVE ADVICE ON HOW THEY COULD BE CURED WITH PERHAPS A RECOMMENDED VISIT TO THE BATHS AND GYMNASIUMS. THERE WERE MANY CENTRES AND SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE, FROM TRIKKIS IN THESSALY TO THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS BELIEVED THAT HIPPOCRATES, A GREAT DOCTOR OF ANTIQUITY, PLIED HIS TRADE ON THE ISLAND OF COS. IT IS ALSO SAID THAT HIPPOCRATES WAS A DESCENDANT OF ASCLEPIUS.

THE ROMANS ADOPTED THE CULT OF ASCLEPIUS, BUT CHANGED HIS NAME TO LATIN; THEY CALLED HIM AESCULAPIUS.

THE  DOUGHTERS & SONS of ASKLIPIOS

.

HYGEIA -ΥΓΕΙΑ =  HEALTH: from: “ygiiros” related to “wet” = hydro. This liquid state, the “ygriis” is healthy. “Healthy esti temperateness of juice in us” … Always health characterized as liquid, juicy, while illness and death have the common characteristic dryness, stiffness.

–  IASO (Ιασώ: from: IAOMAI = I HEAL ιάομαι = θεραπεύω).

–  AKESO (Ακεσώ: from: AKEOMAI = I HEAL with a sharp instrument) ακέομαι

–  PANAKEA (Πανάκεια:Παν+akeia =The Everything Healer)

– AIGLI (Αίγλη) φως ηλίου – phos Heliou -, δόξα ‘ from: Aiso – αϊσσω + λίαν. = the Radiation of the Health.

MAHAON – Μαχάων from: Mahomai=I fight – mahi =battle example: Andromach the doughter of Priamos king of Troja, meaning=the battle against man— mahaira = knife, surgeon (χειρουργός).

PODALEIRIOS  (Ποδαλείριος) FROM: pous = foot – πους + leirion – λείριον (field flower). he had permentaly his feetinto  withwild field flowers – Botanic Doctor. (ιατρός – iatros=doctor + rootcuter ριζοτόμος)”

Podaleirios was the son of Asclepius and Ipion. The word “Podaleirios” is a compound consisting of the synthetic words “ποῦς” (=foot) and “leirio” (=lily, narcissus). Therefore, the first name means one who has fine or delicate feet (see also: .

Podaleirius participated in the Trojan War. Together with his brother, Mahaona, during the siege of Troy, they rendered great services to the Achaeans, thanks to their medical knowledge. According to the myth, it was these two brothers who healed Menelaus, when he was wounded by the arrows of Pandarus. It is said that Podaleirius, returning from Troy, was shipwrecked in Caria, where Damethus was king. His daughter, Sirna, was seriously injured falling from the roof of the house. Podaleirius managed to cure her and Damiethos to show his gratitude, gave Podaleirius his daughter as his wife. The couple settled in Kos, where Podalirios founded two cities, one of which he named Sirna, in honor of his wife. Podaleirius and Cyrna had a son, Hippolochus, who was taught the medical art by his father.

Podaleirius and his brother, Mahaon, were worshiped as the patron gods of medicine in various parts of the Greek world.

sources

The two sons of Asclepius, returning unharmed from the Trojan war, continued to travel and, posthumously deified, like his father. Established places of worship and healing, dedicated to Asclepius, named “Asclepiea”. Ancient Asklepion considered that the Trikke in Thessaly, while the most famous was despite Epidaurus. Equally famous was the Asklepion of Kos, which was famous for Asclepiadae and particularly of course, for the father of medicine Hippocrates.

Even mentioned that:

“Animals temples of Asclepius was the serpent (όφις), who symbolizes the periodic of renewal and is an emblem of wisdom, truth and intelligence (ευφυΐα), the cock, symbol of vigilance, the dog, symbol of faith, intelligence and vigilance and whoever in the Asclepiea healed lambent Tina diseased, the Aix (=Goat) which breastfed Asclepius and calculus because tartar became mythological legend that nourished Asclepius in his childhood.

In ancient Greece the god of medicine and health was  Asclepius. (Check up page: Hippocrates – Asclepius school)

MERCURY (HERMES) & MERCHANT APPROACH DISAPPROVING ASCLEPIUS (PHYSICIAN) AND THE NAKED GRACES ( MEDITRINE HYGEIA AND PANACEA )

According to mythology, Asclepius was the son of Apollo and Coronis, daughter of the king of Thessaly, phlegyas. When the Koronis was pregnant, expecting the child of Apollo, he fell in love and married a mortal, the power load. Apollo enraged by this and ordered his sister, the goddess Artemis, to kill Koronis, did. While the dead body of Coronis burning Apollo took the baby from her womb and gave it to the centaur Chiron to grow.

Chiron taught Asclepius medicine and hunting. Asclepius participated later in the Argonauts with Jason and his sons fought in the Trojan war. The ancient Greeks imagined Asclepius as a strong man with beard sitting on a throne. The sacred animal was the snake and the symbol was a stick.

ASKLIPIOS – Ασκληπιός from: ΑΣΚΕΛΗΣ + ΠΙΟΣ (= haggard +  Humble) is the one who”turns the hard & dry illness into healthy mildness stage “.

In Greek mythology there was the face of Machaon. He was the son of the god Asklepios and Epionis and patron of doctors. Today, no doctor in Greece does not know! The Machaon participated, in Homer, the civil between the Greeks Trojan war and took care of the wounded and sick of the  Achaean Greeks.

EPIONE was the goddess of the soothing of pain. She was the wife of the medicine-god Asklepios (Aslcepius) and the mother of the five Asklepiades (Asclepiades)–Hygeia (Good Health), Panakeia (Cure-All), Iaso (Healing), Aigle (Radiance), and Akeso (Curing).

Asklipios Bellow: Asklipios & Epioni on Ivory sculpture

The Greeks had the great temple of Asclepius in Epidaurus and many other churches across the country were called “Asclepieia” (in fact hospitals were) the most important of which was the island Kos. These spaces attending patients. There the god priests gave various herbal medicines and recommend the appropriate diet. Patients purified and having offered their gifts to the temples. After undoing in rooms in which the night was coming, supposedly, the god transformed – usually in snake – and healed them. In fact the treatment was done by the priests who were using natural medicines and often did surgeries !!!

At Epidaurus Asklepios was worshiped from the 16th century BC Originally the god worshiped in the temple of Epidaurus. The Asklepieion of Epidaurus had more religious character, unlike the Asklepieion of Kos had more scientific nature. The Temple of Asclepius in Epidaurus had inside the gold and ivory statue of the god was seated on his throne holding a stick. In Asklepion came sick from all over Greece and after the entire known world. Patients initially made a sacrifice to Asclepius father, Apollo, who also was a doctor. Indeed, Apollo and he was considered god of medicine and a skillful surgeon. In the sanctuary of Asclepius were medical instruments such as scalpels, and there were also medical procedures!

In Asklepion of Epidaurus was a place, the “Abaton”, where the patient is asleep. During sleep the insight given to the way in which they should act so as to cure and heal and others. In the 4th century BC the Asklepieion created spa and patients about the benefits to their health spas, as they do today in spas. At the same time in storey building Asklepios at Epidaurus were built two other floors, to accommodate the dozens of patients who flocked from across the country.

The first established medicine was the philosopher (disciple of Pythagoras) Alkmaion (late 6th – early 5th century BC) of Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy. First he argued that the brain is the center of consciousness and physiological functions. The Alkmaion wrote the first medical book: the “On Nature” (common titles for older philosophers).

The Alkmaion, among others, described the optic nerve and the Eustachian tube in the ear. Also invented surgical instruments and did brain surgery. The Chalkidios featuring Alkmaiona as the father of anatomy, while others describe him as the father of medicine. The writer describes the grandfather of medicine! The Alkmaion established medicine and later Hippocrates of made them a science.

Equally important is the contribution of Empedocles in medicine. Empedocles (494-434 BC) was from Agrigento (Greek colony in Sicily). He dealt with physics, music and medicine. In medicine was the first to speak about the development of the human organism. He said the bodies of man from birth, undergo a process in which progressively developed and refined – as generally all tissues of the human body.

Also important was the contribution of the Diogenis Apoloniates (Apollonia Crete) was a philosopher of the 5th century BC Diogenes lived in Athens as a doctor. Probably went to dissections in corpses, since anatomically describe the circulatory system of man.

In Asklepion Kos before Hippocrates, the great physician, was Aineios (6th-5th century BC).
Hippocrates (460-377 BC) is the father of medicine. He lived on the island Kos. His father was a priest at the Asklepieion of Kos, where patients flocked from all regions of the country. His medical liked so he decided to deal with it. His studies debunking the disease that until then considered as a punishment from God and made a unique issue of Asclepius priests, doctors in training field – scientists.

Aslepius temple in Rome

By Hippocrates the cause of the disease is the very sick and the doctor needs to consider carefully to find it. Hippocrates founded a clinical examination of the patient (overview, percussion, palpation, listening – with ear then) and went on innovative methods of treatment with herbs, herbal teas etc. It was reported elsewhere that this was the first to discover the healing powers of Willow containing acetylsalicylic acid in late 19th century, the German company BAYER manufactured in synthetic form: the known to us all, aspirin! Aspirin is a painkiller, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and protects against heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease (dementia).

Hippocrates dealt with anatomy. Also invented special surgical instruments and proceeded in difficult surgeries. Such were the opening of the chest (thoracotomy), the trepanation of the skull (for cerebral edema or volume) n. A. The surgical instruments used were scalpels, forceps, endoscopes Exclamation mark, cranial tools for cranial surgery, forceps for childbirth and many other tools. Surgical instruments used by the disinfected before surgery, in fire or old wine (rich in alcohol).

The reputation of Hippocrates was huge and influenced all subsequent philosophers and doctors (medical). Hippocrates wrote his famous oath in which even today swear graduates all of the world’s medical schools. Among other oath says:

“… I recommend to my patients diet that science and the crisis I consider more appropriate and will chase away from them any harm and damaging food. I will never give them poison (see. Today euthanasia), nor give them incorrect advice (vl.simera medical errors and medical malpractice). Nor would prevent women from conceiving (in ancient Greece the family and children was something sacred) and will help them to have an abortion (see. Today unwanted pregnancies and abortions). Above all I would keep my life pure and undefiled my art. In that house will go only offer assistance to the sick and will depart every wrongful act and profane contact. And that listen from now on in the exercise of my medical duties on the common life of the people, if I am not allowed, I clam up and keep it secret, closely guarded … “.

With his last words Hippocrates and introduces the concept of medical confidentiality.

Hippocrates had school in Kos, wrote 59 books. First he talked about acute diseases like saying, kill most patients. He spoke about chronic diseases. Also described many diseases and symptoms such as pleurisy, pneumonia, the “frenitin” (fever with delirium), the lethargy, the “heat” (high fever) etc. Hippocrates gave great importance to the prevention of diseases and know the phrase: “Kallion (better) prevention is despite the cure.”

This was the general belief of the ancient Greeks who followed healthier life: the right diet (standard diet, the ancient Greek) and continuous exercise (from childhood). Moreover, few know that Hippocrates even founded homeopathy, centuries before its founder. This was the German physician Samuel Hahnemann started his experiments in 1813, 183 patients with typhus that had success 99. 95% !!!

Hippocrates founded homeopathy with the famous phrase: “like the like eisin remedies’, the same can be treated with the same. It is not unlikely Hippocrates and other doctors of ancient Greece to using homeopathic medicines, ie potent drugs diluted to such an extent that is not toxic but can cause symptoms similar to the disease and the mechanism to heal.

Generally, the ancient Greeks had developed the medicine that has experienced particular growth in the time of Hippocrates. First, first discovered the immunity acquired by the body after the attack from certain infections. This describes Thucydides saying that the plague in Athens in 430 BC, who got sick and survived any disease.

Also, the ancient Greeks used various therapeutic agents, such as bleeding (it might help to pulmonary edema and in some other diseases such as heart disease and kidney disease), medication herbal, administration of infusions, cauterization wounds, proper diet ( which today usually neglected) any illness, surgery – where necessary, as well as baths. In other words, first the ancient Greeks created the holistic medicine and seeing each patient as an individual, as a unique personality. Not see him as a figure, commodity and customer as modern medicine has enslaved to pharmaceutical companies and physicians are professionals …

The ancient Greeks usually die in old age, if we exclude deaths from wars and epidemics. This can determine the reader with the periods that were born the ancient Greeks died listed in this book. Most listed here, died after 70 !!! Unacceptable ‘surveys’ some (non-Greek) “scholars” of envy have supposedly low average life of the ancient Greeks.

The low average age in Greece applicable since the early to mid 20th century AD (Hunger, constant wars). Generally, the Greeks are characterized by their longevity. The current exceptions are due to the adoption of western lifestyle and especially the western diet causes heart disease and cancer. Besides, toxic and carcinogenic substances are everywhere: in the air, in food, in the water we drink, even in breast milk !!! The natural medicines of ancient Greek containing the substances pharmacology later isolated and proceeded to synthetic production.

 Asklepeion

In ancient Greece there were many medical schools such as Kos (Hippocrates) and Knidos (Greek colony in Asia Minor. – Opposite Kos). In Knidos was known physician Eudoxus lived in the 4th century BC There were also many Asclepieia was – as discussed above – temples in honor of the god Asklepios. In essence it was infirmaries and were called as the first hospital !!! We mentioned before the Asklepieion of Epidaurus. Other big Asclepieia was Athens, Kos and Pergamon.

Pergamos was a city in the Middle. Asia during the Hellenistic period became the capital of the kingdom of Pergamon. Medical schools in ancient Greece were in Kos by Hippocrates in Cyrene (Greek colony in Libya) and Croton (Greek colony in southern Italy) – from Alkmaiona. However, it is noted that all the ancient Greeks had medical knowledge and even in Athens and in many other cities and young people were taught the lesson of medicine, as part of their schooling! This unfortunately is not the current school …

Philolaus of Croton

Besides Hippocrates, in the middle of the 5th Philolaos century lived in Croton in southern Italy (Greek colony). Philolaos was Pythagorean philosopher and physician. After the destruction of the School of Pythagoreans in Croton, Filolaos fled to Thebes where he taught. When Filolaou diseases should seek the juices of man, ie blood, bile and phlegm. This accepts modern medicine with blood tests, biochemical tests and sputum (infection or macroscopic cancer or tuberculosis). Philolaos said also that excessive hot or cold, and too much food can cause diseases. As regards overeating known scourge of the western world, obesity. About extreme cold causes frostbite and vulnerability to infection, while excessive hot causes heat stroke.

asklipio_tis_ko.jpg

Even Aristotle had medical knowledge. His parents were Asclepiadae and even his father Nicomachus( =Battle winner) was physician to the court of King of Macedonia Amyntas B. From his father, Aristotle taught medicine which broadcast and Alexander the Great student. Alexander seemed particularly useful medicine in his campaign in Asia and even special diets recommended in patients soldiers.

Herophilus the Chalkidonios

Another great physician, was Herophilus of Chalcedon in Bithynia who lived in the 3rd century BC The Herophilus brought the medicine in Alexandria and was the first anatomist. He cuts rather animal and not human. But perhaps eventually made it to the man, as accused for that. Moreover, it is said that the Ptolemies in Egypt allowed the anatomy to criminals bodies. In general, the anatomy in the human body was prohibited until shortly after the years of the Renaissance. The Herophilus distinguished tendons of the vessels, described the nervous system, stood out the motor from the sensory nerves and said that the seat of the mind is the brain. Also studied the liver, duodenum (that gave the name of the related length), prostate, lung, brain (brain correlated to the nervous system), the lymphatic vessels and liver.

The Herophilus distinguished the optic nerve and studied the eye, naming the retina and cornea. Great importance is given to the proper diet and exercise, which accepts the modern cardiology. The Herophilus and invented an instrument for the study of beats, because he realized the diagnostic and clinical worthy !!!

Erasistratus Ceos

At the same time as Herophilus, ie the 3rd century BC, lived and Erasistratus from Kea (island of Cyclades) made in Alexandria anatomy and research on the heart. Erasistratus considered one of the founders of the anatomy. Note that Bithynia (area in northwestern Asia Minor.) Born Herophilus and generally southwestern Asia and Egypt were then Hellenistic kingdoms founded by Alexander the Great ruled that his successors and many Greeks lived there.

Galenos

After Hippocrates, the greatest physician of antiquity was Claudius Galenos was the founder of experimental physiology and descriptive anatomy. Galenos was a Greek. He was born in 129 or 131 AD Pergamon in Asia Minor. (formerly Hellenistic kingdom passed to the Romans). He was son of Nicias architect. From child Galen frequented the Asklepieion city that the Greeks founded as in other cities in the territory of southwestern Asia. There, patients flocked from around the world. Galenos was attending medical school doctors to practice the medical profession. At age 14 he began philosophy and medicine courses. Note that in ancient medicine was an integral part of philosophy. Teacher was the Satyr, a student of the great anatomist Quintus.

Later, at age 16, Galenos began his medical studies in Pergamum and continued in Smyrna (Greek Ionian colony), Corinth and Alexandria. In Alexandria did anatomy animal. In 161 AD Galenos went to Rome, where he healed the Aristotelian philosopher Eudemus, the moment that no doctor could not cure him. This satisfied both Evdimos set up by Galenos in aristocratic circles and made him famous.

The reputation of Galen came as the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and Lucius-Regent Oniro made Galenos official doctor of the court! Galenos gave many lectures and wrote several books. He died in 199 or 201 AD Unfortunately, his books – which were kept in the Temple of Peace – destroyed by fire. So they will stay hidden forever many of the innovative drugs and surgeries Galenos.

Galenos believed that good health was the result of a balance of four juices of the body: blood, bile, black bile and phlegm. Any disturbance in this balance or poor mixing juice leads to disease. Anatomy first, centuries before Darwin, discovered the similarity between man and ape !!! So used monkeys from northern Africa to anatomical studies (anatomy in humans above that forbidden). He also did anatomy in pigs.

Galenos studied the anatomy of the uterus, eye diseases and the movement of the chest and lungs during breathing. He described the liver and heart valves! Singled arteries from veins and said that the first releases his pure blood. Until then believed that the arteries circulating air. However, this is not a completely wrong and blood gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide – are transported in the blood dissolved. Mostly, however, found in red blood cells which are bound by and are released into the bloodstream.

Galenos reported that more blood is in the aorta. He said that the blood pumped into the aorta from the left ventricle after being passed through the right. Galenos spoke about muscle movement, breathing, semen, lung cancer, tumors, liver cirrhosis, convulsions and epilepsy (the sacred disease of the ancient Greeks), shivering, the delirium tremens, tuberculosis, stones in the bile and spleen ailments. Also dealt with the diet, he built many surgeries and medications.

Specifically manufactured teas, extracts and preparations, for example, drug plants such as opium, henbane and the bulbs squill. The last used them as cordial, diuretic and expectorant drug! Therapeutically used the poison of vipers! Today various poisons such as beeswax, of snakes and other natural substances (trunk fir, sharks and other substance) scientists searching drugs for cancer therapy. Some of them, in laboratory studies, stabilize or reduce tumor size or prevent irrigation with blood.

Dioscorides

IT SHOULD ALSO MENTION THE NAME OF THE PEDANIOU DIOSCORIDES WHO WAS A GREEK PHYSICIAN, BOTANIST AND PHARMACIST OF THE 1ST CENTURY AD BY ANAZARGO OF CILICIA. HE WROTE THE BOOK “ON MEDICAL MATTER” 77 AD.

The Pedanius Dioscorides (40-90 AD) was an important physician, pharmacologist and botanist from Anazarbus of Cilicia, known for his five-volume work “On medical matter”, the most influential in pharmacology until 1600 AD . There are many copies of his work, even in the 5th century. Considered the leading pharmacologist of antiquity, the scientific contribution of which is considered equivalent to that of botany Theophrastus . Manuscripts by Dioscorides treatise, especially the oldest, as the code of the monastery of Great Lavra of Mount Athos, Konstantinoupoulis located in Vienna’s library, Naples and Michigan are of particular interest. In miniature of the 15th century is represented by Sofia shows a plant and a painter to portray who writes it.

Contents [hide]
1 Life
2 Archival material
3 Other works
4 References
4.1 Greek literature
5 References
6 Sources
7 External links
Life [edit | edit source]

Portrait of Dioscorides, Lefnten 1603
He was born around 40 AD the city Anazarbus Cilicia (pt. Northern Turkey) and little information delivered on his youth. Dioscorides was particularly inclined to study plants and herbs from an early age. After finishing medical studies at Tarsus near Supreme Court of Asklipieiadas School served to research the pharmacological properties of many plants, following the Roman army in several Mediterranean countries [5], serving as a doctor and having the responsibility of care for the injured.

His name Pedanius acquirer when it was adopted by the Roman family of Pedanion to acquire Roman citizenship rights.  It was named Pedanius more to be distinguished from the:  poet Dioscorides, and the historian Dioscorides.

He knew the properties of mandrake(μανδραγόρα), the therapeutic value and utility for premedication and sedation [8]. He had also noticed and described the phenomenon of allergic shock from taking drugs [9].

Dioscorides recorded more than 1,000 drugs, the majority of which came from plants. He also described substances that are now known as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory or contraceptives. Copies of the multi-volume work “On medical matter” were in constant circulation and used in practice by the heyday of the Roman Empire.

The first Latin version dates from 1478, a few decades after the invention of printing. The influence of his work spans at least until the Renaissance period and generally estimated tell Dioskourides methods of observation offered a solid foundation for the development of pharmacological science. Apart from its value as a medical textbook, high value is considered the wealth of information that gives the plants and herbs of southeastern Europe.

From Antiquity to the Renaissance, and later with the typography, the “On Ylis Medicine” was writen to all then known languages ​​in the West and in the East, and to the 19th century. He was a model for all medicinal books.

The Arabs called it even Dioscorides “Envoy of God Botanikis” .The most famous and valuable copy that is kept today in the Vienna National Library (Cod med.gr. 1). Copied by “commandment of residents and guilds of Pera in 512 AD and donated to Julian on amic. Other precious copies are the Code of Naples in 512 AD, several Arab codes, and the famous Turkish codes Topkapı Istanbul.

Certainly, Dioscorides not found himself the properties of all these plants. As pointed out by E. Mpaouman in his book “The Greek Flora ‘knowledge about the healing properties of nature are lost in the mists of time, and the first recording of treatment with herbs owe to Theophrastus. But the feat is that Dioscorides had recognized as therapeutic approximately 500 plants from 6000 found in Greece (8%), while today only 5% of the 600,000 plants that grow worldwide has erefnithei.To “Great Safflower”, one of 70 Centaur growing in Greece and still holds the name “Chiron” or “Blood of Hercules”, reminds us that the Centaur Chiron had affixed this herb on the wound that caused him Hercules. O Dioscorides considers herb valuable drug for the treatment of open wounds.

The “Elenion” is rather the “chiffons Cheironion” Theophrastus, the current Inola heleniom. Its roots contain substances Alantolaktoni, Inulin, etc. and used stimulant, a stimulant, such as for the treatment of respiratory diseases or angina. And today is used in chronic cough or chronic duodenal ulcer. In trade we find the name Hanopect or within the elixir Mellissengeist.I Mandrake root of the plant is already used by Homer as hypnotic and / or as a painkiller. The son of Asclepius Machaon had used on the wound of Philoctetes. In other cases they chewed piece for hypnotic. Dioscorides was getting juice from the root of mandrake was making and diluted mixture for controlled dosage, because high doses could be dangerous. The root of the mandrake contains alkaloids like Hyoscyamine, scopolamine and atropine. Still, there are homeopathic medicines prepared from the root of like Anhaloniom, Claoparest etc. But they have been replaced by purely chemical preparations. Being the first known hypnotic, the Mandrake has been chosen as the emblem of Greek Society of Anesthesiologists.

The atropos, the current Atropa belladonna, is a tall shrub toxic properties of which had described Dioscorides. The weight of an ancient drachma could cause fantasies in a double dose fantasies kept four days, and a quadruple dose cause death. Ten or twelve fruits are fatal. Name Belladona (Bella Donna) mean good woman because few drops of the fruit in the eyes causing dilated pupil, which is considered to embellish old women. Atropine is also used in ophthalmology, and against bradycardia and / or as an antidote to poisoning by insecticides or nerve gas.

Pro Dioskourides, otherwise “soul balm” today neat “balm”, used mainly for the treatment of wounds. As tea is considered today the best antidepressant after inhibitors Serotonin. In Europe and in America is known by the name St. John’s Wort or Johanneskraot, not the sales exceed 1 billion. Dollars a year. In Greece grows outside our door and our grandmothers used it as a pain reliever in babies. The antidepressant activity has xechastei.To juice of kafkalithres, the “Iordylion” gave him, mixed with wine, for certain kidney diseases, not the mallow, the “Malachi,” for bites from poisonous snakes, or used the flowers as Tea as today.

But medicinal plants that have survived until today are infinite, and those numerous history and mythology have connected with some treatment, so it is impossible to fit the brief reference to the contribution of Dioscorides. The influence of his work spans at least until the Renaissance period and generally estimated tell Dioskourides methods of observation offered a solid foundation for the development of pharmacological science. Apart from its value as a medical textbook, high value is considered the wealth of information that gives the plants and herbs of southeastern Europe.

Archive material 

Arabic book for simple medications: On medical matter Dioskourides. Cumin and Dill c. 1334. British Museum
 The homepage of the Vienna Dioscorides, Blackberry Artemisia.
 Dioscorides De Materia Medica Spain 12th 13th century.jpg
 Dioscorides writes seated
 Rare copy (515 AD) from the bird collection from Dioscorides, Vienna, Austrian National Gallery
 On medical matter in Byzantine version of the 15th century
 

Manuscript (Wiener Dioskurides)
 

Dioscuri; honor was given the name of a family of monocotyledonous plants (Dioscoreacae)
Other projects [Edit | Code edit]
About poisoning – De Venero
About iovolon- De Venetaris Anibalibus
About peony and what poiein may, Fragmenta 11.2.164 – 11.2.167, Berlin Pyr. 1914
References:
Gunther, R.T., ed. (1933). The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. Oxford University Press.
Isely, Duane (1994). One hundred and one botanists. Iowa State University Press.
Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. Krebs (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Murray, J. (1884). The Academy. Alexander and Shephrard.
Nutton, Vivian (2004). Ancient Medicine. Routledge.
Greek literature [Edit | Code edit]
On medical matter, pub, Georgiadis ISBN 960-316-155-1
About medical material (with translation), ed. Miletus ISBN 960-8033-01-02
On medical matter, five volumes, Cactus versions
On simple medicines (two volumes) ed. Cactus
About poisons and drugs such outpost and treatment etc. ed. Cactus
On medical matter, pub, Zitros, 2006 ISBN 960-8437-61-X
References [change | edit source]
Jump over ↑ TRGunther, The Greek herbal of Dioscorides (1934)
Jump over Dioscorides ↑
Jump over ↑ Encyclopedia Structure, vol. 8os.s 144
Jump over ↑ Introduction, On medical matter, ed. Cactus.
Jump over ↑ J. Mond, Pharm., 2.117 (1958)
Jump over ↑ Dioscorides, the founder of Pharmacology
↑ Jump over Lucian, Timaeus the Athenian 2.9 “under mandrake kathefdeis nor of epiorkounton hears nor adikountas bishop”
Jump over ↑ «on alert and periodynonton (ypervolikos pain) and efon on which House anesthesia intersecting or incinerated poiisai kathefdei agar man ‘
Jump over ↑ «kataferesthai and skotousthai and pnigesthai .. foregone conclusions on the drug.” Dioscorides, On poisons and drugs such outpost and para therapy. 152
Jump over ↑ Huxley (2007), pp. 34
Sources :
E.W. Stieb, Drug Adulterration and its Derectio in the Writings of Theophrastus, Dioscorides and Pliny, 1958
R. Huxley (ed.), The Great Naturalists, Thames & Hudson, London, 2007
Article ef.Kathimerinis
External links [edit | edit source]
Commons logo
The Wikimedia Commons has multimedia on the topic
Dioscorides Pedanius
Translation into German of Materia Medica, 1902

HIPPOCRATES AND MEDICINE OF THE ANCIENT GREEKS

Hippocrates was born in Kos. He came from the family of Asclepius (the primary meaning of the term “Asclepiadae” are those originating from Asclepius, whether doctors or engage in any other activity, according to I.. Tzetzes). Asclepius was lord of Triki in Thessaly, who was famous for his medical knowledge. Homer became a imitheo- therapist. In the end, he exalted into a god doctor.

In the “Symposium” of Plato implied two sons of Aesculapius, the Podalirius and Machaon. Hippocrates is said to belong to Asclepiadae originating from Podalirius. His father was Heraclides and his mother Fainareti. Descendants of Podaleirios were the ones who founded the medical school of Knidos, which might be the oldest medical school of Kos but the latter has gained in reputation because of the birth of Hippocrates.

The first teacher of Hippocrates was his father, after the tradition of Aesculapius wanted transmission of medical knowledge from father to son. Later his teacher was the gymnastis- doctor Irodikos. Also taught philosophy from Democritus and rhetoric of Gorgias the Leontino. After his education he began to practice medicine in his hometown of Kos, where he married and had three children, two sons (Thessalos and Dragon) and a daughter.

After the death of his parents left Kos, wandering across Greece, moreover, were not rare the fact that time someone who practiced the profession of a doctor to leave his place of origin or the place where he trained to continue his career and elsewhere. However there is no precise indication as to when he left the island, maybe that was the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, it seems to coincide and the phase of the edge of his activity. Leaving, then, the island first went to Thessaly and later in Macedonia. He’s also the coast of Asia Minor., Thrace, Athens.

On his departure from Kos, biographers cite various explanations. One of them wants Hippocrates leave the island because they burned the library of Knidos. Another explanation says that Hippocrates burned because he left the Temple of Aesculapius at Kos, after having received the medical content of inscriptions. However, it seems that the most plausible explanation now is that Hippocrates wanted to leave the island to enrich their knowledge and experience with the examination and other regions. Furthermore one of the important ideas of Hippocratic medicine argues that the physical space affects significantly to the health and human disease.

In Thessaly period of his career there were two notable events. A story on King Perdiccas of Macedon in the 2nd, who had been diagnosed with a sexual disease from which cured him. The second event is the help that denied the barbarians and which offered only to the Greeks during an epidemic. More specifically, Artaxerxes the First said he sent envoys to seek the help of Hippocrates to tackle the epidemic which had spread to the army.

Hippocrates was not only refused, despite extremely tempting offers, but asking their envoys on climate conditions and status of the winds in their place, from their replies failed to anticipate the course of the disease in Greece and suggest the appropriate treatment treatment. After a long career that began in Kos, he died in Larissa at an advanced age. It is said that for a long time over his grave there was a swarm of bees honey had healing properties.

The Asklepieion, built on the slopes of a low hill, overgrown with trees and wonderful views of the sea and the coast of Asia Minor, was already in antiquity the most famous monument of Kos.

Hippocrates and the School of Kos

After returning to his homeland, he founded the famous school of Kos. Of course the term “school” at the time, namely the 5th century. We should be understood that a teacher, who was integrated into the broader context of a family tradition centuries, perpetuate this teaching to his sons and to his students.

Hippocrates would come to apotheopoiisei medical and strictly separate the limits of philosophy. When Hippocrates and called Hippocratic doctor ought to reject any kind of superstition, be clean in body and inseparable morality.

Diseases him have reasonable cause and not stem from divine intervention. Thus, the treatment should also be done with reasonable means from direct observation. The disease is considered as a general condition and not localized to any organ. He was the first to speak about the importance and necessity of asepsis and antisepsis. He stressed the need for daily cleaning and hygiene.

He argued that even in the human body are substances which he named blood and mucus, yellow and black bile. On the balance of these substances depends or human health. When there is a balance between these substances then man is healthy, and when the opposite occurs sick physically and psychologically. He believed that even the body resides an animal force, “nature” from which depends the maintenance, development and treatment of the body as resetting the abnormal to normal. Medicines for Hippocratic are aids “nature.”

Hippocrates was not limited to the practical side of medicine, but taught her already. First as stated the family tradition, he reported to his sons. But then, he was the first to broadcast the knowledge of medicine and in people who are not descended from the family of Asclepius. This opening to the season gave him widespread fame in medicine in Kos. With the opening of teaching was the reason be drawn from the large doctor the famous Oath of Medicine.

The oath was only from students who did not belong to the family of Asclepius, before the time that was to start training from the teacher. The decision of the Hippocrates to make affordable medical knowledge and to people outside the narrow bay of the family, due to the very small number of family members who were willing to continue the medical tradition in Kos. For this reason it must be drafted and the Oath. The oath was saved because he has all the attributes of a standard. It is today as in antiquity a type Contract for the ethical practice of medicine.

Ο ΌΡΚΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΙΠΠΟΚΡΆΤΗ (THE OATH OF HIPPOCRATES), IN ANCIENT GREEK (IONIAN)

Ὄμνυμι Ἀπόλλωνα ἰητρόν καί Ἀσκληπιόν καί Ὑγείαν και Πανάκειαν καί θεούς πάντας τε και πάσας, ἵστορας ποιεύμενος, ἐπιτελέα ποιήσειν κατά δύναμιν καί κρίσιν ἐμήν ὅρκον τόνδε καί ξυγγραφήν τήνδε.Ἡγήσεσθαι μέν τόν διδάξαντά με την τέχνην ταύτην ἴσα γενέτῃσιν ἐμοῖσι, καί βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καί χρεῶν χρηίζοντι μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι, καί γένος τό ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἀδελφεοῖς ἴσον ἐπικρινέειν ἄρρεσι, καί διδάξειν τήν τέχνην ταύτην, ἥν χρηίζωσι μανθάνειν, ἄνευ μισθοῦ καί ξυγγραφῆς, παραγγελίης τε καί ἀκροήσιος καί τῆς λοιπῆς ἁπάσης μαθήσιος μετάδοσιν ποιήσασθαι υἱοῖσι καί τοῖσι τοῦ ἐμέ διδάξαντος καί μαθηταῖσι συγγεγραμμένοις τε καί ὡρκισμένοις νόμῳ ἰητρικώ, ἄλλῳ δέ οὐδενί.Διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ᾿ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων κατά δύναμιν καί κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπί δηλήσει δέ καί ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν.Οὐ δώσω δέ οὐδέ φάρμακον οὐδενί αἰτηθείς θανάσιμον, οὐδέ ὑφηγήσομαι ξυμβουλίην τοιήνδε˙ ὁμοίως δέ οὐδέ γυναικί πεσσόν φθόριον δώσω.Ἁγνῶς δε καί ὁσίως διατηρήσω βίον τόν ἐμόν καί τέχνην τήν εμήν.Οὐ τεμέω δε οὐδέν μην λιθιῶντας, ἐκχωρήσω δε ἐργάτῃσιν ἀνδράσιν πρήξιος τῆσδε.Ἐς οἰκίας δε ὁκόσας ἄν ἐσίω, ἐσελεύσομαι ἐπ᾿ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων, ἐκτός ἐών πάσης ἀδικίης ἑκουσίης καί φθορίης τῆς τε ἄλλης καί ἀφροδισίων ἔργων ἐπί τε γυναικείων σωμάτων καί ἀνδρείων, ἐλευθέρων τε καί δούλων.Ἅ δ᾿ ἄν ἐν θεραπείῃ ἤ ίδω ἤ ακούσω, ἤ καί ἄνευ θεραπείης κατά βίον ἀνθρώπων, ἅ μή χρή ποτε ἐκλαλέεσθαι ἔξω, σιγήσομαι, ἄρρητα ἡγεύμενος εἶναι τά τοιαῦτα.Ὅρκον μέν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι καί μή ξυγχέοντι εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καί βίου καί τέχνης, δοξαζομένῳ παρά πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τόν αἰεί χρόνον˙ παραβαίνοντι δέ καί ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τουτέων.

TRANSLATION form ancient Greek: Hippocratic Oath: 

” i swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art – if they desire to learn it – without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

The oath essentially divided into two parts. The first part identifies the obligations newly entered student and offered moral and financial guarantees to the teacher of the medical art. He promises to honor his teacher as parent as will the problems of the teacher and his. He also accepts the commitment to teach himself if need medical art to his sons and to the sons of his teaching.

The second part of the oath is considered the most important as it refers to the moral principles on which to base to practice his profession as a doctor tomorrow. Its primary goal is to bring the art “agnos and purely.” The obligations of this desire is only to seek the good of the patients and never to use lethal medication even if requested. He’ll never help woman to lose her child that carries her. Respects the house in which each patient will come in and will avoid any aphrodisiac contact with the patient and with the members of his family. Finally, he will be trusted and will not reveal the secrets that become known during the course of his work.

Hippocrates and the Hippocratic Collection

Tradition has preserved us in the name of Hippocrates about 60 treatises in Ionic dialect. But already from the Hellenistic and Roman times until today was intense debate about whether the authorship of this project belongs to Hippocrates. It would be unrealistic to believe that all written by Hippocrates himself. These are medical treatises can be guided by the same spirit of a rational medicine free of any magical effect, but the work is not homogeneous. There are differences in vocabulary, in style and content. Some seem to not written by the same teacher, some are of various origins and different date. The truth is that many of the collection works written by students and fans of the great doctor who inspired him.

According to Professor A. Kuzu the Hippocratic Collection in terms of content divided into 12 categories (Maniatis, 2002). These and their respective books are:

§ General (Oath, Law, On ancient medicine About iitrou, On Art, On efschimosynis, Parangeliai, Aphorisms.)

§ Anatomy-Physiology (About Anatomy, On cardio, On flesh, About glands, On bones physio, physio About Human About gonad, On physio children.)

§ Arbitration (On feed, On diet, healthy diet About.)

§ Pathology (About aeron, water, sites, About juice About Crisis, On critical days, On week On whiffer.)
§ Predictive (prognostic, Proritikon, Koakai forecasts.)
§ Special nosology (On Epidemics, On passions, On Noosa, On the inside passions, On Sacred Disease, On the sites of flat man.)
§ Therapeutic (About Diet acids About liquids useful.)
§ Surgery (In practice, On ulcers, hemorrhoids On, On syringes, On of heads eat, On agmon, About Articles embolism, Mochlikos.)
§ Ophthalmology (About sight.)
§ Midwifery (About Virgo, On female physio, On women’s A, B, On touching About epikyiseos, About seven months and eight months, On egkatatomis fetus.)
§ Pediatrics (About odontofyiis.)
§ Various (letters, which, Reasons, The doctrine of the Athenians, Epivomios, Ambassadorial.)

One of the major works of the Collection, which deserves mention and characterized many times as a milestone in the history of European science is “On the sacred disease.”

It is the first expression in the spiritual history of mankind’s ongoing struggle conducted by scientific thinking people against superstition. The theme of the project is the “sacred disease” as used to characterize epilepsy.

The project essentially is fighting with all the “witch-purists” who proclaim that illness is supernatural character. The work of the author himself believes the illness was due to natural causes, like all illnesses, and treatment will be made by physical means. In the opinion of epilepsy begins in the brain.

The Reputation of Hippocrates

Hippocrates was the most important representative not only of the medical school of Kos and medicine in general in antiquity. He had become a mythical person in antiquity. Already from the first phase of his career in Kos had gained great reputation. Biographers report that called by the inhabitants of Abdera to cure Democritus because they believed that he had gone mad. Doctor while he was alive, he took the form of a therapist hero posthumously. The people of Kos on the day of his birth worshiped by sacrifices each year.

This ceremony must have existed in the 1st century p. X when circulating coins depicting the form. It is also said that the Athenians erected a statue of him and proclaimed savior of the city, because he saved the town from plague. His gold crown was given while he was initiated and the Eleusinian mysteries. (J. Jouanna, 199Cool. Information given both in Plato and Aristotle shows that though both lived Hippocrates was reputed great doctor and not only within the boundaries of his homeland. Downstream of great doctors or philosophers (Plato, Aristotle , Galen, Pliny and others) mentioned him as “great” or “divine.”

Hippocrates lived in Greece during the Golden Age of Pericles. A century of intense intellectual reflection that made great men, as it was Sophocles, Socrates and Thucydides. In the 5th century. So was born the rationalism and humanism, provided to give the term the broad meaning of “thinking man for himself.”

Hippocrates founded the school of the time across the country flourished Asclepieia where the main treatment constituted the purification of body and soul, where the disease was considered providential. It was he who revolutionized teaching rational thinking in dealing with diseases. The causes are reasonably require and reasonably therapeutics argued, there is the element of divine intervention. Apotheopoiise medicine and separated from philosophy.

He was first creepy close to humans. Crumbling everything, philosophical theories and ideas. (Www.pneuma.gr). He was the first to systematically classify medicine and ran a methodical treatment of diseases. He made affordable medical knowledge and to students beyond the family of Asklepios, something innovative for its time, since then the tradition prevailed which wanted to broadcast only within the bosom of the family of Asclepius, from father to son (J. Jouanna, 199Cool. He was the creator of the famous Oath of Medicine, an excellent text that introduces and deontologikes- ethical principles of medicine and is spoken today by future doctors.

With this new perspective of medicine introduced by Hippocrates superstition recede slowly pace. The magoi- therapists, who until then had a field day, will be the toughest opponents of Hippocrates. Despite the slander that occasionally made for him, they failed to reduce his reputation as a great doctor. The theories are so accurate that even today some of the medical procedures proposed are still used.

This, then, is the father of medicine. After that follow the doctors of Alexandria. There, in the late 4th century. BC moved the focus of medical science. Separate the medical specialties and the new generation of medicine, based on the theories of the past, build new theoretical structures on the foundations of old.

The MILITARY MEDICINE IN ANCIENT TIMES – Problems of Military Medicine

Man, the basic “cell” of acts of war, the more stable unit that can be used in the analysis of a military operation remains through the centuries largely identical in physiology and needs. The warriors who campaigned in ancient times, since the copper as that of Rome, died of the same causes of decimated and downstream armies, until the “medical revolution” of the 20th century and their weapons can still kill today or cause serious injury to any modern soldier.

Taken purely as mechanical tools for human destruction, weapons of ancient armies, were fatal. Even in the hands of a well trained warrior could become even more deadly. Nowadays it is common for two armies to whom the killing ability of one will be dramatically greater than that of his opponent. In the ancient world but this balance of power between two fighting armies were rare and it meant huge risk involved men.

The armies of Hyksos decimating of clover unfortunate Egyptians, the superiority which gave them the composite bow and agility of the chariots, and the Macedonians of Alexander defeats the Persians at a time despite their numerical inferiority. Unlike the Roman legions were almost equivalent to the army of Hannibal, but whenever the fighting suffered defeats and very heavy.

In the 1st century BC, however, the technological and tactical advantage was passed to the Romans to such an extent that there is no opponent in the Western world that can clash with them. Whenever the superior Roman army was fighting lower organizational strengths, as was common in the 1st century BC, the result was terrible slaughter dimensions. The victory over the Teutonic Marios in Aix-en-Provence (Aix-en-Provence) in 100 BC, resulted in killing more than 90,000 men in a single day.

Death, injuries and infections in Ancient Army

The level of risk faced by the ancient warrior in battle, depended heavily on the army to which they belong and the historical period that happened to live. For example, the Egyptian soldier who was fighting the Hyksos had few chances to avoid the inevitable, while the Roman soldier who faced the Belgians or the Saxons naughty could expect guaranteed survival.

Unlike modern battles, leaving relatively balanced number of deaths and injuries between the two sides, in ancient times losers expect horrific slaughter, while the winners suffered negligible losses. In the battle of Marathon, victorious Athenians had only 192 dead from a force of 10,000 men and at Issus Alexander lost 200 men, causing 50,000 casualties to the Persians! On Kynoskephalai Roman legions caused 8,000 deaths and essentially tore the Macedonian army, with losses of 700 men.

When and how but threatened to kill an ancient warrior? For as long as the columns kept consistent, it was very difficult to occur killing widely. Even the forces of the cavalry were unable to cause significant damage to disciplined formation infantry who held firmly to their positions. Nevertheless in every army of History is a great mass of men who feel a strong urge to escape from danger and motivation is always fear.

The real “killer” in the ancient battlefield was none other than fear. Men who have been involved in combat tend to keep under control the escapism that springs from the instinct of self-preservation, with the help of logic. Increased and prolonged psychological pressure though, dramatically increases the likelihood of finding someone Average rows of warriors who will lose their nerve and run. Sometimes the actions of a single soldier is sufficient to entrain as avalanche entire unit, causing panic explosion. When the homogeneity and consistency of the casting solution, the ancient warrior risked longer be killed or seriously injured.

Usually one phalanx will “break” suddenly and disintegrant rapidly as the original compact war machine transformed in seconds into a disorderly crowd frightened fugitives who struggled alone to escape, running with all their might. Soldiers disperse in every direction, often throwing weapons and their armor in a futile attempt to escape from their persecutors. For quite a long period fleeing save many of the losers, as the armies had few means to carry deadly pursuit.

The appearance but the chariot, edge and horseback archers Assyrian, forever changed this situation, making them easy prey retreating soldiers. In many cases the chariots and cavalry of the winners were driven between and around the disorderly crowd taking such positions to the force to be directed back to the battlefield. There they spent an entire day to the massacre. If the commander triumphs did not stop the carnage to take captives to be sold into slavery, a whole army will be killed without mercy – not a soldier I would not stay alive.

Historical studies show that, on average, the proportion of deaths a defeated army was about 37.7%, more than 1/3 of the total power. Death rates but for the victorious armies were considerably lower, ranging in 5.5% of all involved. Even if an army enjoyed full technological superiority, it was necessary at some point to start killing small distances.

The apparent disproportion between losses and defeated the winners reveals that the greatest slaughter took place during phase one of the two rivals broke their formations under physical or psychological pressure, prompting soldiers to be prosecuted and slaughter with relative ease . However they should be required many hours ceaseless slaughter to destroy a defeated enemy.

There is no evidence on the impact they had these “personal” (from nearby) murders the psyche of the soldier. But it is likely that the practice of the Romans, to expose all classes of citizens from a young age before the hideous face of death in the arena, to later give some advantages on the battlefield, reducing cases of psychological shock.

Typical losses of a Roman Legion at Battle Victorious

Forces involved 6,000 men

Fonefthentes 330 men
Injured 360 men
Deaths from hemorrhagic shock 50 men () 13.8%)
Deaths from tetanus 22 men (5%)
Deaths from gas gangrene 15 men (4%)
Deaths from sepsis five men (1.2%)
Other causes 15 men (4%)
Percentage recovery from injuries 70%

Knowing the total number of men of a defeated army of antiquity and subtracting the number of the dead and those who were taken prisoner to be sold later as slaves, we come in a good approximation of the number of injuries as a finding in such serious condition that it is useless to ‘ commodity “. Approximately 35.4% of the defeated had to wait an injury so severe that involve the abandonment of the battlefield.

When this figure is added to the 37.7% of the dead, it seems that in a typical battle of the ancient world a 73% an army of warriors who have been unsuccessful would end up dead or seriously wounded until dusk. No analog sure way to calculate the wounded winners. Using the statistics give the dead ratios between losers and winners, it seems that a percentage of 5.8% of the army imposed his opponent should have been some form of injury.

An analysis of professor Engels for the army of Alexander concludes that the Macedonians were about five wounded for every dead. So the average percentage of dead (in battle) 0.5% recorded the Macedonians in Granicus, the Issus and Gaugamela, leading probably to a rate of 2.5% wounded. The military medical system of the Romans went into the design of providing a percentage wounded in the battle between 2 and 10%.

The field hospital legion was organized in 64 chambers, each could serve 4-5 men, revealing so that the maximum number of casualties expected by the unit in a jam was 320 people, or 5% of its power.

The nature of the battle from the close quarters in ancient times and the operational characteristics of the weapons were then indicate that the chances of injury to a soldier was much greater than the risk of death. Of the 147 injuries mentioned in the Iliad, 114 (77.7% share) proved fatal. This ratio in Archaic Greece sounds strange when compared to that of the Crimean War (20%) or the American Civil War (13.3%).

The Frolich also notes that of the 31 head injuries mentioned by Homer, everything was deadly. A study of skeletons Egyptian soldiers were killed during a siege in 2000 BC, confirms the high mortality due to cranial trauma. Fifty-nine of the skeletons bore head wounds, of which 49 were found to be caused by stones that were thrown from the walls and the remaining 10 by arrows achieved the victim in the face. A weight 13,6 Kg stone thrown from a height of 12 meters, has kinetic energy 1.588 Joule, able to crush any kind of armor Iron Age.

Arrows are responsible for 10% of the wounds, with a mortality rate of 42%. The ability of ancient armor to withstand blows of arrows seemed characteristically Cunaxa where, says Xenophon, the Greek army was toxefmaton barrage by the Persians for several hours without any significant losses. The arrows of the compound bows were able to pierce the armor, but generally not to such a depth as to cause death.

Typical example is the shield of the Assyrian warriors. It is estimated that the average man had total exposed area of ​​6.832 cm2, ie 0,68 m2. An Assyrian armed for battle expose only 542 square centimeters in the neck and face, 1,103 square centimeters hands, 413 square centimeters in the abdomen and 1,265 square centimeters in the legs. The total surface area was therefore vulnerable 3,323 square centimeters i.e. 49% of the original.

An extensive study of modern scientists anaparestisan ancient tactics, concluded that if a force of 1,000 archers dispute either a broadside of 250 meters, 220 of the arrows would find the target on a solid mass infantry will protected by shields. Of these about 120 will hurt unshielded or other vulnerabilities, namely 18 neck, something that would bring instant death, 13 the abdomen (80% would follow death from infection within three days), 36 arms and 53 legs and thighs.

Less than 2% of the wounds on the ends would prove fatal only if it had hit an artery. Assuming that all wounds would cause the soldier to withdraw from the battle and taken into account that an archer can put five times a minute, five minutes (they needed to reach the two armies) a force of 1,000 archers will defeat 110 soldiers in each of the broadside. Contesting five volleys minute for five minutes, the archers would cause the fantastic number of 2,750 casualties to the enemy before Ms. crossed spears opponents!

The shield acquitted ancient infantry excellent protection as long as the formations kept their coherence. The average surface was 0, 74 m2, enough to cover the entire body of the warrior. The arrow but remained an insidious weapon because, although the wounds brought about finally focusing on the ends, even in cases not find artery often cause deadly infection, which required amputation in 62% of cases – a practice unknown to the ancient physicians up and classical times.

The spears evolved from simple models of 1.8 meters of archaic in terrible Macedonian sarissas 5.5 meters.

The sharp spikes spear allow the spears to pierce or cut the human body and was particularly deadly when damage the trachea or cervical vein. Although it was not easy to challenge directly an armored opponent, could be hurt or throw him to the ground where it would present much easier target, exposing vital body points for the final blow.

The sword was not main battle weapon no army until the advent of Rome. The ancient Greeks faced as an aid and was slightly familiar with its use, without being particularly unfair, since a well-trained fighter in spear advantage in the confrontation with a swordsman. In the hands of Roman legionaries but the legendary gladius cause terror opponents.

The advantage of this sword in a battle from the close quarters was that could cause deep wounds in almost every part of the body. It could also be used to Awesome way in hand, as they used to operate the Romans. If a soldier accept bang, sword easily cripple the State and left the stunned victim defenseless against a second fatal hint in abdomen, neck or face.

Probably the most common injury to the ancient warriors were the fracture. The fact that the Egyptian and Sumerian medical texts deal extensively with broken bone cases reveals that the military doctors of the time were quite familiar with this type of wound. Excluding the skull, there is very little difference in the amount of force required to crush any bone in the human body. Even adult bones of the thigh require little more load to break compared to the thin bones of the arm.

An estimated 91,8 Joule impact energy is enough to blow off any bone in the human body, except for the skull. So blow railed at the sides of an armored warrior from ancient bat (137 Joule), javelin (91 Joule), ax (95,6 Joule), simple sword (105 Joule), piercing ax (105 Joule), gladius (137 Joule ), or a spear (96 Joule), could easily cause fractures. Without doubt the ancient soldier seriously impaired by breakage of bones, trauma would leave him exposed to the next deathblow. It is worth noting that by the disappearance of the horse from the battlefield, in the 20th century, fractures were the main cause of injury, and the horsemen, who often during the battle fell from their horses.

It is considered certain that the frequency and type of wounds in the battles of ancient times varied considerably, depending on the weapons, shields and tactics used in each period. The risk of death varied widely depending on the army in which he served someone. So the Egyptian soldier who fought the Hyksos were completely defenseless against their weapons, while the soldier of the same nationality who was fighting the Hittites after 200 years had many chances to get out of a battle unscathed. Of course analyzes do not apply to armies whose discipline was collapsing and allows a stampede after their men would be vulnerable against any kind of attack from pursuing a strength.

It really is interesting to note that an ancient soldier, from the Bronze Age to the 1st century BC, was in danger of dying from various wound infections are just as with a colleague any other time until the start of World War. Death sneaking victim of the battle in the form of three terrible microbial threats: tetanus, a gas gangrene and septicemia.

TETANUS 

Tetanus was the most common infection. It comes from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani, enters the body through deep cuts in the skin and viscera, and usually accompanies wounds presenting severe tissue damage and necrosis. The tetanus bacterium produces a toxin “travel” as the spinal cord and causing terrible spasms of the skeletal muscles. Seizures they may kill the patient suffocated, as excessive inflate the diaphragm and can be so strong as to destroy the backbone at some point, causing unbearable pain.

An exact description of these symptoms is present in “Aphorisms” of Hippocrates, an indication that the ancient Greeks knew well the consequences of tetanus. The tetanus bacterium is endemic to the soil surface and is mainly found in areas rich in manure, typical of rural societies of the ancient world. Populations are growing where hygiene is low and where there are human or animal feces. Thus each soldier of which the wound would be in contact with the soil, in danger of contamination.

If the wound is not cleaned thoroughly with water or wine and doctors rushed to meet immediately with makeshift bandages without completely clean, contamination from tetanus was sure. The average of such infections was approximately 5.6% and mortality was 80%. Once a soldier defiled, his survival depended on the strength of the immune system of the body.

The gasifiers gangrene caused by six species of bacteria known under the general term Clostridium perfigens, which is also endemic in the anaerobic and cultivated soil. They produce a toxin that kills the muscle tissue by hydrogen bubbles. The area of ​​the wound dies, the infection extends accompanied by terrible stench produced by decaying tissues. The incidence of this kind of infection should be ran at 5%, but we can say with certainty that the mortality among ancient armies did not know the technique of amputation would reach 100%.

Sepsis or blood poisoning, caused when the common bacterium body Staphilococcus bacteri enter the bloodstream. If a main blood vessel and the punctured wound infected secondary infection, can be extended to normal sterile bloodstream. The incidence of such an infection is 1.7% and this occurs mainly in cases of arterial lesions. The mortality in the mid-20th century remained extremely high, until the appearance and diffusion of antibiotics.

One of the four wounded ancient battle was dying from his wounds within 7-10 days of the above three main causes or hemorrhagic shock. It must be emphasized that these four factors remained as basic sick and wounded causes of death until the end of World War II.

Diseases and Implications

The armies of ancient times, as in all armies until-Japanese war of 1905, most soldiers found the death from diseases than from enemy weapons. The diseases in ancient armies appeared much easier whenever a large number of men crowded together for some time in places where there were no elementary conditions of hygiene. With the exception of the armies of Egypt and Rome meticulously observing basic hygiene, checking the suitability of drinking water and food, other armies were not taking absolutely no preventive measures.

THE war considerably reduces resistance to disease soldier, as the diet that was provided was most often insufficient to maintain a high level of defense capability of the organization. The armies were on the move at less risk from the effects of poor hygiene. The most possible points for epidemics there was organized sieges, with huge numbers of warriors gather in little space, often suffering from food shortages.

Most common illness for the ancient was dysentery. Called “expeditionary fever,” is probably the most common illness among soldiers of all time. The first clear description of the symptoms of dysentery noted in Egyptian papyri of 1550 BC, but it must have been known from much earlier periods. Hippocrates mentions in detail in writings. The Roman medical texts have extensively preventive methods.

Dysentery caused by an aquatic bacillus transmitted to the body by contaminated food or water. It happened often in marches, paid an entire army when quenched the thirst of improper source. Although the standard mortality ranged 5%, the occurrence of dysentery akinitopoiouse huge numbers of men for periods of two to three weeks – men who could not at this time be used as a combatant elements in any way.

Typhoid fever, which is derived from the bacterium Salmonella typhi, was another “wound” for the ancient warrior disseminated rapidly flies that infected human food. The Egyptians and Assyrians were quite familiar with the deal, but the Romans were the first to systematically took hygienic measures to limit the disease.

Constructing latrines with a depth of three meters, rinse with water and covered with wooden planks or stones to keep them dark and free from flies. He knew that an army which was at the center an epidemic of typhoid fever, essentially defeat as militant force. Mortality was as high as 10-13%, but the most important was that four weeks were required terrible pain and delirious fever to carry the disease cycle.

The supply of drinking water during a campaign seems pretty occupied ancient armies. The Greek soldier he used to take with him a quantity of wine to help your stomach become familiar with hard water should be drunk in the war. The Roman soldier rarely brought water in his canteen, preferring to consume a type possible, red, sour wine (acetum) suffered prolonged fermentation.

When the Romans conquered the Jews of Palestine, who were accustomed to the local sweet wines, they looked strange conquerors them to drink what they thought vinegar. What is certain is that the consumption of soured wine by the Romans had many medical benefits. Extremely rich in polyphenols, can simultaneously be used by military physicians as an antiseptic and cleansing of wounds, acting as bacteriostatic and bactericidal agent.

The typhus is also one of the deadliest diseases, who have linked their names to the military operations in all the centuries. Due to a microorganism that is something between bacterium and virus and grows in the blood of various animals, including mice, is a disease transmitted to humans by lice (Pediculus humanus), living in the clothes and hair, and manifested very often where large numbers of people are forced to coexist in very small spaces, such as prisons, ships etc. The symptoms of typhoid are high fever, chills, feeling of weakness and pain in the joints accompanied by terrible headaches. Mortality of typhus between 10 and 40% and it is known that at times the disease is wiped armies:

The typhus is a disease of the temperate zone and is likely the armies of ancient Greece and Rome have good knowledge of the consequences of … The armies of Babylon and Egypt faced considerably less incidents because of the warm climate and the tendency to wear less heavy clothing. But when we moved in temperate regions as Lebanon and Armenia, they risked serious infection. Although historians authors do not completely agree, the prevailing view is that the great plague that decimated the Athenian army during the Peloponnesian War was probably a typhus.

Similar risk with typhus were the appearances of smallpox, which was quite common in the ancient world, with a mortality rate which mostly ranged from 20-40%, but could reach 90%. From such epidemic died in 1160 BC and Pharaoh Ramses E, while the great plague that decimated the Antonine Rome in the 2nd century AD probably due to smallpox brought from the eastern provinces recurrent legions.

Retired files the Roman army allow clear knowledge of the severity of the impact of disease on the life of an ancient warrior. In a Roman legion of the 1st century AD, 50% of soldiers who qualify at age 18 were still alive at 42 them to enjoy their retirement. Since 5.8% of soldiers would die in battle and another 8-10% will succumb to war trauma, this means that the remaining 35% of the legionnaires would die from some form of disease, including epidemics. However, despite his involvement in dozens of battles, the legionnaire medium was generally longest in via Roman citizen, and had five times less stomatological problems from him, thus demonstrating the best diet camps.

Factor Injuries and Biological Threat

An army endangered largely accidental. Even a simple movement of a force of 10,000 men is no easy task and the course costs several health and safety of the soldier. The ancient armies used to march in columns, as there were no roads and it was the only way to maintain a minimum check by management. The army of Alexander, with 65,000 pedestrians and 6,000 cavalry, stoichizomenous in column width of 10 men would stretch like a snake along 25 km, without considering transport animals in convoys.

Armies had to move as much as possible like a compact maza- otherwise could not move at all. The air we inhale a soldier at the center of a formation is smelly, dust blocks the nostrils, eyes and irritated lungs strained. As once said Napoleon, “the world of the soldier on the path composed entirely out of sight of the bag in the back of the front.” In a single day the road nosebleeds, eye irritations and respiratory problems caused harm such a level that several soldiers were beginning to fall fainting outside their lines and left behind. In hot climates, the number of casualties increased greatly.

The diet in ancient armies was another major problem. Modern armies calculate that a 73 kg weight soldier carrying a moderate load walking for eight hours, you need 3,402 calories and 70 grams of protein a day. The pressure and overexertion during the battle increase the amount of food required to maintain a healthy and Warrior fighting condition. In deserts and generally in climates with high temperatures and low humidity, the soldier needs at least 8.5 liters of water daily.

The diet was followed in ancient armies were totally inadequate for prolonged operations. It comprised mainly wheat, barley and millet, which milled to prepare bread, biscuits and porridge. The standard portion by each man of between 1 and 1,4 kg of cereal daily, in bread form only provided 2500 calories and 100 grams protein. This is the number of calories was clearly inadequate, even for the best possible campaign conditions that could meet a soldier. A course of three or four days too weakened the army and further aggravate the smaller health problems.

Many times commanders were, after an arduous journey, they regret to have a force that could not fight. On top of the fatigue from the same course, the ancient warrior had to carry and its stores, which in the case of the Macedonians weighed 27 pounds, whereas in the case of the Romans about 25. The weight of the load to make the turn soldier, in hot climates, vulnerability and brought him too close to heat exhaustion and heat stroke. The men then wore during the demonstrations across the harnesses and could imagine the torment that existed when the shield and helmet, exposed as it was in the sun, burned and simple touch.

The soldiers could not protect themselves from sunburn and coat the skin with oil of palm or olive, but there was no indication for this measure before the days of Imperial Rome. A Roman time gives us a graphic example of what can happen to an army that did not care to take measures for the protection from the heat. 24 BC the Aellius Gallus, the Roman governor of Egypt led an army in Arabia, which lost whole without giving a single battle, as the legionnaires have died by the hundreds of thirst and heat stroke. Many survivors suffered permanent damage to their health, to the extent that had to be demobilized.

The heat was not the only “enemy” for an army of antiquity. The warriors of Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome, suffered equally from accidents and haunting contemporary colleagues (falls, bruises, cuts, damage, blisters, sprains and fractures), which may turn a soldier into injured. Most of these occur in the legs, which were generally unprotected.
The soldiers then fighting in cold climates, such as the Assyrians during their invasions in Armenia and Kurdistan. The Romans repeatedly campaigned in Germany, the Alps, eastern Europe and the mountains of Spain, regions where the climatic conditions are a challenge even for modern armies. Xenophon mentions the “Cyrus Ascent” that she almost lost the whole army in the mountain ranges of today’s Turkey when men slept unprotected countryside and awoke alafiasmenoi a snowstorm.

Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush inhospitable starting with 100,000 men and 64,000 ending with the 13th days later! The Hannibal was able to cross the Alps, but with frightening cost in human lives. From the army, which numbered 38,000 pedestrians and 8,000 horsemen, lost 20,000 men until they reach the north Italian plain.
The disadvantages of the ancient soldier compared to the modern descendants extend to different levels. It was an average age of 35 years, significantly longer than the men of today’s armed forces. The average age of American soldiers in World War II was 26 years and the Vietnam War the 22. The same physiology make the ancient warrior more susceptible to frostbite and fatigue.
Generally an ancient army exestratefe was literally a “moving medicine debacle,” he expect to lose 3-4% of its power from exhaustion or sunstroke, 17% from various accidents in rough road and several more men from chronic problems caused stress and poor hygiene. Those who could not follow the mass, leaving their fate in the street or at best the care of the first villagers who would meet the army.

This practice is applicable even where campaigns in hostile territory where the armies abandoned their patients, the wounded and the dying. The Roman army, with mobile ambulances and professional staff that work for medical services, was able to keep with him the lighter wounded all the way, in most armies but patients should be abandoned.

In the ancient battlefield dominated and a wide variety of biological weapons. The “fraudulent” arrows aimed at andranopoiisoun or bring certain death to the victim, was more feared than that of close-quarters fight with spears, swords and clubs. Ancient warriors used to immerse the tips of arrows in natural poisons such as the rhododendron juice and sea urchin emulsion, but the poison of snakes were the most prevalent toxin.

Especially the Scythian archers were famous for their poisonous arrows, which were soaking in a smelly mixture of viper venom (viper) and human blood (also was terribly relevant of distances reached even 550 meters – many skeletons of their victims discovered by archaeologists, they were found with arrows stuck right between the eyes). In 326 BC Macedonians of Alexander the Great encountered in northern India mounted archers fired arrows tremendous efficiency and extremely deadly.

Eventually the Greeks realized that their opponents had infused the dead viper venom, which was left to decompose in the sun until the skin melted and the liquid was coming only from the tissues. The historian Diodorus states that “men were injured by such missiles numb instantly, in a torment from unbearable pains and convulsions that came in waves, and the skin was cold and bruised and xernousan bile.” The Hannibal launched a similarly ‘dirty’ plan, when in a battle against the Pergamum (191 BC) threw on the decks of enemy ships live poisonous snakes!

The Roman historian Appian describes vividly how the besieged residents of Themiskyra, in Bithynia, diverted to flee the Roman army unleashing against swarms of bees, bears and other wild beasts 72 BC Almost three centuries later, citizens’s paper (in today’s Iraq) clay pots filled with poisonous insects and thrown from the battlements of the walls on the fearful legions of Septimius Severus.

In contrast all these “instruments of death” and their effects was the Military Medicine, which at all times was perceived as an attempt to reduce casualties from hostile action. As such included the institution of “reservists” doctor, since most armies until 2000 BC They were set up to enlist. The recruiting men from different walks of presupposed well informed doctors, who knew the level of health of the general population, the diet, mortality and lifespan.

Perhaps the most important role of such a precious special was to ensure sufficient quantities of good quality food and drinking water, both critical factors for the effectiveness of an army in battle. Until the 20th century all armies, with few exceptions, were much more losses from diseases and infections, rather than the ultimate test on the battlefield.

ASKLEPIOS is one of the MOST important HEALING figures in GREEK MYTHAGOGY-MEDICIN and was one of the MOST BELOVED GODS of our ANCIENT ANCESTORS, to whom they resorted to relieve them from PAIN and ILLNESS.
The worship of ASCLEPIUS, either as a GOD or as a DEIFIED HERO, is ANCIENT. The WHOLE of GREEK WORLD HONORED him, while MYTHOGRAPHERS, vase PAINTERS and POETS INCLUDED him AMONG the PIONEERS of ANY GREAT work. 

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HIPPOCRATES: “What keeps health is equitable distribution and precise mixing within body forces 😊 egalitarianism) of dry, liquid, cold, sweet, bitter, sour and salty. The disease causes the predominance of one 😊 monarchy). Treatment is accomplished by restoring the disturbed balance, the method of the opposite of excess power.

These concepts we find intact to Hippocrates. The exact mix, equality before the law, symmetry, harmony, are the basis of the doctrines of the Pythagoreans and Ippokrati.Grafei features Hippocrates: “In man there is the bitter and salty, sweet, sour, astringent and the the bland … and these components when mixed and combined together, neither shown nor affect humans. But when some of all separated and left alone it seems to cause harm “.

After training in medicine he left Kos and successively visited Thessaly, Thassos and Thrace. His fame quickly spread throughout Greece and beyond its borders to mighty Persia. Artaxerxes invited him to his court by sending ambassadors with valuable gifts but he refused to leave his homeland. It is said that he healed the Macedonian king Perdiccas and saved Abdira from plague. Some claim that it was there that he cured the “maniac”, as he was called, Democritus, although later writers have recorded Hippocrates’ admiration for the wise man. As it turns out, this claim is unfounded. He greatly helped the Argives and Athenians, taking preventive measures against the spread of infectious diseases. The latter, as a sign of gratitude, initiated him into the Eleusinian mysteries and proclaimed him a citizen of Athens. They also granted free feeding in the Rectory for him and his descendants, although modern researchers dispute his involvement in the events of the Attic land. He died at about the age of ninety in Larissa and was buried somewhere between Gyrtonos, Tirnavos and Larissa. According to Anthimos Gazis, his tomb was preserved until the second AD. century.

Hippocrates lived in Greece during the Golden Age, which produced great men such as Sophocles, Euripides and Thucydides. He toured, it is said, in Thessaly, Thrace, Thassos, Scythia, and probably also in Middle Egypt. He is the first to establish scientific medicine, as Galen also affirms (he was the first to examine the perfection of Greek medicine. xiv, 676). His works are products of exquisite observation, experience and rare rationality. In fact, they are the biggest milestone in the course of Greek medicine.

The Hippocrates Collection

The works that make up the Hippocratic Collection are 59 in number, written in the Ionic dialect between 440-340 BC. and are the oldest monuments of precise scientific medicine. They are divided into sectors. Of a general nature are: the Oath, the Law, About Ancient Medicine, About the Physician, About Art, About Goodness, Orders and Aphorisms. Anatomical and physiological are: On Anatomy, On Heart, On Muscles, On Glands, On Bone Nature, On Birth, On Child Nature, Dietetics, On Food, On Diet, On Diet Hygiene. Of general pathology are: On Airs, Waters and Lands, On Juices, On Crisis, On Crisis, On Weeks, On Nature. Prognostic medicine includes: Prognostikon, Prorretikon and Koakai Prognosis. In special nosology: On Epidemics, On Diseases, On Diseases, On Internal Diseases, On Sacred Disease and On Types of Humans. In Therapeutics belong: About Diet Acids and About Liquids Chrisios. Surgery includes: Per Doctor, About Ulcers, About Hemorrhoids, About Syringes, About Head Wounds, About Moles, About Joints. Molchico. Ophthalmology includes On Appearance, while obstetrics and gynecology include: On Virgins, On Female Nature, On Women A’, B’, On Aphors, On Pregnancy, On Seven and Eight Months, On Embryo Ecstasy. Finally, Pediatrics includes About Dentistry.

In addition to the above works, 24 Epistles and the Peri Manias Logos are also included, in which Hippocrates’ invitation from the Abderites for the supposed cure of Democritus is described. However, the many adaptations of his works, the addition of pseudo-inscriptions from ancient times led later scholars to the inability to distinguish fake works from genuine ones. After all, the collection in its current form was made around 300 BC, in the Alexandrian times, when Ptolemy ordered the collection of his writings. Thus, it was deemed necessary to include all writings bearing his name, even if there were reasonable suspicions that they were forgeries, as long as they belonged to pre-Aristotelian times.

Of course, the question of authenticity preoccupied researchers for a long time, as a result of which many paradoxical opinions were recorded. Erotianos, for example, admits only 31 writings, while Galen reduces their number to about 13. Among the younger French medical historian Emile Littre, relying on the Ionic dialect filled with the “donations” of Hippocrates, due to his Doric origin of, admits as genuine, besides the Oath and the Law, eleven other works. Dills admits only three et cetera. More important than the editions of his work remains the ten-volume edition by Émile Littre (1829-1861), in Paris, with a Greek text and a French translation. The latest edition of the works belongs to Kulwein (Leipzig 1894 and 1902), but it remained unfinished. Among the Greeks, Adamantios Korais made excellent criticism of his works in On Gaseous Waters and Lands and On Acid Diet and Ancient Medicine.

The Miracle of Medicine

In general, Hippocrates considers that everything comes from the 4 elements, each of which corresponds to the property of cold, dry, hot, liquid. In the solid components of the body the earthy prevails and in the liquids the watery. Cohesive essence of everything is the spirit, innate and warm in man, residing in the heart. Basic body fluids are blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. Health or disease depends on their balance and imbalance.

In the body there is a special animal power, nature. On this power depended the maintenance, development, but also the healing of the body and its restoration from the pathological state to the normal. This is also the most brilliant conception of the mind of Hippocrates, which is justified today by the modern views on health and balance of the bio-energetic potential of the organism. After all, Hippocrates does not locate the disease in the organs. He considers that the organism is sick or cured as a whole and thus the patient is treated with a completely different eye and perspective.

According to Hippocrates and the so-called Hippocratics, the doctor must reject all kinds of superstition, be clean in body and inseparable from morality. His life should be modest and full of silence and he himself should be a philosopher. Rightly, then, Andral saw in the Hippocratics, men deprived of the modern technology of observation, acting by their intellectual power alone, and being led to the same truths or ideas, to which scientists are led today by the slow and laborious work of analysis and observation. For Galen, Hippocrates is “Uncle”, greatest of physicians and first of philosophers. He did not limit himself to simple empiricism, but united it with the intellect in order to know nature.

The figure of Hippocrates as the “Father of Medicine” remains strong not only in the historical circles of antiquity and in modern times, although we are used to seeing him through the eyes of Galen. Galen describes Hippocrates as he would rather describe himself, so he emphasized only the texts that excited him. However, he remains at the same time the connecting link for the dissemination of his teaching, as he transferred his interest to later doctors.

Thus, by copying his texts, the ideas of Hippocrates survived during the Byzantine Empire and were inherited by Renaissance physicians. The collection became the foundation around which the experience of medicine was recorded in order to build the modern edifice of medicine. Except that modern medicine has become so specialized that it has lost the overall structure, the fundamental idea of Hippocrates. Based on the fact that the Hippocratics, apart from being philosophers, were also interested in other fields in order to arrive at their apt and revealing observations, such as ethnography. The breadth of their knowledge led to interpretations that were not only related to the mechanistic view of the human organism, something that should be taken seriously by medical science today, in order to lead to the modern, universal miracle of healing.

****************THE O A T H OF HIPPOCRATES

The Hippocratic Oath is the oath taken by doctors and refers to the ethical practice of medicine. It is believed that the oath was written by Hippocrates in the 4th century BC. or by one of his students, and thus included in the Hippocratic collection.

The oldest partial fragments of the oath date to circa AD 275. The oldest extant version dates to roughly the 10th–11th century, held in the Vatican Library.[2] A commonly cited version, dated to 1595, appears in Koine Greek with a Latin translation. In this translation, the author translates “πεσσὸν” to the Latin “fœtum.”

Below is the Hippocratic Oath, in Ancient Greek, from the 1923 Loeb edition, followed by the English translation:

ὄμνυμι Ἀπόλλωνα ἰητρὸν καὶ Ἀσκληπιὸν καὶ Ὑγείαν καὶ Πανάκειαν καὶ θεοὺς πάντας τε καὶ πάσας, ἵστορας ποιεύμενος, ἐπιτελέα ποιήσειν κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμὴν ὅρκον τόνδε καὶ συγγραφὴν τήνδε:

ἡγήσεσθαι μὲν τὸν διδάξαντά με τὴν τέχνην ταύτην ἴσα γενέτῃσιν ἐμοῖς, καὶ βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καὶ χρεῶν χρηΐζοντι μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι, καὶ γένος τὸ ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἀδελφοῖς ἴσον ἐπικρινεῖν ἄρρεσι, καὶ διδάξειν τὴν τέχνην ταύτην, ἢν χρηΐζωσι μανθάνειν, ἄνευ μισθοῦ καὶ συγγραφῆς, παραγγελίης τε καὶ ἀκροήσιος καὶ τῆς λοίπης ἁπάσης μαθήσιος μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι υἱοῖς τε ἐμοῖς καὶ τοῖς τοῦ ἐμὲ διδάξαντος, καὶ μαθητῇσι συγγεγραμμένοις τε καὶ ὡρκισμένοις νόμῳ ἰητρικῷ, ἄλλῳ δὲ οὐδενί.

διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπὶ δηλήσει δὲ καὶ ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν.

οὐ δώσω δὲ οὐδὲ φάρμακον οὐδενὶ αἰτηθεὶς θανάσιμον, οὐδὲ ὑφηγήσομαι συμβουλίην τοιήνδε: ὁμοίως δὲ οὐδὲ γυναικὶ πεσσὸν φθόριον δώσω.

ἁγνῶς δὲ καὶ ὁσίως διατηρήσω βίον τὸν ἐμὸν καὶ τέχνην τὴν ἐμήν.

οὐ τεμέω δὲ οὐδὲ μὴν λιθιῶντας, ἐκχωρήσω δὲ ἐργάτῃσιν ἀνδράσι πρήξιος τῆσδε.

ἐς οἰκίας δὲ ὁκόσας ἂν ἐσίω, ἐσελεύσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων, ἐκτὸς ἐὼν πάσης ἀδικίης ἑκουσίης καὶ φθορίης, τῆς τε ἄλλης καὶ ἀφροδισίων ἔργων ἐπί τε γυναικείων σωμάτων καὶ ἀνδρῴων, ἐλευθέρων τε καὶ δούλων.

ἃ δ᾽ ἂν ἐνθεραπείῃ ἴδω ἢ ἀκούσω, ἢ καὶ ἄνευ θεραπείης κατὰ βίον ἀνθρώπων, ἃ μὴ χρή ποτε ἐκλαλεῖσθαι ἔξω, σιγήσομαι, ἄρρητα ἡγεύμενος εἶναι τὰ τοιαῦτα.

ὅρκον μὲν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπιτελέα ποιέοντι, καὶ μὴ συγχέοντι, εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι καὶ βίου καὶ τέχνης δοξαζομένῳ παρὰ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐς τὸν αἰεὶ χρόνον: παραβαίνοντι δὲ καὶ ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τούτων.

**** THE OATH IN E N G L IS H

I swear by Apollo Healer, by Asclepius, by Hygieia, by Panacea, and by all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath and this indenture.

To hold my teacher in this art equal to my own parents; to make him partner in my livelihood; when he is in need of money to share mine with him; to consider his family as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they want to learn it, without fee or indenture; to impart precept, oral instruction, and all other instruction to my own sons, the sons of my teacher, and to indentured pupils who have taken the Healer’s oath, but to nobody else.

I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgment, and I will do no harm or injustice to them. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein.

Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm, especially from abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free. And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of my profession, as well as outside my profession in my intercourse with men, if it be what should not be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding such things to be holy secrets.

Now if I carry out this oath, and break it not, may I gain for ever reputation among all men for my life and for my art; but if I break it and forswear myself, may the opposite befall me.– Translation by W.H.S. Jones.

FIRST DO NO HARM

*****************MAIN ARTICLE: PRIMUM NON NOCERE**************

It is often said that the exact phrase “First do no harm” (Latin: Primum non nocere) is a part of the original Hippocratic oath. Although the phrase does not appear in the AD 245 version of the oath, similar intentions are vowed by, “I will abstain from all intentional wrong-doing and harm”. The phrase primum non nocere is believed to date from the 17th century.

Another equivalent phrase is found in Epidemics, Book I, of the Hippocratic school: “Practice two things in your dealings with disease: either help or do not harm the patient”. The exact phrase is believed to have originated with the 19th-century English surgeon Thomas Inman.

Context and interpretation

A 12th-century Greek manuscript of the oath

The oath is arguably the best known text of the Hippocratic Corpus, although most modern scholars do not attribute it to Hippocrates himself, estimating it to have been written in the fourth or fifth century BC. Alternatively, classical scholar Ludwig Edelstein proposed that the oath was written by the Pythagoreans, an idea that others questioned for lack of evidence for a school of Pythagorean medicine. While Pythagorean philosophy displays a correlation to the Oath’s values, the proposal of a direct relationship has been mostly discredited in more recent studies.

Its general ethical principles are also found in other works of the Corpus: the Physician mentions the obligation to keep the ‘holy things’ of medicine within the medical community (i.e. not to divulge secrets); it also mentions the special position of the doctor with regard to his patients, especially women and girls.[12] However, several aspects of the oath contradict patterns of practice established elsewhere in the Corpus. Most notable is its ban on the use of the knife, even for small procedures such as lithotomy, even though other works in the Corpus provide guidance on performing surgical procedures.

Providing poisonous drugs would certainly have been viewed as immoral by contemporary physicians if it resulted in murder. However, the absolute ban described in the oath also forbids euthanasia. Several accounts of ancient physicians willingly assisting suicides have survived. Multiple explanations for the prohibition of euthanasia in the oath have been proposed: it is possible that not all physicians swore the oath, or that the oath was seeking to prevent widely held concerns that physicians could be employed as political assassins.

The interpreted AD 275 fragment of the oath contains a prohibition of abortion that is in contradiction to original Hippocratic text On the Nature of the Child, which contains a description of an abortion, without any implication that it was morally wrong,[16] and descriptions of abortifacient medications are numerous in the ancient medical literature.[ The oath’s stance on abortion was unclear even in the ancient world where physicians debated whether the specification of pessaries was a ban on simply pessaries, or a blanket ban on all abortion methods. Scribonius Largus was adamant in AD 43 (the earliest surviving reference to the oath) that it precluded abortion. In the 1st or 2nd century AD work Gynaecology, Soranus of Ephesus wrote that one party of medical practitioners followed the Oath and banished all abortifacients, while the other party—to which he belonged—was willing to prescribe abortions, but only for the sake of the mother’s health. William Henry Samuel Jones states that “abortion… though doctors are forbidden to cause it, was possibly not condemned in all cases”. He believed that the oath prohibited abortions, though not under all circumstances.[18] John M. Riddle argues that because Hippocrates specified pessaries, he only meant pessaries and therefore it was acceptable for a Hippocratic doctor to perform abortions using oral drugs, violent means, a disruption of daily routine or eating habits, and more. Other scholars, most notably Ludwig Edelstein, believe that the author intended to prohibit any and all abortions. Olivia De Brabandere writes that regardless of the author’s original intention, the vague and polyvalent nature of the relevant line has allowed both professionals and non-professionals to interpret and use the oath in several ways. While many Christian versions of the Hippocratic Oath, particularly from the Middle Ages, explicitly prohibited abortion, the prohibition is often omitted from many oaths taken in US medical schools today, though it remains controversial.

The oath stands out among comparable ancient texts on medical ethics and professionalism through its heavily religious tone, a factor which makes attributing its authorship to Hippocrates particularly difficult. Phrases such as ‘but I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art’ suggest a deep, almost monastic devotion to the art of medicine. He who keeps to the oath is promised ‘reputation among all men for my life and for my art’. This contrasts heavily with Galenic writings on professional ethics, which employ a far more pragmatic approach, where good practice is defined as effective practice, without reference to deities.

The oath’s importance among the medical community is nonetheless attested by its appearance on the tombstones of physicians, and by the fourth century AD it had come to stand for the medical profession.

The oath continued to be in use in the Byzantine Christian world with its references to pagan deities replaced by a Christian preamble, as in the 12th-century manuscript pictured in the shape of a cross.

“MODERN” VERSIONS AND RELEVANCE

An engraving of Hippocrates by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638

The Hippocratic Oath has been ECLIPSED, as a document of professional ethics by more extensive, regularly updated ethical codes issued by national medical associations, such as the AMA Code of Medical Ethics (first adopted in 1847), and the British General Medical Council’s Good Medical Practice. These documents provide a comprehensive overview of the obligations and professional behaviour of a doctor to their patients and wider society. Doctors who violate these codes may be subjected to disciplinary proceedings, including the loss of their license to practice medicine. Nonetheless, the length of these documents has made their distillations into shorter oaths an attractive proposition. In light of this fact, several updates to the oath have been offered in modern times, some facetious.

THE OATH HAS BEEN MODIFIED NUMEROUS TIMES (..BIG PHARMA – NWO..)

In the United States, the majority of osteopathic medical schools use the Osteopathic Oath in place of or in addition to the Hippocratic Oath. The Osteopathic Oath was first used in 1938, and the current version has been in use since 1954.

One of the most significant revisions was first drafted in 1948 by the World Medical Association (WMA), called the Declaration of Geneva. “During the post World War II and immediately after its foundation, the WMA showed concern over the state of medical ethics in general and over the world. The WMA took up the responsibility for setting ethical guidelines for the world’s physicians. It noted that in those years the custom of medical schools to administer an oath to its doctors upon graduation or receiving a license to practice medicine had fallen into disuse or become a mere formality”.[29] In Nazi Germany, medical students did not take the Hippocratic Oath, although they knew the ethic of “nil nocere”—do no harm.[30][failed verification]

In the 1960s, the Hippocratic Oath was changed to require “utmost respect for human life from its beginning”, making it a more secular obligation, not to be taken in the presence of any gods, but before only other people. When the oath was rewritten in 1964 by Louis Lasagna, Academic Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University, the prayer was omitted, and that version has been widely accepted and is still in use today by many US medical schools:

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon’s knife or the chemist’s drug.

I will not be ashamed to say “I know not”, nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient’s recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person’s family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

In a 1989 survey of 126 US medical schools, only three of them reported use of the original oath, while thirty-three used the Declaration of Geneva, sixty-seven used a modified Hippocratic Oath, four used the Oath of Maimonides, one used a covenant, eight used another oath, one used an unknown oath, and two did not use any kind of oath. Seven medical schools did not reply to the survey.

As of 1993, only 14% of medical oaths prohibited euthanasia, and only 8% prohibited abortion.

In a 2000 survey of US medical schools, all of the then extant medical schools administered some type of profession oath. Among schools of modern medicine, sixty-two of 122 used the Hippocratic Oath, or a modified version of it. The other sixty schools used the original or modified Declaration of Geneva, Oath of Maimonides, or an oath authored by students and or faculty. All nineteen osteopathic schools used the Osteopathic Oath.

In France, it is common for new medical graduates to sign a written oath.

In 1995, Sir Joseph Rotblat, in his acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize, suggested a Hippocratic Oath for Scientists.

In November 2005, Saparmurat Niyazov, then leader of Turkmenistan, declared that doctors should swear an oath to him instead of the Hippocratic Oath.[citation needed]

In 2007, US citizen Rafiq Abdus Sabir was convicted for making a pledge to al-Qaeda, thus agreeing to provide medical aid to wounded terrorists.

As of 2018, all US medical school graduates made some form of public oath but none used the original Hippocratic Oath. A modified form or an oath unique to that school is often used. A review of 18 of these oaths was criticized for their wide variability: “Consistency would help society see that physicians are members of a profession that’s committed to a shared set of essential ethical values.”

VIOLATION

There is no direct punishment for breaking the Hippocratic Oath, although an arguable equivalent in modern times is medical malpractice, which carries a wide range of punishments, from legal action to civil penalties.[40] In the United States, several major judicial decisions have made reference to the classical Hippocratic Oath, either upholding or dismissing its bounds for medical ethics: Roe v. Wade, Washington v. Harper, Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington (1996), and Thorburn v. Department of Corrections (1998).[41] In antiquity, the punishment for breaking the Hippocratic oath could range from a penalty to losing the right to practice medicine.

In 2022, a college in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu saw a batch of medical students undertaking the Charaka shapath, a Sanskrit Oath by the name of ancient sage physician Maharishi Charak instead of the Hippocratic oath. The state government subsequently dismissed the Dean of the Madurai medical college for this act.

Asklipios his Daughters, meaning etc

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The daughters of Asclepius
 Ipioni: the Wife of  Asclepius. And this daughters:  HYGEIA(=Health), EGLI(=Glamour),
IASO, AKES, Panacea. (Dictionary Suidas)


 Ipioni was secondary deity Asclepius wife, daughter Merope personification of gentleness. It was deity with healing properties, mainly dealing with obstetrics. Its name recalls the “ipion Pharmacy” was simultaneously comrade and wife of Asclepius, the ancient god of medicine.


His name is not suspected of Asklepios from July the Epidafrio that produced the name “glory” (Aogla) and in our opinion it is consistent and lexicographer Hesychius.
The etymology of the name from “Asklin”, the Corinthian King, whom he healed, or the “Asgelatan” epithet of Apollo, or “Aglaopin” seems rather popular origin. The second component of the name is “mild” that adds to the “glory” shine and gentleness ….
The earliest scholars produced the name from “Ashkelon”. Asclepius is the ideal conception of healing power of nature as now perceived by people, who acts in “soft” seasons in the hills and in the fresh air under the soft glow and heat of the sun, the points gush cool springs and tall trees surrounding clean atmosphere.
Such was exactly the environment of places of worship and this conception strengthened the various legends of his birth and origin.
Along with Ipioni acquired these daughters:
The first two probably represent different stages of treatment, while the third medication.
The IASO or Iiso (in the Ionian dialect) is an ancient Greek ideal, anthropomorphic, secondary attached deity Asclepius intertwined with the “sacred” concept of Healing (treatment).
Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis, sister goddesses healthy Akesos, Panacea and Aegle or daughter Amphiaraos.
 As a derivative of the verb iaomai (= heal) Place names: Iasis (Healing) – Jason – Iassos – Iatir – JATO – Doctor – Iator and the Cure as a means of therapy
 Pausanias reports that the Amphiaraeion Oropos altar, one of the five parts of which was dedicated to Aphrodite, the Panacea, the IASO, Health and Peony Athena.
 Also worshiped in Epidaurus and Athens.
  

The fund has worshiped at Epidaurus, as sisters, as a deity.
Her name is rooted in the ancient A and verb, meaning treat.
It was considered as the goddess of the healing process.

The Panacea was anthropomorphic secondary deity of Greek mythology intertwined with the concept of treatment (or herbal medicine) for Pasha disease. Reportedly daughter of Asclepius and Ipionis sister goddess Health, Iassos of Machaona and Podaleirios, Doctors of the Trojan War in Homer.
Worshiped mainly in Oropos, Attica, Kalymnos, Kos, etc .. The form of the present and the Asklepieion of Athens.
As goddess seen as able to cure every disease, its name quickly spread to all the Greek cities, particularly drugs capable of curing if not all diseases at least most of them.

The Egli.
It is said to have derived its name “Glow,” radiators, brilliant fame, grandeur, or “Splendour,” or by the beauty of the human body when it is in good health, or the price paid in the medical profession.

Health was the ancient Greek goddess, personification of Health of body and soul.
As the oldest center of worship of Titane refers to Sicyon, where were the sanctuary of Asclepius and Hygeia. According to ancient Greek tradition Arifron Sikyonios wrote the hymn to the goddess, whose cult was spread in Athens about 420 BC ..
In Greek mythology holds a prominent place in worship of her father. However, while Asclepius directly related to the treatment of diseases, the goddess associated with preventing disease and maintaining health status.
Apart from Athens, worshiped in other cities, such as Thespies in Elatia, Megara, Corinth and Argos.
The Orphic hymn health shows the importance attached by the ancient Greeks on health: “Imeroesa, Erato, polythalmie, pamvasileia, klythi marlin healthy ferolvie, mother collected works …”

The artists portrayed him from 5th century. BC as a young woman, later adopted as a symbol of the serpent.
Health others want her husband and other daughter of Asclepius.
It was probably a very ancient divinity, who is identified when the Asclepius, sometimes with Amphiaraos and when with Athena. Bronze statue of Athena Health stood on the Acropolis near ancient altar, immediately after entering the Propylaea.
Carved figures of Asclepius and Hygeia save many.
Here’s Hymn to Health, the Arifrona from Sikyon:

“Health most venerable among the blessed,
let us dwell with you the rest of my life,
let’s you my willing chug rather than wealth or grace parents.
Whether the royal power, which is equal to the gods to humans,
or cravings with hidden Venus nets.
Hunting, or other pleasure or the pain relief Gods show to people,
in with you, blissfully Health, all thallium and Graces shining spring without you no one was prosperous “

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H E L L E N I C K A L L O S

H E L L E N I C A R T S

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H E L L E N I C ARTS / PART ONE(1)

How many Athens did Phidias sculpt for the Acropolis? The answer will surprise you: the sculptor created three statues of the goddess, to which he gave different interpretations and which would later become points of reference for classical Hellenism. One was the Athena Prómachos, armed with a shield and spear, so colossal that if you didn’t see her coming from Cape Sounion it meant you had the wrong city and you weren’t in Athens. The second was Athena Lemnia, shown as a messenger of peace, without a helmet and so harmonious that if you looked at her for too long you ended up falling asleep. The last and most famous was the Athena Parthenos, a large statue that presided over the Parthenon, in gold and ivory. He ended up in trouble for the latter: Pericles’ opponents accused him of having appropriated precious metals and he ended up in prison, where he died according to Plutarch. An unworthy end for an artist like him, but luckily Plutarch made a big mistake: documentary evidence attests that Phidias was in Olympia after the trial, working on the immense statue of Zeus. This time, he did his calculations well for gold and silver. You never knew.

PARTHENON WAS BUILT ON P=π & Ε=Φ PYTHAGOREAN PRINCIPLES:
pi and Phi.
π=3.14159265359
Φ=1.61803398875.

“Μεγάλην παιδείαν νόμιζε δι’ ής δυνήση φέρειν απαιδευσίαν” = Consider great education that which will give you the ability to suffer ignorance) – PYTHAGORAS

DETAILED RELIEF IN WHICH THE GOD ASKLEPIOS INSIDE THE TEMPLE TOGETHER WITH HIS WIFE IPIONI AND HIS DAUGHTER HYGEIA ACCEPT THE OFFERINGS OF WORSHIPERS.
A SMALL SLAVE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESSION LEADS A PIG FOR SACRIFICE.

THE SYMBOLIC SACRIFICE OF THE PIG CORRESPONDS TO THE KILLING OF THE ANIMAL – 

BARBARIANS FROM THE EAST.LOOTING AND MASSACRING IN ATHENS,WHEN THE CITY`S ARMY WAS IN MISSION TO THE DEFEND IONIA ANDVTHE ISLANDS IN THE EAST

ON THE BRINK OF PURE DIVINE ARE 3 UNITS: SYMMETRY, TRUTH AND BEAUTY(= ΚΑΛΛΟΣ /KALLOS).
THE RHYTHMS (OR ORDERS) OF THE COLUMNS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF THESE 3 UNITS.
The DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS POWER, WITH THE SUPPORT OF GREAT WEIGHTS AND THEREFORE SYMMETRY, BECAUSE ONLY SYMMETRY IS STRONG ….THE IONIC RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO WISDOM AND BY EXTENSION TO TRUTH, AS THE SPIRAL ALLUDES TO MENTAL POWER…
THE CORINTHIAN ORDER (RHYTHM) REPRESENTS THE BEAUTY (OR KALLOS), SINCE
, AS THE MOST DECORATED, IT EXPRESS DELICACY AND GRACE…
VITRUVIUS,
ON ARCHITECTURE …
THE 3 RHYTHMS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF ALL 3 PARTS OF THE SOUL= ΨΥΧΗ/PSYCHE…
THE DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS THE POWER OF THE THYMOID, OF EMOTION ….
THE IONIC RHYTHM REPRESENTS THE WISDOM OF THE ACCOUNTING, THE INTELLIGENCE-KNOWLEDGE=ΝΌΗΣΗΣ-ΓΝΩΣΙΣ
/NOESIS-GNOSIS…
THE CORINTHIAN RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO THE BEAUTY OF DESIGN: EROS=ΕΡΩΣ
THE SEAL AND GREATNESS OF SPIRITUAL GREECE!.

IF WE START FROM THE CENTER OF THE PARTHENON AND JOIN THESE POINTS: THESEIUM, PNYX, THE BASE OF PHILOPAPPOUS, AND THE CENTER OF THE TEMPLE OF OLYMPUS ZEUS(DIOS), AN OCTAGON WILL FORM WHERE EACH ANGLE WILL BE EXACTLY EQUAL TO THE LENGHT OF PARTHENON TIMES 7(SEVEN)……. THE MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY THE ANCIENT GREEKS EXCEEDED ANY IMAGINATION, SO THEY FORMED A PERFECT NETWORK, BASED ON MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS, WHICH WAS UNCONCEPTABLE TO THE CHALDEANS, BABYLONIANS,, HINDUS, PHOENICIANS AND EGYPTIANS… THE THEATERS BUILT BY THE GREEKS HAD PERFECT ACOUSTICS WHEREVER THEY ARE….. LATER THE ROMANS TRY TO IMITATE THEM, BUT WHEN SOMEONE WISHES TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH A GREEK, IT IS LIKE WISHING TO MOUNT BAREFOOT (BAREFOOT) IN THE MIDDLE OF WINTER ON OLYMPUS…THE WIDTH OF THE PARTHENON IS ONE TWO MINUTES OF THE EQUATOR…CHALKIS IS THE SAME DISTANCE FROM ATHENS AND SOUNIO, AS ALSO DELPHI IS THE SAME FROM OLYMPIA AND ATHENS.. DISTANCE: CHALKIS THEBE IS 162 STAGES, THE SAME AND THE AMPHIAREUM.. DELOS TO ATHENS DISTANCE

DETAILED RELIEF IN WHICH THE GOD ASKLEPIOS INSIDE THE TEMPLE TOGETHER WITH HIS WIFE IPIONI AND HIS DAUGHTER HYGEIA ACCEPT THE OFFERINGS OF WORSHIPERS.
A SMALL SLAVE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESSION LEADS A PIG FOR SACRIFICE.

THE SYMBOLIC SACRIFICE OF THE PIG CORRESPONDS TO THE KILLING OF THE ANIMAL – OUR DESIRE’S CENTER SO THAT THE SUFFERER CAN BE LED TO HEALING.

“So many statues! How many temples! And all of them elaborately built with this beautiful marble that shines defying time! No other country has managed to do this. Don’t you think that in this effort, in these expenses – in their pursuit of art, eternal duration and beauty – there is a distinct desire to leave their mark and show future generations how wonderful it can be Human; And the Greeks wanted to leave these traces almost everywhere. There are Greek temples in Spain, Sicily, North Africa and Asia Minor, and even in Central Asia. I have been told that Gymnasiums and Greek buildings have been discovered even in India. Such self-confidence or rather, such faith in the greatness of man! To build their temples, they calculated the smallest detail, the distance between the pillars and the tension of the columns, in order to correct the distortions due to perspective and to maintain an overall harmony. All these have survived raids, fires and earthquakes, and today they still inspire our admiration.”

.Jacqueline de Romiguy, “Human Greatness in the Age of Pericles”May be an image of the Parthenon and the Brandenburg Gate

ETIMOU LOGIKI

Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite, sculpture of PhidiasPhidias, also spelled Pheidias (flourished c. 490–430 bc), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration. It is said of Phidias that he alone had seen the exact image of the gods and that he revealed it to man. He established forever general conceptions of Zeus and Athena. HERE: from the eastern front of the Parthenon, 435 BC, London, British Museum.

The NIKE(=VICTORY) of SAMOTHRACE, a statue 2.75 meters high and in total, together with the bow of the ship on which it stands, 5.12 meters.
The statue of NIKE is made of PARIAN marble and the bow of marble of Lardos, in the region of RHODOS, in all probability.
It was discovered in 1863 in a temple in SAMOTHRACE along with two other statues representing NIKE!
For information, one of the remaining two is exhibited in the Museum of ART History in VIENNA and the other in the ARCHAEOLOGICAL Museum of SAMOTHRACE.
Regarding the sculpture of NIKE, which has been in FRANCE since the day it was STOLEN from SAMOTHRACE until TODAY, it was DISCOVERED on April 15, 1863, in archaeological excavations, led by the diplomat and vice-consul of FRANCE in ANDRIANOUPOLIS, Karolos Chambouzos. .
Upon SEEING the sculpture, the FRENCH DIPLOMAT contacted the FRENCH AMBASSADÖR in COLONNE and the ambassador “ARRANGED” to get the HIGH GATE’s “APPROVAL”, so that the sculpture could be transported to FRANCE by a FRENCH WARSHIP. The statue, after a stop in TOULON, finally arrived in the LOUVRE on May 11, 1864, having suffered considerable damage during its transport.
From the sculpture that the visitor sees TODAY, at LEAST the marble BASE-BOW was missing (23 pieces of marble, of which 17 RESTED on a rectangular base of SIX marble slabs, in such an inventive and skillful way, so that the STATUE and the SHIP were BALANCED and that it is IMPOSSIBLE to detach ONE part from the OTHER, as the CENTER of GRAVITY would SHIFT and the BALANCE would be LOST.
This HAPPENED, as the archaeologists THOUGHT, seeing the BROKEN pieces FOUND, that they belonged to some MOUND.
In 1875, AUSTRIAN archaeologists, headed by Alexander CONZE, found at the excavation site the marbles of the bow that the FRENCH archaeologists did not recognize as part of NIKE, and finding NEXT to them a TETRADRACHM of D. POLIORKITES, depicting the goddess NIKE on the BOW of a ship, they understood WHO it was. it is about.
When CHAMBOUSE learned in 1879 about the marbles he had left behind, without GRABBING them, he IMMEDIATELY arranged for them to be sent to the LOUVRE, as well. The restoration of the sculpture ended in 1884.
In 1891, CHAMPOISEAU returned to SAMOTHRACE, wanting to FIND and STEAL the HEAD of NIKE, but WITHOUT succeeding.
In 1950, American archaeologists from the University of New York, led by Karl LEHMANN, excavated AGAIN at the site where the NIKE of SAMOTHRACE was FOUND and FOUND a PALM of the RIGHT hand, which was ATTRIBUTED to NIKE of Samothrace. TWO fingers that were FOUND in the area by AUSTRIAN archaeologists in 1875 and which were KEPT in the VIENNA HISTORY Museum, were CONNECTED to the discovered PALM and were ALSO exhibited in the LOUVRE, in PARIS.
In 1952, two pieces of the GRAY marble of the BOW were also recovered in the Louvron, where in 1996 they were FINALLY RECOGNIZED as part of the BASE of the ship

. Gold earring with Nike pendant, Greek, 4th century BC.

By: Etimou LOGIKI

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION
ON APRIL 8, 1820, APHRODITE OF MILOS WAS BORN.
A STATUE, THAT WOULD PREFER TO REMAIN BURIED IN THE DEPTHS OF THE GREEK LAND, RATHER THAN END UP A
… “STATUA” IN A FOREIGN LAND.
IT ALL STARTED IN 1814, WHEN THE ANCIENT THEATER OF MILOS was accidentally discovered.
6 years later, on April 8, 1820, 300 meters away while working in his field, which was in the Klima area, the Milios villager Kentrotas found himself in front of an underground cave, divided into 3 galleries. In the middle he saw a statue standing, “where the left hand hid the breasts, while the right hand held an apple” (“Foreign travelers in Greece”, K. Simopoulos).
The French officer BOUTIE was among the many who offered to “help” with the statue, and he first recorded on paper the findings of Kentrotas.
BOUTIE KILLED AT LEAST 200 PROTESTING GREEK VILLAGERS, WITH THE HELP OF THE OTTOMANS, OFCOURSE…
‘OUR APHRODITE IS DEPICTED WITHOUT HANDS….EVEN IF WE ACCEPT the OFFICIAL information and BOUTIE’S PLAN AS.. TRUE(!!), THE FINDINGS FOUND IN THE FIELD WERE-AT LEAST-:
1). THE UPPER PART OF APHRODITE WITH BROKEN ARMS, BUT WITH THE BUN INTAKT AND ATTACHED TO THE HEAD (I AM WRITTING THIS BECAUSE ALONG THE WAY, IT IS MENTIONED, THAT THEY UNITED IT WITH THE.. REST OF THE HEAD, AS IT HAD DETACHED)
2). THE LOWER PART OF THE STATUE
3). A HAND HOLDING AN APPLE
4). ONE FOOT WITH A SANDAL
5). A STELE WITH BEARDED HERMES
6)… A COLUMN WITH HERCULES
THE STATUE ALSO BROUGHT.. JEWELS AND EVEN THE MARKS /HOLES ON TOP OF IT, ON WHICH THEY WERE ATTACHED, CAN STILL BE SEEN.
THE NAME OF THE SCULPTOR WAS MENTIONED ON THE BASE OF THE SCULPTURE:
(AN.. IS MISSING!!)..
HERE:
….ΔΡΟΣ ΜΙΝΙΔΟΥ ANTIOXOS ΑΠΟ ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕ” =
(AN IS MISSING!!)
ANDROS MINIDOU, ANTIOCHOS POIISE=
MADE BY THE MINIDIAN MAN ANTIOCHOS, WHO MADE IT…..

UNFORTUNATELY, HIS NAME, AS YOU SEE WAS NOT COMPLETELY “SAVED”,.. ONLY.. HIS FATHER’S NAME, AS WELL, AND HIS CITY(ANTIOCHIA-Adjctv: “ANTIOCHOS”) OF ORIGIN, BUT IN.. ANY CASE,.. THIS INSCRIPTION “DISAPPEARED” A FEW YEARS LATER BY.. “ACCIDENT”!!!!!
NO WONDER, JUST, AS IT WAS NO…WONDER, THAT BARBARIANS OTHER THUGS… CLAIMED IT EVERYWHERE, putting the money and material rewards above the joy that any civilized person feels when seeing one of our statues.

It is said that a battle took place in front of the ships between French officials, ambassadors, with priests, dragomans, etc., over where the SCULPTURE would END UP. EVERYONE HAD THEIR OWN …ARGUMENT (!!)….
(OTTOMANS, BECAUSE THEY WERE THE OCCUPANTS, FRENCH, GOTHS AND OTHER THUGS, AS WELL ).

WHY IT WAS BROKEN-LOST-DISAPPEARED IN THAT CONTROVERSY FROM OUR APHRODITE, IS CONTROVERSIAL. OTHERS SAY, THAT HER LEFT ARM FELL INTO THE… SEA AS THE BARBARIANS AND THE OTHERS LOOTERS
PULLED THE CAISSON THAT ENCLOSED HER FROM.. RIGHT TO LEFT, OTHERS, THA THEY WERE LÖST DURING THE FIGHT AND OTHER VALUABLE FINDS. WE MAY NEVER KNOW THE TRUTH!
HIS FATET WAS CERTAINTY PREDETERMINED, WITH GREECE ENSLAVED BY BARBARIANS AND THEIR SPONGERS, WHOSE ONLY CONCERT, SEEING OUR HERITAGE, WAS TO GET RICH.
AFTER ALL, IT IS SAID, THAT DURING THE OTTOMAN RULE, THERE WERE MANY “CULTURAL” DANCING VISITS OF A “RESEARCH” NATURE TO GREECE AND, THAT THE ANCIENT FINDS WERE TRANSPORTED TO KON/POLIS, FROM WHERE THEY WERE VISITED IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES BY THE SULTAN, WITH COMPENSATION OF COURSE.
THUS, IN MARCHE 1821, THE APHRODITE OF MILOS PASSED INTO THE HANDS OF LOUIS II. IT WAS THE…. GIFT(!!) OF
MARQUISE DE RIVIERE, AMBASSADOR OF FRANCE IN COLONNE, TO THE FRENCH KING . THE 2.02 METER PARIAN MARBLE SCULPTURE IS delivered a little LATER to the LOUVRE MUSEUM.
The “MAGNANIMOUS” FRENCH ARE SAID TO have “REIMBURSED” the MILOS FOR ANY LOSSES THEY., SUFFERED DUE TO THE SALE OF THE LOOTED STATUE TO THEM, IN EXCHANGE FOR 7,000 OR SO TURKISH piastres.
It is also said that an agreement was signed between the CLERGY and the FRENCH-,, JEWISH CATHOLIC PRIEST THUG: MICHAEL FOURMONT WITH THE FRENCH VICE-CONSUL OF BREST, IN WHICH IT WAS MENTIONED IN BRIEF THAT ALL OF THEM AND THEIR DESCENDANTS WAIVE ANY FURTHER COMPENSATION!!
WE WERE LEFT WITH A SIGN TO REMIND US WHERE OUR HERITAGE STOLEN/SOLD OFF BY THE USUAL SUSPECTS WAS FOUND AND A COPY OF OUR APHRODITE, WHICH IS ON DISPLAY IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM of6 MILOS, A GIFT FROM THE “GENEROUS” LOUVRE MUSEUM
.
!

(AND ) APHRODITE HAS BEEN CRYING HERE FOR YEARS AND ASKING to RETURN TO HER MOTHER, GREECE, in the WATERS of which she was BORN, to HEAR HER NAME AGAIN, to see her SUN AGAIN …
WHEN WILL OUR HERITAGE be DISPERSED AMONG PEOPLES, UNABLE NOT ONLY TO CREATE CULTURE AND STATUES , BUT ALSO THEIR OWN WORD TO DESCRIBE THE HOUSE OF THE MUSES
, : THE MUSEUM? 

By: Roberto Momi.
I greci erano gli unici che hanno osato esporre nudi il bel corpo umano.
Per migliaia di anni, varie altre culture, come Egiziani, Assiri e Babilonesi, hanno visto l’uomo come un essere abominevole che striscia davanti agli dei e ai tiranni.
Ma i greci presero l’uomo, lo incastonarono e lo giustiziarono letteralmente.
I greci credevano nella perfezione di tutte le cose e ci hanno lasciato in eredità la bellezza delle loro sculture, le poesie delle loro tragedie e la ricerca dell’universo e della natura.
Senza i greci non avremmo mai capito il grande potenziale dell’uomo.


NELLA FOTO APHRODITE KALLIPYGOS (=ΚΑΛΛΊΠΥΓΟΣ = BEL CULO= BEAUTIFUL ASS

ON APRIL 8, 1820, APHRODITE OF MILOS WAS BORN.
A STATUE, THAT WOULD PREFER TO REMAIN BURIED IN THE DEPTHS OF THE GREEK LAND, RATHER THAN END UP

***************************Capitoline Museums Rome
Statue of Aphrodite of the Capitol
From the original by Praxiteles (4th century BC)
The sculpture, slightly larger than life size, was found near the Basilica of San Vitale around 1666-1670 and was purchased and donated to the Capitoline collections by Pope Benedict XIV in 1752. It is one of the most famous statues in the museum and may boasting a number of reproductions in international collections as well. The goddess Aphrodite is depicted in fine marble (probably Parian) emerging from the bath naked, in meditation, leaning forward with her hands placed to accommodate the roundness of her fine, soft and fleshy body and covering the breasts and pubis the cavity.
Her right leg is bent and forward and the left is resting. Her head is slightly bent to the left and she has complex hair in the shape of circles with a high knot “bow” and knots falling to rest on the shoulders. The expression on her face seems to focus on an “absence”, which is psychologically expressed by the small, lazy eyes and the small and fleshy mouth.
This Venus could perhaps be considered one of the earliest and most faithful copies, probably intended, like all representations of this type, to adorn an imperial complex of remarkable finesse.

Capitoline Museums Rome
Hermes of Apollo
Greek sculpture (Attica) 5th century BC


🌍 The Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios) at Athens, was a two-aisled stoa located in the northwest corner of the Ancient Agora of Athens. It was built c. 425 BC–410 BC for religious purposes in dedication to Zeus by the Eleutherios (“pertaining to freedom”): a cult founded after the Persian War. It is different from others in that it was a stoa rather than a temple (the common building used for religious purposes). Scholars believe the building also served other civic purposes due to its central location. Researchers think the structure may have been built by Mnesikles, the architect who built the Propylaia. In the late first century BC a two room annex was added, possibly for the cult of the Roman imperial family.
This cult of Zeus was established after the battle of Plataia in 479 BCE, when the Greeks drove the Persians out of Greece.
Though dedicated to a god, the building takes the form commonly used for a civic building: a stoa (colonnade or portico), with two projecting wings. Built of marble and limestone in the years around 425 B.C., the stoa had Doric columns on the exterior and Ionic columns within. According to Pausanias it was decorated with paintings done by Euphranor, a famous 4th-century artist, and the shields of those who died fighting for the freedom of Athens were displayed on the building. Rooms were added to the back of the stoa in the Early Roman period and may have housed a cult of the Roman emperors.

🏛️ Why does the Parthenon have a unique architecture? 🏺
💠 Iktinos and Kallikrates when designing this temple of the Virgin of Athens knew very well what to do in order to create a wonderful architectural result.
📐 The ratio of the height and width of the facade of the building is equal to the Golden Ratio (~1.618…).
🔸 It is also noteworthy that there are no straight lines in the Parthenon and if we extended the columns they would intersect at some point.
📖Sources:
The Golden Ratio, the story of F the most amazing number (Mario Livio).
The Golden Ratio in Ancient Greece (Evangelos Spandagos

)

ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS, GREECE in 1670s, in 1860s and 2021.

The roof and several side columns of the PARTHENON would’ve been still on there. Unfortunately during the OTTOMAN EMPIRE rule over GREECE, the VENETIANS, MOROSINI’S blasted cannons from the sea and hit the PARTHENON while the OTTOMANS were using the structure as an ammunition depot.

The explosion destroyed the roof and the sides of the PARTHENON.

THEN WAS THE “ENGLISH” NOBLE COUNT ELGIN* ONE OF THE WORST AMONG OF THE BARBARIAN THUGS, AFTER THE “FRENCH” NOBLE PRIEST MICHEL FOURMONT**, WHO LOOTED THE WHOLE COUNTRY, BURNED, MASSACRED ETC…

Today there is a major reconstruction of the PARTHENON and other structures on the ACROPOLIS.

P. S: *ELGIN, AS FOURMONT** HAD THE SAME ROOTS… DURING THE MIDDLE AGES, “RENAISSANCE” AND UP TO OUR DAYS THE PSRTICULAR RACE, WERE BYING NOBLE TITLES ALL OVER EUROPE… THE MOST DANGEROUS ARE THE UNGRATEFUL BENEFICIARY ONES TOWARDS TO THE BENEFACTOR-VICTIM THROUGH THE CENTURIES.. AND IT STILL GOING ON BY ALL KIND OF MEANS

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name of the holiday comes from the flower… and is related to the custom of the second day of the “Hoos”, where three-year-old children were crowned and not only , with flowers.

At the beginning of Spring, nature is reborn from its long hibernation, the earth begins to be adorned with the first hasty flowers and the bright sun fills man with joy and optimism. The first agricultural works begin, the cultivation of the land “opens the resources” and the souls of our dead rise to the surface. This surely reminds of loved ones, who have left the worldly life, people who have never been forgotten and paying honor to their memory, apart from being a debt, also helps to soften the pain of separation.

The Limnaios hiero, (héron “in Limnais”), was the center of the events, although we do not know its exact location. It is estimated somewhere between the theater of Dionysos and Ilissos. As is well known, the great and important holidays were three days long and the Anthesterias are no exception.

On the first day we had the Pythoia, that is the opening of the pyths, the next day we had the Hoes, (vessels of wine) while the third day, the Hytroi, was dedicated to the dead.

In Pythoia we had libations, outside the closed sanctuary of Dionysos, as they opened the pitharias with the wine of the new harvest. The whole family, from the age of three and above, wore floral wreaths, while the servants were entitled to do and say what they wanted because of the day. The first wine was an offering from the head of the family outside the sanctuary “in Limnais”, then there was a libation in the house with wishes for a good outcome and of course everyone tasted for the good of the new era, danced and sang and of course did not forget to thank the god Dionysus.

The second day, the Hoes, owes its name to the hoes, the vessels where it was stored, much like today’s good wine. It was the day when the sanctuary was opened, the hierogamy was performed, during which the procession entered the sanctuary, where the symbolic marriage of the god was performed after the wife of each king, for the vegetation and fruitfulness of the earth. The king, accompanied by disguised followers, arrived at the sanctuary, on a wheeled chariot in the shape of a ship, whose bow ended in the shape of a pig’s head, while its stern resembled the neck of a swan. The same ship was also used in Panathenaia, to transport the sacred Veil of Athena. In the sanctuary he met his beloved wife, who had arrived there the day before, in a flower-decorated carriage, followed by nymphs and maenads, as well as bearded Seilins, to the sound of bells and bells, as well as the hymn of the Bacchus. She was accompanied by fourteen Athenian concubines, chosen by the king himself, the so-called Gerares. Reference is made to Hesychius as well as Polydeukis.

After the ceremony, the queen spent the night again in the sanctuary, while the escort with lit torches went to the theater where a banquet was held with wine-drinking contests. They filled clay vessels (hoes) with wine and competed to see who would drink it the fastest, while stepping on inflated ashes smeared with oil, because apparently part of the competition was the difficulty caused by their slipperiness. They brought food from home, mainly placentas with a kind of hot sauce. [“upon deipnon fast, marched the kistin and the hoa. That of Dionysus, because the priest is transferred” (Acharnes, (1085 -1087) Aristophanes)].

The contestants were speechless during the wine-drinking, while afterwards with the wine that was left over they made libations inside the sanctuary of Limnaios.

There was a special celebration for children, where three-year-old children were crowned with floral crowns, which in a sense symbolized the rebirth of mother nature. Gifts were also sent to the teachers that day.

After the dances, the participants in the banquet went out into the streets, on carriages, where obscenities, jeers and fights were customary. Today’s expression “you’ll hear it from the car” comes from this fact.

On the third day (Khytroi), the scene changed completely, the holiday was dedicated to the dead, as mentioned above. Porridge was prepared from grass and various seeds, inside clay pots, a kind of kolybum. It was believed that the souls, ascending from the underworld and hovering around the fire, breathed in the gourd and smoke and drank honey and milk from the pit. The panspermia myth goes back to the time of the Deucalion flood, during which the survivors cooked “panspermia soup”. He performed a sacrifice to Dionysus and the soul-bearer Hermes, an ancient custom. A red thread around the saints was a kind of protection from the evil, evil spirits, which were believed to ascend together with the souls.

We also had apothecaries in other cities of Greece, in Boeotia, in Corinth, in Apollonia of Halkidiki, in Thira, in Magnesia, etc.

Here in the above photos one can see how, from antiquity to the present day, from Alexandroupoli to Zurich and so on. with the same enthusiasm from young and old, the tradition of the beautiful Spring holiday continues.

Apollonius – Ariadne/ . Detalj av en attisk rödfigurig kalyx-krater från Thebe cirka 400-375 f.Kr.

ACHILLES AT THE COURT OF KING LYCOMEDES (rear end panel of sarcophagus).
MARBLE. Ca 240 CE.
Inv. No. Ma 2120.
PARIS, LOUVRE MUSEUM .
PRIVATE COLLECTION, BORGHESE.
ORIGIN:
** ROME./ FROM ATHENS WORKSHOP.
THE SARCOPHAGI HAD BEEN SAW ED UP TO FOUR PLATS WHICH WERE INSTALLED INTO THE FACADE OF VILLA BORGHESE. THE PLATES HAD BEEN MOVED TO THE LOUVRE, WHERE THE SARCOPHAGOS WAS RECONSTITUTED IN INTEGRITY
.

Data: museum annotation

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides,

Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite, sculpture of PhidiasPhidias, also spelled Pheidias (flourished c. 490–430 bc), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration. It is said of Phidias that he alone had seen the exact image of the gods and that he revealed it to man. He established forever general conceptions of Zeus and Athena. HERE: from the eastern front of the Parthenon, 435 BC, London, British Museum.

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name …

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ΑΝΘΕΣΤΗΡΙΑ


.

ON THE BRINK OF PURE DIVINE ARE 3 UNITS: SYMMETRY, TRUTH AND BEAUTY(= ΚΑΛΛΟΣ /KALLOS).
THE RHYTHMS (OR ORDERS) OF THE COLUMNS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF THESE 3 UNITS.
The DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS POWER, WITH THE SUPPORT OF GREAT WEIGHTS AND THEREFORE SYMMETRY, BECAUSE ONLY SYMMETRY IS STRONG ….THE IONIC RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO WISDOM AND BY EXTENSION TO TRUTH, AS THE SPIRAL ALLUDES TO MENTAL POWER…
THE CORINTHIAN ORDER (RHYTHM) REPRESENTS THE BEAUTY (OR KALLOS), SINCE
, AS THE MOST DECORATED, IT EXPRESS DELICACY AND GRACE…
VITRUVIUS,
ON ARCHITECTURE …
THE 3 RHYTHMS ARE AN EXPRESSION OF ALL 3 PARTS OF THE SOUL= ΨΥΧΗ/PSYCHE…
THE DORIC RHYTHM EXPRESS THE POWER OF THE THYMOID, OF EMOTION ….
THE IONIC RHYTHM REPRESENTS THE WISDOM OF THE ACCOUNTING, THE INTELLIGENCE-KNOWLEDGE=ΝΌΗΣΗΣ-ΓΝΩΣΙΣ
/NOESIS-GNOSIS…
THE CORINTHIAN RHYTHM CORRESPONDS TO THE BEAUTY OF DESIGN: EROS=ΕΡΩΣ
THE SEAL AND GREATNESS OF SPIRITUAL GREECE!.

YOUNG MEN RIDE HORSES ON THE PARTHENON FRIEZE

ANOTHER PART OF THE PARTHENON FRIEZE SHOWED THE RICH YOUNG MEN OF ATHENS RIDING THEIR HORSES. THE HORSES ARE EXCITED TO BE IN A PARADE, AND THE YOUNG MEN ARE TRYING TO KEEP THEM UNDER CONTROL.

NEED OF CATHARSIS = <<ΚΥΘΗΡΑΣΘΑΙ ΑΝΑΓΚΗ>>

…Three ways of purifying the PSYCHE(=ΨΥΧΗ= SOUL) according to PROCLUS whose IGNORANCE is considered a DISEASE OF THE MIND:
A. The first way of purification is through Plato’s PHAEDRUS through TERELTICISM as formulated by Socrates to pursue Divine Love through the virtues, to desire the Heaven of Aphrodite and through the virtues to perform friendship and divine intercourse.
So what is Love?
<<Kind of desire, lust>> (Phaedros 237ff). But even those who do not have love lust, when they desire the best, they feel lust!
How do we distinguish lust?
Two Ideas exist within us:
One begins since it dominates by nature is innate and is the desire of pleasure.
The other is glory, acquired opinion is acquired after the first and acts with a strong desire for the excellent.
These are ideas that prevail within us.
The glory that leads to excellence is called Sophrosyne, while the natural desire that is attracted by pleasures and prevails in us was called Hubris.
Love that becomes hubris is considered to have been diverted from Divine ideas. He is hurtful and disgusting and must become Sophrosyne!
On the contrary, the Love of Wisdom leads love to friendship to love and agrees with <<PHILION>> Dia.
He who speaks of him shines <<UNDER THE WORD>> and COMPELS after the divine head with the divine round Mind.
And this love is the four virtues of the Greeks, namely:
WISDOM when due to <<estimation>> the desire of love is led to excellence.
SORRY when the desire of the rectus restrains the desire of the pleasures of the horses.
COURAGE when you fight with rum for the pleasure of the excellent and beautiful and THE RIGHTEOUSNESS when the logic of the excellent presides over the lust for the enjoyment of beauty on the bodies! This is DIVINE LOVE a soul passion Divine that leads to the supreme happiness of man.
Abs. from the book: Initiation to the Delphic Light by Lia Koutalianou

TEMPLE OF APOLLO/ DELPHI//BEOTIA

*******************THE PYTHIC STADIUM of DELPHI****************************************’

The Pythian Stadium of Delphi is located on the highest plateau of the Archaeological site, after a steep climb up the uphill path, above the Sanctuary of Apollo and the local theater (there is a helipad next to it). So at an altitude of about (800 m.) from the surface of the Corinthian gulf, in a pine forest with pine trees, wild pomegranates and gorse trees, on the steep slope of Parnassos, with running water (fountains), and with the unique view of the plain of Amfissa with the thousands of olive trees, the stadium was originally designed in (5th BC) for athletics and runners, with those seated on the sloping ground, or perhaps on wooden stools.
The monumental stone benches were acquired in (2nd AD) thanks to a donation by Herodes Atticus of Maecenas from ash limestone of Parnassos. Then the monumental arched entrance of the triumph, with the four pessos, was formed, which is unique in an ancient stadium in Greece.

The stadium was long (178.35 m.), with a semi-circular sling in the shape of a hairpin, and a capacity of 5-6,500 thousand spectators. The northern long side was carved into the Phaedriades rocks, while the opposite southern side was supported by a retaining wall, which has partially caved in. However, there is an inscription (5th BC) built into the parapet wall that testifies to the primary configuration of the stadium.
In the east, the starting line, the so-called “aphesis”, is preserved almost intact, with two (2) rows of marble slabs (Pausanias) with notches for the runners’ feet, and rectangular cavities for the support of the sypliggos.

On the approach to the stadium, there was another interesting inscription engraved on the rampart wall, to the point where it was impossible to approach without reading the prohibition: the consumption of wine inside the stadium was prohibited on penalty of a fine (for obvious reasons), since wine was served for sacrifices!

The stadium was abandoned in (394 AD), and the Panhellenic glory of the Pythian Games faded away….

Source:
archaeologia.gr

**************ORSIIS = ΟΡΣΗΙΣ ( ΟΡΣΩ = to raise, provoke, arouse or arise ) was the Nymph who was to become the mother of all Greeks THE MOTHER OF ALL GREEKS(i e:

If you ask any Greek, of any educational level, anywhere in Greece or abroad, “who is Sarah”?… you will undoubtedly get a huge number of satisfactory answers.

But if you ask hundreds of thousands of Greeks, of the highest educational level, from teachers to academics, “who is Orseida”?… you will get all the improbable answers – except the real one – that Orseida… is the Prometheus of the Greeks!

This sad, universal ignorance of our ancestors is the best proof of the absolute historical aphasia of the Greeks!

Not only do they not know that they have Hellenes, the son of Deucalion, as their ancestor, but even the most educated Greeks do not know that his wife Orseida is the historical mother of the Greeks!

In fact, for the needs of this article, I tried in vain to find on the internet even an image of this mythical mother of the Greeks!

So I was forced to visit the “Temple of the Hellenes” in Oreokastro of Thessaloniki, built (a decade ago) by the ultra-athlete (world-renowned) marathon runner Aristotle Kakogeorgiou.

In the courtyard of this “Temple of the Greeks”, there is the unique nationwide marble complex of the completely unknown mother of the Greeks, who in her sacred arms, tenderly holds her children Doro, Xoutho, Aeolus, from whom the main tribes of the Greeks came !

Another older and more shocking proof of the merciless persecution of our ancestors comes directly from the Greek Secretariat. In the TLG (thesaurus of the Greek language) which includes a total of 8,000 books and covers 2,500 years of registered Greek Scribes, the name of this important woman… exists only once!

Something that indirectly but absolutely clearly states, the unimaginable degree of destruction of the Greek Secretariat, since “some” made sure: “don’t let the memory of them remain” thus, only 1-2% reached us!

Yes, only once is the name of the sweetest mother of the Greeks preserved, and it is found in Apollodorus 1.49, where we read: “Deucalion had three children by Pyrrha, the first of whom was Hellinus who was said to be the son of Zeus . Amphictyon, who reigned in Attica after Cranao, was not second.
The third child was a daughter, Protogenia. And from Hellenes and the nymph Orseida were born Doros, Xuthos and Aeolus.

The Greek himself, those who were formerly called Greeks, he called them Greeks, and he divided the country among his children, and Xuthos conquered the Peloponnese and from the daughter of Erechtheus he begot Achaeus and Iona, from whom the Achaeans were named and Iones.

And Doros received the country outside the Peloponnese and named its inhabitants Dorians after himself. Aeolus, who was king in the parts of Thessaly, named the inhabitants of Aeolians. (Apollodorus Mythology 1.49.5-13).

Think, that if this one and only reference that exists in the entire Greek Secretariat, had the fate of the rest of the Greek texts, surely the name of this pan-Hellenic MOTHER… would have been lost forever!

By the way, the genealogy of the Greek’s sister, Protogenia, is also of great interest, about which we read: “After the flood (of Deucalion) and the games had already begun… Aethlios, the father of Endymion, oversaw (the establishment of) the Olympic games, from after whom (athletic) sports and athletes took their name”! Etymologicum Genuinum alpha.138.3 & Etymologicum Magnum 25.37.
Ultimately, the truth of the Greek statement: “Archi Sophia, Onomatan Episkepsis”= ΑΡΧΗ ΣΟΦΙΑΣ, ΟΝΟΜΑΤΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΚΕΨΙΣ =
“PRINCIPLE WISDOM ,VISIT OF NAMES”
IS INDISPUTABLE

Unfortunately for us, it is equally true that this wise statement was replaced by the subversive Jewish-Christian statement: “principle of wisdom, fear of Yahweh”.

I once wrote that: “where there are no words, there are no thoughts”. Here it is obviously absolutely true that: “where old names are missing, old ideas are also missing”!

So what better proof do you want when the entire Greek people, knowing and honoring as their own, the innumerable ancestors of the Jews, but completely ignorant of the names of their own forefathers?

**************************************I O N I A (“MINOR ASIA”) /: A L I C A R N A S S O S BUDRUM IN NOW DAYS TURKEY

(Some large Mycenaean tombs have been found at Musgebi (or Muskebi, modern Ortakent), not far from Halicarnassus. According to Turkish archaeologist Yusuf Boysal, the Muskebi material, dating from the end of the fifteenth century BC to ca. 1200 BC, provides evidence of the presence, in this region, of a Mycenaean settlemen), Amazon Frieze BM GR1847.4-24.5. Detail of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: combats between Greeks and Amazons. Date circa 350 BC

section of the Amazon frieze

Section of the Amazon frieze from the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, attributed to Pytheas, c. 350 BCE; in the British Museum, London

English: Detail of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: combats between Greeks and Amazons
Date14 August 2009, 12:30:55
SourceOwn work
AuthorYair Haklai


IN LOCRIS (ACTUALLY, AT THE NEARBY ORIGINAL SITE OF EPIZEPHYRIA LOCRIS). MOST WERE OF TERRACOTTA AND FROM THE SANCTUARIES DEDICATED TO PERSEPHONE AND APHRODITE.
HADES ABDUCTS PERSEPHONE 490-450 BC

(LOCRIS WAS A REGION OF ANCIENT GREECE, THE HOMELAND OF THE LOCRIANS, MADE UP OF THREE DISTINCT DISTRICTS. LOCRIS. ΛΟΚΡΊΣ. REGION OF ANCIENT GREECE)

SIPHNOS Treasury, c. 530 B.C.E., Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece

NO ONE LOVED THE HUMAN BODY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS. ..
NO ONE PRAISED HUMAN BEAUTY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS, THROUGH THEIR ARTS…
NO ONE HONORED LOVE WITH THEIR LIVES, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS…
AND THE MISANTHROPIC , NEGATING, RABID-FURIOUS PERSECUTORS OF HELLENISM OVER THE CENTURIES NEVER FORGAVE US FOR THIS ..
.

By: Mauro Klemens Hein.

Relief with LETO, APOLLO, ARTEIDS and ECHIDNA, 5th c. BC.

THIS MATHEMATIC LANGUAGE
IS THE ONE, WHICH ELEVATES THE HUMANITY IN AETHERIAL LEVELS OF UNIVERSAL VALUES AND CREATIVITY THROUGH:
PHILOSOPHY,
ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, STEREOMETRY, ARCHITECTURE, ARTS, MEDICINE, ATHLETICS, GASTRONOMY,
MUSIC, DRAMA, POETRY…. ALL THESE ACHIEVEMENTS ARE INTERCONNECTED WITH ONLY MATHEMATIC LANGUAGE ON EARTH.. IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE HIGH SPIRIT OF THE HELLENIC RELIGION IS A PHILOSHOPHIC CONCEPT, UKNOWN – UNFORTUNATELY – FOR MOST OF THE NOW DAYS PEOPLE ARE HOOKED BY DOGMATIC RULES..

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of-the-ancient-greek-language-vs-phoenician-deception/

The Bardo Museum in Tunis has one of the world’s great collections of mosaics, dating back more than 2000 years. Many of them depict POSEIDON ,THE GREEK GOD ÓF THE, and the four seasons of the year. This photo is just a detail shot of a portion of one mosaic. Sadly, the Bardo Museum has been in the news not for its art collection, but for a terrorist attack.

 … 

Three-sided marble relief. Left side. Greek. Classical Period, c. 450–440 B.C. | Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

THARGILIA / “a pot is a place where seeds grow” (Hysychius)

On the 6th-7th of Thargilion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, (From sunset on 13.05.2023 to sunset on 15.05.2024).

Formerly a two-day birthday celebration mainly in honor of Apollo, but also of Artemis, the twins who were born in the month of Thargelion. Thargilia, from the word thargilos, which means a pot with various seeds, as reported by Hesychius and Suidas. Thargilos bread is also called the bread that was leavened from the first fruit harvest of the year.

The first day, the birthday of Artemis and the day of cleaning the city to prevent divine punishment. They chose two “medicines”, we could call them pure, and they hung figs around their necks, white on the man, black on the de. It was probably about convicts, who took all the abuse on themselves, and were also called bastards. After they first roamed the city with an escort of courtiers, then they were driven to the sea, where they were thrown so that they could be cleansed of the miasma with the well-known cleansing properties of salt and then be driven out of the city.

The second day included a ritual and an offering of Thargilus bread to the Athenians.
This was followed by musical contests and dances by teenagers and adults. There were five dances, as many as the sponsors.

Sacrifice was made to the sun and the hours, as the name of the month Thargilionos expresses the thalpos (heat) of the summer sun.

During the procession, the first fruits and the “Iresioni” were carried, i.e. an olive or laurel branch decorated with fruits, ribbons, olives and bottles full of wine, honey and oil, symbols of fertility. The children also hung wreaths in their homes, just like today we hang wreaths on May Day.

On the same day, the Athenians sent the tribute of worship to Delos, to Apollo, with the sacred trident. Apollonius – Ariadne / ΘΑΡΓΗΛΙΑ

ARTEMIS WITH APOLLO RECEIVE GIFTS FROM PEOPLE

🌍 Bronze medallion of Athena Promachos, goddess of strategic warfare, wearing a helmet in the form of Medusa. Her arm raised to throw a javelin, A decoration from a formal chariot used for parades. Between HELLENIC AND HELLENISTIC PERIOD , 3nd C.BCE.
Copper/0,27m diameter.
Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum

***MAGNA GRAECIA****** As she speaks, her lips breathe roses:
“I was Chloris, now called Flora.”
Ovid -” Fasti”( “Diary”), 5. 195 ff

Zephyrus, the personification of the west wind, Punende in the language of sailors. It may with its gentle blowing be the harbinger of spring, renewal and rebirth, but some myths connect it with events of jealousy and rivalry (the death of Hyacinth), just as it is sometimes swift, sometimes impetuous and sometimes gentle, cooling the heavenly gardens on the Elysian Fields.
It is even mentioned by Homer and other ancient poets that he was invoked to grant a happy journey, but also that he helped Psyche to go to the palace of Eros, or the soul of Patroclus to descend to Hades, helping to light his funeral pyre pyre. Ancient travelers and historians mention altars dedicated to him.
The myth of Chloride being abducted by Zephyr is handed down to us by the Roman poet Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BC-17 BC), in his work “Fasti”. It is an imitation of the abductions mentioned in ancient Greek Mythology, such as that of Persephone by Hades or Oreithyia by the other wind, the North.
Chloris was a beautiful Nymph, who, as she was playing in the Elysian Fields, was seen by Zephyrus, kidnapped and united with her. From the moment of their union, when Chloris spoke, roses came out of her mouth! And little by little she transformed into Flora, the chthonic deity of the growth of flowers and the ripening of fruits. After all, their son was named Karpos and he mediated for the creation of fruits. Zephyrus, out of his love for her, gave her a beautiful garden full of all kinds of flowers that were cared for by the three Graces and the Hours (Epochs). He also gave her the power to have the protection of gardens with flowers, but also of fields with crops of grain and vines, to donate honey to people and seeds, as well as to know the secret properties of plants (a myth from Ovid -“Fasti” 5.229 ff), states that Hera begged her to give her a miraculous flower, with which she gave birth to Mars through parthenogenesis. (my 1st comment). Flora was also thought to be responsible for the transformations of Adonis, Attis, Crocus, Hyacinthus and Narcissus into flowers.
Sandro Botticelli (1444/1445-1510) also conveys the myth of the abduction and its aftermath mentioned by Ovid, in his exquisite work with many allegories “Primavera” (or “The Allegory of Spring”) 1478. (2nd my comment).

In the photo: The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chlorida in an ancient
Greek fresco (54-68 AD), from Pompeii, in the “Casa del Naviglio” (VI,10,11, ambiente 24), in the IV Pompeian style. Museo archeologico nazionale, di Napoli.

A statue that “dreamed” of becoming the Aphrodite of Knidos, the famous work of Praxiteles that shows the goddess naked, is presented for the first time in the periodic exhibition of the National Archaeological Museum “The Countless Aspects of Beauty” An Unknown Aphrodite in the Museum -From the Iola Collection

ODYSSEUS with his dog ARGOS.

A M A L T H E I A — Leap to the Divine

Amalthea is the terrible goat who, with the help of the Nymphs, Adrastea and Ides, fed Zeus with her milk. She is the daughter of Helios and looks so terrifying that even the Titans could not bear her, so they begged the Earth to hide her in a cave in Crete. There, in the bowels of Mount Ida, they brought the newborn Zeus to her, to nurse him. Much later, during his fight against the Titans, Themis advised Zeus to wear the skin of Amalthea for protection, as nothing could penetrate it.

The myth of the “horn of plenty” is also associated with Amalthea. According to the prevailing version, Zeus himself broke her horn and after strengthening it with miraculous properties, gave it to the daughters of the king of Crete, Melissos, who had helped deliver the infant to Amalthea. It only took one wish and the horn was filled with all the goods.

Amalthea and her horn, a symbol of fertility and abundance, were later destroyed by Zeus in the firmament.

This is, in short, the symbolic imprint of the nursing of Zeus, which as a “Myth” unfolds internal parameters of payment, course and protection from above that the soul enjoys during its incarnate journey.

But Amalthea originates from the Sun, so it is a bright/solar creature. Also as horned, it is sacred, as horns were considered sacred symbols and were an object of respect, as points of connection with the divine field. Her terrible visage declares that, as a sacred creature, she should not be visible to unworthy unholy eyes. That is why the Earth itself hides her in the cave/womb, where darkness reigns and there, Amalthea receives the newborn Zeus and becomes His foster!

The Goat Amalthea, Sacred Solar creature, hidden in the bosom of Mother Earth, talismanically nurtures Zeus in the innermost, that is, in the dark, subterranean chambers of the terrible labyrinth of earthly ramifications that the soul is called to traverse. While later again the Goat is his nurse, she will protect him with her fleece against the Titans.

Because,the Galuchia is the highest form of initiatory connection, whose influence and protection never ceases, while the Solar Knowledge (as imprinted on the fleece of Amalthea) is impenetrable by Titan shots!

As for the Sacred Horn of Amalthea, Zeus, recognizing the help given to him by Melisseus, donates it to his daughters. In essence, Zeus donates to the sowing of Melisseus, the unique fertilizing wealth, which is none other than the possibility of connecting the mortal with the Divine (as symbolized by the horns/antennae).

Finally, Amalthea and her symbolic horn of wealth are raised to the Heavenly Dome, and as AMAL-THEIA they are the BAD GODDESSES, while KERAS (K + ERAS/ERATOS) expresses the Circular route, which through Eros the soul erased, so that it could locate its Center and from there launch itself into the Celestial firmament.

In conclusion, Zeus/Mind, by his example, demonstrates the support of the Divine in the demanding path that each soul must follow in its journey, which begins with the descent from above, is strengthened by the intake of knowledge within the bowels of the Earth and through the Solar feeder of lactation, recovers the psycho-spiritual power, as a return ticket to its destination, which touches the starting point.

It is the Circle of the course, starting from Heaven, staying in darkness, fighting against Titans and ascending/returning to the Star of origin.

In this route, the Goat A M A L T H E A

he is called, as a nurturer, by the Nymphs and is projected as a connection of Earth and Heaven, expressing the help from above, which supports the soul in its Heroic LEAP towards the DIVINE fields, as a beneficiary of the Sacred Horn!

IF WE START FROM THE CENTER OF THE PARTHENON AND JOIN THESE POINTS: THESEIUM, PNYX, THE BASE OF PHILOPAPPOUS, AND THE CENTER OF THE TEMPLE OF OLYMPUS ZEUS(DIOS), AN OCTAGON WILL FORM WHERE EACH ANGLE WILL BE EXACTLY EQUAL TO THE LENGHT OF PARTHENON TIMES 7(SEVEN)……. THE MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY THE ANCIENT GREEKS EXCEEDED ANY IMAGINATION, SO THEY FORMED A PERFECT NETWORK, BASED ON MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS, WHICH WAS UNCONCEPTABLE TO THE CHALDEANS, BABYLONIANS,, HINDUS, PHOENICIANS AND EGYPTIANS… THE THEATERS BUILT BY THE GREEKS HAD PERFECT ACOUSTICS WHEREVER THEY ARE….. LATER THE ROMANS TRY TO IMITATE THEM, BUT WHEN SOMEONE WISHES TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH A GREEK, IT IS LIKE WISHING TO MOUNT BAREFOOT (BAREFOOT) IN THE MIDDLE OF WINTER ON OLYMPUS…THE WIDTH OF THE PARTHENON IS ONE TWO MINUTES OF THE EQUATOR…CHALKIS IS THE SAME DISTANCE FROM ATHENS AND SOUNIO, AS ALSO DELPHI IS THE SAME FROM OLYMPIA AND ATHENS.. DISTANCE: CHALKIS THEBE IS 162 STAGES, THE SAME AND THE AMPHIAREUM.. DELOS TO ATHENS DISTANCE 800

PENTELIAN MARBLE ‘ DECORATED IN BAS-RELIEF OF ‘HERMES CONSIGNING THE YOUNG DIONYSUS TO THE NYMPHS OF NISSA to NURSE AND FEED HIM’, SIGNED BY THE ATHENIAN SCULPTOR SALPION

ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF NAPLES

Boulton & Fothergill designed to hold essence or perfume. It was based on the antique Gaeta vase created by the Greek sculptor Salpion, now in the National Museum, Naples.

During the second half of the k eighteenth century ornamental vases were very popular, in some cases sets of up to seven vases were produced to be placed together on a chimneypiece. Boulton was one of the first manufacturers to seize on the commercial opportunities created by the craze for the ‘antique taste’, or neo-classicism as we now refer to it, and especially for ornamental vases, which flourished in the 1760s

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ L E P T I S /MAGNA LIBYA/750 BC CORINTHIAN & IONIAN RYTHM of the COLLUMS GREEK COLONY-….(

ON THE BRINK OF AETHERIAN – THE UNITS ARE THREE: SYMMETRY, TRUTH AND KALLOS

The rhythms of the columns are an expression of these 3 Units.

The Doric rhythm imitates Power, with the support of great weights and therefore Symmetry, because only Symmetry is strong….

The Ionic rhythm corresponds to Wisdom and by extension to Truth, as the spiral alludes to mental power…

The Corinthian rhythm represents the Kallos, since, as the most decorated, it imitates delicacy and grace…

Vitruvius, On Architecture…
The 3 rhythms are an expression of all 3 parts of the soul….
A) Doric rhythm imitates the Power of Thymoid, of Emotion….
B) The Ionic rhythm represents the Wisdom of the Accounting, the Noesis…
C) The Corinthian rhythm corresponds to the Callus of Desire, Eros.

The Seal and Greatness of Spiritual Greece!

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/:

2-B-CONTINUED: SYRIA/IDENTICAL HELLENIC MOSAICS: MOTIVES FROM THE GREEK MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY:. HERCULES, HIPPOLYTE, ACHILEUS…

₪₪₪.

P. S: CHECK UP PLEASE(!!), THE INCRPTIONS

,,,,,THEN: YOU KNOW…… ..WHO`s WHO in the ZOO…. MEANING WHO IS THE CREATOR & WHO’s THE.. CREATURE!! 😆

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ASIA MINOR// ANCIENT HELLENIC CITY of ADANA/ DEDICATED TO THE TWO SONS OF URANUS: ADANOS & SARUS = ΑΔΑΝΟΣ & ΣΑΡΟΥΣ // MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY/ /HERE:

CLASSICAL MOSAIC of POSEIDON(“NEPTUN” LATER in LATIN) 400 BC

MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY/ GORGONA MEDUSA

BYZANTIUM-BUILT IN 8th Century BC, by BYZAS, KING OF MEGARA (BETWEEN ATHENS & CORINTH)..

..1100 YEARS…LATER …….“CONSTANTINOPEL”.. .

&….1300 YEARS LATER……..“ISTANBUL”

Nestled beneath the winding streets of ISTANBUL, just 490 feet (149 meters) from the “Hagia Sophia” is lying an ancient cistern that has two columns in particular, however, shaped like giant Gorgon Medusa heads, that have piqued the interest of those with a more imaginative brain. The Basilica Cistern, also known as the Yerebatan Cistern, is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that sit under the city of Istanbul, designed to catch and hold rainwater. It is one of the most famous and impressive cisterns, not only in Turkey, but in the entire world.

TEMPLE OF BACCHUS /IONIAN ORDER IN TODAY`S BAALBEK

THOSE WHO COULDN’T STAND THE BEAUTY)(=ΚΑΛΛΟΣ/KALLOS), THE HARMONY AND THE MEASURE, TRIED TO DESTROY THEM, TO CARVE ON THEM THEIR OWN UGLYNESS!!!
AND THESE WERE NONE OTHER THAN THE VILE AND VILE DRESSED SUBHUMANS, THE BARBARIC AND FOOLISH INSTRUMENTS OF THE DARK PRIESTHOOD OF THE JUDAISM DOCTRINE!!!…LOVE IS GOD!!! NO HOLY. LOVE IS GREEK!!! NOT LATIN. EROS=ΕΡΩΣ IS THE SON OF GODDESS OF BEAUTY APHRODITE = ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗ, 
..NOTHING TO DO WITH VALENTINE.
LET’S FINALLY REASON!..BELOW: A MASTER PIECE OF ANTONIO CANOVA

The “House of the Abduction of HELEN” (also known as House 1.5 of Block 5 of the city) is named after this enormous floor mosaic, 8.48 x 2.84 metres, the largest ancient mosaic yet discovered in Europe, which is still in its original position in the archaeological site, at the north side of the house. It was unearthed in 1961, around the same time as the Stag Hunt mosaic in the next room east of it. These works are thought to have been made later than those in the “House of DIONYSOS” using more advanced styles and techniques.

The dramatic subject of the mosaic is the mythical abduction (or rape) of HELEN (later to be known as Helen of Troy) by the ATHENIAN hero THESEUS. As he forces Helen to board his waiting chariot she calls to her fleeing female companion DEIANEERA for help. The name of the four characters in the scene are written close to each head. In the photo above, the driver of the four-horse chariot is named as Phorbas (ΦΟΡΒΑΣ).
photos and articles:

© David John 

A stunning ancient Greek gold signet ring depicting a seated Persian inspecting an arrow.

Dating to c. 5th century BCE, it is inscribed with the name of its owner “Athenades” – perhaps a veteran of the Persian War.

Shells of theaters above the clouds… Alexander passed victoriously over the mountain ranges of Taurus, the Greek song remained, eu zin and eu pratein. The lurid speech of the tragic tamed the warlike Pisides… Cities and civilization in a corner of the Hellenistic World! Sagalassos at 1600 meters,

ALEXANDER the Great: The GREATEST Speech (at OPIS) in HISTORY?
ALEXANDER the Great is one of the most extraordinary individuals in history. He became king of the fringe GREEK kingdom of MACEDONIA in 336 BC at the age of just 20, and before his death twelve years later, had imposed Macedonian overlordship on Greece, destroyed the mighty Persian Empire and led an army deep into modern Afghanistan and to the Indian frontier.
At Opis he faced a mutiny by his Macedonian troops, angered that he wanted to send some of them home, while appearing to give preference to his new Asian subjects, and adopting many of their customs. Alexander dealt ruthlessly with the ringleaders, before (according to ‘The ANABASIS’ by ROMAN historian ARRIAN) making a speech to his army in which he berated his troops for their disloyalty.
Egyptian Officials Claim They’ve Found Alexander the Great’s Tomb
The speech, as it has reached us, was no doubt written by ARRIAN rather than ALEXANDER. His actual words are now impossible to ascertain.
But ARRIAN had access to eyewitness accounts which are now lost (principally PTOLEME and NEARHOS, and modern historians generally agree that the speech was a real historical event, and that ARRIAN gives a good representation of its likely content.
ALEXANDER The Great Statue Unveiled in Athens
Putting its (contested and debated) value as a historical source to one side, the scene – as it appears in ARRIAN – is a brilliantly written moment of high drama and emotion, in which ALEXANDER first highlights his debt to his father PHILIPP, before launching into a tirade in which he lists his own astounding achievements and qualities of leadership.
The speech has been abridged for this video.
The speech:
“The speech which I am about to deliver will not be for the purpose of checking your start homeward, for, so far as I am concerned, you may depart wherever you wish; but because I wish you to know what kind of men you were originally and how you have been transformed since you came into our service.
“In the first place, as is reasonable, I shall begin my speech from my father PHILIP. For he found you vagabonds and destitute of means, most of you clad in hides, feeding a few sheep up the mountain sides, for the protection of which you had to fight with small success against Illyrians, Triballians, and the border Thracians.
“Instead of the hides he gave you cloaks to wear, and from the mountains he led you down into the plains, and made you capable of fighting the neighbouring barbarians, so that you were no longer compelled to preserve yourselves by trusting rather to the inaccessible strongholds than to your own valour. He made you colonists of cities, which he adorned with useful laws and customs; and from being slaves and subjects, he made you rulers over those very barbarians by whom you yourselves, as well as your property, were previously liable to be plundered and ravaged.
“He also added the greater part of Thrace to Macedonia, and by seizing the most conveniently situated places on the sea-coast, he spread abundance over the land from commerce, and made the working of the mines a secure employment. He made you rulers over the Thessalians, of whom you had formerly been in mortal fear; and by humbling the nation of the Phocians, he rendered the avenue into Greece broad and easy for you, instead of being narrow and difficult.
“The Athenians and Thebans, who were always lying in wait to attack Macedonia, he humbled to such a degree,—I also then rendering him my personal aid in the campaign,—that instead of paying tribute to the former and being vassals to the latter, those States in their turn procure security to themselves by our assistance.
“He penetrated into the Peloponnese, and after regulating its affairs, was publicly declared commander-in-chief of all the rest of Greece in the expedition against the Persian, adding this glory not more to himself than to the commonwealth of the Macedonians. These were the advantages which accrued to you from my father Philip; great indeed if looked at by themselves, but small if compared with those you have obtained from me.
“For though I inherited from my father only a few gold and silver goblets, and there were not even sixty talents in the treasury, and though I found myself charged with a debt of 5OO talents owing by Philip, and I was obliged myself to borrow 800 talents in addition to these, I started from the country which could not decently support you, and forthwith laid open to you the passage of the Hellespont, though at that time the Persians held the sovereignty of the sea.
“Having overpowered the viceroys of Darius with my cavalry, I added to your empire the whole of Ionia, the whole of Aeolis, both Phrygias and Lydia, and I took Miletus by siege. All the other places I gained by voluntary surrender, and I granted you the privilege of appropriating the wealth found in them.
“The riches of Egypt and Cyrene, which I acquired without fighting a battle, have come to you. Coele-Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia are your property. Babylon, Bactra, and Susa are yours. The wealth of the Lydians, the treasures of the Persians, and the riches of the Indians are yours; and so is the External Sea.
“You are viceroys, you are generals, you are captains. What then have I reserved to myself after all these labours, except this purple robe and this diadem?
“I have appropriated nothing myself, nor can any one point out my treasures, except these possessions of yours or the things which I am guarding on your behalf.
“Individually, however, I have no motive to guard them, since I feed on the same fare as you do, and I take only the same amount of sleep. Nay, I do not think that my fare is as good as that of those among you who live luxuriously; and I know that I often sit up at night to watch for you, that you may be able to sleep.”
READ MORE: From Egypt To India: The Cities Founded By Alexander The Great.

VERGINA IS A PANHELLENIC SYMBOL.
The shield below is SPARTAN, AS ALL OVER GREECE

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/MACEDONIA/
A person with a NORMAL I.Q can SEE that these Macedonian coins are in GREEK ..NOT WARDASKIAN Slavoalbanian, which is Cyrilic (Slavic letters.CYRILLOS & METHODIOS were Greek Monks and they introduced the Cyrilic Alphabeth to the Slavic at that time people in 800A.D.).the coins are dated since 400 B.C belonging to the Argead – Macedonian Dynasty ….ALEXANDROS= man`s protector, became more than thousands years later…
“Aleksandar”!!..further from the ENGLISH-ZATION to “ANDER”, as: ANDROS(= of MAN) ..like PERIANDROS, MAIANDROS, LEANDROS, ANAXIMANDROS, NIKANDROS(=MAN’s VICTORY),…
..But CRIMINAL GEOPOLITICS, ECONOMICAL, INFERIORITY COMPLEX and other reasons by CERTAIN BARBARIC POWERFUL nations ..
..the plan is OLDER THAN 80 years old & Tito and later Soros is finishing the plan of their goal!: The SERBIAN Kosovo becomes ..Albania, as Great Albania!!.. &.. Wardaska (PAIANIA
 in ancient times) “Northen Macedonia”!!!
…simple FACTS!!>>>^>>>>>>>>>
Yep, apparently ALL MACEDONIAN coin inscriptions that the Greeks still can understand perfectly 2500 years later, are really Sk0pey SLAVIC-CRYPTO language for use in HELLENIC currency ???? 
JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED.. as..THEIR OWN!!!!!! 😄😂) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!
ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,
HAVING – OF COURSE – HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, JEALOUSY & NO AUTHENTIC HIGH & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION…
TEMPLES, STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, COINS, SCIENCE, as: MEDICINE, TECHNOLOGY( JUST ONE example: The ANTIKITHERA mechanism) MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, POETRY.. & ETYMOLOGY of NAMES
& WORDS by the ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC LANGUAGE, WHICH IS INTERCONNECTED WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS..
.. ARE JUST the WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS & UNFORTUNATELY THOUSANDS OF “PRIVATE” COLLECTORS
AROUND THE WORLD
.
www.argead dynasty

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/APAMEA/CORINTHIAN (ORDER OF COLUMNS)/

APAMEA is an ANCIENT GREEK city, overlooking the GHAB VALLEY in the Hama Governorate of Syria.

The city was FOUNDED AROUND 300 BC BY SELEUCOS I NICATOR, ONE of the ΔΙΑΔΟΧOI=

DIADOCHI = SUCCESSORS

FOUGHT FOR CONTROL OVER THE EMPIRE FOUNDED by ALEXANDER the GREAT AFTER HIS DEATH, ESTABLISHING THE SELEUCID EMPIRE OVER THE HELLENIZED TERRITORIES ALEXANDER HAD CONQUERED IN ASIA.

“SELEUCUS” named the city in DEDICATION to his WIFE, APAMA of SOGDIANA, one of the four cities of the Syrian TETRAPOLIS along with ANTIOCHOS (named after his father), LAODICEIA (named after his mother) and SELEUCEIA (named after himself).

In the FOLLOWING CENTURIES, the SELEUCID EMPIRE came INTO CONFLICT WITH THE ROMAN REPUBLIC OVER HELLENISTIC GREECE, RESULTING IN A GRADUAL DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND THE SUBMISSION OVER TERRITORIAL CLAIMS WEST of the TAURUS MOUNTAINS IN PRESENT-DAY TURKEY.

IN 64 BC, GNAEUS POMPEI US MAGNUS (also known as POMPEI the Great) MARCHED ON APAMEA, ANNEXING the CITY AS PART of the ROMAN PROVINCE OF SYRIA. IN RESPONSEN TO AN EARTHQUAKE in6 AD 115 ANTIOCH EARTHQUAKE ), THE ROMANS REBUILT APAMEA with a TYPICAL GREEK- ROMAN street grid system, and large public works such as aqueducts, bathhouses, and a THEATRE

.

SIREN ON A VIOTIAN SIREN ON A VIOTIAN BLACK-SHAPED = MELANMORPHIC = ΜΕΛΑΝΟΜΟΡΦΟ PLATE FROM TANAGRA, 570-560 BCE.

LOUVRE MUSEUM, MNB 626 PLATE FROM TANAGRA, AROUND 570-560 BCE.

LOUVRE MUSEUM, MNB 626

FLOWER FESTIVAL

From the 11th of Anthestirion, to the 13th of Anthestirion, 3rd year of the 700th Olympiad, mid-moon. From sunset on 02/20/2024 to sunset on 02/23/2024.

A Dionysian celebration of double importance, on the one hand the celebration of the reborn nature and on the other the memory of the dear dead, in honor of the Lake Dionysus and the Chthonian Psychopomp Hermes. We have a clear reference from Thucydides, while according to Lekatsa (Dionysos par. 47), the name

  · 

Sculpture (the ?) of a kneeling satyr, made of bronze, with traces of silver in the eyes, measuring 34.29 x 12.065 cm (13 1/2 x 4 3/4 in), Greek culture, dated between 150 and 31 BC
Late Hellenistic Period – believed to have been found near Pergamum, an ancient Greek city in Aeolia (Anatolian coast), now Bergama, Turkey

In addition to those in the Art sector, Aegina has always attracted many “untouchables of miracles”. Antiquities predators, plunderers of History, who relentlessly destroyed once and for all the Temple of Aphaia on the island, forcibly snatching from its embrace the famous “Aeginites”, 17 statues of excellent sculpture, as well as many other members of both of its pediments.

This temple is one of the most well-preserved Doric pavilions. It dates from the beginning of the 5th century. Famous are the sculptures of the pediment of the temple, of which, however, few are found in Greece. The foreign robbers who mutilated the Temple had a special weakness for the sculptures of the pediments, and most of them are now far from Aegina, in the Munich Sculpture Gallery, where they are, admittedly, its main exhibit.

Agnodiki: The first woman doctor of Ancient Greece (and the world). Ancient Athens, 4th BC century.

Agnodici had observed a high mortality rate among women who were ready to give birth because they were ashamed to be examined by men.

It was then that she decided to take action and study medicine, even though she knew that doing so could land her with the death penalty.

Agnodiki, disguised as a man, studied with the then famous doctor Herophilos in Alexandria.

Herophilos, in the famous school he had founded, taught Agnodiki everything about gynecology and obstetrics while she attended every practice that the famous doctor applied.

When she graduated from the school of Herophilos, she was already a full-fledged obstetrician-gynecologist who returned to Athens and began to practice her profession.

Agnodiki, always disguised as a man, quickly gained impressions, and everyone was talking about the young man with his slender fingers and the strange sweetness of his face.

Wanting to reassure the women she was examining, she revealed her true identity while asking that it not be revealed anywhere.

Not only was her secret not leaked, but she herself had so much work that the preference was now noticeable on her face.

The male doctors, not knowing her true identity, sought to find some way to eliminate the young doctor who stole their clientele.

And they began to slander him that he was having ‘extramarital’ relationships with the ladies he examines.

The accusations were so massive, albeit false, that he was finally arrested and put on trial.

Then Agnodiki found herself in a dead end and thus decided to reveal her true identity.

Court spectators hearing her revelation erupted and immediately demanded her death sentence.

Now Agnodiki was faced with the accusation of violating the law on the practice of the medical profession, since she was a woman.

Somehow a second trial followed, more acclaimed than the first, but this time she was not alone.

On her side she had excellent defense lawyers, wives of nobles as well as all the women she had healed.

The judges, without actually having to accuse her of any other serious charge, were forced to acquit her because the crowd was enraged by this unjust charge.

In addition to her acquittal, Agnodiki also achieved something that until then seemed unreal.

That is, the change of the current legislation, thus allowing, since then, the women of ancient Athens to study Medicine and practice the medical function.

CONTAINER (=PYTO=RYTO) IN THE SHAPE OF A BEING’S HEAD AND A MAENADE…FROM ATHENA….

About 440 to 430 BC

LOUVRE MUSEUM…

THE RYTO (PLURALIS:.RYTA) FROM THE ANCIENT GREEK PYTO/RYTO.

it is a container for drinking liquids or blood during related rituals.

The word is said to be derived from the verb rein, .

The typology of the vessel includes features such as the open mouth and the hole near the bottom which probably served to diffuse the liquid.

“Tilt the old door

and let me lock out Boreas(=North-wind),

He is also a sailor

and has bitterness in his heart.”

The god BOREAS, according to one version was son of ΑΙΟΛΟΣ=AEOLUS and ANCESTOR of the MACEDONIANS, was the god of the frozen north winds that blew in winter. He is depicted as bearded, winged and with wings on his feet, wearing a short pleated tunic. As the song says “he had bitterness in his heart”. Because he lived alone in his WHITE PALACE IN THRACE and traveled by flying, giving people the icy wind with his breath.

As he was flying over ATHENS one day, he saw the beautiful OREITHYIA, the YOUNGEST daughter of the king of the city, ERECHTHEA and fell in LOVE with her. She was also SÄD because her father had SHUT her up in the PALACE, FEARING, that SHE MIGHT MARRY and NOT have HER to TAKE CARE of him in his OLD age. BOREAS, like a good boy, went and asked for her from her father. He asked Boreas to come again in a month to prepare his daughter for the wedding, but actually to buy time. During this time, BOREAS OFTEN visited the PRINCESS , who ALSO FELL in LOVE with him. So they “DIVIDED THEIR PAIN IN half”… BUT because ERECHTHEUS KEPT GIVING FURTHER POSTPONEMENTS FOR THE WEDDING, BOREAS got6 VERY ANGRY WITH his BEHAVIOR and DECIDES TO STEAL THE GIRL IN ORDER TO MARRY HER. FLYING QQUICKLY TO ATHENS OVER ILYSOS according to one version, WHERE SHE WAS PLAYING WITH HER FRIENDS, HE TOOK HER IN HIS ARMS AND FLEW AWAY with her, heading for HIS PALACE on the SARPEDONIAN CAPE OF THRACE. THERE, BOREAS AND OREITHYIA – who became IMMORTAL LIKE HER HUSBAND – MARRIED and LIVED HAPPILY in THEIR PALACE in THRACE and had TWO WINGED sons, ZETIS and CALAIS, who followed JASON with the ARGONAUTS

BOREAS, according to a legend, LATER, for the SAKE of HIS WIFE, HELPED THE ATHENIANS and destroyed the PERSIAN FLEET at ATHOS and ARTEMISIOUM. AFTER the DESTRUCTION of the PERSIAN fleet, the ATHENIANS HONORED, TOGETHER with the god POSEIDON, BOREAS, with AN ALTAR they set up on the banks of the Ilis, where OREITHIA had been CAPTURED.

These beautiful tender lyrics by Dimitris Christodoulou, set to music by Mimi Plessas and sung by the adored Antonis Kalogiannis, were among my very favorite songs of my youth! The last time I heard it and I liked it was also from the Corfu choir of OTE employees, who raised it to another parallel sphere, with the well-known timbre of the Ionian songs!

Photo from ancientrome.ru/art/artworken : Boreas abducts Orithia under the gaze of one of her friends. Red clay jug. Angiographer Hermonax.

Circa 470 BC

Height 35.1 cm, rim diameter 18 cm, base diameter 13 cm.

In St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum.

είναι κι αυτός θαλασσινός

EPITYMBIA”** LECYNTHOS, PIRAEUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM…
The tomb lekythos is decorated with embossed floral and linear motifs in bands. Beginning of the 4th century BC
The lekythos is a type of Greek vase that was used as an olive oil container. It has a narrow body and a thin and long neck. Its handle (if present) connects the neck to the body.
**EPITYMBIA= SCRIPTS ON THE TOMB LECYTHOS, DEDICATED TO HEROES AND GREAT PERSONALITIES ..

ALABASTER (vessel)

GREEK ALABASTER FROM LOWER ITALY ….LOUVRE

Alabaster in art and archeology means a vessel with a tall body and a small mouth. It usually does not have a handle, although sometimes it has small holes or ears for carrying it.

Alabaster was used by women, mainly for the storage of aromatic oils, as is at least witnessed in the angiographic scenes.

They often appear as offerings in burial assemblages. The exhibit dates back to the end of the 4th/beginning of the 3rd century BC. It was introduced at the end of the 6th century BC. century and disappeared from the scene at the end of the 5th BC. h.

The scene that decorates the vase covers the perimeter of the body, while sometimes it is adorned only with an anthemion. Its height varies from 15-20 cm.

KYATHOS

Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, drank only two goblets of wine at dinner, this was not considered a sign of great temperance,

The kyathos was quite a handy vessel and Athenaeus says that it was the necessary vessel both in the houses of the rich and in the huts of the poor. It also served as a measure of the ratio of mixing wine with water indicated by the winemaker. Polydeukis says that ten glasses of water correspond to five glasses of wine. During the banquet, the slave, who was near the krater with the goblet in his hand, filled up wine from the krater and poured the intoxicating liquid into the syndaitymonos’ glass, “cyathizoning” it, as Athenaeus says. During the wine-drinking, the host determined the number of cups, which the wine-bearer had to pour into the glass of each syndaitymon.

Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, drank only two goblets of wine at dinner, this was not considered a sign of great restraint, as Athenaeus emphasizes. Augustus did not exceed twelve cyathus during the whole banquet, as Suetonius mentions. The slave, who performed the duties of winemaker, was called “cyathotes” and was usually a handsome and graceful teenager, who carried a long and perfumed earl. In performances this young man always holds the kyathos as an emblem of his service. With the kyathos, the necessary libations were made at the beginning and end of the banquet, in which the name of the god and the name of the host were pronounced. The kyathos was a metal vessel, usually copper. But there were also bowls of more precious metal and bowls of ivory. The shape of this handy container is indeterminate. Plato the comedian compares the cup to the pan, which draw the water of the ships. Suidas and his commentator Aristophanes compare it in terms of the cochlea. Hesychius calls it an oval vessel.

CYLIX ..THE HOLY VESSEL OF ANTIQUITY…

(Dedicated to Someone)

It symbolized the soul, into which is poured the wine, the spiritual drink (the higher spiritual life), which was used in all the sacramental sacrifices. The ecstasy of the soul in a state of intoxication, caused by the divine drink (symbolized by a goblet full of wine, ambrosia, etc.) is found in the myth of Dionysus (Bacchus) who carried the drunken Hephaestus to Olympus (upper world).

The goblet was a circular glass, deep, but completely open, with a base and 2 handles. The classic type of goblet resembles today’s champagne glasses with the addition of two ears usually to hang the empty goblet. In vase paintings, contemporaries hold these glasses by the base or foot. The height of the foot, like the depth of the cup, varied by place and time and that is why there are many variations of the cup.

The oldest type of goblet is a kind of deep cup with a vertically shaped belly and a thick and tall foot. The handles show the shape of a short and full ear, many times they were not completely missing. This type is found in Italy, Greece and Asia Minor and belongs to the archaic period. A typical specimen is the archaic goblet in the British Museum, decorated with meanders and wavy lines.

With the passage of time, the shape of this acetabulum changes to a more elegant and simplified one, to end up, through gradual lightening and thinning of its parts, in the beautiful classical type. Cups of this type appear almost flattened as a consequence of the large width in relation to the small depth. The bottom of the glass forms an elongated arc. The leg, thin and slightly raised, traces a slight curve. The handles, in the shape of horns rather than rings, are also elongated, following the general trend of the vessel. But there are also goblets with a somehow pressed base or without the base, which look like the bottle. According to Athenius, the Cypriots called the acetabulum kilica. Polydeukis confuses the goblet with the carcase. Thus it turns out that the term cup is open to many definitions.

However, it is generally accepted that the goblet is the vessel we described above and is quite similar to today’s champagne glasses. Goblets were made from all kinds of materials. Of course, they were usually made of clay.
But they were also made of wood, as Martialius informs us, and of gold and silver, as Athenaeus testifies. Proof of this is the silver goblet, found during excavations in the Crimea and exhibited in the Hermitage museum. This silver goblet is decorated around the belly, just above the ears, with an engraved gold necklace. According to Martialius, there were also silver and gold goblets, decorated with precious stones, as well as goblets made of crystal or even plain glass.

COOLER AND COVERED CRATER (Vessels for cooling wine)

A cooler in ancient Greek pottery is a mushroom-shaped vessel, hollow down to its flat base, used for cooling wine. It was placed inside a larger vessel, usually a lidded krater, containing cool water.

Various shapes of vessels for cooling wine were used in the past. However, coolers of this particular shape were first manufactured by the pioneers of the red-figure style around 520 BC, apparently in combination with the cupped krater, a shape first used by the late Hezekiah around 530 BC. and established a little later by Euphronios. The use of freezers did not last more than two generations: from 460 BC. approx. and then both the production of freezers by the potters and their depiction in angiography stops.

Attic black figure cooler depicting the departure of the warrior, c. 525-500 BCE. Louvre, no. of exhibit F 319.

KANTHAROS
SYMPOSIASTIS, ON KANTHAROS BY THE PAINTER OF THE GREAT ATHENIAN KANTHAROS……. Louvre Museum, end of the 5th century B.C.

Kantharos [is a type of ancient Greek vessel with a goblet-shaped body with a vertical handle on both sides, connected to the rim of the vessel and with a high curved handle at the top]. As a vessel it is connected with the worship of the god Dionysus, and is his symbol

CHRONOLOGY….

The shape of the vase was formed during the Middle Helladic period and was already considered ancient during the classical era. It was originally made especially in LACONIA and BOEOTIA and was used as a votive, and a religious vessel in the daily practice of worship in private spaces. In the GEOMETRIC period we find kantharus in BOETIA and ATTICA as funerary votives, usually in men’s tombs which are often accompanied by reliefs of a martial or athletic theme. In Boeotia it continued to be used as a burial votive until the late classical period. In 600 BC about evolved the peculiar shape with the high leg. At the same time, its use also spread to the GREEK BRANCH OF ETRUSCIANS IN MAGNA GRAECIA.

During the late classical and Hellenistic era, its use is also found in everyday life, while it remains connected to valor, the male foil and the worship of the dead. The largest beetles found are up to 50 cm tall and were placed on top of graves. Kantharai are also depicted in reliefs and Attic vase paintings, in the hand of the deceased, the god Dionysus, or one of his attendants.

THE ANCIENT GREEKS WERE PROUD OF THEIR LANGUAGE!
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
https://euphoriatric.com/exposing-the-fary-tale-tree-of…/
https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/
https://euphoriatric.com/etymology-means*

XENOMANIA, I.E. BEING FASCINATED BY ANYTHING FOREIGN, IS A BIG AND SEVERE DISEASE OF THE NEW GREEKS. The most infuriating thing, however, is the use of foreign words instead of the more beautiful Greek ones, from a language that is the mother of all European languages and beyond.
For example, we like the word “fame story”, it attracts us more than the words “fame and history”, whose fathers are Herodotus and Thucydides. We prefer the studio to the laboratory or study. Supermarket instead of hypermarket. Sponsor instead of sponsor. Graffiti instead of a mural. A show instead of a show. Parking instead of parking, etc.
The Ancient Greeks were so proud of their language that they refused to speak barbarically.
In the tragedy “Seven on Thebes” our great tragic poet Aeschylus presents Eteocles begging Zeus and the earth for the salvation of Thebes.
What is admirable, however, is how he incorporates the language into this appeal: “Don’t stun my city with annihilation, declarer, Hellas phthongon heusan.” That is, “don’t destroy my city, which speaks Greek” (vv. 112-113).
Sophocles in “Aiad”, p. 1263, writes: “Tin barvaron gar gyslosan uk epaio” (=Because I do not know the barbaric language). Agamemnon replies to Teucros.
Also typical is the passage that Plutarch mentions to us in the life of Themistocles (6,4,2): “He is also praised for the bilingual work in the pemphtheisin under a king on land and water atisin. Interpretation, because beings of syllables by resolution extended that voice of a Greek woman, barbaric commandments, she dared to use.”
This passage, therefore, tells us that, when Xerxes sent a delegation to request “land and water” from the Athenians, Themistocles, despite the established rules, ordered the arrest of the interpreter and by resolution put him to death on the grounds that he dared to use the Greek language in barbaric edicts…
But the story of Philomela also reveals the greatness of the Greek language. Tireus, king of Thrace, dishonored his female cousin Philomela. And in order not to witness him, he cut out her tongue. However, despite the fact that Tireus cut off her tongue, in an Ancient Greek inscription she wrote the woes of her soul: “Glossan din emen etherisen Hellas fojon”.
Philomela, therefore, does not mourn that her tongue was cut out, but that she will not have a voice to speak Greek again…

So we see how our ancestors protected the Greek language.
Therefore, our ancient ancestors were proud of the Greek language and did not even allow it to be used in matters related to uncivilized people, barbarians, as they called them. Who could have imagined that in recent times this language would become the mother of all European languages and not only.
But, where did he imagine the unbelievable: Their descendants of the 21st century set out to destroy it!
For over thirty years now we have continued the “simplifications” and from the many “simplifications” and from the many alterations we have made it unrecognizable…

Apart from the protection of the language, the Ancient Greeks did not tolerate barbaric customs. The piercing of men’s ears, so that they could wear an earring = an earring, was considered a barbaric custom for our Ancient ancestors. Thus, if there was anyone with such a habit, he was ridiculed and driven out of the city.
There is, of course, a relevant text that says this: Xenophon saves it in “Kyros Anavasi” (book 3, Ch. 1, 30-34) and says the following: He is such a Greek. Then Agasias Stymphalius said: But this is neither of Boeotia, nor belongs to all of Greece, and I saw him as far as Lydon with both ears closed. And so they had. They deported this one.”
Attribution: “Because he and his particular homeland is putting all Greece to shame, since, while he is a Greek, he is like that (that is, cowardly and cowardly) afterwards, however, taking the floor, Agasias from Stymphalida said: But this man neither he has absolutely nothing to do with Boeotia, nor with Greece in general, because I saw him, like Lydus, with both of his ears pierced. And indeed that was the case. Well, of course he was kicked out.”
The New Greeks, however, envied the blacks of Africa who wear earrings and have the impression that this means progress and evolution. Of course, the Europeans follow the same tactic. And of course it is not the only barbaric custom adopted by civilized Europe…
The New Greeks, however, do something more terrible: Instead of teaching morals to the students, they introduce texts that cultivate the model of the stateless consumer, that devalue ideals and heroes and models of morals. A classic example is the first Governor of the country, Ioannis Kapodistrias, who was rightly called a saint of politics. He offered all his property to the Greek State.
When the National Assembly decided to give a grant (salary) to the Governor, Kapodistrias responded with a document that has no equal in political matters and concludes: “… that those of you who participate in the Government, want to know with us that in the in the present circumstances, it is not possible for the public ministries to receive salaries commensurate with the rank of their high ministry and with their servitudes, but that such salaries must be exactly commensurate with the financial means which the Government has at its disposal.
Kapodistrias’ refusal to accept the sponsorship caused surprise “due to the uniqueness of the act and the new admiration for the wonderful man…”.
The honesty of Kapodistrias can also be seen from his following words “I prefer death, than to deceive a people, entrusting their fate to my loyalty”.
After all this, one would expect them to project Kapodistrias as a model of virtue, an ideal example for young children to imitate, just as he really is the first worthy Governor of the Neo-Hellenic State, who was deservedly called the “saint of politics”.

And yet, instead of this, in the 3rd high school textbook they quote a poem with clear hints about financing. By whom; From the man who donated his property to the poorest state, the politician with virtuous morals, who is an excellent example for every politician? The late Io. Kapodistrias?
But this is what globalization seeks. The leveling of everything. There should be no values and moral principles. The goal is the destruction of societies and the transformation of people into an easily managed global plankton, with which the global rulers will feed…

By: Vera Gargalatzidou.

There are three types of inhabitants living in Greece.
The Greeks (the minority)
The adulterated (that is, they have barbaric genes in their genes,)
The Greek-speakers (those who claim to be Greek, but are not, nor are they fake)
I am not mentioning economic and illegal immigrants.
Well, the real ones never sleep..
On the contrary, these are the few who awaken the rest.
The corrupted are asleep and the Greek speakers are the majority throughout history..
They are not asleep, but dead and don’t know it.
If we consider how many species Plato has classified the inhabitants of the Earth into, we can have a clear picture of the current situation.
1) Barbarians
2) Dead
3) Mortals
4) People
5) Philosophers
6) Heroes..
To reach the level of the philosopher there are four stages.
Nowadays, knowledge is accessible to everyone.
No more barriers of prohibition..
Everyone’s understanding of the search for Truth is expressed through their way of thinking and behavior.
From now on, let’s not classify everyone in the category of Greeks in the true sense of the word..
In essence, Greek is a spirit..
One either has the spirit or not.
Not acquired..
As for the language, Greek is the first and only language on planet Earth.
Because it is not a product of human evolution..

ATTICA RED-FORMED=ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ/ERYTHROMOPHOS “ARYVALLOS”-
A SMALL, OFTEN SPHERICAL VESSEL, WITH A NARROW MOUTH, FOR THE OIL WHICH ATHLETES USED TO OIL THEIR BODIES….
Young robed man, headband, running RIGHT, pursued by TWO winged GODDESSES. ..
EROS on the LEFT holds a scourge with his right hand, while EROS on the right extends his arms protectively towards the young.

Parallel to the wings of EROS with the scourge, the inscription: Asopodorῳ ἡ lekythos. Above the new one is the inscription: Doris εποησεν. By the painter and potter Dourida. From Athens, area of today’s Stadiou Street. 480-470 BC
Duris is one of the most important vase painters and potters of the first half of the 5th century BC. The performance of the aryvallus is a commentary on the power and dominance of Eros, which acts as a positive or negative force on its victims, especially the young.

The LYCURGUS CUP (British Museum, PE 1958,1202.1

The BERLIN Museum encloses and proudly displays the altar of ZEUS of PERGAMOS…and because PERGAMOS…in todays Turkey..Does NOT means is ..Turkish either , or as they learn at schools, as many other “.Neighbours” with inferiority complex & Envy-jealousy etc..stealing History, as well with the blessings of PSEVDO”SCHOLARS” & GEOPOLITICAL CRIMINALS

The Statue of Liberty, whose official name is “Liberty enlightening the World” (English “Liberty enlightening the World” Gallic “la Liberte eclairant le monde”),
is a colossal statue on the islet of the same name and in the upper part of New York Bay.
This statue was erected to commemorate the friendship between the peoples of the USA and France.
Its total height is 93 meters (302 ft) including the plinth, and in the Encyclopaedia Britannica version it shows a woman preaching freedom.
This woman holds a torch in her raised right hand and an inscribed tablet in her left bearing the date July 4, 1776.
An elevator goes up to the height of the balcony and a spiral staircase leads to an observation deck on the crown worn by Liberty. The torch she holds is 93 meters above the surface of the sea. At the base of the statue is the American Museum of Immigration.
The proposal for the construction of the statue was formulated by a French historian, Édouard de Laboulais, after the American Civil War. A sufficient amount of money was collected by contributions from the French people, and the work began in France in 1875, under the direction of the sculptor FREDERIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI.
APOLLO’s ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is depicted in exactly this form.
And fortunately for us, the IMMORTAL GREEK LAND of CORINTH, saved us this image, so that today we can know the truth.
The figure of APOLLO ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is today in the MUSEUM of CORINTH, but it goes unnoticed by the unsuspecting visitor.
It is on a three-fold plate together with two other representations.
The one in the left part depicts an angel, a figure similar to that of the Christian faith and according to archaeologists is the figure of the goddess HECATE.
In the right part, a rosette is depicted.
And in the midst of the miracle! The form of the Light-bearer APOLLO, the same as that of the Statue of LIBERTY! Intellectual property is not clear to whom it belongs.
It is said by people of CORINTH who know that the director of the American Archaeological Mission, a sober and honest man, has declared that AMERICANS should come and worship in the Museum area where the image of the light-bearer APOLLO is located, because it is the source of their national symbol .
(In the photo, we see the sculpture with the representation of ZOODOTIS ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΗΛΙΟΣ=APOLLO HELIOS with his fiery chariot)

Gold seal ring from Thessaly. Representation of either LEDA and ZEUS transformed into a swan, or Venus and Mars, to the right of the satyr. In the background are depicted a helmet, a tree, a square column with a lion’s head and a temple or shrine. At the bottom of the representation are two spears, a shield and the inscription OMOLEIIAION – 2nd century BC. Benaki Museum of Hellenic Culture, Athens, Greece 

THE SYMBOLIC MESSAGES-MEANINGS
BEHIND THE KNOT OF HERCULES (GOLD INLAGD WITH GARNET , EMERALDS AND ENAMEL. /PRIVATE COLLECTOR/) .
… SIMILAR TO IT: METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART N. YORK..

THE ANCIENT GREEK WRITERS HAD THREE WAYS TO EXPRESS THEIR THOUGHT. THE FIRST WAS CLEAR AND SIMPLE, THE SECOND SYMBOLIC AND FIGURATIVE
, THE THIRD SACRED AND HIEROGLYPHIC. THE SAME WORD TOOK, ACCORDING TO THEIR DESIRE, THE MAIN MEANING, THE SYMBOLIC OR THE TRANSCENDENTAL. THIS WAS THE SPIRIT OF our LANGUAGE. HERACLITUS HAS PERFECTLY EXPRESSED THIS DIFFERENCE by IDENTIFYING IT WITH THE ADJECTIVES: SPEAKER(=ΟΜΙΛΩΝ), MEANINGFUL(=
ΣΗΜΑΊΝΩΝ), MYSTIC-HIDER(=
..ΚPYΠΤΩΝ)..

BELOW: THE ANCIENT GREEK KNOT OF HERCULES IN GOLD
Also known as the Knot of Hercules, Love Knot and Marriage Knot, the Hercules Knot is a wedding symbol that stands for undying love and commitment. It is one of the most strong known knots and is made with two entwined ropes representing the legendary fertility of Demi-God Hercules
Reef knot

THE SYMBOLIC MESSAGES-MEANINGS
BEHIND THE KNOT OF HERCULES (GOLD INLAGD WITH GARNET , EMERALDS AND ENAMEL. /PRIVATE COLLECTOR/) .
… SIMILAR TO IT: METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART N. YORK..THE ANCIENT GREEK WRITERS HAD THREE WAYS TO EXPRESS THEIR THOUGHT. THE FIRST WAS CLEAR AND SIMPLE, THE SECOND SYMBOLIC AND FIGURATIVE
, THE THIRD SACRED AND HIEROGLYPHIC. THE SAME WORD TOOK, ACCORDING TO THEIR DESIRE, THE MAIN MEANING, THE SYMBOLIC OR THE TRANSCENDENTAL. THIS WAS THE SPIRIT OF our LANGUAGE. HERACLITUS HAS PERFECTLY EXPRESSED THIS DIFFERENCE by IDENTIFYING IT WITH THE ADJECTIVES: SPEAKER(=ΟΜΙΛΩΝ), MEANINGFUL(=
ΣΗΜΑΊΝΩΝ), MYSTIC-HIDER(=
..ΚPYΠΤΩΝ)..

BELOW: THE ANCIENT GREEK KNOT OF HERCULES IN GOLD
Also known as the Knot of Hercules, Love Knot and Marriage Knot, the Hercules Knot is a wedding symbol that stands for undying love and commitment. It is one of the most strong known knots and is made with two entwined ropes representing the legendary fertility of Demi-God Hercules
Reef knot. In his Natural History, PLINY relates the belief that wounds heal more quickly when bound with a HERCULES KNOT. It has also been used since ancient
Greek traditions, krepresented the legendary fertility of the demi-god HERACLES, more popularly known as HERCULES. He was the epitome of virility and bravery.

TODAY, he is without a doubt one of the MOST ICONIC FIGURES in ALL OF GREEK MYTHAGOG-COSMOLOGY

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ASIA MINOR/ S A L A G A S S O S/

IONIAN RHYTHM COLLUMES-
₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪
IT’S JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED.. as..THEIR OWN!!!!!! ) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!
ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,
HAVING – OF COURSE – HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & NOT AUTHENTIC HIGH CIVILIZATION, AS:
-TEMPLES, STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, COINS, SCIENCE, as: MEDICINE, SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY. JUST ONE example): The ANTIKITHYRA mechanism MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, STETEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, POETRY & ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC 
THE LANGUAGE, ITSELF which IS MATHEMATIC (
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
,… IS INTERCONNECTED WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS..
.. ARE JUST the
WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS & UNFORTUNATELY THOUSANDS OF “PRIVATE” COLLECTORS
AROUND THE WORLD. 

MARBLE COLUMN (IONIAN ORDER), FROM THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS AT SARDIS.
DATED: ca. 300 BC / PARIAN MARBLE; DIMENSIONS: H. 361 cm

THE SEKTION OF A FLUTED GREEK IONIC COLUMN IN THE CENTER of this room stood over fifty-eight feet high in its original location at the TEMPLE of ARTEMIS. The DELICATE FOLIATE carving on the capital is UNIQUE among EXTANT capitals from the temple, and the torus (foliated base), with its vegetal SCALE-LIKE pattern, is also EXCEPTIONALLY ELABORATE.

This capital is slightly smaller than others found at the site, indicating that it does not belong to the outer colonnade. The column, displayed here with most of the shaft omitted, was probably originally from one or more of those pairs. Alternatively, it may be from the cella (inner room) or from the inner back porch. Parts of the fluted shaft are restored, and the profiled base below the torus is a copy of the original.


The Dolopes were an ancient Greek tribe that settled around the Agrafa mountain range in central Greece.
Their settlement area was called Dolopi and included an important area centered on the south-eastern part of today’s Karditsa Prefecture and the northern part of Evrytania Prefecture. Their main city was Ktimeni, which was located on the site of the current village of Redina Karditsa.
The Dolopes were a sister tribe to the Aitolians, with whom they bordered to the south. Their branch was the Dryopes who settled a little further south in the area of Late Doria and dispersed after the descent of the Dorians. Other related tribes of the Dolopians with whom they had a common history were the Agraios, the Aperantes and the Athamanes who settled north of the present prefecture of Etoloakarnania. They are also often called Dolopes.
History
The Dolopes seem to have existed until the 6th century BC. they remained autonomous. They belonged to the Delphic Amphictyonia and were represented in the Amphictyonic Congress with two votes. From the 6th century they were for long periods under the rule of their stronger neighbors, first the Thessalians and later the Aetoli. In 374 BC they submitted to the tyrant Jason of Fera. In the years that followed, they submitted to the Macedonians and then joined the Aetolian Commonwealth until the Roman conquest in 168 BC. As Pausanias mentions, the Dolopes had disappeared as a people in the 2nd century AD
.


PERSONALLY, IT FEELS LIKE AS BITTER REGRET THAT WE GREEKS, HAVING THE
MOST ANCIENT AND GREAT CIVILIZATION, HAVE FALLEN SO LOW THAT WE WORSHIP AN ENTITY, THAT HAS NOTHING IN COMMON WITH US.

LEDA, the wife of the KING of SPARTA TYNDAREUS, meets the CYGNUS who is driven by the little EROS

When ZEUS fell in love with LEDA, he transformed into a CYGNUS and thus took refuge in her arms to protect himself from APHRODITE, who allegedly pursued him.

From their union were born POLYDEUKIS of the DIOSKOURI(=ZEUS SONS) and the beautifulO HELEN.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM of CHANIA.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/APAMEA/CORINTHIAN (ORDER OF COLUMNS)/

APAMEA is an ANCIENT GREEK city, overlooking the GHAB VALLEY in the Hama Governorate of Syria.

The city was FOUNDED AROUND 300 BC BY SELEUCOS I NICATOR, ONE of the ΔΙΑΔΟΧOI=

DIADOCHI = SUCCESSORS

FOUGHT FOR CONTROL OVER THE EMPIRE FOUNDED by ALEXANDER the GREAT AFTER HIS DEATH, ESTABLISHING THE SELEUCID EMPIRE OVER THE HELLENIZED TERRITORIES ALEXANDER HAD CONQUERED IN ASIA.

“SELEUCUS” named the city in DEDICATION to his WIFE, APAMA of SOGDIANA, one of the four cities of the Syrian TETRAPOLIS along with ANTIOCHOS (named after his father), LAODICEIA (named after his mother) and SELEUCEIA (named after himself).

In the FOLLOWING CENTURIES, the SELEUCID EMPIRE came INTO CONFLICT WITH THE ROMAN REPUBLIC OVER HELLENISTIC GREECE, RESULTING IN A GRADUAL DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE AND THE SUBMISSION OVER TERRITORIAL CLAIMS WEST of the TAURUS MOUNTAINS IN PRESENT-DAY TURKEY.

IN 64 BC, GNAEUS POMPEI US MAGNUS (also known as POMPEI the Great) MARCHED ON APAMEA, ANNEXING the CITY AS PART of the ROMAN PROVINCE OF SYRIA. IN RESPONSEN TO AN EARTHQUAKE in6 AD 115 ANTIOCH EARTHQUAKE ), THE ROMANS REBUILT APAMEA with a TYPICAL GREEK- ROMAN street grid system, and large public works such as aqueducts, bathhouses, and a THEATRE

.

FEMALE STATUE WITHOUT HANDS IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM of EPIDAURUS
. ARGOLIS PREFECTURE, PELOPONNESE, GREECE

This site, which includes the imressive theatre of EPIDAURUS, is a UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE Inhabited since NEOLITHIC times, the FIRST significant settlement was in the MYCENAEAN PERIOD.

STUDY SHOWS ANCIENT THEATRE OF EPIDAURUS IS WORLD’S MOST PERFECT IN TERMS OF AESTHETIC AND ACOUSTIC
MARVEL l
, and all the more wondrous considering that it was created almost 2,500 years ago.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus is the crown of cultural activity in Greece during the summer months and remains to this day one of the most important and globally recognizable monuments of antiquity.
Carved into the side of Mount Kynortio and dominating the southeastern end of the sanctuary, which was dedicated to ASCLEPIUS – the God and CREATOR of MEDICINE in GREEK MYTHAGOGY–COSMOLOGY THE ANCIENT THEATRE OF EPIDAURUS has been characterized as the BIRTH place of the ART of THEATRE, and the GENRES OF COMEDY, TRAGEDY AND DRAMA.
A team of six professors from the University of Patras conducted extensive research on the ancient theatre and concluded that “the measurements confirm the theatre’s EXCELLENT ACOUSTICS and SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY y, for ALL the TYPICAL LISTENER POSITIONS TESTED.”

The study showed that in whichever seat someone sits within the theatre, either at the very front or at the last seat at the top of the theatre hill, they will be able to clearly hear the actors speak – who of course, never use microphones or any kind of sound boost equipment during plays.

The awe that someone feels once they enter the theatre is remarkable.

The NATURAL EHO OF ONE’S VOICE CAN BE HEARD FROM ONE END OF THE THEATRE TO THE OTHER, A PHENOMENON, THAT HAS LONG ATTRACTED THE ADMIRATION OF SCIENTISTS AND EVEN MORE SO DUE TO THE FACT, THAT THE THEATRE OF EPIDAURUS WAS BUILT ALMOST 2,500 YEARS AGO – A TIME WHEN KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY WERE MUCH MORE LIMITERAD.

Playing at the Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus today is considered an incredible honour and career highlight, an achievement that is high on the bucket list of not just Greek actors but of the the most talented actors actors all around the world.

The theatre hosts mostly ancient Greek-style plays as well as contemporary adaptions of old plays and some musical events.

The performances can be in modern Greek, Ancient Greek or a mix of both, while there are very limited plays in different languages.

Some of the most famous and prestigious Greek movie stars have played in Epidaurus over the years, such as Melina Mercouri, Katina Paxinou, Alekos Alexandrakis, Manos Katrakis, Anna Synodinou, Kostas Kazakos, and of course the “national Greek star” Aliki Vougiouklaki.

Foreign directors of international acclaim, like American ROBERT WILSON and Belgian comedy-tragedy movie maker IVO VAN HOVE have said that creating plays for the ANCIENT THEATRE of EPIDAURUS was a “LIFE GOAL.

The asclepieion at Epidaurus was the most celebrated healing center of the classical world, the place where ill people went in the hope of being cured. To find out the right cure for their ailments, they spent a night in the enkoimeteria, a big sleeping hall. In their dreams, the god himself would advise them what they had to do to regain their health. Found in the sanctuary, there was a guest house for 160 guestrooms. There are also mineral springs in the vicinity which may have been used in healing.

Epidauros • (Epídauros) f (genitive of ἠῐdauros); second declension.
The word epidauros means “Dra On the Wind”,
it is no coincidence that the Asclepians exist there, which has to do with sound, acoustics, earthly musical harmony which is synchronized with universal musical harmony and healing.

the acoustics in the ancient theater of Epidaurus have the curious thing, that as the Greek is clearly heard there, other languages cannot be heard, there is some kind of coordination of the sound, the Mathematical Greek language, the space and the acoustics, and this is because the Greek language is a musical language. (the relationship between musical harmony and mathematics and mathematics and the harmony of the universe is well known, just as it is also known that in ancient Greece music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy were sister sciences)

Its orchestra is a perfect circle, while its cavity is part of a sphere. 34 rows of seats in the lower section and 21 in the upper give the number 55 (ЭЄ). The sum of the first 10 numbers (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10) gives 55 (ЭЄ), the sum of the first 6 (1+2+3+4+5+6 ) gives 21 and the sum of the last 4 (7+8+9+10) gives 34.

The golden number Φ makes its appearance since the ratio of the rows of the two diazoms 21/34=0.618=Φ, but also the ratio of the lower diazom to the total of the rows 34/55=0.618=Φ6
(PYTHAGORAS IS PRESENT..AGAIN!).

5th century BC Dodona Epirus Theater (APE ROTAN)

Dodona or Dodoni is one of the most important oracles of ancient Greece. It is located in the regional unit of Ioannina of Epirus and was dedicated to Zeus and Dione. (Dodonaios God)
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
The theater of Dodona is among the largest and best preserved ancient Greek theaters in the world, capable of accommodating approximately 18,000 spectators.

Buthrotos (Albanian: Butrint, ancient Greek: Vuthroton)—

Wherever Archaeologists dig in Buthrotos (Butrint) they find #Greek Archaeological findings.

The #Albanian Archaeologist: Dhimiter Condi, who led for 30 years the team that excavated in Bouthroto found ancient #Greek statues, coins minted with Greek cities, such as #Corfu, Macedonia, and so on.

We don’t need to say anything more, as Albanian archaeologists such as:

▪︎ Dhimiter Condi also mentions in his book: “Butrint: history, monuments and museum” that #Hellenus founded “Bouthrotum”, which it means: bull crossing in #Greek language.

Furthermore, the albanian Archaeologist: Dhimiter Condi, published in his book that Buthroto was founded by Greeks.

In the photo from the book of the Albanian Archaeologist: Dhimiter Condi, among other findings it is showing:

▪︎ Statue of #Apollo, 2nd century AD, it was found in Nymphaeum in excavations at Butrint in 1929.

▪︎ Statue of #Dionysus from 2nd AD, was found in In Nymphaeum in excavations at Butrint in 1929.

▪︎ The many coins which they were found in Butrint, they include: coins minted as #Greek cities; such as Kerkyra (Corfu), Makedonia, and so on.

By Dhimiter Condi, Butrint: history, monuments and museum, Argjiro, Albania, 2008, pp. 78, 91

Dhimitër Çondi, Ph.D.

Co-Director of the Excavations Project at Butrint.

Professor of Archaeology.

Albanian Institute of Archaeology

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/IONIA(=”ASIA MINOR”)/EPHESOS/THE ODEON THEATER, ASCLEPEIION AND GEOMETRICAL INSTRUMENT, AS ALL HELLENIC TEMPLES AND MOST OF THE THEATERS, AS WELL, NO MATTER WHERE!! (SPAIN, MARSEILLE, MAGNA GRAECIA, BLACK SEA, IONIA, PONTOS, GREECE, MIDDLE EAST, ASIA, NORTH AFRICA..)
By:. MEDUSA PEGASOS

WHAT EVER STATUES “THEY” STOLE…
NO MATTER WHAT TEXTS THEY STOLE, THE BARBARIANS REMAINED BARBARIANS…
THEY COULD NOT UNDERSTAND THE GREEK SPIRIT, ITS UNFATHOMABLE HEIGHTS
AND GREAT DEPTHS, ITS LENGTHS AND WIDTHS.. “THEY” JUST SCRATCHED THE
SURFACE A LITTLE AND SAY “THEY”(=🐀)…. CREATED… CIVILIZATION….
THEY TALK… ABOUT RENAISSANCE…
…WHICH…”RENAISSANCE”??!!!…
IN ORDER TO BE A RENAISSANCE, THERE MUST HAVE BEEN A BIRTH!!!
WHEN DID THE BARBARIANS HAVE A BIRTH AND WE… DON’T KNOW???!!!!
AND SOMEONE NÄVE WILL TELL YOU:.. -BUT Greek CULTURE BELONGS… TO THE WHOLE PLANET…..
NO… MY FRIEND, GREEK CULTURE BELONGS TO THE GREEKS AND BECAME UNIVERSAL BECAUSE OF ITS QUALITY!

A T H I E F IS A L W A Y S THIEF AND AN O W N E R IS AN O W N E R !!!
(By THE MEDUSA)

THE ARCHAEO-LOOTERS OF HELLENIC ANCIENT MASTERPIECES HAVE
SURPASSED EVEN “LORD” ELGIN, (SAME ROOTS, AS “FRENCH” ABBOT MICHEL FOURMONT .. KAI O ΝΟΩΝ ΝΟΕΙΤΩ !!)

IN LOOTING….COUNTERFEITING – DISTORD

THESE KIND OF…. “NOBLE” BARBARIANS, WHO WERE BYING NOBLE TITLES, ALL OVER EUROPE(!!)
.. DURING THE MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE, AS WELL… MOST OF THEM
HAVE CONTAMINATED &
DEFILED THE 17 GREEK WARRIORS AT THE SACRED PLACES ..BEFORE AND
DURING THE “BYZANTINE” & “OTTOMAN” OCCUPATIONS….THE SAME “ONES” ARE EXTREMILY ANTHELLENIC(=ANTIGREEK) … DUE TO THEIR HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY…..ETC TOWARDS TO HIGH & UNIQUE LEVEL
OF THE HELLENIC CIVILIZATION.
IT’S IDENTICAL, THAT COUNTERFEITING AND UNGRATEFUL BENEFICIARIES (Ο ΝΟΩΝ ΝΟΕΙΤΩ!!) ARE THE MOST FAKE,
UNPREDICTABLE AND
DANGEROUS ONES!!

APPOLONIAN LIGHT vs DARKNESS.

THE ANCIENT GREEK CITY OF — A I Z A N O I — was the main settlement center of the GREEK BRANCH AIZANITIS people WHO LIVED IN ANTIQUE MACEDONIAN PHRYGIA During the excavations carried out around the TEMPLE OF ZEUS traces of settlements dating back to 3000 BC were brought to light. In the HELLENIC period, this region was subordinated alternately to Pergamum and Bithynia, but in 133 BC it came under Roman rule. It was one of the important cities in Roman times with the Temple of Zeus, the Stadium-Theatre complex and the Macellum. The Temple of Zeus, built on a hill and considered the city’s important religious structure, is one of the best-preserved temples of Zeus in the world. While the construction of a stadium with a capacity of 13,500 people and a theater with a capacity of 20,000 people in the north of the city as a complex was not seen anywhere else in Aizanoi in ancient times, the Aizanoi Macellum, dated to the second mid-2nd century AD, is one of the first bags in the world.
Statue head of the goddess of love and beauty Aphrodite, the ancient city of Aizanoi, Kütahya, western Turkey, Oct. 29, 2021. (AA Photo)
Statue head of the god of wine Dionysos, Aizanoi, Kütahya, western Turkey, Oct. 29, 2021. (AA Photo)
Noting that they have been sustaining their work in a creek bed in the ancient city of Aizanoi recently, Coşkun told that the statuary heads of Aphrodite and Dionysus were unearthed in this creek bed.
“These are important findings for us, as they show that the polytheistic belief culture of ancient Greece existed for a long time without losing its importance in the Roman era,” he said. “The findings suggest that there may have been a sculpture workshop in the region.”
Home to one of the MOST well-preserved temples in Turkey, dedicated to the Greek god ZEUS, the city of Aizanoi is easily comparable to EPHESUS in its grandeur and importance. Initially inhabited by the Greek branch of Phrygians, the area was converted into a city in the first century B.C. by the Romans and includes unique spots such as a temple; four Roman bridges, two of which are still in use today; the world’s first known indoor marketplace, with inscriptions of the prices of sold goods still visible on the walls; theatres; roman baths and an ancient sacred cave.

*****************************THE MYCENAIAN BASILICA “HOUSE OF THE SPHIGNS”

The Mycenaean “house of the Sphinxes” took its name from the large number of ivory plaques and numerous exquisite ivory crafts found in the residential remains of a building outside the Cyclopean walls of the Mycenaean palace in the Argolis. It was a two-story building complex at a pivotal point, an annex of the palace built during HY III B2 (1250-1200 BC), and which was used as a transit center, with a workshop for processing ivory and faience objects. At the same time, it also housed administrative functions, as the inscribed ivory seals and the signs of Linear B’ show.
The royal storehouse/accounting room with the carved heraldic seals contained lists of supplies of goods on behalf of the royal court, lists of dry food pithos, official written orders, traces of various herbs, wares registration plates, showing that in it in this particular house, the royal transactions were carried out by authorized officials of the unclaimed who sealed the products (arch. Alkistis Papadimitriou).
The home of the Sphinxes was destroyed by natural disasters, earthquakes, and the fire (1,200 BC).

The ivory or mother-of-pearl imported from Africa or India, especially from Syria, raw, or dead, or petrified, was a rare and very expensive material, and its value depended on the finite thickness of the tusks. Today, under the ultraviolet light, it is possible to determine the type of mammal from which the processing material came in ancient times: elephant, walrus, wild boar, deer, whale, blowtorch, hippopotamus, mammoth, narwhal, rhinoceros, turtle, etc.
Side products were the “black ivory”, a material from the carbonization of the residues (scrapings) of the processing of ivory, which was used in antiquity as a pigment in painting, as in Mycenaean manuals.
Before the advent of rubber (synthetic paste), trinkets were crafted from biological materials, from combs, necklaces, beads, headdresses, to piano keys and billiard balls, and ivory was the most profitable …illegal trade.

The depicted elephant tile (photo) of the (13th BC) century from the “House of the Sphinxes”, is one of the masterpieces of the elephant work workshop in Mycenae, and is kept in the collection of the National Archaeological Museum of Athens under no. wide (7526). Two antichrist (heraldic) sphinxes are carved with apotropaic symbolism, stepping with their fore feet on a column (power), and with their hind feet on double horns of dedication. The iconography of the watchful guardians of trade has Eastern influences, and the dark color of the ivory is due to wear from its fire (1,200 BC). Its design evokes the stone shield of the Lion Gate of the Mycenaean palace above the relief triangle of the entrance!

MAGNA GRAECIA/IDENTICAL HELLENIC THEATER RYTHM

The theater/temple of ..(.LATER ..NAMED) ….”San NICOLA” near CASERTA, ITALY/, was rediscovered by chance in 2000 by a paraglider. It’s 2100 years old and hosts a theater and a temple on the same hill 520 meters on the sea level, dominating the evocative panorama on the plains below.

The TEMPLES of the GREEK ANCESTORS WERE on ENERGY HUBS, THEY WERE NOT BUILT by CHANCE , MEANWHILE the WHOLE ISLAND of RHODES IS AN ENERGY HUB LIKE LIKE SAMOTHRAKI. “MODERN” PEOPLE DO NOT UNDERSTAND the VIBRATIONS of the ENERGY FIELDS, …………. DUE TO THAT, THE JUDEO-CHRISTIANITY – DOESN’T… 😅🤣AT ALL!!!…ATHENA WAS CALLED ATHENA PALLAS FROM THE PULSATING VIBRATIONS= “PALLOMENES” DONISEIS= ΠΑΛΛΌΜΕΝΕΣ ΔΟΝΉΣΕΙΣ.
BASIC HISTORICAL FACTS

..ANSWER IS H E R E!:

THE BRIGHTNESS OF THE GREEK CIVILIZATION GATHERS ALL THE
BARBARIANS, BY DESTRUCTION to DESTROY IT.
THIS IS HAPPENING FOR 2 MILLENNIA by NOW, BOTH GLOBALY & INSIDE THE HELLENIC REGIONS, WHERE THESE ANTHELLENIC RODENTS, WHO DURING THE AGES, STILL RULLE… THROUGH RELIGION, POLITICS, ECONOMY, “EDUCATION” & MEDIA..

THE RIGHT OF THE STRONGER:
BARBARIC LIES PERSIST ABOUT the ORIGINS of ANCIENT GREEK CITIES SUCH AS PERSEPOLIS, PETRA and BAALBEK, AMONG OTHERS, FALSELY ATTRIBUTED TO…. HAVING BEEN BUILT by the.. PERSIANS , PHOENICIANS, CARTHAGENIANS, NABATEANS and ROMANS RESPECTIVELY. The PERSIANS found the ABANDONED CITY OF PERSEPOLIS (BUILT by DESCENDANTS OF PERSEUS), AND THE NABATEANS, WHO WERE NOMADIC HERDERS FOUND AND MADE THE ABANDONED PETRA THEIR HOME. THE ROMANS WOULD INVADE and FALSELY PUT THEIR TAG ON EVERYTHING THEY CONQUERED
.

ONE SUCH WORK WAS the KYBALION AND OTHER, WERE TRANSLATED FROM EXISTING ARCHAIC WORKS. HISTORY, ORIGIN, ART AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY..

HAVE ALL BEEN STOLEN, LOOTED AND CLAIMED BY… OTHERS. NEWTON ALSO STOLE CLAIM TO THE LAWS OF MOTION AND PHYSICS, GAINING THIS KNOWLEDGE FROM ANCIENT TEXTS which he SECRET LY HELD.
THE GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN THAT: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS COMPLETELY FORMULATED THE THEORY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY, UNIFYING INTO SINGLE MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS, AS ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY
https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/…
(https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/),..and the Weak Currents of NUCLEAR ATOMS.

EVERY CIVILIZATION IS JUDGED by WHAT it LEFT BEHIND …
BUT….

THE GREEKS MUST NEVER LEARN THAT: THE ASTRONOMERS – MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS
, ARISTARCHOS, ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES, CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, HAD EXHAUSTED THE LIMITS OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE BY SOLVING MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION EQUATIONS OF 12 UNKNOWNS (TWELVE EQUATIONS TWELVE UNKNOWNS), WHILE THE LIMIT OF TODAY’S COMPUTERS IS “7 EQUATIONS 7 UNKNOWNS”. BECAUSE THE THIEVES OF ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST be SHOWN!! …
The GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW that: the ENGINEERS – TECHNICIANS: EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, MANUFACTURED TOPOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS FÖR TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC MECHANISMS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS, BECAUSE THE SWINDLER EDISON MUST BE SHOWN AS THE INVENTOR OF … ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH THE ABOVE GREEK ENGINEERS USED THE ELECTRON (AMBER) AS A NATURAL ACCUMULATOR of STATIC ELECTRICITY in TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS…
THE GREEKS MUST NOT KNOW THAT: THE GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS the INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, HAD MAPPED THE ENTIRE SURFACE OF THE PLANET, BECAUSE THERE IS A DANGER THAT THE GREEKS WILL LEARN THAT ATLANTIS AND THE AMERICAN CONTINENT BELONGED ADMINISTRATIVELY IN DELPHI, WHILE ASIA BELONGED ADMINISTRATIVELY TO SARDIS, WITH THE CENTRAL COORDINATOR BEING THE APOLLONIAN CENTER OF DELOS, TO WHICH THE
TRANSBOREAN
GREEKS (NORTHERN SIBERIA) SENT AS A TOKEN OF RECOGNITION “EVERY YEAR, CHOICE GRAIN”, THROUGH THE GREEK ARIMASPAS AND ISSIDONES AND MASSAGESTAE of CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN SIBERIA.
THE GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW THAT THE e GREEK DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, CARRIED OUT “BALANCING ELEKTROMAGNETIC FLUIDS OF THE BODY” TREATMENTS BY REGULATING the ALKALINITY and ACIDITY OF THE ORGANS..
….. THAT THEY WERE MAKING CURES USING “LEFT-HANDED AMINO ACIDS” (ANTIBIOTICS) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).
THE GREEKS MUST NOT LEARN THAT THE SYMBOLS “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” AND “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” WERE SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, BY WHICH THE GREEKS PYTHAGORAS AND DEMOCRITUS AND ARISTARCHOS EXPRESSED RIGHT-HANDED AND LEFT-HANDED NUCLEI OF ATOMS, PLANETS, SOLAR SYSTEMS, GALAXIES AND COSMIC DOMAINS CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES.
2500 YEARS AGO HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED BRAIN AND HEART SURGERY…
DESPITE THE ALMOST NON-EXISTENT MEANS OF HIS TIME, HIPPOCRATES PERFORMED DIFFICULT SURGERIES. HE AND HIS STUDENTS SUCCESSFULLY TREATED ORTHOPEDIC, CARDIAC AND BASIC SURGERY CASES. HIPPOCRATES EVEN PERFORMED OPERATIONS ON THE HUMAN SKULL, AS WE READ IN SEVERAL OF HIS WORKS… IN ADDITION TO THE OPERATION ITSELF, HIPPOCRATES ATTACHED GREAT IMPORTANCE TO THE PREPARATION OF THE PATIENT AND THE OPERATING ROOM.
In the work Kat’iatreion, he describes in detail how the patient should be prepared before the operation, how the tools are sterilized, how the space is shaped, but also how artificial and natural light is used during the operation…
American ARCHAEOBOTANISTS WERE ABLE FOR the FIRST time to STUDY and ANALYZE the CONTENTS of PILLS MADE BY DOCTRINE IN ANCIENT GREECE and which were discovered 20 years ago, in a GREEK SHIPWRECK OFF THE COAST of TUSCANY…
DNA ANALYZES SHOWED that each pill was a mixture of at least ten different plant extracts, including hibiscus and celery. “For the first time, we now have physical EVIDENCE of what is contained in the writings of the ANCIENT GREEK PHYSICIANS, AS DIOSCORIDIS AND GALENOS,” SAID ALLEN TWO WAY of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION’s NATIONAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY in WASHINGTON , ACCORDING to NEW SCIENTIST
“APOSTLE ORPHEUS” Besides…

THE “Phoenician “DECEPTION
The PHOENICIANS and GREEK ALPHABET
“…the GREEK ALPHABET EXISTED at the TIME of ATLANTIS, 9,500 BC, SINCE PLATO speaks of inscriptions with oaths as well as names of kings carved into vows, and therefore carried history at least from 15,000 BC. But according to the “PHILHELLENIC” pile researchers, it comes from…. the Phoenician alphabet 😅🤣 of the 14th century BC. That is, the wretches have deliberately
They “FORGOTTEN” to multiply the history of Greece and its language x 10!!!

IDENTICAL HELLENIC THEATERS TEMPLES, STATUES, FRESCOES, MOSAICS MOTIVES FROM THE MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY:

.. NOT ONLY.. CYPRUS…: IONIA, PHRYGIA, CAPADOKIA, PONTOS, ASPENDOS,
ANTIOCHIA, EPHESOS, PERGAMOS, SMYRNA, ALICARNASOS… etc etc..
FACTS vs FAKES:
JUST ONE EXAMPLE:

THE EVALUATION OF THE OFFER OF GREEK CULTURE ALL OVER THE WORLD, IS DIFFICULT TO EVALUATE, BECAUSE OF THE WIDTH OF THE OFFER IT IS THE PLACE THAT HOSTED THE HIGHEST CIVILIZATION

JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD
by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…EARTH, WEST, SOUTH & NORTH!!
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED,
COUNTERFEITING, STEALING, COPIED & DISTORTED..
.. AND – VERY OFTEN – SHOWED…BY SOME OF THE BARBARIANS, AS….. THEIR
OWN!!!!!!!😂🤣

THAT HAPPENS ALL OVER the WORLD, –
SUPPORTED, as ALLWAYS, BY the CLASSICAL, GLOBAL ANTHELLENIC(=ANTIGREEK) – BARBARIAN

GEOPOLITICAL MAFIA..
THUS BARBARIANS HELP BARBARIANS.. WITH HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & OFCOURSE VERY FAR b FROM THE AUPHTENTIC ETHERIAL & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION AS:
TEMPLES(CORINTHIAN, DORIC & IONIC ORDER ONES), STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, FRESCOES, COINS, SCIENCE:
MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS, TECHNOLLGY, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, POETRY… PLUS:…
THE ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by the ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC LANGUAGE, WHICH IS INTERCONNCTED MATHEMATICAL WITH THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS
.. ARE JUST the WITNESSES…

****The head of the Medici-Riccardi horse
It is part of an original Greek equestrian bronze sculpture of the 4th century BC. Used as a fountain spout since the 15th century in the garden of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi and belonging to the Medici antiquities collection, the head revealed, during the restoration, interesting traces of gilding, which show how the statue was gilded from the beginning. The head was part of a sculptural group consisting of the horse, young, nervous as revealed by the dilated nostrils, and his rider, who restrains his momentum by pulling him to the right: thus appearing to reveal the very position of the head , which today, after restoration, has been stripped of its seventeenth-century base, which regularized its edges and gave it elegance and symmetry, and returned to its original position.
National Archaeological Museum of Florence


The stolen ancient Greek masterpiece from the sculptor LYSIPPOS
The horse sculptures come from the island of Chios (the fifth largest of the Greek islands).

Since four horses and a quadriga (a type of chariot that was also used in the Ancient Olympic Games) were mentioned in the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai, more commonly called “brief Historical Notes” text dated from the 8th or ninth century. The horses stayed there until 1204 when they were looted by Venetian forces as part of the sack of the capital of the Byzantine Empire in the Fourth Crusade. Interestingly, the collars on the horses’ necks that you can see in the photos below were added around this time to cover the areas where their necks and heads had been removed to allow them to be transported from Constantinople to Venice.

The horse sculptures come from the island of Chios (the fifth largest of the Greek islands). Since four horses and a quadriga (a type of chariot that was also used in the Ancient Olympic Games) were mentioned in the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai, more commonly called “brief Historical Notes” text dated from the 8th or ninth century. The horses stayed there until 1204 when they were looted by Venetian forces as part of the sack of the capital of the Byzantine Empire in the Fourth Crusade. Interestingly, the collars on the horses’ necks that you can see in the photos below were added around this time to cover the areas where their necks and heads had been removed to allow them to be transported from Constantinople to Venice.

Soon after the Fourth Crusade, Doge Enrico Dandolo (Doge meaning a civil officer or lay judge in Venice or Genoa) sent the horses to Venice, where they were installed on the terrace of the facade of St. Mark’s Basilica in 1254.

In 1797, Napoleon forcibly removed the horses from the basilica and carried them off to Paris, where they were used in the design of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel together with a quadriga.

In 1815, the horses were returned to Venice by Captain Dumaresq, who had fought at the Battle of Waterloo and along with the allied forces in Paris. He was selected by the Emperor of Austria to take the horses down from the Arc de Triomphe and return them to their original place at St. Mark’s in Venice. For doing an excellent job bringing the horses back to Venice, the Emperor gave him a gold snuff box with his initials in diamonds on the lid.

Until the early 1980s, the horses remained untouched above St. Mark’s. But with growing air pollution that would make the statues deteriorate quicker, they were removed and brought inside St. Mark’s and can still be seen inside the basilica. They were replaced with exact copies that can be seen outside.

..

ORPHEUS

He was one of the first singers and musicians of the ancient legends. Others were certainly remembered in antiquity, but the mythical singer ORPHEUS, son according to legend of Apollo and the muse Clio, and, according to others, of Oeagros and Clio or of Apollo and Calliope, transcended the concept of time and history, thus still belonging today as yesterday to the collective imagination for certain modern narrative works that evoke it, such as ORFEO IN PARADISO by Luigi Santucci or ORFEU NEGRO by Vinicius de Moraes.
He was and is the one who, with his poetry and his singing, was able to soften the cruelest souls, who made wild beasts docile and docile, stopped rivers, moved plants and even stones. A song therefore that seemed suspended between the earth and the sky and which captured the attention of all creatures, making them cry, the expression of a touching tenderness, of a sweet melancholy.
Orpheus is remembered, in ancient legendary stories, as a companion of Jason, the hero who first dared to attempt a long and dangerous sea voyage to the distant lands of the Black Sea, in Colchis, to conquer the Golden Fleece. the divine singer in the expedition had the task of overriding the dangerous melody of the Sirens and in this way saved his fellow Argonauts who would otherwise have been their prey.
But what made him even more famous was his descent into the world of the dead while alive. Others later tried this harsh experience (Hercules, Odysseus, Aeneas), but Orpheus only did it driven by love for his wife, the nymph Eurydice, who had died from a snake bite. No longer able to live without her, he overcame the resistance of the guardians of the world of shadows, Charon, Cerberus, Ixion, Tantalus, Sisyphus; he moved the entire underworld to pity and managed to change the inexorable verdict of Hades and Persephone.
In exchange for permission to bring Eurydice back to life, the lords of the Underworld made a bizarre condition: he would never have to turn to look at Eurydice’s beloved face during the journey back from the kingdom of the dead. If he had done so he would have lost her forever.
At first Orpheus resisted despite the fact that she called her name several times and in many tones, but, when he had the feeling that Eurydice was not following her steps, he was unable to resist and could not help but turn away. losing her forever.
Orpheus came out of the world of the dead, but his life no longer had meaning; so he wandered on Mount Rodope, now inconsolable and swore that he would never love a woman again: when he met the Bacchae, who offered him consolation and love, he did not allow himself to be convinced by their flattery, so much so that they, in a feast in honor of Dionysus, divinity whose cult Orpheus had opposed, taken by enthusiasm and Dionysian obsession, killed him by cutting him to pieces and throwing him into the Ebro river. The head and the lyre that always accompanied his singing continually repeated the pain of the loss of his wife: the remains arrived near Antissa, on the island of Lesbos, land of great lyric poets such as Alcaeus and Sappho, where an oracle arose and a tomb was erected and his remains were kept there forever with great respect and veneration.

Ancient Hellenic Aesthetics 

ANCIENT GREEKS HAD FLOOR HEATING AND BIOCLIMATIC PALACES 2.700 BC

TEMPLE OF APOLLO/ DELPHI//BEOTIA.

WE REAL GREEKS OF KYNOS (GREEK-MINDED) WE CREATED CONSTELLATIONS, THE RAT SATANISTS WHO RULE US BY STOCK AND ORIGIN, WE IN THE LIGHT, THEM IN BR@A THE MUD AND THE DISADVANTAGES OF THEIR FEET RELATIVES DIKON
THE BATTLE IS OLD, LIGHT AGAINST DARKNESS, HUMANS AGAINST HYBRIDS, GREEK WHITES vs moses shepherds
Walking down to Monastiraki from Apollonos Street, behind the old Ministry of Education, next to Samiotis Priests at number 26, I noticed a …door
How old is it, and who put it there and for what reason? What does it symbolize, who are behind the Gate?
The careful traveler notices
THE 9 MUSES OF OUR GREEK GOD APOLLO
THE SIXTEEN POINTED STAR OF THE SILVERS (VERGINA SUN)
THIS ALONE PROVES THE GREEKNESS OF THE MACEDONIAN KINGDOM AND AFTERWARDS
WORLD KINGDOMS
AN ATLANTA
THE HOLY OWL OF THE GODDESS OF WISDOM ATHENA
A FLOOR VIEW OF THE ACROPOLIS…. Ms…
I leave it up to you…
further down I raised dirty galleries that are made by the well-known reptilians of the planet, and that, indeed in the heart of Zionism, BROOKLYN, New York, resisted at first even this NYPD that caught them…

History of Macedonia

The Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella MAKEDONIA 🇬🇷

Along the top of the scene the artist GNOSIS (=ΓΝΩΣΙΣ) has signed HIS name in white SQUARE =”ΓΝΩΣΙΣ ΕΠΟΗΣΕΝ”= KNOWLEDGE CREATED THIS, the EARLIEST known artist’s signature on a mosaic.

By ANCIENT QUEST.

Portrait of Alexander the Great
Egypt, Alexandria.
3rd century BC.
This cameo portrait was previously believed to be a depiction of Antiochus of Syria, based on an interpretation of the lettering on the reverse of the stone. However, when compared with close analogies in glyptic art and numismatics, the personage shown here fits the traditionally iconography of Alexander the Great considerably better.
The image of a young military commander in armour with a luxuriant head of hair and a diadem, a clear-cut profile and an upward gaze are typical for portraits of the Hellenic Macedonian conqueror, going back to the original by Lysippos. The cameo created in the new Egyptian capital that Alexander founded is a vivid illustration of his cult in a Hellenistic state.
Material:

Three-layered sardonyx, gold.
Dimensions:

2,6×1,7 cm

ΤHE THRONE OF EURIDICE, GRANDMOTHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT AIGAI, MACEDONIA, #GREECE.
“THRONE OF A LATE 4th CENTURY BC QUEEN FROM A TOMB AT AEGAE, #GREECE.
AEGAE OR AIGAI WAS ORIGINAL CAPITAL OF MACEDONIANS, THE ANCIENT KINGDOM in EMATHIA IN NORTHERN #GREECE, ALSO THE BURIAL-PLACE OF THE MACEDONIAN KINGS, NOW VERGINA .


SWASTIKA JUST IN SANSKRIT THAT IS WELL AND IS”.
THIS SYMBOL IS GREEK ORIGIN.
IN ANCIENT TIMES REFERRED AS “DOUBLE MEANDER” OR “GAMMADION”… NOT, AS SWASTIKA. Now theories k.Chitler for suns etc. I can not say because I need at least 1,000 pages to analyze. Used by Hittler when he visited a tribe of the Himalayas that had as its symbol the double meander and adopted as of them took in his words the same “DREADFUL AND STRONG KNOWLEDGE .” NOTE THAT THIS TRIBE, ALTHOUGH BUDDHISTS CONSIDER TODAY AS SPIRITUAL FATHERS GREEKS IN PARTICULAR APOLLO.

Ancient OLYNTHOS , MEANDER, CROSS AND SUN SYMBOLS, EARLY (4th B.C) GREEK MOSAIC/ MACEDONIA/ GREECE.
MOSAIC OF THE OIKOS AT AIGAI PALACE IN VERGINA, GREECE .
BUILT BY PHILIP II (c. 359-336 BCE), FATHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
IT’S ONE AMONG THE MANY LARGEST AND WELL KNOWN CLASSICAL-IDENTICAL HELLENIC MOSAICS…
450 YEARS BC.

DOUBLE MEANDER MOSAIC OF THE OIKOS AT AIGAI PALACE IN VERGINA, GREECE .
BUILT BY PHILIP II (c. 359-336 BCE), FATHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
IT’S ONE AMONG THE MANY LARGEST AND WELL KNOWN CLASSICAL-IDENTIXAL HELLENIC MOSAICS…
450 YEARS BC

Mosaic floor from the Villa of Dionysos in Dion, Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

READERS FLOOR AT THE LIBRERY OF MESSINI THE METROPOLE OF THE LATER CICILIAN MESSINI, BY SPARTANS (SPARTA IS THE CAPITAL OF LACONIA – NEIGHIBOUR TO MESSINI CITY OF MESSINIA COUNTY

THE “MEANDER”=ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ/MEANDROS AS A SYMBOL OF ANCIENT GREECE
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-historical-symbols/
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/

.

The most ancient Greek symbol, the Meander, is a symbol of Victory and Unity, a symbol of Infinity and Eternal Life, but also of our eternal journey through the world. Greek Key, as it declares the Greek origin of all things that carry it on them!

As a symbol, it may have been used mainly in decoration, but it is essentially a Greek seal, as most ancient Greek objects bear the design of the Meander. As a shape, the Acropolis will not be missing either. It may be born of prehistoric times, but it will be reborn and take its main, but not only, form during Geometric Times.

A symbol of all Greeks, the Meander, as it will be used in vases, temples, monuments, sculptures, objects, war weapons and armour, clothing in all the lengths and breadths of the Greek World. The same shape is present in the famous shield of Philip II. Through the Roman Empire, it also appears in Byzantine Culture. So the Maander is one of the leading Greek symbols, which was used in the most important periods of Greek history!

The sense of the infinite, of the endless on the one hand, but also of precision and integration on the other, characterize Greek culture. Already from classical antiquity, the meander represented the visual expression of the quintessence of ancient Greek thought – harmonious identification of opposites to the highest possible degree.

In ancient times this symbol depicted the endless flow of time and the completion of repeated time cycles. .

The enigmatic and unknown adventures of fate and the movement in a certain direction, from the point of birth and starting to the wide horizons of the unknown – a parallel with the course of Hellenism throughout the world.

In the mythical choice of Heracles, the difficult path of Virtue had a meandering shape (in contrast to that of Evil, which was straight), with the meanders symbolizing the structured difficulties of life, which man is called to overcome by sharpening his spirit in order to approach the ideal.

It is noteworthy that the meander is a more widespread symbol, both geographically and chronologically, that is traced wherever European-type Civilization has appeared.

It is presented in the majority of ancient works of art, in vases, buildings, inscriptions. The meander (or Greek key) was and is the symbol of eternal life and our eternal passage through this world. The most important presence of the meander is that in the genetic material (meander-spiral).

By the term meander or Greek key is meant in architecture and archeology the banded decoration – a composition of straight lines – that join each other at right angles or intersect diagonally. The meander motif, in its various variations, was often used in antiquity to decorate the frieze of temples. Variants of it are the meander which uses spiral repeating patterns (5) and the Vitruvian helix (tongue), a repeating curvilinear wave pattern.

Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece. Gold jewelry from Dion, Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

GREEK MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY- ARTS, ASTRONOMY, ARCHITECTURE, GEOMETRY, STEREOMETRY, MATHEMATICS, MEDICAL SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY, MUSIC, POETRY, DRAMA, FINE ARTS…THESE ACHIEVEMENTS ARE INTECONECTED,A SA WHOLE BASED ON THE MATHEMATIXAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE

Statues of the children of the healing god Asklepios from the Great Baths of Dion, early 2nd century AD; Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

Mosaic floor depicting Medusa’s head from the Villa of Dionysos in Dion, Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

Statue of Dionysos from the Great Baths of Dion, Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

Stele from the Snactury of Isis in Dion, Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

Mosaic floor depicting Medusa’s head from the Villa of Dionysos in Dion, Archaeological Museum of Dion, Macedonia, Greece.

Sanctuary of Demeter, Dion.

Public toilet where people socialized while taking care of their business, Dion.

A mosaic in the ancient city of Dion.

The Necropolis of Archontiko, near Pella, contained bodies with distinctive warrior’s garb. Some of them have thin gold masks, which are similar in material but very different in style to those found in more famous tombs in Mycenae:

It may be that kings or HIGH level warriors were buried with masks honoring for battles and position.

Pella (Greek: Πέλλα) is a municipality in the Pella regional unit of Central Macedonia, Greece.

On the site of the ancient city of Pella is the Archaeological Museum of Pella

Dion.
The sacred city of the Macedonians and the sanctuary of Zeus in the area of Olympus.
It reached its peak during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, as it was one of the earliest Roman colonies in the Macedonian region.
During the time of Alexander the Great, Dion had significant importance for Macedonia Greece in general.

It was there that Philip II celebrated the capture and destruction of Olynthus, the capital of the Chalkidiki League. In the same place, Alexander the Great invoked the help of the gods, while he was making the ceremonial preparations for his military campaign in Asia.
#AlexanderTheGreat#macedonia#dion

Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the Ancient Macedonians.

The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus,ArtemisHeracles, andDionysus.As all the  Ancient Greeks regarded it as an essential element of Hellenic identity to share common religious beliefs and to come together at regular intervals at Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia,Delphi,Nemea/Argos, etc.) in order to celebrate Panhellenic festivals. Most of the gods who were worshipped in southern Greece can also be found in the Macedonian pantheon and the names of the most important Macedonian religious festivals are also typically Greek. Evidence of this worship exists from the beginning of the 4th century BC onwards, but little evidence of Macedonian religious practices from earlier times exists. From an early period, Zeus was the single most important deity in the Macedonian pantheon. Makedon, the mythical ancestor of the Macedonians, was held to be a son of Zeus, and Zeus features prominently in Macedonian coinage.The most important centre of worship of Zeus was at Dion inPieria, the spiritual centre of the Macedonians, where beginning in 400 BC King Archelaos established an annual festival, which in honour of Zeus featured lavish sacrifices and athletic contests. Worship of Zeus’s son Heracles was also prominent; coins featuring Heracles appear from the 5th century BC onwards. This was in large part because the Argead kings of Macedon traced their lineage to Heracles, making sacrifices to him in the Macedonian capitals of Vergina and Pella. Numerous votive reliefs and dedications also attest to the importance of the worship of Artemis. Artemis was often depicted as a huntress and served as a tutelary goddess for young girls entering the coming-of-age process, much as Heracles Kynagidas (Hunter) did for young men who had completed it. An important aspect of Macedonian social life were court symposia, which were characterized by heavy drinking (of apparently unmixed wine), feasting, and general debauchery. Symposia had several functions, amongst which was providing relief from the hardship of battle and marching. 
Athenian playwrights such as Euripides and Agathonand the famous painter Zeuxis, all were influential in the early kingdom. Euripides wrote his last two tragedies at Archelaos’s(= people`s leader) court.The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus,ArtemisHeracles, andDionysus.As all the  Ancient Greeks regarded it as an essential element of Hellenic identity to share common religious beliefs and to come together at regular intervals at Panhellenic sanctuaries (Olympia,Delphi,Nemea/Argos, etc.) in order to celebrate Panhellenic festivals. Most of the gods who were worshipped in southern Greece can also be found in the Macedonian pantheon and the names of the most important Macedonian religious festivals are also typically Greek. Evidence of this worship exists from the beginning of the 4th century BC onwards, but little evidence of Macedonian religious practices from earlier times exists. From an early period, Zeus was the single most important deity in the Macedonian pantheon. Makedon, the mythical ancestor of the Macedonians, was held to be a son of Zeus, and Zeus features prominently in Macedonian coinage.The most important centre of worship of Zeus was at Dion inPieria, the spiritual centre of the Macedonians, where beginning in 400 BC King Archelaos established an annual festival, which in honour of Zeus featured lavish sacrifices and athletic contests. Worship of Zeus’s son Heracles was also prominent; coins featuring Heracles appear from the 5th century BC onwards. This was in large part because the Argead kings of Macedon traced their lineage to Heracles, making sacrifices to him in the Macedonian capitals of Vergina and Pella. Numerous votive reliefs and dedications also attest to the importance of the worship of Artemis. Artemis was often depicted as a huntress and served as a tutelary goddess for young girls entering the coming-of-age process, much asHeracles Kynagidas (Hunter) did for young men who had completed it.

Ancient Dion was a centre of the worship of Zeus and the most important spiritual sanctuary of the Ancient Macedonians.

Entrance to the tomb of King Philip II (r. 359–336 BC)

ALEXANDER THE GREAT IN THE MUSEUMS OF THE WORLD
Alexander the Great, the Soldier who conquered the Eastern world, the one who united all Greeks, who promoted Greek culture in the World, adorns the museums of the world with his aura.
Here are some of his most characteristic portraits!

Excellent portrait of Alexander the Great from the Acropolis Museum of Athens.

Alexander the Great at a young age, a marble work of the Roman period. From the Paul and Alexandra Kanellopoulos Museum, Athens

Marble bust of Alexander the Great, in the Archaeological Museum of Thassos.

Alexander the Great from the Archaeological Museum of Constantinople. It was found in Pergamum in Ionia, together with the famous sculptural ensemble of the Pergamum frieze. Estimated age of about 30 years, and in the style of Lysippos

Bust of Alexander the Great (0.28 m.), in Penteli marble found in Kerameikos. It is his work (300 BC), and he wears the lion as an ulcer, his origin from the mythical hero Hercules. The letters on the face have been carved at a later date.

From the Archaeological Museum of Olympia, bust of Alexander the Great, work of the Hellenistic period.


Bust of Alexander the Great, made of Cypriot limestone, a work of the Hellenistic period that adorns the Archaeological Museum of Nicosia in Cyprus.

Alexander the Great from the Archaeological Museum of Berlin, Germany. This work of his (300 BC), was found in the excavations of Priini in Asia Minor Ionia. After the victory at Granikos, Alexander generously financed the construction of the temple of Athena Polias in Prieni, as the dedicatory inscription on the monument testifies.

Bust of Alexander the Great from Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek Munich Museum, Germany.

Alexander the Great from the Archaeological Museum of Seville as a teenager.

Alexander the Great was found in Sparta, and is on display at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, USA.

Alexander the Great in the form of the Sun-Cosmocrator (350-300 BC) was found in Amiso of Pontus. The Brussels Museum, Musee du Cinquantenaire, shines in Belgium.

Found in Megara, and the young Alexander the Great is currently on display at the J.Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California, USA.

In Tarsus, Syria, the bust of Alexander the Great was found, and it is housed in the Archaeological Museum of Copenhagen in Denmark.

Bust of Alexander the Great in red granite, from the Archaeological Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria, Egypt.

Marble bust of Alexander the Great from the Damascus Museum, Syria.

Bust of Alexander the Great from the Hermaic Azara stele, kept in the Louvre Museum of France, of the first half (1st AD), one of the most faithful depictions of the Great soldier, and discovered in Tivoli (1779).

Recently found in Bursa, IONIA = “ASIA MINOR

Source:
From the AEGAI Archaeological Museum

MIRROR FROM THE AEGIES (VERGINA) of (4th BC)

The oldest mirror of a much-loved girl, was dedicated by the parents to her (unsought) grave for consolation, to accompany her on the eternal journey of no return. It was found in 2014 in the necropolis of Aige (Vergina), the birthplace of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great during the Hellenistic era.

The mirror depicts the god Eros (Love) flying with a small leap approaching Dionysus, sitting on the rocks on the panther skin, an expression of lust and passion, and is dated (4th century BC). It symbolizes the undying love of the girl’s family to its members in perpetuity. The fine art is the work of a skilled craftsman from the land of the Macedonians (arch. A.Kottaridis).

Today as we celebrate World Family Day, I dedicate it to you for the unbreakable bonds that govern family members, both in the living world and in the unknown…eternity!

The Alexander Sarcophagus is a remarkably well-preserved, late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus from the necropolis near Sidon, Lebanon. It is adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great and scrolling historical and mythological narratives.

Restoration work on a huge carpet-like Greek mosaic in the West Bank city of Jericho has been completed, revealing 38 intricate panels depicting floral and geometric patterns and a ‘tree of life’ (below)
Hisham’s Palace had lain forgotten for centuries until it was rediscovered in the 19th century.
British archaeologist Robert Hamilton explored it more extensively in the 1930s, when the mosaic was first discovered in the palace’s main bathhouse.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/THRACE/.

THRACIAN WREATH IN GOLD 420 BC PROPABLY BELONGNING TO AN ARISTOCRAT

National Archaeological Museum of Bulgaria

EVERYTHING BORN HERE!

At the time, before the Deluge of Deucalion, the Priests were the wise scientists, knowledgeable in all the Sciences of the time and not only. At that time, a great civilization had developed in Greece, but it was lost, with no evidence of its existence left, due to the encroachment of the Greeks.

But the Priesthood of Egypt, as their country was not affected by the flood, managed to save and spread all the knowledge of the Greeks, which, unfortunately, the Egyptians appropriated. And as the Greeks no longer had testimonies, due to the destruction of their country, the Greek knowledge passed through time and was “appropriated” as… the knowledge OF THE ….. EGYPTIANS

In addition to the revelation and admission of the Egyptian Sages to Solon, about the divine origin and superiority of the Greeks, as mentioned by Plato in “Timaeus”, the following passage by Ath. Stageritis is equally revealing:

[…] Actis(*) went to Egypt, where he built Heliopolis after his father’s name, he also taught the Egyptians Astrology; and because later a deluge happened in Greece and most of the people perished and their writings and History, and Astrology was found only in Egypt later, the Egyptians discovered this relevant circumstance, they appropriated it, boasting and claiming to have discovered it, because the Greeks had no proof… These may seem improbable, but we should not notice them as strange, because we have and find sufficient proofs that there were found in Egypt very ancient Hellenistic cities called […] OGYGIA, Volume I Within the Universe, everything moves in a circle, where the end will meet the beginning, as the completion of the 360° circular path “touches” the first degree of the beginning. Above the meeting of the two Fates, the first and the last, there appears Lawfulness and…

WHAT STARTED HERE WILL END HERE!

THE GREEKS AND US!!!!!!!!!!

”’GREEKS” ARE NOT THOSE WHO LIVE IN GREECE, BUT THOSE WHO (WHEREEVER THEY ARE, IN WHATEVER POINT OF THE EARTH AND IF THEY LIVE) SPEAK THE GREEK LANGUAGE, I.E. LIVE ACCORDING TO THE LAWS OF THE SUN, THE LAWS OF LIGHT, THE LAWS OF GOD THE CREATOR!!

IN BRIEF, THE WORD “GREEK”, MEANS “HE WHO (CAN AND) SEES GOD”.

I.E., ONE WHOSE HIGH VIBRATIONAL FREQUENCY IS THE SAME AS THAT OF LIGHT, THEREFORE IT ALLOWS HIM TO “SEE” THE CORRESPONDING FREQUENCY IN WHICH THE GODS BECOME VISIBLE!!

A “GREEK” IS THE SPIRITUALLY EVOLVED BEING AND ABSOLUTELY THE CITIZEN OF A COUNTRY, WHICH IS COMPLETELY ARBITRARY AND ABUSEFULLY CALLED “GREECE”!!

“GREECE” WAS ONCE, MANY THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO, WHEN THEY HAD MADE THIS PLACE THEIR PLACE, THEIR THRONE, THEIR HEADQUARTERS.

WE HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THEM!!!!

EVEN OUR ANCIENT ANCESTORS WERE NOT RELATED TO THE GREEKS, YES, THOSE OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD!!!!

EVEN THEN THERE WERE A FEW GREEKS AMONG THEM!!!

THE GREEKS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN FEW AMONG THE MANY, BECAUSE THEIR JOB ON EARTH WAS NO OTHER THAN TEACHING AND SPREADING KNOWLEDGE.

THE TEACHERS WERE GREEKS.

THE TEACHERS!!!!!!!!!

COMING TODAY AND GOING OUT ON THE STREETS DOES ANY CITIZENS WHO HAVE AWARENESS OF THEIR “GREEK” IDENTITY CAPABLE OF TAKE THE helm OF OUR PRESENT COUNTRY AND RESTORE THE DIGNITY AND HER STATE HISTORY????

I HIGHLY DOUBT!!!!

TODAY’S GREEKS LIVE A FOREIGN WAY OF LIFE AND WHAT THEY PERCEIVE HAS TO DO WITH THEIR MICRO-WORLD AND THEIR-MICRO INTERESTS!!!

THIS SHOWS A LACK OF ESSENTIAL EDUCATION WHICH TODAY HAS BEEN COMPLETELY DESTRUCTED WHEN WE HAVE ENDED UP WALKING AS A PEOPLE TORTURED IN A CONTINUOUS LYMPHATIC PROCESS!!! GIORGOS HAVALES

TEMPLE OF HEPHAESTUS.
It is one of the best preserved ancient temples.
On top of Kolonos hill, which is delimiting the Ancient Agora of Athens to the west, stands the temple of Hephaestus.

Doric peripteral temple, with pronaos –fore-temple–
cella –inner shrine– and opisthonaos –rear temple–, the best preserved of its type in the Greek world.

The facade of the pronaos and opisthonaos, to the east and west, are distyle, and the inner shrine had an interior colonnade.

It occupies the crest of the Kolonos Agoraios Hill and was designed by an unknown architect probably in honour of Hephaistos

It is one of the best preserved ancient temples, partly because it was transformed into a Christian church.

According to the traveller and geographer Pausanias (1, 14, 5-6), two deities were jointly worshipped in the temple: god Hephaestus, protector of all metallurgists, and goddess Athena Ergani, protecting all potters and the cottage industries.

The identification of this templeas Hephaesteion (location of worship of the god Hephaestus) was ascertained by the excavations and investigations that brought to light metallurgy workshops on the wider area of the hill, thus outshining earlier opinions presuming that Theseus, Hercules or Aris (Mars) were the deities worshipped there.

The temple was probably erected between 460 and 420 BC by a yet unknown architect, to whom, however, are attributed other temples of similar structure in the Attica region.

The temple disposed of a pronaos (anteroom) and an opisthodomos (back section), both distyle (two-columned) in antis.

On the exterior it was surrounded by a Doric colonnade having six columns on the narrow sides and thirteen columns on the longer sides.

The entire building, from the crepis (stone base) to the roof, was made of marble produced in the quarries of Pendeli mountain (in Attica), while the architectural sculptures that adorned the temple were of marble produced in the quarries on the island of Paros.

On the interior of the cella was a two-part colonnade forming the letter Π and at the far end was a pedestal, that supported the bronze ceremonial statues of Hephaestus and Athena, created by the sculptor Alkamenis; according to the traveller and geographer Pausanias, they were probably executed between 421 and 415 BC.

The lavish sculptural decoration of the temple featured highly interesting metopes that adorned the east and the west side of the external colonnade. The east side numbered ten metopes that were visible from the Agora: they depicted nine of the feats of Hercules.

Furthermore, on the north and the south side are depicted four of the feats of Theseus, which probably were the reason why the people named this temple ?Thision?.

The frieze does not run across all four sides of the cella, but only the across the pronaos and the opisthodomos.

The pronaos features the victorious struggle of Theseus against the claimers of the throne, who were the fifty sons of Pallas; six gods also participate into the fight.

The opisthodomos depicts the fight of the Centaurs narrated on the wall which is against the cella.

Notable sculptural representations also adorned the pediments of the temple.

The west pediment depicted the fight of the Centaurs and the east pediment the reception of Hercules on mount Olympus or the birth of goddess Athena.

Several among these sculptures inspired statues that were found in the surroundings of the temple, such as the fragmented and partially preserved complex of two feminine figures, one of which transports the other on her shoulders, as if trying to save her life, (?Ephedrismos? = carrying on one’s back),

Museum of the Ancient Agora, no of finding S 429), or the trunk of a dressed feminine figure where the movement is intensely underlined; the latter could be one of the acroteria (ornamental corner pieces) of the temple (Nereis = water deity, Museum of the Ancient Agora, no of finding S 182).

During the Hellenistic period, bushes or small trees in parallel order were planted into flowerpots around the temple; these pots came to light during excavation.

In the seventh century AD, the temple was conversed into a church dedicated to St. George Akamas, and thus stayed in use until the liberation of Greece from the Turkish occupation.

During the eighteenth century, many eminent Protestants, who died in Athens, were interred in the edifice, while in 1834 it hosted the ceremony of the first reception of king Otto.
Hence the temple was used as an archaeological museum, until 1930, when the American School for Classical Studies in Athens started excavations in the Ancient Agora.

Photograph: Francis Naef 

For devotees of “Indo-European” reeds. Indian relief “Heracles the protector of the Buddha”.
The Indo-Europeans allegedly and without evidence, in 2300, the Greeks and Herakles before 7,000.
BUDDAH with DIONYSOS as patron next to him, in 7000. The Greeks lived in Asia (Greek name) since prehistoric times and had excellent relations with the Asians.
Some LOW LEVEL individuals are promoting this tree as… linguistic history(!!), how FUNNY it is when one of the two central trunks starts with the word European which ALL Greeks know that the word EUROPE is from GREEK MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY and the word Hellenic should have been placed there instead, it comes later in a branch with Greek, that is, they again separate the ancient from the modern Greek… how complex now when they know that if they remove our language from their vocabularies, the whole trunk will collapse!
And the pacifier Indo India another Greek word is the basis….POOR “scientists” tells you!

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
The University professors who, INSTEAD OF SERVING the TRUTH keep a FISHY SILENCE in the FACE of the DESTRUCTION of HISTORY AND LANGUAGE, and EVEN MORE so those who appoint them to their positions, are considered guilty.
Just as unfortunately today everything on our planet IS SICK, so in our country there is a morbid lack of meritocracy, so that positions and positions are held by unfit people with only the virtue of a
cquaintances and their submission to what the globalization agenda naturally imposes.

However, be aware of this: just as the PHYSICAL TAXIS cannot be changed either by laws or by force, so it is NEVER allowed to be practiced for a long time to the detriment of the humanizing Greek Speech and our humanizing Language.

It is only a matter of time for the repentant human race, after being soiled in the spiritual mud, to take REFUSE ONCE AGAIN in the THREADS of the LIGHT-GIVING GREEK CULTURE ORDER to BE REBORN.

After all, this is his destination!

https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of…/
https://euphoriatric.com/etymology-means/
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/
https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/

THE “Phoenician “DECEPTION
The Phoenicians and Greek Alphabet
“…the Greek alphabet existed at the time of ATLANTIS, 9,500 BC, since PLATO speaks of inscriptions with oaths as well as names of kings carved into vows, and therefore carried history at least from 15,000 BC. But according to the “PHILHELLENIC” pile researchers, it comes from…. the Phoenician alphabet 😅🤣 of the 14th century BC. That is, the wretches have deliberately
They “FORGOTTEN” to multiply the history of Greece and its language x 10!!!

The RIGHT of the STRONGER:
BARBARIC lies persist about the origins of ancient Greek cities such as Persepolis, Petra and Baalbek, among others, falsely attributed to having been built by the Persians, Phoenicians, Carthagenians, Nabateans and Romans respectively. The Persians found the abandoned city of Persepolis (built by descendants of Perseus), and the Nabateans who were nomadic herders found and made the abandoned Petra their home. The Romans would invade and falsely put their tag on everything they conquered.

One such work was the KYBALION which he and others translated from existing archaic works. History, origin, art and high technology have all been stolen, looted and claimed by others. Newton also stole claim to the laws of motion and physics, gaining this knowledge from ancient texts which he secretly held.

THE GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN that: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS completely formulated the theory of NUCLEAR PHYSICS and SPECIAL RELATIVITY, unifying into formulas, as ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY, and the Weak Currents of NUCLEAR ATOMS.
EVERY CIVILIZATION is judged by WHAT it left behind…BUT….
THE GREEKS MUST NEVER LEARN, that: the ASTRONOMERS MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS
, ARISTARCHOS, ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES, CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, had EXHAUSTED the LIMITS of human INTELLIGENCE by solving MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION equations of 12 unknowns (twelve equations twelve unknowns) while the limit of today’s computers is “7 equations 7 unknowns”. Because the THIEVES of ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST be SHOWN!! …
The GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW that: the ENGINEERS – TECHNICIANS: EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, manufactured TOPOGRAPHIC instruments for TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC mechanisms and instruments for ELECTRICAL applications, because the SWINDLER EDISON MUST be SHOWN as the INVENTOR of … ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH the above GREEK ENGINEERS used the ELECTRON (AMBER) as a NATURAL ACCUMULATOR of STATIC ELECTRICITY in technical applications…
The Greeks MUST NOT KNOW that: the GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS the INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, had mapped the ENTIRE surface of the planet, because there is a danger that the Greeks will learn that ATLANTIS and the AMERICAN CONTINENT belonged administratively in DELPHI, while Asia belonged administratively to SARDIS, with the central coordinator being the APOLLONIAN Center of DELOS, to which the Transborean Greeks (Northern Siberia) sent as a token of recognition “every year, choice grain”, through the Greek ARIMASPAS and ISSIDONES and MASSAGESTAE of CENTRAL and SOUTHERN SIBERIA.
The GREEKS shouldNOT KNOW THAT THE GREEK DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, CARRIED OUT “balancing electromagnetic fluids of the body” treatments by regulating the alkalinity and acidity of the organs. That they were making cures using “left-handed amino acids” (antibiotics) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).
The Greeks must not learn that the symbols “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” and “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” were SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, by which the Greeks PYTHAGORAS and DEMOCRITUS and ARISTARCHOS expressed right-handed and left-handed nuclei of atoms, planets, solar systems, galaxies and cosmic domains clusters of galaxies.
2500 years ago HIPPOCRATES performed brain and heart surgery…
Despite the almost non-existent means of his time, HIPPOCRATES performed DIFFICULT surgeries. He and his students successfully treated orthopedic, cardiac and basic surgery cases. HIPPOCRATES even performed operations on the human skull, as we read in SEVERAL of his works… In addition to the operation itself, HIPPOCRATES attached great importance to the preparation of the patient and the operating room.
In the work Kat’iatreion, he describes in detail how the patient should be prepared before the operation, how the tools are sterilized, how the space is shaped, but also how artificial and natural light is used during the operation…
American archaeobotanists were ABLE for the FIRST time to study and analyze the contents of pills made by doctors in ANCIENT Greece and which were discovered 20 years ago, in a Greek shipwreck off the coast of TUSCANY…
DNA analyzes showed that each pill was a mixture of at least ten different plant extracts, including hibiscus and celery. “For the first time, we now have physical EVIDENCE of what is contained in the writings of the ANCIENT Greek physicians DIOSCORIDIS and GALENOS,” said ALLEN TWO WAY of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION’s NATIONAL Museum of NATURAL HISTORY in WASHINGTON , according to New Scientist..
“Apostle ORPHEUS”

“ΦΌΒΟΣ ΜΝΉΜΗΝ ΕΚΠΛΉΣΣΕΙ, ΤΈΧΝΗ ΔΕ ΆΝΕΥ ΆΛΚΗΣ ΟΥΔΈΝ ΩΦΕΛΕΊ.”(ANCIENT ATTICA GREEK)

(ΦΌΒΟΣ/”PHOBOS”) = FEAR NULLIFIES MEMORY AND KNOWLEDGE(=ΓΝΩΣΗ=GNOSI) WITHOUT COURAGE AVAILS NOTHING.

THUCYDIDES

THE STOLEN STATUE OF THESEUS

An amazing work of art of our ancestors, dating back to 500 BC, stolen by Germans. It was located in the temple of Athena Aphaia in Aegina. Today we see the temples turned into ruins and we are unaware that a few years ago they hid all these masterpieces which were stripped, mutilated to adorn museums abroad.


HIPPOCRATES AND EPIONE/ IVORY CARVED 5th CENTURY BC

The Greeks began to use a year divided into twelve months, it is believed that this happened no later than the 8th century. BC, since mention of its existence is found in Hesiod.
It should also be mentioned that the relationship between the calendar year and the various holidays was close for the Greeks, as evidenced by the fact that the names of most of their months came from the names of holidays celebrated during those months.
These celebrations are rarely related to episodes from the life of the gods themselves and usually have to do with the agricultural occupations that took place during the corresponding period of time and with which man ensured his harvest and therefore his existence and perpetuation.
So the ancient Greeks were the first (in Europe) to divide the year into 12 synodic (lunar) months and, because they knew that each synodic month did not have a whole number of days (approximately 29 ½ days), they gave the months a duration of 30 days (perfect or , full months) and 29 days (hollow months) alternately. They thus tried to make the first day of each month coincide as much as possible with the New Moon.
Months of the ancient Greek year (of ancient Athens) and their approximate Time interval (from-to) are:
1. Hekatombion July 15-August 15
2. Metageitnia August 15-September 15
3. Voidoromion September 15-October 15
4. Pyanepsion October 15-November 15
5. Maimaktrion November 15-December 15
6a. Poseidon I December 15-January 15
6b. Poseidon B’ (or second or later) vaccine month
7. Weddings January 15-February 15
8. Antithestira February 15-March 15
9. Deer hunting March 15-April 15
10. Munichion April 15-May 15
11. Thargilion 15 May-15 June
12. Skiforion June 15-July 15
In ancient Greece, as we saw above, the year consisted of twelve lunar months, which usually had 29 and 30 days alternately (these are the “hollow” and “full” months, respectively). The limits of each month were marked by the appearance of two new moons, so its duration was about 29 ½ days. (In total, we know more than 130 local month names and in addition their dialectal variants, which were usually derivatives of the names of feasts or divine epithets and corresponded to separate cities. The inoculated months usually took one of the remaining names with the additional indication- “second”, “late” or, as in Thessaly, marked “inoculated”.)
The first month of each year coincided with the summer (e.g. Athens) or winter solstice (e.g. Delos), and the spring (e.g. Delphi) or autumnal equinox (e.g. Argos) .
However, the establishment of a year of 354 days created a problem and, if no measures were taken, it would constantly expand, since a solar year has 365 days. In order to eliminate this difference, they added at intervals, usually every two years, a vaccinal month lasting about 22-23 days.
Along with the lunar month, characterized by epigraphic texts as “min kata theon (SUN)” or “min kata Selininen”, the organization of the annual time was also based on the tenure of the political rulers (e.g. Attic organization and division of the annual time into rectories) and in this case the month was called “men kat’ archontan”.
These different systems of naming and organizing the annual time functioned simultaneously in the daily reality of each city, just as the religious and political expressions functioned simultaneously.
The fact that in several parts of the ancient Greek world the names of the months are not related to the festivals of their most important gods but usually to those of Apollo means that a sanctuary of this god with pan-Hellenic acceptance must have made a decisive contribution to their establishment, as has been proven this in Delphi and around the seventh century BC.
Of course, it should be emphasized that the ancient Greeks do not seem to have celebrated the New Year with special holidays. For them, the beginning of each month was more important, which was connected to any of their occupations.
In Athens, however, an epigraphic testimony informs us of a religious ceremony that took place on the last day of the past year, but which involved a limited number of people. It was a sacrifice of the outgoing officials to Zeus Sotira and Athena Soteira wherever it was aimed at securing the favor of these gods for the new year.
In the Roman years and under the influence of Rome itself, the celebration of the New Year began, which expanded throughout the territory of the Roman Empire, therefore also in the Greek area.
Julius Caesar, applying the knowledge of the famous Greek astronomer from Alexandria Sosigenis, in 46 BC. established January 1 as the beginning of the year, which has since become widespread in the West. Also with the help of Sosigenes, requested by Julius Caesar, we also owe the adjustment of the year to the duration of the rotation of the Earth around the Sun.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ASIA MINOR/ IONIA/ A N T I O C H E I A/

MOTIVES FROM THE CLASSICAL GREEK MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY: – HERE:
THE N I N E M U S E S

https://euphoriatric.com/pythagoras-the-nine-muses/
₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪₪
IT’S JUST UTOPIA TO REACH, OR UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT OF CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, TO BE UNDERSTOOD
BY ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…WAS SHOWED..AS..THEIR OWN!!!!!! 😄😂🤣
MOSTLY BY ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS🐀🐁!!
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED, COUNTERFEITED, DISTORTED & TWISTED.. &
ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,
HAVING – OF COURSE – HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & NOT AUTHENTIC HIGH CIVILIZATION, AS:
-TEMPLES, STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, COINS, SCIENCE, as: MEDICINE, SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY. JUST ONE example): THE ANTIKYTHIRA MECHANISM MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, STETEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, POETRY & ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by ANCIENT MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC THE LANGUAGE, ITSELF which IS MATHEMATIC
, WHICH ,… IS INTERCONNECTED WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS..
.. ARE JUST A TINY PART OF THOUSAND OF THE
WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS & UNFORTUNATELY THOUSANDS OF “PRIVATE” COLLECTORS
AROUND THE WORLD

This is a gold HEMISTATER or DRACHM from Sicily, struck by HIERON circa 220-217 BC when he was King.
The coin shows PERSEPHONE WREATHED in BARLEY with a CORNUCOPIA behind her. The reverse shows a CHARIOTEER driving a biga with prancing horses and an inscription IEPΩNOΣ below.

HIERON II ( 308 BC – 215 BC) WAS A GREEK TYRANT OF SYRACUSE ( 270 BC – 215 BC), ILLEGITIMATE SON OF THE NOBLE HIEROCLES AND DESCENDANT OF THE TYRANT GELON . HE SERVED AS A GENERAL TO THE KING OF EPIRUS, PYRRHUS , AND WAS AN IMPORTANT MILITARY FIGURE WHEN THE FIRST CARTHAGENIAN WAR BROKEN OUT .
AFTER THE DEPARTMENT OF PYRRHUS FROM SICILY (275 BC) THE ARM OF SYRACUSE APPOINTED HIERON, AS HIS COMMANDER, HE SIGNIFICANTLY STRENGTHENED HIS POSITION BY MARRYING THE DAUGHTER OF LEPTINUS, A PROMINENT CITIES
.

In a WELL-KNOWN story described by Vitruvius, HIERON II ordered a votive crown to be made for him from pure gold and because he did not trust the goldsmith he asked ARCHIMEDES to EXAMINE WHETHER the gold had been ADULTERATED with SILVER.
ARCHIMEDES had to SOLVE the problem WITHOUT DESTROY ING the CROWN DID NOT WANT TO MELT IT TO CALCULATE ITS DENSITY AND ORIGIN. WHILE BATHING, ARCHIMEDES NOTICED THAT THE WATER LEVEL IN THE TUB ROSE when HE STEPPED IN AND REALIZED THAT THIS EFFECT COULD BE USED TO DETERMINE THE VOLUME OF THE CROWN…

Assuming that water is practically incompressible the effect of sinking would be for the crown to displace an amount of water equal to its own volume.
Dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced gives the density of the crown, the density will be less than that of gold if some cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes was so excited by his discovery that he went out into the street naked shouting ” Eureka! Eureka! ». King Hiero’s gold was actually adulterated with silver according to ARCHIMEDES’S FAMOUS DISCOVERY

In the museum of the gallery of ATTALOS located below the ACROPOLIS, there is a “MANGER” of 330 BC. depicting the cave of PAN, where HERMES delivers little DIONYSOS to the NYMPHS!
And whoever understood, understood…..

******************P E R G A M O S***********************************************************’

Pergamus (/ˈpɜːrɡəməs/; Ancient Greek: Πέργαμος) was the son of the warrior Neoptolemus and Andromache. Pergamus’s parents both figure in the Trojan War, described in Homer’s The Iliad: Neoptolemus was the son of Achilles and fought on the DANAAEANS side, while Andromache was the Trojan prince Hector’s wife. After the death of both Achilles and Hector, and the fall of Troy, Neoptolemus captured the newly widowed Andromache for his concubine and went to rule in Epirus. After Neoptolemus’s death, some sources say that Andromache returned to Asia Minor with her youngest son, Pergamus, although this is probably a later addition to the legend.

Asklepion of the Pergamon

Pergamon Museum, the most visited in Berlin. It hosts more than 1.5 million visitors per year.

Pergamon Museum, the most visited in Berlin. It hosts more than 1.5 million visitors per year.

Pergamon (Pergamum) ancient Greek city located 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, Turkey /

BERLIN, GERMANY – MARCH 06, 2013: Detail of the frieze of the Pergamon Altar in the Pergamon Museum. Altar was built in the 2nd century in the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor

Ornament of the Pergamon altar, inside the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Athena winning against a giant and crowned by the NIKE.Ornament of the Pergamon altar, inside the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Athena winning against a giant and crowned by the Victory.

Altar in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

Man looking at Pergamon Altar in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

Pergamos = “height or elevation” Ancient Greek city of Mysia Minor, in Asia Minor, the seat of the dynasties of ATTALOS and EUMENES, famous for its temple of ASCLEPIOS and the invention and manufacture of parchment.
Pergamus (/ˈpɜːrɡəməs/; Ancient Greek: ) was the son of the warrior Neoptolemos and Andromache.

Pergamus’s parents BOTH figure in the CIVIL WAR BETWEEN DANAAE+ACHAEOI vs TROJANS described in Homer’s The Iliad: Neoptolemus was the son of Achilles and fought on the ACHAEOI side, while Andromache was the Trojan prince Hector’s wife. After the death of both Achilles and Hector, and the fall of Troy, Neoptolemus captured the newly widowed Andromache for his concubine and went to rule in Epirus. After Neoptolemus’s death, some sources say that Andromache returned to Asia Minor with her youngest son, Pergamus, although this is probably a later addition to the legend.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3SIooVHV8E

Tourists in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

“never of worldly Phoenix the daughter as beloved,
who gave birth to my Rhadamanthes and the co-god Minos;
HOMER “Ilias” X 321-322 (Kazantzaki-Kakridi street)

Homer presents Zeus as exalting his love for his wife Hera as superior, comparing it to the loves he felt in his adventures with other women. Listing the names of the girls with whom he had some “close contacts”: Ixion’s wife, the limp Danae, Semele, Alcmene, Demetra the beautiful-haired, Leto the world-famous, he also mentions Europe in these verses, without he names her.

In the photo, a red-shaped bell-shaped krater (vessel for mixing wine with water), found in Taranto, in southern Italy, and dated to 360 BC. Attributed to the “Painter of Ilio Persida”. Today at the Louvre museum.
On one side of it is depicted the very beloved scene that was often depicted on vases, reliefs and hologlyphs, mosaics, frescoes by ancient and modern artists, but also on coins, up to our modern Euro: The rapture of Europa, daughter of the king of Tire Phoenicas , from Jupiter -taurus.
On the other side of the vase, Dionysus, a Maenad and a Satyr are depicted (1st comment).
Europa was a beautiful girl with big eyes (wide + second form of the acc. of oro: opopa >opsis, omma-mati).
The abductions of the myths followed roughly the same pattern: The beautiful girl was playing carefree or picking flowers with her friends, when a divine figure saw her, fell in love with her, and abducted her. Like Pluto Persephone, Boreas Oreithyia, Jupiter Europe etc.
In this performance, it is the moment when Zeus, transformed into a beautiful, tame and pure white bull, pretends to graze approaching Europe, who sat down to rest from the game on the shores of Tire or Sidon. She wears a white beaded necklace and bracelets. He sits on top of a cave. [My personal guess: Pre-economy of the Ideal Man? But do the trees that surround her also indicate her chthonic status and symbolism? Are they myrtles? For when Europe was deified, her statue was surrounded with a wreath of myrtles of great diameter]. Around her are her friends and perhaps Aphrodite with Niki. The young woman pulls back her veil to admire the bull, which makes a playful bending motion. Europe’s next move will be to ride him happily. Then he, wasting no time, got up and rushed into the sea! From there, accompanied by a procession of dolphins, Nereids, Tritons, and even Poseidon himself, as depicted in various versions, they reach Idaion Andron in Crete, where they unite. From this marriage three children are born: Minoas, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys.
From this representation, the tilted head of Europe is what they chose to depict in the watermark and the Euro hologram (2nd comment).

Heavy gold funeral mask embossed with a hammer, so-called of Agamemnon, found by H.Schliemann in 1876 in the pit tomb IV of the tomb circle A located south of the Lion’s Gate, originally outside the walls. The attribution made by Schliemann is imaginative in that the mask dates back to the 16th century BC, a period preceding the one in which Atreus is believed to have lived. The two holes present near the ears indicate that the mask was held over the face of the deceased by means of a thin rope. Some scholars believe that the mask could be a fake commissioned by Schliemann himself.

Agamemnon, found by H.Schliemann in 1876 in the pit tomb IV of the tomb circle A located south of the Lion Gate, originally outside the walls. The attribution made by Schliemann is imaginative as the mask dates back to the 16th century BC, period preceding the one in which Atreus is believed to have lived.
The pit tombs of the two circles, B and A, have yielded funerary objects of great value, a sign of the economic and commercial power of the aristocratic elite who were buried in the two tomb circles which has roots already in the Mesoelladic, 18th century BC, when the second Cretan palaces flourished.

Guido VISCONTI.

ARETE = ARETH = VIRTUE

As a concept it refers to “excellence” of any kind.

The concept was also occasionally personified as a minor goddess.

In the Homeric world, ARETE includes all the faculties and capabilities available to humans.

In Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, Book 2, Chapter 6: “Virtue (arete), then, is a habit or trained faculty of choice, the characteristic of which lies in moderation or keeping the average in relation to the persons concerned, as determined by logic. , that is, from the reason by which the prudent would determine it”.

Statue of Virtue in the library of Celsus in Ephesus
2nd century AD

Treasures of the PONTOS KINGDOM
The pure gold king’s crown. Credit: SAMSUN MUSEUM
ANCIENT GREEK TREASURES dated from the KINGDOM of PONTOS, a HELLENIC state located in the NORTHEASTERN part of ASIA MINOR, will be displayed in a new museum in the city of SAMSUN, TURKEY.

Among the antiquities is the AMISOS TREASURE . It consists of 64 pieces, was found during a construction excavation in SAMSUN on Nov. 28, 1995, and is considered the MOST valuable treasure belonging to the dynasty members of the PONTOS KINGDOM.

It is stated that the history of the gold artifacts dates back to the 1st century B.C. and could have belonged to the sixth PONTOS KING, MITHRIDATES PHILOPATOR PHILADELPHOS.

The contents were: “a pure gold king’s crown, 15 gold buttons, four gold bracelets with human and animal figures on it, 18 broken gold bracelets, a gold barette, two gold earrings, 10 big gold necklaces, a gold ring with a gem, 24 necklaces, 424 beads, a glass bowl, four earthenware, three kerosene lamps and an earthenware plate.”

TREASURES PONTOS KINGDOM
The museum will also exhibit coins from the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Ottoman and Republican periods, jewelry, arches, sculptures, tombs and warship models from the Chalcolithic, Early Bronze, Hellenistic and Roman periods
.

Another highlight of the new museum is the Amisos Mosaic with a base size of 56 square meters. It is a remarkable ancient mosaic discovered in the Turkish city of Samsun, which was formerly known as Amisos in antiquity. The mosaic was unearthed during archaeological excavations in the area and dates back to the Roman period, around the 2nd or 3rd century CE.

Treasures PONTOS KINGDOM
Amisos Mosaic: Credit: Samsun Museum
The Amisos Mosaic is renowned for its intricate design and detailed craftsmanship. It depicts scenes from ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY, including images of gods, mythical creatures, and other figures. The mosaic is composed of colorful tesserae (small tiles) made of stone or glass, meticulously arranged to create vibrant and lifelike compositions.

The rise and fall of the Kingdom of PONTOS
The Kingdom of PONTUS along the southern coast of the Black Sea emerged in the 4th century BC after the collapse of the Persian Empire and the conquests of ALEXANDER the GREAT .

The region was initially inhabited by various indigenous peoples but became heavily influenced by Greek culture following the arrival of Greek colonists and the establishment of Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast.

PONTOS reached its peak under the rule of Mithridates VI Eupator, also known as Mithridates the Great, who reigned from around 120 BCE to 63 BCE.

Mithridates was a formidable ruler who expanded PONTOS’ territory through military conquests and alliances. He also resisted Roman expansion into Anatolia, leading to a series of conflicts known as the Mithridatic Wars between PONTOS and the Roman Republic.

Despite Mithridates’ efforts, PONTOS eventually fell to the Romans, with Mithridates being defeated by Roman general POMPEUS the GREAT in 63 BCE. The kingdom was then incorporated into the Roman Republic’s territories as a client state.

The region continued to be significant during the Roman and later Byzantine periods, but the Kingdom of PONTOS as an independent entity ceased to exist after its conquest by Rome.

TAGSAmisosAmisos TreasuresGreek News Pontos KingdomSamsunTurkey

Tourists in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

BERLIN, GERMANY – MARCH 06, 2013: Pergamon Altar as reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. It was built in the 2nd century in the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor

Detail of the famous Pergamon Altar in the Pergamon museum in Berlin

ISTANBUL, TURKEY – 10 JULY, 2014: Miniaturk park in Istanbul, Turkey. Reduced copy of Pergamon Altar built during the reign of King ΕΥΜΕΝΗΣ II in ancient Geek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor.

Spectators in the hall and on the steps of the Pergamon Altar in Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany – September 22, 2007

Educational concepts in Classical Greek sculptur, : interior of an European museum

HIEROGAMIA (sacred marriage) of ZEUS and HERA, fresco, fourth style, c. 65 CE. From Pompeii, House of the Tragic Poet. Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Photo: Luciano Pedicini, Naples, licensed under public domain (PD-1996).

By: Michalis Cheilos. Paestum( Poseidonia )Ultras 🇬🇷☠️🇮🇹 Magna Graecia

For the History ,Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, in Magna Graecia.
The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order dating from about 550 to 450 BC that are in an excellent state of preservation. The city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads.
 

HIS IS PHOENICIA FROM THE EAST….
SO THAT THEY DON’T FOOL YOU OF THAT IT WASN’T A GREEK
COLONY IT WAS CONQUERED
BY THE SEMITIC TRIBES LATER…
.

By:
Πολύγνωτος Παπαοικονόμοu

ANCIENT PHOENICIA A COLONY OF GREEK RACES
THE MOST IMPORTANT CITIES OF THE PHOENICIAN COAST WERE BYBLOS, SIDON, TYRE, ARADOS, JOPPA, GAZA (ORIGINALLY MINOA OR MINYA) AND TRIPOLI, WHICH WERE FOUNDED BY CRETANS
IN 3000-1600 BC THAT IS, WHEN OUR GREEK ANCESTORS WERE UNDISPUTED SEA EMPERORS OF THE ENTIRE MEDITERRANEAN.

For Tire it is written that it was founded in 2300 BC. by GREEK PELASGIANS SETTLED FROM MAGNESIA AND PHTHIA, THERE WAS ALSO A TEMPLE OF HERAKLES, APPARENTLY OLDER THAN that of the SON of ALCMENE (HERODOTUS, B 44).

Tire owes its name to the princess TYRO, daughter of the king of THESSALY Salmoneus and wife of Kritheos, king of Phthia!!!
(Greek Mythology, Richepin A 386, Pergamenai Editions 1953).

But the most important PHOENICIAN CITY, SIDON, IS ALSO mentioned by HOMER
(Odyssey, Raps. d, verse 618) as a Greek establishment WHEN, AFTER THE CIVIL WAR WITH TROJA. MENELAOS sailed there with his fleet, in SIDON the GREEK PHAEDIMOS was the king.

ALSO GREEK-PELASGIAN COLONIZED CITIES IN PHOENICIA WERE POSIDION AND Al MINA, WHICH WERE FOUNDED BY SETTLERS FROM OLD ERETRIA (on MOUNT ORTHYS) IN 2000 BC.

Another case is the city of EVAGORITIS, a name ORIGINATING from the CYPRIOT KINGDOM OF EVAGORAS, WHICH FLOURISHED IN 1800 BC. and it is described as a multi-people commercial center with famous professorships and large libraries!!

THE NATIVE SIMITIC TRIBES OF PHOENICIA APPEAR IN THE FOREGROUND ONLY IN 1300-1200 BC, AS SAILORS, PIRATES AND TRADERS.

HOWEVER , EVEN THEIR MOST FAMOUS COLONY, THE WELL-KNOWN CARTHAGE, FOUNDED IN 750 BC. SERVED, AS A GREEK COLONY, FOUNDED BY THE GREEK PRINCESS DIDO, WITH THE NAME CARTHAGENI!!!
DIDO WAS A DIASPORA GREEK, SISTER OF PYGMALION, KING OF CYPRUS AND TYRE, WHO LED A COLONIZATION CAMPAIGN WITH A LARGE GROUP OF OTHER GREEKS, AS WELL

By: Gorgo Degr:,

THE SEMITES WERE NOT SKILLED SAILORS. THEY LEARNED THE ART FROM THE GREEK PHOENICIANS, WHO STAYED BEHIND, IN THE CONTEXT of the general destruction caused by the fire from heaven in 1200, which destroyed ALMOST all of PHOENICIA THE MINYANS WERE NOT THE FIRST GREEKS, THEY WERE THE MOST GREEK NOT OF US ALL

HERE:
A GREEK PARCEL GILT SILVER MIRROR
HELLENISTIC PERIOD, CIRCA 2ND-1ST CENTURY B.C.
Disk-shaped, the obverse highly polished, the reverse set with a repoussé sheet in high relief depicting Aphrodite about to punish Eros for breaking an alabastron, the goddess threatening with the sandal removed from her right foot, held in her right hand, leaning forward on her stool, supporting herself with her left hand on the corner of the cushion, her right foot forward, the left leg bent back with her sandaled foot on a footstool, a himation around her waist and legs, bracelets on each wrist, a hand -mirror on the cushion behind her, winged Eros cowering before her with his hands raised to his lips, the broken vessel on the ground between them, a second Eros crouching beneath her stool, enclosed by a wreath of oak leaves, preserving gilding for the wreath, hair, wings, drapery, sandal, alabastron and footstool
6 3/8 in. (16.1 cm.) diameter
12,055 oz (374.8 g) 

THYMELE WORSHIP COMMUNITY

ὦναὶ, ὧι damalis Eros
And blue-eyed nymphs
purple of Aphrodite
they sympathize, it returns
d’ high mountain peaks;
I am touching you, you are not happy
Come to us, blessed
they obey willingly;
Kleoboulis is a good man
advisor, myself for man-
᾽, ὦ Deonise, accept.
……….THAT IS: TRANSLATED ABOVE TEXT/ (FROM THE ANCIENT ATTICA DIALECT):
Anakta, where Eros the tamer
and the blue-eyed Brides
and the rosy-cheeked Aphrodite play with you
and you turn to the high mountains,
I run into you;
and come to me good friend
and my request
listening to the cutie.
Be Good advisor
Be Cleobolus,
Dionysus me
to accept my love
EPIGRAM of ANACREON to DIONYSOS
In the image: Black Attic Hydra of 520 BC. approximately with Dionysus, Bacchus and Silenus. It has an inscription at the top of the scene: ΠΑΜΦΑΙΟΣΜΕΠΟΙΗΣΕΝ=PAMPHEIOSMEPOIISEN =AMPPHEUS MADE ME

TO CELEBRATE THIS OCCASION, LET’S LOOK TOGETHER AT THIS SPLENDID ATTIC ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ=RED-FIGURED NECK-AMPHORA ARV(2) 648.27, attributed to THE OIONOKLES PAINTER, DATED TO 470 BC. approximately and PRESERVED AT THE KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM IN VIENNA (inv. 846).

It is a courtship scene IN WHICH A YOUNG MAN, STANDING AND LEANING ON A KNOBLED STICK, HANDS A FLOWER TO A GIRL SITTING BEFORE HIM.

In her left hand is perched a #dove, an iconographic attribute OF THE GODDESS #APHRODITE and a clear reference to the feeling between the protagonists.

Between the two there is a KALATHOS (wicker basket used to store wool and utensils for domestic work entrusted to women).

PER FESTEGGIARE QUESTA RICORRENZA, OSSERVIAMO INSIEME QUESTA SPLENDIDA NECK-AMPHORA ATTICA A FIGURE ROSSE ARV(2) 648.27, attribuita AL PITTORE DI OIONOKLES, DATATA AL 470 a.C. circa e CONSERVATA AL KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM DI VIENNA (inv. 846).

È una scena di corteggiamento NELLA QUALE UN GIOVANE UOMO, STANTE E APPOGGIATO A UN BASTONE NODOSO, PORGE UN FIORE A UNA FANCIULLA SEDUTA INNANZI A LUI.

Nella mano sinistra di lei è appollaiata una #colomba, attributo iconografico DELLA DEA #AFRODITE e chiaro riferimento al sentimento tra i protagonisti.

Tra i due è un presente un KALATHOS (cesto in vimini usato per riporre lana e utensili dei lavori domestici affidati alle donne).

La ceramica antica – Identita, cocci e dintorni.

nd you, on #”Valentine’s Day”🥹😅😂🤣#February 14, do you prefer #flowers or chocolates?

TO CELEBRATE THIS OCCASION, LET’S LOOK TOGETHER AT THIS SPLENDID ATTIC ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ=RED-FIGURED NECK-AMPHORA ARV(2) 648.27, attributed to THE OIONOKLES PAINTER, DATED TO 470 BC. approximately and PRESERVED AT THE KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM IN VIENNA (inv. 846).

It is a courtship scene IN WHICH A YOUNG MAN, STANDING AND LEANING ON A KNOBLED STICK, HANDS A FLOWER TO A GIRL SITTING BEFORE HIM.

In her left hand is perched a #dove, an iconographic attribute OF THE GODDESS #APHRODITE and a clear reference to the feeling between the protagonists.

Between the two there is a KALATHOS (wicker basket used to store wool and utensils for domestic work entrusted to women)

PER FESTEGGIARE QUESTA RICORRENZA, OSSERVIAMO INSIEME QUESTA SPLENDIDA NECK-AMPHORA ATTICA A FIGURE ROSSE ARV(2) 648.27, attribuita AL PITTORE DI OIONOKLES, DATATA AL 470 a.C. circa e CONSERVATA AL KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM DI VIENNA (inv. 846).

È una scena di corteggiamento NELLA QUALE UN GIOVANE UOMO, STANTE E APPOGGIATO A UN BASTONE NODOSO, PORGE UN FIORE A UNA FANCIULLA SEDUTA INNANZI A LUI.

No photo description available.

*** AUTOLYCUS, THE GRANDFATHER AND GODFATHER OF ODYSSEUS
*** AUTOLYCUS AND THE HELMET OF ODYSSEUS
Autolykos = self-luminous from lyki = the light
In Rhapsody IV of the Odyssey, the maid Eurycleia washing the feet of Odysseus, who has been transformed into a beggar by Athena, recognizes him directly from a wound on his leg.
This wound was caused by a wild boar’s tooth when he went as a young man to Parnassos, where his grandfather Autolykos lived, to hunt wild boar.
The name Odysseus was given by Autolykos to his grandson because of the suffering he had given to those he had wronged (v, 405).
“.. there are many because I am tired and I can’t do it ..”
“because I arrived here angry with many”
His daughter was Anticleia, the mother of Odysseus.
Autolykos took part in the Argonautic expedition, being one of Jason’s 50 Argonauts.
On Parnassos where he lived he honored the god Hermes according to Homer (v, 395).
According to Hesiod, Autolycus had inherited from Hermes the ability to steal and transform the stolen. From Amydoras he stole a bronze helmet, the “kynee”.
This helmet was worn by Odysseus during his night invasion with Diomedes in the city of Troy.
Odysseus must have taken the cunning of his character from his grandfather…
AUTOLYCUS AND THE HELMET OF ODYSSEUS
When the Greeks decided to send two warriors to spy on the Trojan camp, Diomedes chose Odysseus as his companion to go with them.
Homer tells us:
“…And Mirionis gave Odysseus’ quiver
bow and sword. And then the head with a helmet
his leather jacket, tightly fastened
in many thongs, and had wool in the background,
and boar’s teeth, densely white, encircled it.
Autolykos had stolen this from Eleonas, it seemed
of Ormenides Amyntoros pierced the roof.
In the Scandian of Amphidamados, inhabitant of Kythera
he also sent it as a souvenir to Molon of Xenia
Amphidamas saw it. And to his son Molos
he left Mirionin. And this helmet it was
where the forehead of uncle Odysseus lived…”
(ILIAS, Rhapsody K, f. 260)
Here we see that this HELMET belonged to Amydoros Ormenides who lived in Eleonas, who was the father of Phoenix, Achilles’ teacher.
Autolycus steals [antitorisas domon] a leather helmet [kynei] from the house of Amyndoras Ormenides [father of Phoenicus] which was in Eleonas.
He gives it as a gift to Amphidamandas, a resident of Skandia of Kythira.
He gave it as a gift to Molo, father of Mirionis, for his hospitality.
Molos gave it to his son, Miriones, to wear in the Trojan War.
Mirionis gives it to Odysseus while preparing for the evening spying.
This helmet had white wild boar teeth all around, material with excellent impact properties and inside with compressed wool to absorb the impacts and not let them be transferred to the skull.
Mirionis knows the history of this helmet. That’s why he gives it to Odysseus. It was owned by his grandfather, Autolykos.
Odysseus is depicted with this helmet in most vase paintings. We understand that it was something very important for Odysseus…..
In the photo we see a helmet from the Mycenaean era made of boar’s teeth similar to the one mentioned by Odysseus.
It was found in a vaulted tomb of Pylos.
Antonopoulio Museum of Pylos

Orestes kills his father’s cousin, Aegisthus, and then kills his own mother, Clytemnestra, who had made a bond with him while Agamemnon was away in Troy.
Everyone’s motivation for their actions was revenge.
In the past, Aegisthus has killed Orestes’ grandfather and his uncle, Atreus, for reasons of power.
Agamemnon succeeds in expelling Aegisthus from Mycenae, but also Thyestes (brother of Atreus) and takes over the kingdom.
When she left for Troy, Clytemnestra following the curse of Nafplius, who after the murder of his son, Palamidus of the Achaeans (Odysseus and Agamemnon) entered into a relationship with Aegisthus.
(Nauplius had sworn that he would corrupt the women of the Achaeans after the death of his son and thus destroy their houses).
Thus Clytemnestra and Aegisthus organize the murder of Agamemnon, which happens with the return of the king. Aegisthus seems to have gotten his revenge, but Orestes restores his father’s name and kills the two lovers.
Then he arrives in Athens to be tried in Areion Pagon. The votes of conviction/acquittal are equal. Then Athena takes over and acquits Agamemnonides. Since then, the votes are an odd number, so as to avoid a tie.

Caraff with painted moments of children playing and talking.

Aphrodite and Eros. Ancient Greece. Tanagra-Greece, the last quarter 4th cent. BC. – the 1st quarter 3rd cent. BC.

A statuette depicting Aphrodite with her son Erota, whom she entertains with a toy-top, is a unique work, known to date only in a single copy. In this sculptural group, a characteristic feature of Hellenistic art was manifested – a penchant for genre. The coloring applied on the white coating has been preserved so well that you can mentally recreate the original major color scale.

The Hermitage Museum

THE KRYPTEIA IN SPARTA: INITIATION OR STATE TERRORISM? [SECOND PART].


[Image: Anonymous, “Relief with Heroes and Worshipers”, Sparta 6th century BC, Altes Museum, Berlin].
In summary, we can therefore state that while the tradition attributable to Plato identifies the krypteiai with “war training”, in which young people on the verge of finishing their training were subjected to a final test, lasting a season or even a entire year, to verify their actual military capacity – measured on the ability to resist deprivation and to procure everything one needs on one’s own and without any help – that represented by Aristotle and Plutarch makes them real missions military, blitzes carried out lightning fast by a carefully selected elite to inflict the greatest damage on enemies in a reasonably short time.
So how can these discrepancies between the sources be explained? Numerous scholars have long questioned the various reconstructions since the 19th century. A common feature of the results obtained by them is the importance that almost everyone recognizes in the role of the helots in the evolution of the Spartan order and in particular of the agoge. Perceived as a foreign body by the ruling class, they always represented a threat to the stability of the existing social order and to its very survival. At the slightest sign of weakness of the Spartiates, they would certainly have risen up to subvert the order, the kosmos, which saw them in a base and degrading position. This had to be avoided at all costs.
But there’s more. Since its origins, the Spartan state, due to the great distance that separated it from the sea, had directed its expansionist aims towards the interior and the mainland. Those who paid the price, before the others, were the Messenians, who inhabited a region located in the south-western Peloponnese, coveted by the Spartans for the fertile plains it hosted. After the so-called “Messenian wars”, they had been subjugated by their powerful neighbors and reduced to the rank of helots, with all the imaginable consequences. As is easy to understand, the Messenians had never resigned themselves to this condition and had periodically attempted to recover through numerous insurrections, all of which were bloodily repressed. Until, after the disastrous outcome of the battle of Leuctra (371 BC), Sparta had lost its military hegemony in favor of the Thebans and they had invaded the Peloponnese and liberated Messenia, actually founding there, with the general Epaminondas, the new polis of Messene (369 BC).
Therefore the helots were perceived by the Spartiates as a danger to be perpetually guarded against; and the Messenians, subjugated in ancient times, were assimilated to them in the perception of the ruling class. However, when, after Leuctra, the Spartans lost their military dominance in the Peloponnese and were forced to accept the Theban imposition of a free Messenia with a new capital, it can well be assumed that they certainly did not do so willingly. Isocrates, in the oration “to Archidamus”, confirms this thesis [7].
But what does this situation have to do with the interpretation of krypteia? Well, some scholars have advanced the thesis that the alleged incompatibility between the versions of Plato and Aristotle is nothing more than the indication of an evolution undergone by the institute over time. If, in fact, throughout Spartan history it was nothing more than a military training practice, a final test which young warriors had to undergo at the end of the period of preparation for entry into active citizenship, after the defeat of Leuctra, the loss of Messenia and the liberation of its inhabitants, became something substantially different.
The Spartans never completely resigned themselves to the loss of Messenia. «The Spartans did not make peace with the Messenians, because the Messenians were helots. The Spartans were at war with the Messenians: in the Spartan view this was a war against the helots” [8]. A war, however, which due to the current conditions of the 4th century. B.C. it could not be fought, at least in enemy territory. But which, on the other hand, could be replaced by the one fought within one’s own territory against the helots still available. On an almost ritual level, the victims of the krypteiai served to symbolically renew the submission of all the helots (including the Messenians) to Sparta, and to remind the younger generations (called to physically carry out the actions) of their duty to continue the war until the lost territories are regained.

War was part of Sparta’s nature. The glory of the ancestors came from the war, the stories, the examples, the warnings addressed to the young were full of the war. The role of citizen and that of warrior were in fact indistinguishable in the Spartan perspective. And we had to return to the war if we didn’t want to die.


[7]. See M. Nafissi, “Krypteiai spartane”, pag. 220. The text of Isocrates’ Archidamus, in its English translation, can be consulted here: https://bit.ly/2RRUO3r. See in particular paragraphs 28, 86-87 and 96.
[8]. See M. Nafissi, “Krypteiai spartane”, pag. 222.

Capitoline Museums Rome
Attic red-figure goblet with an athlete drawing water from a well
Painter ONESIMOS (ΟΝΉΣΙΜΟΣ)
5th century BC


After eliminating all the brigands, thieves and monstrous murderers who had infested the road from Troezen to Attica, Theseus was able to enter Athens, where Aegeus still reigned, who after so many years seemed to have forgotten the story of Pittaeus, of Aethra, of the sword and of the sandals.
He had welcomed Medea into his palace, who he then married, always driven by the desire to secure an heir. Medea had given him a son who could one day become the successor to the throne of Athens. Medea, unlike Aegeus, had not forgotten Aethra and her son and was on her guard, fearing that one day he would show up boasting of his origins and legitimate role as king.
As soon as he arrived in Athens, in fact, Theseus immediately made headlines. While he was admiring a temple under construction, dedicated to Apollo, he was addressed with offensive words by the construction workers. In response, the hero lifted and threw a cart pulled by an ox which had been used to transport construction material over the temple. Those men were struck by the gesture and it was immediately known throughout the city. Even Medea, realizing that Theseus had arrived in Athens, attempted an extreme gesture: she turned to Egeus telling him that a stranger with a rather singular appearance and threatening attitude had shown up; so he warned the king, making him suspicious of the newcomer’s intentions. If the foreigner had been a spy, Egeo would have had to eliminate him without attracting too much attention. Medea convinced him to invite him to a banquet: she would provide the rest. With a poisonous herb she prepared a mixture to put in the guest’s wine to eliminate him.
Once at the table Theseus took out the sword, which his father had hidden many years before, to cut the portions of the ox that had been placed on the table in honor of him. When Egeus saw that sword he recognized it and remembered everything, so he overturned the cup of poisoned wine and hugged his son. He had therefore found a son who came from the past, but he also knew that Theseus would not have forgiven Medea for the danger of the poison. So he convinced her to sneak away before the hero could take revenge on her. Medea, with her son Medus, wrapped in a fairy cloud, moved away from Athens forever.
The dangers were not over yet: it was in fact the turn of Pallas and his fifty sons. He considered Aegeus a usurper, but, knowing that his descent was unlikely, he had put up with it while waiting to become king of Athens in his turn. Suspicious about the arrival of that newcomer welcomed so affectionately by the king, he thought that there was a link between Aegeus and Theseus; if this were true, all his hopes could vanish at any moment, and so he prepared a plan to eliminate the young man.
He divided the group of his sons into two groups: he himself, in command of twenty-five of them, headed towards the city threateningly with the intention of taking Theseus by surprise and killing him. The other group, however, would have stopped in a place called Gargetto to set up an ambush for Theseus in case he managed to escape the first attack. But this plan, apparently flawless, did not achieve the desired results because the archer Leo warned Theseus that in this way he managed to overcome his opponents. Pallas and the survivors had to surrender to Theseus and invoke his mercy. But, having learned that it was Leo who had warned the hero, they promised in their hearts that they would take revenge and swore eternal hatred for his lineage too. By now Theseus enjoyed the full approval of the king, who had recognized him as his son.

Vase – 450 – 430 BC
Theseus, wearing the petasus and chlamys, takes leave of Egeus. The Athenian king is on the far left, wearing tapeworm and cloak and holding a staff. To the right of Theseus, Medea and a warrior, Forbas, with a large shield. Behind her the warrior Aethra, mother of Theseus, with chiton and cloak that also wraps her head.
All the characters represented are indicated by inscriptions in purple red, which have almost completely disappeared. It was precisely from this kylix that the personality of an painter Athenian painter around the middle of the 5th century BC, was identified. His production is exclusively limited to a series of kylikes, mostly decorated with mythological and heroic subjects of Attic theme. Civic Archaeological Museum of Bologna


​Metopa raffigurante Teseo dal “Tesoro degli Ateniesi” (inizio del VI sec.a.C.) Museo di Delfi.

Il tempio di Teseo ad Atene (469-465 a.C.)

GREEK MARRIAGE BOILER

height 51.1 cm, 430-420 BC, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The bath of the bride and groom was an integral part of the wedding ritual, because it marked the end of one phase of their lives and the beginning of a new one. Besides, purification with water before any contact with the goddesses was a tradition for the Greeks. The water for the wedding bath was drawn from a specific source and in Athens – more specifically – it came from the Enneakrouno. The vessel for his transport was the bath-boat. The subject of the bride’s bath is depicted more often than the groom’s, but the scene is summed up in the procession to or from the fountain.

In the belly of the vessel the bride sits on a difro, resting her feet on a footstool and with both hands plays a harp, suggesting the songs that were heard during the bride’s preparation. One of the following approaches from behind, holding a luthophoro, a vessel used mainly at weddings to carry water for the wedding bath.

Three women approach the bride holding wedding gifts in boxes. On the other side of the vase two women offer boxes of gifts. Beneath the handles are depicted winged women who may be Nikes denoting the triumphant power of beauty or may represent deities of the Underworld associated with fertility.

The ribbons or branches they carry represent the divine blessing they bring to the bride. Since the bride does not wear a veil and crown and is not clothed, it leads us to the conclusion that the “mansions” are depicted, one day after the wedding feast and the bridal procession. During this time, the bride would welcome friends and family to her new home and receive their gifts, textiles, baskets, trunks, compasses, mirrors, etc…….

ART IMAGES FROM MUSEUMS – Art images from museums
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Hydria: the queen of vases – 4th century BC – from Cuma, province of Naples – h 65.5 cm – State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia – purchased from the collection of Marquis G. Campana in 1862
This large hydria, widely known as “Regina Vasorum”, is one of the finest examples of ancient Greek pottery. Almost the entire surface of the egg-shaped body of the vase is covered with black lacquer. The edge is decorated with a golden band of ovules. The lacquered body, with the exception of a narrow band, is decorated with vertical ribs, thus recalling the finish of metal vases.

1) The narrow band on the body shows griffins, lions and panthers, all in relief. However, the most important decoration of the vase is a relief composition showing the Eleusinian deities. We see Rhea, mother of the Olympian gods; the goddess of the Underworld Hecate holding a torch; the young Dionysus holding a thyrsus;

2) The goddess of agriculture and fertility Demeter; Athena sitting on a rock;

Silver bucket with FEMALE scene (WOMEN, bathing or in spa) – h 27 cm – from HERCULANEUM – 2nd–3rd century AD – NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF NAPLES
Cosmetics were stored in terracotta containers, glass jars or containers made of various materials like this silver cosmetic jar from Herculaneum.by
Art images from museums.

SECCHIO in ARGENTO con scena FEMMINILE (DONNE al BAGNO o alle TERME) – h 27 cm – da ERCOLANO – II-III secolo d.C. – MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO NAZIONALE DI NAPOLI
I COSMETICI VENIVANO conservati6 in contenitori di terracotta, barattoli di vetro o contenitori di vari materiali come questo vaso per cosmetici in argento proveniente da ERCOLANO. by
Immagini d’arte dai musei.

MAGNA GRAECIA

ΑΡΓΥΡΟΣ ΚΟΥΒΆΣ με σκηνή ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΊΟΥ (ΓΥΝΑΊΚΕΣ, που κάνουν ΜΠΆΝΙΟ ή στο ΣΠΑ) – h 27 cm – ΑΠΌ ΤΟ HERCULANEUM = ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΟN – 2ος–3ος ΑΙΏΝΑΣ μ.Χ. – ΕΘΝΙΚΌ ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΙΚΌ ΜΟΥΣΕΊΟ ΝΆΠΟΛΗΣ
Τα καλλυντικά αποθηκεύονταν σε δοχεία από τερακότα, γυάλινα βάζα ή δοχεία από διάφορα υλικά όπως αυτό το ασημένιο καλλυντικό βάζο της HERCULANEUM. by
ΕΙΚΌΝΕΣ ΤΈΧΝΗΣ ΑΠΌ ΜΟΥΣΕΊΟ

Capitoline Museums Rome
Carved medallion: priestess making libation before a statuette of Apollo standing on a column
Gold and carnelian

Capitoline Museums Rome
The restored statue of POTHOS, as AOLLO Kitharodos
Original of Scopas (4th century BC)

Capitoline Museums Rome
Statue of a young Centaur with the signature of ARISTEAS and Papias
117-138 AD
From TIVOLI, HADRIAN`S villa

The sculpture, in dark gray marble, is signed by ARISTEAS and PAPIAS, artists from APHRODISIAS**, the ancient Greek city in IONIA (=ΙΩΝΙΑ=Todays ‘Asia Minor’), seat of a school of able students of traditional-classical Greek works, some of whom, in the last decades of the 1st century AD .BC in Rome, where emperors and private individuals could provide them with continuous and well-paid work.
The largest number of known sculptures date from the time of Hadrian (2nd century AD), including the Capitoline Centaurs. These are well-known statues for the mastery of the construction and the rarity of the material, a precious marble extracted from the quarries of Cape Kavo Tainaro in Laconia. Anatomical details and variation in the rendering of facial features combine to differentiate the age and emotions of the Centaurs: the young is happy and joyful, the old is tired and suffering. The search for metallic effects in the rendering of the hair, beard and tail, from which the origin of bronze prototypes is conjectured, is evident. APHRODISIAS**=ΑΦΡΟΔΟΣΙΑΣ (/æfrəˈdɪsiəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀφροδισιάς, romanized: Aphrodisiás) was ONE OF small ancient Greek Hellenistic cities in the historic CARIA cultural region of western Asia Minor, today’s Anatolia in Turkey.

(5th century BC). Sculptor. He probably came from Boeotia and settled in Athens. He was one of the most important sculptors, mainly coppersmiths, of the time BEFORE PHAEDIAS. His sculpture covers the period from 470 to about 440 BC, thus marking the transition from the austere rhythm to the mature classical art of the second half of the 5th century. Information about his art exists in ancient written sources and possible depictions of his sculptures on ancient coins or miniature works, as well as from Roman times. Pausanias cites as his most famous works the horses and mounted teenagers of Deinomenes’ dedication at Olympia (466-464 BC), for the construction of which he collaborated with Onatas of Aeginitis, the Ram-bearing Hermes of Tanagra (c. 450 BC), the colossal bronze Apollo of Apollonia of the Black Sea (mid-5th century BC) that was transferred in the 1st century e.g. in Rome and erected in the Capitol, the Aphrodite of the Propylaea of the Acropolis of Athens (c. 445), Apollo Alexikacus in Kerameikos, Zeus Ammons, dedication of Pindar to Thebes (c. 440), Hermione, dedication of the Lacedaemonians at Delphi , the marble statue of Dionysus in Tanagra, the chryselephant statue of Asclepius in Corinth, the bronze statue of Alcmene, etc. The statue of Sosandra, mentioned with admiration by Lucian, was probably the work of a younger Kalamis, a 4th century sculptor. e.g. Despite the fact that K. remained committed to the principles of strict rhythm, it seems that he gave the works of his maturity fluidity and grace, elements that were highly valued by the ancients.)

A P O L L O OF OMPHALOS, by the sculptor CALAMIS**=Κ ΑΛ Α Μ Ι Σ (480-460 BC)
Dimensions: 181 cm

Capitoline Museums Rome

WOMAN PLAYING THE LYRE.
RED WINE-TERRACOTTA
ATTICA PER. 490-480 BC.

Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University – DSC01548

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OINOCHOI – vessel typical of ancient Greek pottery, used for pouring wine (less often water).
It was a kind of jug with an oval belly and a clearly divided neck ending in a characteristic trefoil spout. it had a tall, bulky vise, twisted high above the mouth, (the name comes from the Greek oinos – wine and heo – pour).

HERACLES AND CERBERUS….

ATTIKOS “DIGLOSSOS” AMPHOREAS, 520-515 BC.

ATTRIBUTED TO THE PAINTER ANDOKIDES

LOUVRE PARIS MUSEUM…

HERACLES IS DEPICTED IN THE UNDERWORLD, WHILE TRYING TO TAME CERBERUS...

THE HERO IS ATTENDED BY THE PROTECTOR OF THE GODS, ATHENA.

JEWELERY…

THE ANCIENT JEWELLERY WAS CALLED PYXIS/ΠΥΞΙΣ(=COMPASS) AND WOMEN KEPT JEWELRY AND COSMETICS THERE..IT HAD INSTRUCTIONS AND GAVE ITS NAME TO THE NAVAL COMPASS…

A pyxis is a wooden or ceramic ancient Greek vessel, cylindrical in shape, with a lid.
Women usually put their cosmetics or jewelry there. In other words, it was a vessel that played the same role as a present-day cosmetic box or a jewelry box. The nautical compass got its name from the similarity in shape to the ancient vessel.

One of the most interesting ancient Greek compasses is today in the National Museum in Warsaw. It is an Attic vase of the 4th century BC. which has a hand depicted on its lid.

The ancient pyxis.
The fingers are thin

and the hand is probably female. It is a rare case in Attic vase painting where the subject is not decorative, but used as a practical guide: it shows the owner of the compass how to open the lid! Corresponding symbols exist today on many packages for how to open them!

Photo
Compass of the Archaic period 470 BC- 460 BC. Performance from the weddings of Peleus and Thetis. Louvre Museum.

THE NIOBIDE CRATER …
CALYCOTOS** CRATER OF THE “NIOBIDE PAINTER”:
APOLLO AND ARTEME KILLING THE CHILDREN OF NIOBES 460-450 BC.
PARIS, LOUVRE

The best-known example of a red-figure vase decorated with representations showing the influence of the great painting is a cupped krater from Orvieto in central Italy (Etruria), now in the Louvre Museum (fig. 190), dating to the decade 460-450 BC. X.

On one side of this crater, the killing of the sons and daughters of Niobe by Apollo and Artemis is depicted, and for this reason the vase painter who created the representation is called the “painter of the Niobides”. According to the myth, Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, married Amphion from Thebes and had seven sons and seven daughters.

Proud as she was, Niobe once boasted of her many children to Leto, who had only two. Enraged by the insult, Leto asked her own children, Apollo and Artemis, to punish Niobe and they killed her children with their arrows. Only one of Niobe’s sons and one of her daughters survived.

In the center of the scene of the killing of the Niobids in the crater of the Louvre, Apollo and Artemis are shown shooting the children of Niobe; two of them try in vain to escape, while two others, a boy and a girl, are already lying dead on the ground. The scene takes place in a rocky mountain landscape, where a tree can be seen. The irregularities of the ground are clearly visible from the position of the dead Niovids lying on the ground and from the movement of those running to escape. On the other side of the crater is depicted a multi-faced scene, in which various heroes of mythology appear who are difficult to identify; one at the bottom of the representation is lying down and rising, another beside him is seated and the rest are standing.

Only two figures are identified with certainty, Athena and Heracles, who is depicted in the center of the composition. The overall interpretation of the scene remains enigmatic. The different positions and the bold perspective foreshortening of the figures as well as their placement at different levels within the space are elements that refer to the important innovations of the great painting of the first half of the 5th century BC, mentioned by ancient authors, connecting them, as we have seen, with Polygnotos and Mykonos.
It is therefore very possible, as they have already assumed, that the “painter of the Niovides”, when he painted this crater, had as his models frescoes or paintings by these two painters and especially by Polygnotos. How much the Athenian vase painters of the mid-5th BC admired Polygnotos. century can also be seen from the fact that three of them took his name and signed their works that way.

KALYKOTOS** (from the word KALYX) = cover, cover, wrist, in use only on flowers and fruits, case of the seeds of …

CRATER
LEFKANIC RED MORPHOSIS HELICATE CRATER 410-400 BC.
IT IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE PAINTER OF THE CARNIES..DIONYSUS WITH HIS FOLLOWERS IS DEPICTED…
Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Taranto.

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CLAY PUMP(KYMBI**)…..
LONG OPEN VASE WITH WRITTEN MULTICOLORED DECORATION OF GOATS IN A LANDSCAPE WITH RICH VEGETATION ON ONE SIDE AND DOLPHINS IN A SEA LANDSCAPE ON THE OTHER…
AKROTIRI THIRAS(SANTORINE) LATE CYCLADE PERIOD …NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM….

**KYMBI=ΚΥΜΒΗ, IS A CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF THERAIC(From SANTORINI) POTTERY, ALTHOUGH THE EXACT USE OF THE VESSEL IS NOT KNOWN….
-.. THE TERM “CATACOMB” IS DERIVED FROM THE GREEK PREPOSITION KATA=DOWN, AGAINST AND THE LATIN WORD CUMBA, WHICH IN ITS TURN COMES FROM THE GREEK
KYΜΒΗ/KYMBI, MEANING:
1) AMPHORA CAVITY, CUP, VESSEL.
2) A KIND OF BOAT MADE FROM A HOLLOWED-OUT TREE TRUNK….

GEOMETRIC DIPYLOUS AMPHORE……
The Amphora of Dipylus is the most important vase of the geometric era and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek ceramic and vase art. Its maker is known by the conventional name Angiograph of Dipylos.
HISTORY OF ITS DISCOVERY…
It was found in 1891 during the archaeological excavations directed by Valerios Stais at the Dipylos of Keramikos.
DESCRIPTION
The vase is entirely decorated with successive parallel horizontal friezes of geometric decoration of meanders and rhombuses. The main frieze contains two images flanked by two small handles.
Contains a total of 19 human silhouettes. The image on the front is longer than the image on the back. It is flanked by two small vertical meanders. It depicts a performance of intention and mourning of a dead woman, as we infer from the skirt she wears. She is placed on a horizontal bed with a funeral sheet.
In front of the bed two kneeling women to the right mourn, while to the right a man and a woman sit on a chair to the left who also mourn. Even further to the right are five women, and two men also mourning, while a child touches the bed of the deceased with his hand. To the left of the bed are six other women and a child who are mourning, while the child also touches the bed with his hand. The men are distinguished by the sword and knife they wear at the waist. The representation on the reverse is flanked by two large stars. The neck of the vase contains two representations of grazing deer and resting goats.
ARTISTIC INTERPRETATION ….
The chest of the people is shaped like a triangle, from which the arms of the mourners form an extension. Palms and fingers are depicted only when they have some special significance to the scene depicted. The hands and fingers of the dead manifest the lifeless body. Between the human silhouettes are placed decorative elements that visually connect the scene with the entire decoration of the vase, thus forming a bridge between the geometric shapes and the human scene. The decorative elements on the belly and neck of the vase are of excellent quality. They serve to further emphasize the shape of the vessel.
In the center of the neck of the vase, as well as on its shoulders and in the center of the belly we notice a double meander, an invention of the Angiographer of Dipylos. Another important innovation is the deer friezes, perhaps of Eastern influence with a gold foil pattern.
INTERPRETATION ….
The amphora marked a female grave, while a monumental krater was placed in male graves.
HISTORICAL LOCATION……
It is dated to the Late Geometric era, 760-750 BC. The workshop of the Angiographer of Dipylos had specialized in the manufacture of this monumental vase. The Pottographer of Dipylos may have been the potter of this vase at the same time. The Dipylos is of later construction. The vessel may have been moved there from somewhere else after the destruction of the city in 490 BC. and placed in the place where it was found.


CENTAUR FIGHTS/ CENTAUROMACHIA = ΚΕΝΤΑΥΡΟΜΑΧΙΑ.
Red-faced Deinos of Apulia – Battle scenes of Lapiths and Centaurs – late 4th century. BC. – Jatta National Museum, Ruvo di Puglia, Bari, Italy
Lapiti (gr. Lapithai) Mythical people of Thessaly, famous for the battle with the Centaurs. The latter, invited by Peirithos, king of L. to his wedding banquet with Hippodamea, which was drunk with wine, did not respect either the bride or the Lapith girls. In the terrible fight that followed the Centaurs were slaughtered. The myth is represented among others on the western pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia.

Art images from museums

ARCHESTRATOS – THE ANCIENT GREEK POET AND PHILOSOPHER FROM SYRACUSE FATHER OF GASTRONOMY
nine years of light

In addition to the high arts of Rhetoric, Poetry, Philosophy and Architecture, Ancient Greece also gave birth to the high art of Gastronomy. The most circumstantial proof of this is the word “gastronomy” which comes from the Greek “gastir” and “nomos”, i.e. “the laws of the stomach”.
As the cradle of gastronomy, Greece laid the foundations of the culture of taste and influenced the culinary culture of many countries since 400 BC. Thus, on the international menu we often find dishes with a Greek influence and this is because many nations embraced the Greek culinary philosophy and art, because, among other things, it is healthy and delicious.
The Ancient Roots of Greek Cuisine
The Ancient Greek poet, philosopher and gastronomist Archestratos is considered the father of Gastronomy. Born in Syracuse in the 4th century BC, he was the man who laid the foundations of the philosophy of cooking.

He is said to have been a gourmand of the time, who traveled the Mediterranean, tasting food and recording recipes.
In his famous poem “Idypathia” he reveals to us the secrets of ancient Greek cuisine, devoting chapters to the Greek diet. Only 300 verses have survived from his specific poetic work, in which he nevertheless records the rules of the Greek diet and presents the “Savoir Manger”.

According to Archestratos, the 5 golden rules of eating are as follows:

Using simple, pure products produced by nature.

Harmony of materials between them, so that one does not overlap the aromas and flavors of the other.

No heavy sauces and hot ingredients.

Use of light sauces for greater pleasure on the palate.

Seasoning with the well-known Greek measure and discipline, so as not to disturb the harmony of flavors and aromas.

The Ancient Greeks didn’t just eat for survival, but also to enjoy, feel pleasure, communicate and philosophize about cooking. Another indication regarding the consideration of cooking as a high art, equal to the rest of the arts, in Ancient Greece, was that it was practiced only by men, who at that time held the reins in the practice of the high arts and saw gastronomy as a spiritual good.

Red-Figure Lekythos (Oil Vessel): Athena Slaying Giant (body); Satyr between Maenads (shoulder), c. 490 BC. Shoulder attributed to Berlin Painter (Greek, Attic, active c. 505–460 BC), body attributed to Painter of Goluchow 37 (Greek, Attic, active c. 490–460 BC). Ceramic; diameter: 14.1 cm (5 9/16 in.); diameter of mouth: 8.7 cm (3 7/16 in.); overall: 38 cm (14 15/16 in.); diameter of foot: 10 cm (3 15/16 in.). The Cleveland Museum of Art, Purchase from the J. H. Wade Fund 1978.59

The two separate areas of figural decoration on this vase have been attributed to different painters: the small satyr and maenads on the shoulder to the Berlin Painter; and the larger figures of Athena and the slain Giant Enkelados on the body to the Painter of Goluchow 37. Scholars have named these two painters, whose actual names remain unknown, after other vases they have painted, now in Berlin and Warsaw. The victory of Athena and the Olympian gods over the Giants has been interpreted as a metaphor for the Greek victory over the Persians around the time this vase was made. Thus, although Enkelados appears as a fully armed warrior, he falls in utter and complete defeat—bleeding from multiple wounds, eyes rolling back, sword dropping from his hand.

Douris was a most versatile painter, creating scenes of great delicacy, as on the Atalanta lekythos (1966.114), and scenes of great power, as here. In the mythological War of the Gods and Giants (Gigantomachy), Athena slays the giant Enkelados with her spear. He reels backward, his eyes rolling skyward. The giant’s broken spear is a beautiful compositional bridge between the two figures. This scene may depict the victory of the Greeks (represented by Athena) over the Persians (represented by the Giant) at Marathon in 490 BC

The Sun of Vergina is a symbol that was widely used by Ancient Greeks. It became famous due to the Macedonians who were using it as Symbol of the Argead Dynasty.
–The Royal house of Macedon:
vergina sun philip
The typical Sun of Vergina is a 16-pointed Sun. It can also be found in other styles: 12-pointed or 8-pointed. What was the meaning of this symbol?? –In the typical 16-pointed Sun , the 4 rays represent the 4 elements: Earth-Ocean-Fire-Air. The other 12 rays represent the 12 Gods of Olympus.You can see the explanation in the following animation :

–In every form, the Sun of Vergina symbolized Virginity:
Goddess Athena was a Virgin, so this Sun was associated with her. We can also find this symbol associated with Apollo. –All the versions (16,12 and 8-pointed Sun) are associated with another famous Greek symbol, the “Delphian Epsilon”, symbol of Apollo:

The Sun of Vergina became common art design in coins, craters, wall-drawings etc LONG BEFORE the Macedonian royal house (the Argead Dynasty) used it. After the unification of the Greek (Hellenic) nation under the leadership of Alexander the Great, the Sun of Vergina became the symbol of the Hellenic Ethnogenesis.
In the following replies, you will be able to see some pieces of Ancient Greek art containing the Sun of Vergina, BEFORE THE RISE OF THE GREEK KINGDOM OF MACEDONIA. These sun symbols are found in various Greek places, apart from Macedonia. Moreover, there will be a small historical flashback, in order to see the evolution of this symbol throught the ages :
2000 BC:
This is the time where ancient Greeks first started using the Sun symbol. It was not standardized yet, it was a early form of the Sun of Vergina:

780BC:
The Sun of Vergina has been standardized. The following art work shows the destruction of Troy. We can clearly see the Sun symbol in the warrior’s hump. It was found in Mykonos island :

The following images are just a small sample, showing the wide usage of the Sun of Vergina in Greek Art:
Spartan Hoplite – 780 BC:

Spartan Amphoreus –
It dates from the 6th century BC, that is, well before Macedonia’s later dominance in the Greek world. In this fine example of ancient pottery, the Sunburst here is not just an incidental decorative motif but rather constitutes the central theme. Its appearance on this household item from distant Sparta, at such an early date, is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the panhellenic nature of this ancient symbol. In addition, this item perhaps alludes to a more specific connection between Sparta and her Dorian cousin of the north.
This vase can now be found in the Louvre Museum, Paris. 6th Century BC:

An amphora from the Pontus region (the southern shore of the Black Sea) dating from the second half of the sixth century BC. Priam and the god Hermes lead Hera, Athena and Aphrodite to Paris whose task will be to decide which of these goddesses is the most beautiful. According to the legend each of these goddesses made offers to Paris so that they might win the contest. Hera promised to make him ruler of the world, Athena vowed that he would never be vanquished in battle. Paris eventually chose Aphrodite as she promised him the love of Helen, the most beautiful mortal woman in the world. The Trojan War was a direct result of this fateful contest:
Exekias was a famous vase-painter and potter of ancient Athens. The scene on this page, from an amphora of the third quarter of the 6th century BC (now at the National Museum of Athens), is one of his most famous works. It is considered one of the finest surviving examples of ‘Black Figure’ vase painting.

Achilles and Ajax, two major Greek heroes of Homer’s Iliad are depicted here relaxing over a game of dice during a lull in the fighting. Achilles has just won; he has just thrown a ‘four’ while Ajax has to accept a ‘three’:
Third Quarter of the 6th century BC:
Achilles and Ajax
The cloaks of both these Homeric figures are studded with numerous 8-ray Sunbursts.
The return of Hephestus– 560 BC:

Below is a pyxis (box-like vase) from the second half of the 6th century BC signed by the prolific Athenian potter Nikosthenes. It depicts the hero Herakles with the Gods of Olympus. The seal on the lid of this vessel features the familiar 16-ray Sunburst. Like the garments of Achilles and Ajax on the Exekias vase, the clothes of one of the figures on the front of the pyxis is also adorned with sunbursts:
Athena and Hermes– 540 BC
heracles olympians pyxis Athena and hermes

Heracles and Lernaia Hydra- 525 BC:

Odyseus blinds the Cyclop, Magna Grecia- 520 BC:

Greek Amphoreus, Magna Grecia– 500 BC

Heracles- Olympia- 500 BC:

Goddess Athena– 5th century BC:

Hades-the Greek underworld– 5th century BC:

An Athenian citizen-soldier of about 450 BC. He is wearing a linen cuirass (body armour), a style which had largely replaced cuirasses made of bronze by about the middle of the 6th century BC:

The shoulder pieces of his cuirass are decorated with 8-ray Sunbursts. The grotesque face of the Gorgon Medusa, a very common Greek symbol and one of the attributes of the goddess Athena, hangs on his chest.
Heracles and Athena, 480 BC:

Another Attic vase (dated c. 480 BC), shows a warrior wearing an ΅Attic’ helmet and carrying a large, decorated shield. A sixteen-ray sunburst adorns the shoulder piece that is visible:
– c. 480 BC:

The shoulder pieces of yet another hoplite from an Athenian vase of 450 BC above), are likewise decorated with 8-ray Sunbursts. This scene captures the solemn mood of the hoplite warrior’s departure for battle. He is shown clasping his father’s hand while his wife (or mother) carries a phiale (cup) which will be used for the ritual libation of farewell:
450 BC:

Inside the temple of Nemesis in Thamnous– 436 BC:

Ancient Greek hoplites, Museum of Napoli, 400 BC:

The Legent of godess Dimitra-400BC:

Canos Vase –400 BC:

Detail of Canos Vase- The Persian king Darius, seated on his throne, holds a Council of War and decides to invade Greece. Below him are Persians bearing tribute. Above Darius are the Gods of Olympus. Among them, flanked by Zeus and Athena, is a female figure, a personification of Greece [Hellas] herself. Athena has placed her arm on Greece and together with Zeus appears to be consoling her in view of her impending struggle and tribulations (see Canosa vase detail below):
Two 16-ray Sunbursts complete the line-up of Greece and the Hellenic pantheon while a further two Sunbursts appear

Greek Hoplite vs Persian Soldier, 4th century BC:

The Greek hero Perseus:

Fourth century BC
Athena Promahos
Three youths in battles one of whom carries a shield emblazoned with the Sunburst:

An epaulette depicting a sunburst.
epaullete
On Greek Shields and Helmets
The shields of ancient Greek hoplites (heavy infantry) invariably bore a symbolic design known as the episema, which had a ritual or heraldic significance. Surviving representations of these devices attest to a vast diversity of design and inspiration. Although often unique to the individual, (a phenomenon resulting in a plethora of emblems: roosters, lions, tripods, gorgons, birds, bulls, serpents, boars etc), whole armies often presented a uniform design. Such was the case of SpartaΆs soldiers who were easily recognizable by the legendary Lambda (‘Λ’: the Greek ‘L’, the first letter of ‘Lacedaimonia’, the land of the Spartans) on their shields, in addition to their scarlet cloaks.
At least two of the hoplites competing in the armed foot-race from a Greek amphora of the 4th century BC (below), carry shields featuring a solar episema. Athletic contests were held in honour of the gods at Greek festivals. The armed foot-race was a very popular event, so much so, that 25 shields were on hand at Olympia for the use of the contestants. A Panathenaic amphora by Nikomachos from the same period (not shown) likewise depicts three nude warriors racing, two of whom carry shields emblazoned with Sunbursts.

Nudity in battle, as depicted on this late classical Athenian wine-jug (below), was an artistic convention designed to distinguish Greek from barbarian. Greek warriors never actually fought without body armour; nor did they hunt in this way as the famous painting by Gnosis of Alexander hunting would have us believe. A Greek hoplite is here engaged in battle against three Persians (not all of whom are visible). This scene reflects the growing confidence felt by Greeks in the wake of their defeat of Persia in the early 5th century and XenophonΆs successful Persian venture in the early 4th century BC. The Greek hoplite proudly carries a shield adorned with the evidently quite common Sunburst episema:

An Attic red figure krater now in the Antikenmuseum (in Basle, Switzerland; not shown) depicts a scene from the Amazonomachy, the mythical battle between Theseus and his Athenians against the invading Amazons. Significantly, one of the Athenian warriors engaged in the melee, who is also fighting in ?heroic nudity?, holds a shield with a 16-ray Sunburst. The ‘Polygnotos’ stamnos (445-430 BC; below) dealing with the same theme, shows Theseus himself carrying a shield decorated with a Sunburst. [A combat scene from an amphora painted by the so-called Suessula Painter (c. 400 BC; not shown) likewise depicts a Greek soldier carrying a shield decorated with a somewhat faded yet still discernible Sunburst].

An early krater from Magna Graecia from the last quarter of the fifth century BC painted by the so-called Sisyphus Painter incorporates a number of different scenes. Horse riders are apparently engaged in a race in the top-most scene. Women are shown playing musical instruments in the middle, while the bottom scene has the legendary battle between the Centaurs and the Lapiths as its theme. One of the Lapith warriors is carrying a large shield with a distinct 16-ray Sunburst episema…

EARLY CORITHIAN ALABASTRON DEPICTING TWO CONFLICTING ROOSTER…

AROUND 625-600 BC

MUSEUM OF CYCLADE ART Athens N.P. Goulandris Collection 1062.

ATTICA
black-figured AMPHORA. Minute style, with large number of white embroidered rosettes. Designs black on red panels with borders of lotus and honeysuckle along the top; accessories of white and purple.
In the centre is ZEUS seated to RIGHT, bearded, with long hair, fillet, long purple CHITON and embroidered HIMATION, in left hand a sceptre; underneath his chair, the back of which is recurved in the form of a swan’s head, is a lion walking and looking back to right. He is represented on a larger scale than the other figures. Confronting him is HERMES, bearded, with hair in a club; he wears a petasos, short embroidered chiton, purple chlamys, and endromides; in his left hand is a caduceus, his right is raised as if speaking. Behind him stand two male figures to left holding spears; the first one is bearded, with long hair, long purple chiton and embroidered himation; the other, beardless, with long hair and a short purple chiton. Behind ZEUS are two male figures to right, both beardless, with long hair, holding spears; the first one wears a short embroidered chiton, the second a striped embroidered himation.
(b) CONTEST of HERACLES and GERYON: HERACLES stands to RIGHT, in the lion’s skin, which is stippled to show the hair, and short embroidered chiton, with quiver at back and sheath at left side; in his right hand is a sword with which he attacks GERYON. The latter is represented as three warriors united at the hips, all bearded and fully armed; the shield of the middle one has a star of sixteen points as device, that of the right-hand one is painted purple. The left-hand one falls back wounded; he has a chiton with scale-pattern and shield painted purple inside. Behind him is a hawk flying to left. Between the combatants lies EURYTEON prostrate to right; he is bearded, and wears a short purple chiton and greaves, his left hand is extended; his legs are drawn up in agony, and the eye is rendered without the pupil. On the left is ATHENA to right, without helmet, in long CHITON, with DIPLOIDION, embroidered with diaper-pattern, in her left hand a spear.
View lessabout description. https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical.

..

H E R E:

A krater with the Macedonian 16-ray sun (Vergina Sun) from the 6th century BC, that is, well before Macedonia’s later dominance in the Greek world.

In this fine example of ancient pottery, the sunburst here is not just an incidental decorative motif but rather constitutes the central theme. Its appearance on this household item from distant Sparta, at such an early date, is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the panhellenic nature of this ancient symbol. In addition, this item perhaps alludes to a more specific connection between Sparta and its Dorian cousin of the north.

Now in the Louvre Museum, Paris.

Read more http://history-of-macedonia.com/sun-of-vergina/-ray sun (Vergina Sun) from the 6th century BC, that is, well before Macedonia’s later dominance in the Greek world.

In this fine example of ancient pottery, the sunburst here is not just an incidental decorative motif but rather constitutes the central theme. Its appearance on this household item from distant Sparta, at such an early date, is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the panhellenic nature of this ancient symbol. In addition, this item perhaps alludes to a more specific connection between Sparta and its Dorian cousin of the north.

Now in the Louvre Museum, Paris.

Read more http://history-of-macedonia.com/sun-of-vergina

TWO OF THE CLASSICAL PANHELLENIC SYMBOLS:
AKROCERAMOS AND THE SUN OF VERGINA ON THE SHIELD
OF THE ARMED SPARTAN.
https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/

ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ/MACEDONIA COMES FROM ΜΑΚΕΔΝΟΣ= MEANING TALL….
https://euphoriatric.com/etymology/
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of
BY: SAVVAS SAVVIDIS

Macedonia- Greece 🇬🇷 THESSALONIKI
🏛Born in 352 BC, Thessalonike was the daughter of King Philippos II of Macedon and his wife or concubine, Nicesipolis. Her mother hailed from the Thessalian nobility, and the name “Thessalonike” was bestowed upon her in honor of Philip’s military victory over the Thessalians
🏛History links her to three of the most powerful men in Macedon—daughter of King Philip II, half-sister of Alexander the Great and wife of CASSANDER**
🏛A popular Greek legend has it that Thessalonike became a mermaid who lived in the Aegean after the death of Alexander. The legend states that Alexander, in his quest for the Fountain of Immortality, retrieved with great exertion a flask of immortal water. In some versions of the story, he used the water to wash his sister’s hair, making her immortal; in others, he forgot to tell her the contents of the flask and so used it to water a wild onion plant. When Alexander died his grief-stricken sister attempted to end her life by jumping into the sea. Instead of drowning, however, she became a mermaid who passes judgment on mariners throughout the centuries and across the seven seas.
🏛 To the sailors who encounter Thessaloniki, she always poses the same question:
“Is king Alexander alive?” (Greek: Is King Alexander alive?), –
to which the correct answer would be “He lives and reigns and conquers the world” (Greek: He lives and reigns and conquers the world!). Given this answer, she would allow the ship and her crew to sail safely away in calm seas. Any other answer would transform her into the raging Gorgon bent on sending the ship and every sailor on board to the bottom of the sea.

**ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ
( CASSANDER
FROM THE BERB: ΚΈΚΑΣΜΑΙ (ANCIENT GREEK). KÉKASMAI =“TO SHINE”; EXCEL OVER”) AND ἈΝΉΡ (ANḖR, “MAN ”). IN TURN, THE NAME MEANS “ONE, WHO EXCELS OVER MAN.”

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA/
CASSANDRA IS AN ANCIENT GREEK FEMININE NAME MEANING “SHINING UPON MAN.” THIS IS AN ENGLISHZED VERSION OF THE GREEK
ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA
KASSANDRA.
A NAME SHARED WITH THE TROJAN PRINCESS,
CASANDRA, DAUGHTER OF PRIAMOS AND ECABE AND SHE WAS GIVEN THE GIFT OF PROPHECIES BY APOLLO BUT CURSED SO THAT NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE HER.

✴️✴️
Macedonia- Greece 

“SOLUN” & “SALONIKA”!! ???🤮😅😂🤣.. WELL THIIS IS ALBANO-WARDASKIAN NEW NAME OF THESSALONIKE!!
🤮😅😂🤣!!
….. FACTS:
THESSALONIKE=ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟ+ΝΙΚΗ=VICTORY OVER THESSALIANS.. 👍🙂….THESSALONIKE WAS NAMED LATER THE HALF SISTER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT…

MAGNA GRAECIA /Lekythos attica a figure nere di provenienza siciliana: Aiace trasporta sulle spalle Achille esanime. Ultimi decenni VI secolo a.C. Staatliche Antikensammlung di Monaco di Baviera 

The sling was an ancient weapon, used in hunting, in war, in sport. And it has also been preserved as a children’s toy to this day. Everyone knows the myth recorded in the Bible with the killing of Goliath by David’s sling.
Because slings were made of leather, rope, linen or wool, they were very hard to find over time. The most ancient are a pair of woven slings found together with other weapons in the tomb of Tutankhamun (died 1325 BC) to accompany him on the hunt. Another one was found in 1914 in the area of Fayoum, 800 BC. But the projectiles used in the slings have been found.
The first appearance of the sling due to the projectiles found, is the first time around 10,000 BC. The projectiles were very effective in war, because they hit the opponents, seriously injuring them, reaching even to the bones. They even reached the speed of 60 km per hour. In the Greek area, mainly in the Aegean, spherical, oval and amphiconical stone and clay sling projectiles have been found in settlements of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. (Sesklos, Dimini, Naxos, Rhodes etc.). Also found in the Bronze Age were two lead pointed projectiles in a pit under the SE side of the palace of Knossos (Evans).
The first depiction of slingers is found on the well-known silver “siege cry” (1st comment) from pit tomb IV of burial enclosure A of Mycenae (1550-1500 BC), where slingers together with archers, club-bearers and satellites attempt a siege of a city (in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
In the black figure amphora of the photograph from the collection of the British Museum in London, (14233163659), Hercules is depicted killing the Stymphalian hens with a slingshot.
In classical Greece there were battalions of slingers under the “small” (lightly armed), which were made up of slaves.
The use of the sling continued by the Macedonians and in Hellenistic times and the Romans. They were mostly leaden with pointed ends or like a branch with leaves on both sides.
In the lead projectiles that have been found, we notice that there are inscriptions usually embossed and not engraved (Glandes inscriptae, inscribed projectiles). Inscriptions were used for the first time in the 5th century BC. in GREECE. Their use continued into the early Roman Imperial period. They carved the clay matrix where the pencil was poured, so the inscriptions came out in relief. Some also had embossed figures related to something that causes pain: Wasp, snake, arrow, trident, lightning… As for the inscriptions, apart from the more usual ones with the name of the owner or the city, they also had playful and threatening messages, such as : “trogalion” (eat as a sweet snack), or “dexai” lave” (party!), “fire” (to hell!), papai (oh!) etc. Among the projectiles of Roman times it has been found in the countryside of Montiglia , of the autonomous community of Andalusia, 49 km from Córdoba, a pointed lead lead projectile (of the 2nd commentary) 4.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1.7 cm high. Weighs 71.1 grams . It bears two inscriptions, reliefs that read: IPSCA and CAES. IPSCA (modern Baena) was an Iberian and then Roman city in the province of Baetica in central Andalusia. Contributensis Ipscensis, in the province of Córdoba. It is the first toponym of any city in Roman Spain ever found written on a slingshot.CAES stands for Gaius Julius Caesar. The city of Ipsca supported Caesar and provided him with “munitions”, such as lead missiles. So he wrote on it that she was Caesar’s sponsor. Probably in 48-45 BC. she also sent her own men to reinforce Caesar’s army in view of his clash with Pompey’s sons, in the last battle of the civil war with Caesar victorious, the so-called “Battle of Munda” (as the entire Iberian peninsula was then called) in 48-45 BC, in the area where the projectile was found. Thus, this find also determined the place of the battle, which had not been determined, but was generally called the “Battle of Munda, (of Spain).

I AM FASCINATED BY THE BARBARIAN IGNORANT AND ARROGANT ONES‼️🤮😝😆😂🤣..FROM PSEVDO”HISTORIANS”, “SCHOLARS”, GEOPOLITICAL SCAMBUGS, CRIMINAL “POLITICIANS”, IDIOTS WITH LOW “EDUCATION”, LOW IQ…,, JEALOUSY – ENVY
ONLY ONES WITH LOW IQ, OR HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX TOWARDS THE ORIGINAL HIGH LEVEL UNIQUE CULTURE DO

ACT THIS WAY!.. DO THEY MEAN SERIOUSLY??!! 😆……. THAT FIRST WERE NAMES AS:… “ALEKSANDAR”, PERIANDAR, MENANDAR, MEANDAR, LEANDAR, ANAXIMANDAR…??? 😆ETC.

.... DO THEY. REALLY MEAN. THAT??, 😂….
IT SOUNDS LIKE THE ORIGINAL ANCIENT GREEK MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE (NAMES AND WORDS., SCIENCE, ASTRONOMY, THRATERS, MATHEMATICS,…ETC.. ETC..) WERE SLAVIC??
SOME OF THE HUNDRED OF THOUSANDS OF WORDS AND NAMES….

AS:

ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ/
ALEXANDROS=MAN’S PROTECTOR….
INFINITIVE: ΑΛΕΞEIN=TO PROTECT… TO.. “ALEXANDAR”.

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ
( CASSANDER
FROM THE BERB: ΚΈΚΑΣΜΑΙ (ANCIENT GREEK). KÉKASMAI =“TO SHINE”; EXCEL OVER”) AND ἈΝΉΡ (ANḖR, “MAN ”). IN TURN, THE NAME MEANS “ONE, WHO EXCELS OVER MAN.”

ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA/
CASSANDRA IS AN ANCIENT GREEK FEMININE NAME MEANING “SHINING UPON MAN.” THIS IS ENGLISHZED VERSION OF THE GREEK
ΚΑΣΣΑΝΔΡA
KASSANDRA.
A NAME SHARED WITH THE TROJAN PRINCESS, WHO WAS GIVEN THE GIFT OF PROPHECIES BY APOLLO BUT CURSED SO THAT NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE HER.

ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΣ /FILIPPOS
ΦΙΛΟΣ+ΙΠΠΟΣ
FRIEND+HORSETO… FILIP”..

ΜΑIΑΝΔΡΟΣ/
MAIANDROS
(“MAN’S QUEST) TO…”MEANDAR”.https://euphoriatric.com/euphoriatric-symbols-historical…/
ΛΕΑΝΔΡΟΣ/LEANDROS “LEANDAR” ΛΈΩΝ=LION./LION TO MAN.

ΠΕΡΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ
PERI+ANDROS=”ABOUT THE MAN”) TO…. “PERIANDAR” ( CORINTH/ 600 BC).

ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΣ/MENANDROS
“MENANDER”=MENANDROS/ FROM: MΕΝΟΣ /MENOS=“FORCE”+‎ANDROS, (GENETIVUS FORM OF ANHP/ANER= MAN).

ΑΡΙΣΤΑΝΔΡΟΣ
“ARISTANDER”=
/ARISTANDROS (FROM: APISTO+ANDROS=NOBLIEST OF MAN.

ΑΡΙΣΤΑΡΧΟΣ/ARISTARHOS… (ARISTARHUS, LATER IN LATIN)
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ+APXOΣ= NOBLIEST+DOMINANT, RULER.
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΦΆΝΗΣ/ARISTOFANIS= ARISTOPHANES
ΑΡΙΣΤΟ+ΦΆΝΗΣ=THE SEEN NOBLIEST.

ΑΝΑΞΙΜΑΝΔΡOΣ
ANAXIMANDER”=ANAXIMA+ANDROS=MAN’S SOVEREIGNTY…TO “ANAXIMANDAR”(ONE OF THE IMPORTANT TEACHERS OF PYTHAGORAS).

ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ
“NIKANDER”= /NIKANDROS(NIKH+ΑΝΔΡΟΣ= MAN’s VICTORY TO “NIKANDAR”.
ΛΥΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ/ LYSANDROS “LYSANDER””LYSANDAR”
(FROM VERB:ΛΥΩ)
ΛΥΣΗΣ(SUBSTANTIVE) = MANS SOLUTION, THE MAN, WHO SOLVES THE PROBLEMS…
(EXAMPLE: ANA+ΛΥΣΗΣ=
ANALYSIS,
DIA+LYSIS, KATA+LYSIS, PARA+LYSIS… etc. THE MEANINGS CHANGE, DEPENDING ON WHICH
PREPOSITION, INTENT, OR WORDS ARE CONNECTED…

ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ/MACEDONIA COMES FROM ΜΑΚΕΔΝΟΣ= MEANING TALL….

https://euphoriatric.com/etymology/
https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-structure-of





ATTIC RED-FORMED HUS……AND THE ACTIVITIES OF THE HAMMOCK OF THE FESTIVAL OF THE FLOWER FESTIVAL..

Attributed to the Painter of Eretria National Archaeological Museum Collection of Vases, no. wide BS 319
the vase depicts a scene that has been linked to the action of Aiora, which probably took place in Attica during the festival of the FLOWER FESTIVAL (ANTHESTIRIA)…..

In the center of the performance hangs a hammock (cradle), on which a crowned, bearded man places a small boy, also crowned. On the ground, below the hammock, are branches and next to it the top of a jar, which is half buried in the ground. On the left stand two older boys, while on the right is a klims (seat with a back) with a footstool, which has been dressed in a tunic and robe and decorated with a necklace, wreaths and branches, as if it were a human. In front of the incantation is a low table, with a bottle and three popanas (sweets).

According to the prevailing opinion, the custom of Aiora is connected with the myth of Irigoni, daughter of Ikarius, who gave his name to the Municipality of the same name in Attica. Ikarius had been initiated by the god Dionysus himself into the art of making wine, but he was killed by his compatriots, who, not having experienced the consequences of wine-drinking again,

they thought he poisoned them. Irigoni could not bear the pain of her father’s death and hanged herself from a tree….. The inhabitants of Attica, in order to save themselves from the wrath of Dionysus who caused an epidemic of suicides by hanging among young girls, asked for an oracle from the oracle of Delphi, according to which they would be propitiated only if they honored Dionysus, Ikarius and Herigone. They thus instituted the Hammock festival, during which girls swung in a cradle…..singing an ode called ἀλῆτις ,,,.

A small number of Attic vase paintings depicting young girls swinging in hammocks attest to the practice of the custom in Attica…. In the Eretrian Painter’s hu, the girl’s place is taken by a boy, which may echo another version of the myth, in which did not distinguish the gender of the children who participated in
action.

THE DANCE OF THE COLOURS.

RED-FIGURED 😊 ΕΡΥΘΡΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ = ERYTHROMORPHUS)
VESSEL IN THE FORM OF A KNUCKLEBONE (ASTRAGALOS).
470 – 450 BC.
#Hellas#Greece.

Personifications of floating Clouds on an ANCIENT ATTIC vessel from AEGINA. Here, four girls personifying clouds, float in the air. The second girl holds a long tendril with flower.

On the reverse side of this vessel, the God of WINDS, AEOLOS, directs the dance or the girls (clouds) from the mouth of his cave.

Knucklebones is a game of dexterity played with a number of small objects that are thrown up, caught, and manipulated in various manners. IT IS ANCIENT IN ORIGIN IS FOUND IN THE ANCIENT HELLENIC GAME OF THE ASTRAGALOS (a bone in the ankle, or hock) of a sheep was used.

SOPHOCLES (A GREEK TRAGEDIN OF THE 5th CENTURY BC), in a written fragment of one of his works, ascribed the game to the mythical figure PALAMEDES, who supposedly taught it to his HELLENIC countrymen DURING THE CIVIL WAR WITH TROY. The game is also mentioned BY HERODOTUS AND PLATO .

Dimensions: Length: 16.51 centimetres (6.5 inches).

Αν οι θεοί συνομιλούν, χρησιμοποιούν την ελληνική γλώσσα.. ΚΙΚΈΡΩΝ ..

When the gods converse, they use the Greek language.. CICERO .

HELLENISTIC MYRTLE WREATH OF MIDA
HELLENISTIC WREATH – MEDA’S DIAMOND
Meda, daughter of Kothelas, king of the Getae, was a Thracian princess whom Philip married, when he was returning from the campaign in Scythia, in 339 BC. and at the time of her death she would have been 20-25 years old. Obeying the custom of her tribe which, as recorded by Herodotus, stipulated that the wives of the prominent should accompany their husbands to death, the young foreigner seems to have committed suicide when the king was murdered. Following her husband and master into the flames of the funeral pyre and into the tomb, forever companion of the king’s bed in Hades, she became for the Macedonians, who were certainly not familiar with such examples of devotion, a new Alcestis, a model of conjugal virtue and loyalty.
This seems to be the reason why Alexander, the new king, honored her so much, giving her on the journey without return gifts of untold value.
Stephen of Medes , one of Philip II’s wives


The artist convincingly renders the forms of his creatures and creates the impression of “naturalness” and liveliness. The jumble of flowers and insects, the entwining, twisting and spreading shoots everywhere evoke the image of nature in Spring, but if one looks more closely, one recognizes the underlying strict geometry of the structure, the symmetrical repeating lyre and heart-shaped patterns, the exact correspondence of the spirals and in the center the sacred symmetry of the divine knot, two sprouts that intertwine as never in nature to form the “Heraklion Amma”, [4] a symbol of the progenitor god of the Herakles, a clear reference to the royal house of the Macedonians. The laws of geometry make Creation ‘Cosmo’, a jewel. Made of gold, the immortal matter, the orderly sprouts, the flowers with deep blue petals, the bees that transform the nectar into honey do not copy nature, but render vividly and accurately like wonderful ideograms the meaning of beings. The artist of the diadem of the Goats did not attempt to depict a naturalistic image of Spring but rather Spring itself as a timeless, unchanging and life-giving Idea… In the center, above the ‘sacred knot’, a dove emerges from the calyx of an anthem , the sacred bird of Venus, symbol of love that lasts forever. Low below him, on the forehead of the lucky wearer, hang two tiny pomegranates, the sacred fruits of Persephone, symbols of fertility that overcomes death. [5]
Image of Mediterranean myrtle
Greek gold myrtle wreath (The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston)
Gift of Miss Annette Finnigan.

Correspondingly interesting and attractive is the relevant description of Étienne
When the queen wore the diadem found in the same coffin at the same time as this purple shawl, it must have looked like a veritable bouquet of spring flowers.[35] This diadem is an absolutely extraordinary artifact and very difficult to describe.[36] It develops intricate whorls on either side of a central axis, strongly marked, at the top, by three flowers supported on tendrils supported by a vertical acanthus leaf, in the center, by a knot of Heracles, and, at the bottom, by four globular pendants which were falling on the forehead. The leaves of the acanthus (?) are rather small and inconspicuous compared to the foliage and plant decoration. Although the species cannot be identified with certainty, we can distinguish at least five different types of plant forms: flowers with a double crown of narrow petals and a central bud (pink?), a wide disk with a pistil in the center, and stamens that form a small crown of flowers (anemones?), flowers with five broad petals (daffodils?), more or less elaborate anthemes (lily family?), pointed buds, borne in a rather capricious manner from different supports. Note that we do not recognize the myrtle, which however corresponds to another wreath abandoned on the floor of the vestibule. [37: M. Tsigarida, “Golden myrtle wreath from Vergina”] All (?) the flowers were colored with blue material (paste). and they were often attached to stems forming a kind of spring, which could vibrate at the slightest movement of the head. Bees are represented foraging, while a tiny bird has made its nest in the heart of a flower. The diadem ended in a lion’s head buckle.
The myrtle, a sacred plant of the goddess Aphrodite, was a symbol of love and a symbol of immortality and had chthonic associations.[8] The Greeks wore crowns at events and received them as athletic prizes with honors.[9] Crowns made of gold leaf were created to be buried with the dead but were too fragile for everyday wear. But it has been argued that they were worn at formal social events that included religious ritual, such as banquets, which began
in sacrifice to the gods.[10] Myrtle leaves and flowers were made of thin gold leaf, stamped and detailed and then joined with stems. Many wreaths that have survived to this day were found in ancient tombs. A gold myrtle wreath inlaid with precious stones is kept in the Museum of Inner Mongolia, accompanied by a note that it is a find from illegal excavations in Ulanqab and is vaguely dated to the Han period (200 BC to 200 AD). It is characteristic that the flowers are inlaid with a blue precious stone, thus resembling a Macedonian crown which was recently returned by the Getty Museum to the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki
Gold Myrtle Flower Diadem


HELLENIC WREATH – MEDA’S DIAMOND
Meda, daughter of Kothelas, king of the Getae, was a Thracian princess whom Philip married, when he was returning from the campaign in Scythia, in 339 BC. and at the time of her death she would have been 20-25 years old. Obeying the custom of her tribe which, as recorded by Herodotus, stipulated that the wives of the prominent should accompany their husbands to death, the young foreigner seems to have committed suicide when the king was murdered. Following her husband and master into the flames of the funeral pyre and into the tomb, forever companion of the king’s bed in Hades, she became for the Macedonians, who were certainly not familiar with such examples of devotion, a new Alcestis, a model of conjugal virtue and loyalty., measures 14 cm in diameter and 4 cm in height. The interior is plain and unadorned. The exterior is flanked by a mother-of-pearl band, and most of the surface covered with acanthus leaves in low relief set against a gilt background. Four projecting heads depict characters from Greek mythology: Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite and Athena.

MORGANTINA. MEGARIAN CUP FROM THE AGORA AREA . THE SO-CALLED “MEGARESE CUPS” WERE TABLE VASES INTENDED TO CONTAIN HEMISPHERICAL LIQUIDS, PRODUCED IN GREECE AND ITALY. CHARACTERISTICS WERE THE LACK OF THE FOOT AND THE RELIEF DECORATION OF THE EXTERNAL WALLS, USUALLY WITH PHYTOMORPHIC MOTIFS.
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE FROM
MORGANTINA, DATING BACK TO BETWEEN THE 2nd AND 1st CENTURIES BC. IT IS A MAGNA GRAECIA/SICILIAN PRODUCTION, FROM A LOCAL FACTORY (FROM SYRACUSE OR TYNDARIS). ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF AIDONE (EN).
THE FOUNDER OF BYZANTION, BYZAS, WAS SON OF KING NISOS OF MEGARA. DURING THE 7th CENTURY BC, THE GREEK NATION WAS CITY-STATES WERE EXPANDING AND ESTABLISHING NEW COLONIES.
The DORIAN CITY-STATE of THE MEGARA, NEAR ATHENS, WAS ALSO SEARCHING FOR SITES TO SET UP YET ANOTHER COLONY. 

By:
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΔΡΟΣΟΣ

THOSE WHO COULDN’T STAND THE BEAUTY)(=ΚΑΛΛΟΣ/KALLOS), THE HARMONY AND THE MEASURE, TRIED TO DESTROY THEM, TO CARVE ON THEM THEIR OWN UGLYNESS!!!
AND THESE WERE NONE OTHER THAN THE VILE AND VILE DRESSED SUBHUMANS, THE BARBARIC AND FOOLISH INSTRUMENTS OF THE DARK PRIESTHOOD OF THE JUDAISM DOCTRINE!!!…

ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΔΡΟΣΟΣ
(ΜΕΓΙΣΤΙΑΣ)

ΕΚΕΙΝΟΙ ΠΟΥ ΔΕΝ ΑΝΤΕΞΑΝ ΤΟ ΚΑΛΛΟΣ, ΤΗΝ ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ, ΠΡΟΣΠΑΘΗΣΑΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΡΕΦΟΝΤΑΣ ΤΑ, ΝΑ ΧΑΡΑΞΟΥΝ ΠΑΝΩ ΤΟΥΣ ΤΗΝ ΔΙΚΗ ΤΟΥΣ ΑΣΧΗΜΙΑ!!!
ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΙ ΔΕΝ ΗΤΑΝ ΑΛΛΟΙ ΑΠΟ ΤΑ ΜΙΑΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΒΔΕΛΥΡΑ ΦΑΙΟΦΟΡΕΜΕΝΑ ΥΠΑΝΘΡΩΠΙΔΙΑ, ΤΑ ΒΑΡΒΑΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΟΗΤΑ ΟΡΓΑΝΑ ΤΟΥ ΣΚΟΤΕΙΝΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΤΕΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΙΟΥΔΑΙΟΓΕΝΟΥΣ ΔΟΓΜΑΤΟΣ!!!…

ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΔΡΟΣΟΣ
(ΜΕΓΙΣΤΙΑΣ) 

A 2,300-year-old ancient Greek gold wreath worth £100,000, kept for decades in a tatty box of old newspapers under bed by owner who had no idea what it was. The wreath was put on sale at Duke’s of Dorchester auction house in 2016

Greek Bronze chariot inlaid with ivory with scenes from the life of the Greek hero Achilles, 2nd quarter of the 6th century B.C.
Dimensions: Total H. 51 9/16 in. (130.9 cm); Length of pole 82 1/4 in. (209cm).
Description of figures on the Chariot: The iconography represents a carefully thought-out program. The three major panels of the car depict episodes from the life of Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War. In the magnificent central scene, Achilles, on the right, receives from his mother, Thetis, on the left, a shield and helmet to replace the armor that Achilles had given his friend Patroklos, for combat against the Trojan Hektor. Patroklos was killed, allowing Hektor to take Achilles’ armor. The subject was widely known thanks to the account in Homer’s Iliad and many representations in Greek art. The panel on the left shows a combat between two warriors, usually identified as the Greek Achilles and the Trojan Memnon. In the panel on the right, the apotheosis of Achilles shows him ascending in a chariot drawn by winged horses. The subsidiary reliefs partially covered by the wheels are interpreted as showing Achilles as a youth in the care of the centaur Chiron and Achilles as a lion felling his enemies, in this case a stag and a bull. The central axis of the chariot is reinforced by the head and forelegs of the boar at the junction of the pole to the car. The deer below Achilles’ shield appears slung over the boar’s back. The eagle’s head at the front of the pole repeats the two attacking eagles at the top of the central panel, and the lion heads on the yoke relate to the numerous savage felines on the car. While the meaning of the human and animal figures allows for various interpretations, there is a thematic unity and a Homeric quality emphasizing the glory of the hero.
Provenance: Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York.
P.S.: In 1902, a landowner working on his property accidentally discovered a subterranean built tomb covered by a tumulus (mound). His investigations revealed the remains of a parade chariot as well as bronze, ceramic, and iron utensils together with other grave goods. Following the discovery, the finds passed through the hands of several Italian owners and dealers who were responsible for the appearance of the chariot and related material on the Paris art market. There they were purchased in 1903 by General Luigi Palma di Cesnola, the first director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
There is presented, UNFORTUNAELY..as…. “Etruscian” No matter the HISTORICAL EVIDENCE..

The Monteleone chariot is the best preserved example of its kind from MAGNA GRAECIA OR q”ANCIENT ITALY before the Roman period. The relatively good condition of its major parts–the panels of the car, the pole, and the wheels–has made it is possible to undertake a new reconstruction based on the most recent scholarship. Moreover, some of the surviving ivory fragments can now be placed with reasonable certainty. The other tomb furnishings acquired with the chariot are exhibited in two cases on the south wall of this gallery

By: IXΩP.: HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ANCIENT FINE ARTS/ 4th CENTURY BC (BRITISH MUSEUM).
“THE GOBLET OF LYCURGOS” …SCIENTIST ARE STILL TRYING TO FIND OUT HOW IT CHANGES COLORS…

The British Museum acquired the LYCURGUS CUP from Victor, 3rd Lord Rothschild, in 1958. As the British Museum states on its website dedicated to the cup, the object was “originally purchased by Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild (1808-1879)”. . The conclusion is yours to make.

THE GREEKS CALLED IT : **ΆΓΑΛΜΑ=STATUE**, WHICH MEANS, THAT EMBRACES YOUR SOUL WHEN YOU SEE IT.. AS YOU REFLECT IT

BEAUTIFUL AND YOU ARE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND ALL THE SYMBOLISM, WHICH EACH STATUE(AGALMA ONE!)CARRIES ON IT…

.... THE ROMANS CONTINUED TO NAME THE STATUES… STATUA FROM THE GREEK WORD ΣΤΑΤΙΚΟ=STATIC ((VERB: ISTHMI= I AM STANDING ΑΣΤΗΡ=STAR)),

—WHICH IN ENGLISH BECAME STATUE AND MEANS THIS, THAT IS STANDING STILL….

**”I ΆΓΑΛΜΑ** (VERB: ΑΓΑΛΙΑΖΩ//AGALIAZO ) = BEING IN HOLISTIC EUPHORIA………

…… THIS HUGE GAP EXISTS BETWEEN EVERY GREEK AND BARBARIAN WORD AND EVERY GREEK AND BARBARIAN IDEOLOGY. THE GREEK LANGUAGE IS CONCEPTUAL AND EXPLAINS THE ESSENCE OF EVERY THING. “THE PRINCIPLE OF WISDOM IS THE VISITATION OF NAMES” ALL THE OTHER LANGUAGES ARE PURELY SUPERFICIAL BECAUSE THEIR CREATORS HAD A SUPERFICIAL REFLECTION….

AS PLATO SAID: -VISION MAY BELONG TO ALL, BUT PERCEPTION TO A FEW…MAN, WHO`S BLIND IN PHYCHE= (=SOUL), CANNOT SEE OR EVEN UNDERSTAND ESSENTIAL THINGS.

A historically reliable set of Athenian armor from 490 BC. It has been scrupulously copied from all available ceramic depictions of the period. This armor could only be afforded by an extremely wealthy warrior – a high-ranking officer or general ..

Perhaps the single best known sculpture from antiquity, the so-called LAOCOON group, was found in Rome in 1506 and placed on public display in the Vatican, where it remains. This cast was made from the marble original and acquired by the Ashmolean from the British Museum in 1933.

The Roman writer PLINY (active in the AD 70s) ascribed the group to the sculptors HAGESANDROS, ATHENODOROS and POLYDOROS, who worked in the later first century BC. Hellenistic sculpture. LAOCOON, a Trojan priest of APOLLO, and his sons struggle with two flesh-eating snakes, sent as a divine punishment. The priest had warned the Trojans against accepting the wooden horse sent by the AEOLIAN-ACHAIAN GREEKS at th that civill war between the WEST Greeks vs “Troades”and incurred the anger of POSEIDON (some say ATHENA,) who was supporting the ACHAIAN GREEKS.
The saying ‘ BEWARE of DANAOI (=ACHAIAN-AEOLIAN GREEKS) bearing gifts’ comes from lines spoken by the priest in VIRGIL`S poem The AENEIAD

While struggling against the snakes, LAOCOON supports himself against the altar on which he had been making a sacrifice. His head is turned back with a grimace of pain which is combined with the horror at the death of his sons, the exertion of his struggle and the awareness of his own imminent death.
The LAOCOON group is one of the most discussed and famous pieces of HELLENIC sculpture, described by Michaelangelo as a ‘MIRACLE of art’. 

IT IS SEEN, AS THE EPITOME OF THE IDEAL IMAGE OF YOUTH FUL GODS IN GREEK ART.

HERMES of PRAXITELES
The statue, known as the Hermes of PRAXITELES, or the HERMES of OLYMPIA, was FOUND in the RUINS of the TEMPLE OF HERA, in OLYMPIA, GREECE. The priceless artwork is displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia.

The MARBLE sculpture is dated back to the FOURTH CENTURY BC, BASED on a remark recorded by the second-century Greek traveler Pausanias.

Its style defined what is known as the “Praxitelean Style,” although art historians doubt it was indeed created by Praxiteles because there are no identified ancient replicas of it.
A German archaeological excavation of the Temple area, led by Ernst Curtius, was begun in 1875 after an agreement was made with the Greek government.

On May 8, 1877, in the Temple of Hera, archaeologist Gustav Hirschfeld uncovered the main parts of a statue of a young man resting against a tree trunk, covered by a mantle. It was in an excellent state of preservation.

It took a great deal more effort, and six additional discoveries, to uncover the rest of the parts of the statue as it is displayed today.

There are parts of the HERMES of PRAXITELES STILL missing, including his right forearm, two fingers of his left hand, the left foot, and his penis. DIONYSUS is missing his arms and the end of his right foot.

Much of the tree trunk and the plinth are also lost. However, an ancient base of the statue survives.

H E R M E S OF P R A X I T E L E S
Public Domain
HERMES’ PLACE in the GREEK PANTHEON
According to Greek mythology, HERMES was born to Maia, a daughter of ATLAS and ZEUS. The infant HERMES snuck out of his cave on Mount CYLLENE in ARCADIA on the day of his birth and traveled all the way to PIERIA, 250 miles to the NORTH in MACEDONIA, to meet his half-brother APOLLO, who was grazing his cattle.

The young god stole all 50 of the animals and then went into hiding.

APOLLO chased HERMES BACK to ARCADIA and brought the MISCREANT in front of their FATHER. HERMES protested that he was an INNOCENT INFANT, and it was impossible for him to have done such a thing.

To add INSULT to INJURY, HERMES STOLE APOLLO’s BOW and ARROW from him, AS WELL.

ZEUS put HERMES on trial, and ruled that the young god should return the cows he stole at ANY cost.

Again, HERMES PROVED to be the WINNER in this situation as well. While in PIERIA, he had INVENTED the LYRE, an instrument he built using a turtle shell, two cow’s horns, and sheep gut.

HERMES began to play the instrument and sing so HEARTBREAKINGLY BEAUTIFUL that the god of music decided he must have the lyre, and he offered the fifty cows in return.

APOLLO also TAUGHT HERMES the ART of PROPHECY and GAVE him the KERYKEION, a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it, his future trademark as a messenger of the gods. He received this distinction from ZEUS immediately after the said trial.

Clearly, HERMES was a MISCHIEVOUS god from the moment of his birth. Moving easily between Mount OLYMPOS and EARTH, he was very popular with mortals. He was a great liar and thief, and even became the patron saint of thieves, liars and merchants.

We can see that, from antiquity, traders have had a reputation for telling lies to sell their merchandise, even when there was nothing wrong with their merchandise.

But HERMES also served as the MESSENGER of all the GODS and was seen as the GOD of TRAVELERS and ATHLETES because of his SPEED and physical FITNESS.

The messenger of the gods was also a friend to mankind and, by relaying divine messages to mortals, he became the highest-ranking being that they would ever encounter on their level of existence. Mortals could relate to him much more than to the fearsome ZEUS.

In ancient philosophy, Hermes was the representative of “logos,” the word, as well as meaning and reason itself. The Greek word ερμηνεία (hermeneia – “interpretation,”) derives from his name. Therefore, the term “hermeneutics” means the study of the methodological principles of interpretation.

Hermes’ name was used in Hermeticism, Hermetic Magic and alchemy, all highly influential ancient disciplines which lasted well into the early modern age. These practices gave us the modern phrase “hermetically sealed

.”

The sculpture of ancient Greece is the main surviving type of fine ancient Greek art as, with the exception of painted ancient Greek pottery, almost no ancient Greek painting survives. Modern scholarship identifies three major stages in monumental sculpture in bronze and stone: the Archaic (from about 650 to 480 BC), Classical (480–323) and Hellenistic. At all periods there were great numbers of Greek terracotta figurines and small sculptures in metal and other materials.

The Greeks decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. Seeing their gods as having human form, there was little distinction between the sacred and the secular in art—the human body was both secular and sacred. A male nude of Apollo or Heracles had only slight differences in treatment to one of that year’s Olympic boxing champion. The statue, originally single but by the Hellenistic period often in groups was the dominant form, though reliefs, often so “high” that they were almost free-standing, were also important.

The reason that ancient Greek sculptures have small penises isnt because the artist didnt want the viewer to focus on them. Its because the cultural perception of penis was different.

NO ONE LOVED THE HUMAN BODY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS. ..

NO ONE PRAISED HUMAN BEAUTY, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS, THROUGH THEIR ARTS…

NO ONE HONORED LOVE WITH THEIR LIVES, AS MUCH, AS THE GREEKS…

AND THE MISANTHROPIC , NEGATING, RABID-FURIOUS PERSECUTORS OF HELLENISM OVER THE CENTURIES NEVER FORGAVE US FOR THIS …

Alexandria aligns with the Sun on the day of the birth of the Great jag …
This is what the Italian archaeo-astronomers Dr. Giulio Mali and Luisa Ferro of the Polytechnic University of Milan

The city’s main thoroughfare, the Canopian Way or Meson Pedion, is almost perfectly aligned with the sun as it would have risen on the morning of July 20, 356 BC. according to the Julian calendar. It would have been common in cities of that era for the main street to have been laid out parallel to the Mediterranean coast, and even though the Kanopic street ran west/east, it deviates from parallel to the beach.

Rewind to the ancient Greek world of around 400 BC, and you’ll find that large, erect penises were not considered desirable, nor were they a sign of power or strength.

In his play The Clouds (c. 419–423 BC), ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes summed up the ideal traits of his male peers as “a gleaming chest, bright skin, broad shoulders, tiny tongue, strong buttocks, and a little prick

Lady of Elce(detail)~National Archaeological Museum, Madrid.
THE LADY OF ELIKI~ GREEK-IBERIAN ART
The Lady of Elche (4th century BC. Greco-Iberian Art). is a limestone bust that was discovered in 1897 at L’Alcúdia, an archaeological site on a private estate two kilometers south of Elche, Spain.

~Ancient Eliki, colony of the Achaeans (Elche, Spain)~
It was founded by Ionian settlers in 600 BC. near Lefki Akra (Alicante).
The distant Greek settlers named the city in memory of their birthplace of the Achaean Eliki next to Aegio.
Over time, the local Iberians also joined the Greek population of the city.
It seems that due to its commercial location it flourished.
From its ancient Greek period, the famous Dama de Elche (Dama de Elche) is preserved, a bust of a woman carved in colorful stone in Greco-Iberian style.

During the Second Carthaginian War, the general Hannivas destroyed the city.
When the Romans dominated Spain they rebuilt it under the name Iulia Ilice Augusta.
For about three centuries Eliki experienced a long period of prosperity.
Its superior water quality and better land access (via a trade route) led to the withering of the neighboring city of White Acre (2nd-3rd century AD).

With the advent of Christianity in the region, Eliki became the seat of a bishop.
During the 5th century AD it was occupied by the Arianist Visigoths who destroyed its ancient monuments.
During the period 554 -620 AD it came under Byzantine rule thanks to the old patrician Justinian Liverio.
Then it was recaptured by the Visigoths and in 711 it passed into the possession of the Arabs.
At the end of the 13th century, in the framework of the Spanish reconquista, the king of Aragon, James II the Righteous 1267–1327, liberated Eliki from the Moorish despotism.
Today’s Elche developed from the 18th century onwards.
From the 19th century the establishment of a railway and a shoe industry gave greater commercial prestige to the town.

Even in modern times the inhabitants of Elche (remembering their distant Greek origins) celebrate the Greek week which includes the typical life of an ancient Greek city: Rhapsodies, theaters, dancing, torches, parades of hoplites, amphorae, ancient coins, offerings, tunics , pedicles and Homeric speech.

At the same time, they celebrate the Assumption of the Virgin every August 15 with religious performances.
They even call themselves pobladores Griegos, that is, Greek resident
s.

Lady of Elce(detail)~National Archaeological Museum,Madrid.

LETO……(LATUNA LATER IN LATIN)

IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY LETO (OR LATO IN THE DORIC DIALECT), IS THE DAUGHTER OF THE TITAN COIUS AND PHOEBE [.FROM ZEUS SHE GAVE BIRTH TO APOLLO AND ARTEMIS . IN ROMAN MYTHOLOGY LATER, THE CORRESPONDING GODDESS OF LETO IS LATONA.

LETO WAS THE MAIN deÄGODDESS IN EASTERN LYCIA, WHILE THE INHABITANTS OF KOS ALSO CLAIMED HER ORIGIN.

HER SANCTUARY, LETOON, CONNECTED THE CITY-STATES OF LYCIA TO EACH OTHER. SHE WAS WORSHIPED WITH THE EPITHETS OF KOIOGENEIA [, FISTI AND ECDYSIA.

BIRTH OF ARTEMIS AND APOLLO

When HERA learned that LETO was pregnant by ZEUS, she FORBADE her to give BIRTH on LAND and in ANY PLACE under the sun. According to a myth, NOT so widespread, LETO came from the land of HYPERBORIA in the form of a SHE-WOLF, seeking the land of wolves, LYCIA. The MOST widespread myth says that when LETO was about to give birth, a small island appeared in the sea , DELOS, where she managed to give birth first to ARTEMIS and then to APOLLO .

According to OVID, after the birth of the twins, Leto wandered and reached Lycia, where she was not received with the best welcome. When she went to drink water from a lake, the inhabitants forbade her, stirring up the mud at the bottom of the lake. Then LETO transformed them into frogs for the lack of hospitality they showed, so that they would always live condemned to the muddy waters of rivers and lakes.

THE PUNISHMENT OF NIOBE……

Once the queen NIOBE , who had seven sons and seven daughters, was proud of the fecundity and beauty of her children, saying that “LETO, the chosen one of ZEUS , has only one pair of TWINS to show against her so many” (meaning her ARTEMIS and APOLLO).

When LETO found out, she was indignant and asked her children to punish NIOBE’S rashness. Thus, according to the traditions, the two gods marked with their arrows, ARTEMIS the DAUGHTERS, APOLLO the SONS.

The dead bodies of NIOBE’S children remained UNBURIED for NINE days, since ZEUS turned into stone anyone who attempted to pay funeral honors. On the ninth day the gods yielded to NIOBE’S entreaties and buried them themselves in two common graves.

WORSHIP

SANCTUARIES OF LETOS are mentioned by ancient sources in many regions of Greece. Very often she was worshiped alongside her two children. PAUSANIAS AND STRABO mention the existence of sanctuaries and statues DEDICATED to LETO, APOLLO AND ARTEMIS in the village OF ZOSTIR IN ATTICA, MEGARA, ARGOS, SPARTA, TANAGRA [, DELPHI (AND PINDAROS mentions in an ODE OF), in ARTEMISION OF RHODES, IN MANTINEIA, IN PHAISTOS OF CRETE (ECDYSIA WERE CELEBRATED IN HER HONOR), in ORTYGIA and LATOREA in LYDIA , where a festival dedicated to her was also held.

Her worship was great in DELOS, where there was a large temple dedicated to her, LETOOS. According to the legend, LETO WON DELOS from POSEIDON, with whom she exchanged KALABRIA .

SIMILAR was the temple in LYCIA, LETOON, NEAR THE RIVER XANTHOS, “60 stadia from the city.” Inscriptions indicate that the LYCIAN Community had its headquarters there. Modern excavations, from 1962 onwards, have been carried out in the area, bringing to light, among other things, a trilingual inscription in ARAMAIC , and LYCIAN GREEK.

LYRICAL HYMNS have been written in HONOR of LETO by the THRACIAN MUSICIAN AND POET PHILAMMON.

.

In ancient times, many believed that the laurel was a sacred plant and had a direct connection with the god of divination, Apollo. According to mythology, Daphne was a young nymph and daughter of the river god Pineus. When the god Apollo saw her for the first time he fell in love with her, but she rejected him. Apollo, however, did not give up easily and chased her among the trees. Daphne, however, in order to escape him, prayed to her father to help her. He heeded her call and transformed her into a tree that would take root on the river bank. So Apollo cut some branches and made a wreath to keep her in his memory forever.

After the god’s favorite nymph was transformed into the plant of the same name, it became almost an integral part of Delphi, where divine predictions took place. The most famous prophecies of the Oracle Pythia were made by eating bay leaves.

In addition to Apollo, the laurel was also dedicated to the god of medicine, Asclepius, due to its medicinal properties. At the same time, it was a symbol of wisdom and poetry, as there are related references even in Homer’s Odyssey.

Was the laurel and still is the plant of glory and prosperity? More generally, its symbolism is varied and linked to various spiritual, historical and cultural elements. Let’s take a look at the highlights of the laurel symbolism:

Victory and Praise: In ancient Greece, the laurel was more than just a plant. It symbolized victory, honor and recognition. In particular, laurel wreaths were a sign of honor and recognition for the winners of races, such as in the Olympic games. It was a way to recognize successes and honor those who stood out in sports, art or politics. Today, laurel wreaths are placed on graves and statues as a mark of respect to important persons, while Orthodox churches are decorated with laurel on Palm Sunday.

Spiritual Awakening and Knowledge: The laurel in the ancient Greek tradition had a special importance in the spiritual world. One of the most famous examples is her relationship with Pythia. According to mythology Pythia, the priestess of the Oracle of Delphi, when she had to predict the future or give advice to the Greek world, chewed bay leaves. The inhalation of incense from the burning of the leaves, combined with their consumption, constituted the “secret” of her delirium. Thanks to them, she saw her oracles.

This practice reflects the deeper symbolism of the laurel as a means of accessing deeper, spiritual truths. Most likely, the plant represents knowledge, attunement to the spiritual world, and the ability to “see” beyond everyday reality.

THIS IS THE REASON WE SAY THAT THE GREEKS BROUGHT SCIENCE TO HUMAN HISTORY
https://enneaetifotos.blogspot.com/…/blog-post_83.html

“There are two reasons why Socrates ascended and was marbled on his distinguished pedestal, tells us his great grandson in letters, who was born fifteen years after the death of Socrates, Aristotle. One that he taught “it is not determined at all”, and the other that he invented “practical reasons”.
The first explains that Socrates first succeeded in defining concepts. And do you know what feat that is? It is a fact as important as the establishment of the Olympic games by Heracles and Lycurgus. Defining a concept is a very difficult task. If it were not so, the absurdity we see around us today would not have happened. You ask people in Greece what democracy is, and you get nine million definitions. Have you ever attended the coronation of the casida and palavera? The abrakatabra that German physicists say about German theologians?

And the same thing happens, if you ask what is freedom, virtue, justice, honorable and everything else.

But the definition of each concept is one, Socrates taught. To define a concept, he told us, you would describe it in so many words that you couldn’t add a single word, couldn’t take a single word away, and couldn’t change a single word. So. And if you manage to define the concept in the end.

But this, dear reader, is discovery and invention like those of Newton, Columbus, Darwin, Einstein, Freud. And Socrates is the first photometric for all these bigoted men. The second that succeeded, Aristotle always says, is “practical reasons”. In other words, the inductive method was introduced in the research.

This second is even more important than the first. Because in essence it means that Socrates introduced science into the spiritual history of man, in the sense that he introduced the method of science.
This is the reason why, among other things, we say that the Greeks brought science to the history of man. And this is why the Greek stands out from all other cultures.

As we are half-educated, and prognosticators, and spiritually young, we often claim that other ancient peoples also did science. The Egyptians, for example, the Aztecs, the Assyrians, the Chinese, the Chaldeans, the Jews, the Persians, you name it.

. Only the Greeks did science. Science, in the sense that you discover and build a system of applied information whose organic structure has the order, precision and necessity of the organic order that exists within nature. Cause which makes nature and the laws of its constitution unchangeable, and eternal, and indestructible.

Compared to the Greeks, the science that the others did is a pre-empirical achievement. Astrology for example instead of astronomy. “Comboyanism”(=Hill Billy THUGS mentality) instead of medicine. Priesthood and priest instead of philosophy. Guard instead of geometry. Magic and catechism instead of morality. Hide and seek instead of sports. Morlo-kings made of dry wood instead of politics. And compare accordingly.
Today, research in all areas of science is served by one hundred as many sciences, which are taught in the universities of the world.

Origin and source and motherland (as we say homeland) of all this boisterous spiritual orgasm that brought man “repentantly to strike the stars”, according to Horace’s verse, is Greece. And the progenitor or master of this discipline is Socrates.

Of course, here one cannot overlook the heavy pre-shock of the advance of the Presocratics. Nor the concluding hymn of the great philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Epicurus.

This is why Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus and Phainaretes the Athenian, is great. Because she is the mummy who brought science to the light of history.”
Dimitris Liantinis – Gemma 

Centaur in polychrome marbles
Marble: antique red and black, antique green bas
e

—-The definition of the courtyard in front of the south façade of the villa [Villa Doria Pamphili], divided into three spaces by the orthogonal arms of the terraced portico, according to the model of the Hellenistic-Roman maritime villas, belongs to this first arrangement.

This extraordinary sculpture was rediscovered in the mid-19th century in Albano, in one of
the luxurious residences of the Pamphilj family in Lazio. It is a remarkable replica, perhaps from the Antonine Era (138-192 AD), of one of the so called “Furietti Centaurs”, the celebrated pair in the Capitoline Museums from Hadrian’s Villa. The original model was sculpted in grey Lucullan marble and signed by ARISTEAS an artist from APHRODISIAS, a city known for exporting sculptures. The composition of these statues shows clear references to the Hellenic culture. Our version is outstanding for the excellent quality of the materials used in its carving and its refined colours

The bronze statue of Lysippus… Victorious youth or athlete of Phano, as exhibited in the US Getty Museum.
It is considered by the experts… A young Olympic runner of 370-300 BC and is attributed to the sculptor Lysippus who was famous in antiquity, that he had the ability and experience to breathe soul into his works.
The young man’s proportions and stance are similar to the statue commissioned by Lysippus for Demetrius the Besieger.
Because his legs look strong and well-trained and his left hand is holding a palm branch, it is argued that he is an Olympic runner.
Still others believe that it adorned a sanctuary where pan-Hellenic games were held, Olympia or Delphi.
The work has been cast in one piece by the lost wax method, but the head as shown by x-rays was cast separately.
It is saved almost entirely after the looting of the Greek treasures by the Romans who took them from Greece to decorate Rome… and then to plunder…
I love you and thank you very much…

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/ MAGNA GRAECIA/POMPEIA /

TRICLINIUM=TRIKLINON(=THREE BED ROOM) OF THE HOUSE OF
VETTII IN POMPEI

A triclinium ( pl. : triclinia) is a formal dining room in a Roman building. The word is adopted from the Greek triklinion (τρικλίνιον)—from tri- (τρι-), “three”, and klinē (κλίνη), a sort of couch or rather chaise longue.
First recorded in 1640–50; from Latin trīclīnium, from Greek triklī́nion=τρικλίνιο, diminutive of tríklīnos “having three couches (adjective), dining room so furnished (noun),” equivalent to tri- tri- + klī́n(ē) “couch” (see clinic) + -ion diminutive suffix. Etymology edit. triklinos < ancient Greek triklinos < tri- + bed. three bed room=
τρίκλινος< τρι- + κλίνη. Adjective editing. triclinos, -i, -o. which has three beds..
In ancient Greek and Roman architecture, a dining room in an elite house. Triclinia (pl.) normally featured dining couches arranged on three sides of a table.
The triclinium was named after the three couches typically found in the dining rooms of upper-class . The lectus, or couch, was an all-purpose piece of furniture. Usually made of wood with bronze adornments, the open bottom was crisscrossed with leather straps, which supported stuffed cushions.
The dining room was one of the most important reception spaces of the residence and, as such, it included high-quality decorative fixtures, such as floor mosaics, wall paintings, and stucco reliefs, as well as portable luxury objects, such as artworks (particularly sculptures) and furniture. Like the Greeks, the Romans reclined on couches while banqueting, although in the Roman context respectable women were permitted to join men in reclining. This practice set the convivium apart from the Greek symposium, or male aristocratic drinking party, at which female attendees were restricted to entertainers such as flute-girls and dancers as well as courtesans (hetaerae).

A dining room typically held three broad couches, each of which seated three individuals, thus allowing for a total of nine guests. This type of room is commonly described as a triclinium (literally, “three-couch room”), although dining rooms that could accommodate greater numbers of couches are archaeologically attested. In a triclinium, the couches were arranged along three walls of the room in a U-shape, at the center of which was placed a single table that was accessible to all of the diners. Couches were frequently made of wood, but there were also more opulent versions with fittings made of costly materials, such as ivory and bronze

OLYMPIAS OF EPIRUS

While her birth name was Polyxena, she is widely known by her later name, Olympias. Wife of Philip II, mother of Alexander the Great, Olympias exercised unprecedented power who defied the ancient world’s rules for women, and charted her and her son’s rise to power through wits, ambition, and might. She was perhaps the first woman to play a major role in ancient Greek political history.

She was born around 375 BCE, the daughter of Neoptolemus I of Epirus, a Greek king, and an unknown mother. Her family was a powerful one in ancient Greece. They claimed to be descended from the Greek hero Achilles, the main character in Homer’s “Iliad.”

Olympias was also known by several other names: Polyxena (her Original Name), Myrtale, and Stratonice. Historians believe she chose the name Olympias to celebrate her husband’s victory in the Olympic Games.

Olympias made it her life’s main mission to ensure that Alexander would one day be King. She was a devoted mother to her young son and constantly reminded him of his ancestral lineage to Achilles, which would have a powerful impact on Alexander.

ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΣ ΒΑΚΤΡΙΑΣ
(τόπος ανακάλυψης του δίσκου)

AMPHIPOLIS OF BACTRIA
(disc discovery location)

“When two suns will shine in the sky, the earth will be on fire! The heavenly goddess, eternal mother of all, the winged Nemesis with her chariot will bring! From her womb, she will restore an ancient bond”!

In the bloodline of Alexander (stripe), my friends, the fetus that will restore the right order was conceived! It will be a beast for those who promote immorality! They already know it, their mind controls them, they stand defenseless against his appetites and wait for the fate! Those whose eyes are awakened, live the events and understand! For MOST others, with lO IQ OR INFERIORITY COMPLEX this seems like NOTHING!!

CYBELE with her chariot drawn by two lions for a votive sacrifice and above the HELIOS=ΗΛΙΟΣ=SUN GOD, the S E L E N E = Σ Ε Λ Η Ν Η = MOON and the SIXTEENTH OF V E R G I N A.

Dion.
The sacred city of the Macedonians and the sanctuary of Zeus in the area of Olympus.
It reached its peak during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, as it was one of the earliest Roman colonies in the Macedonian region.
During the time of Alexander the Great, Dion had significant importance for Macedonia Greece in general.


It was there that Philip II celebrated the capture and destruction of Olynthus, the capital of the Chalkidiki League. In the same place, Alexander the Great invoked the help of the gods, while he was making the ceremonial preparations for his military campaign in Asia.

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY-MYSTAGOCY

THE FACT THAT FILLS YOU LEAST WITH ANGER! FOR A LIFE TIME THEY MAKE MONEY FROM GREEK ANTIQUITIES, EVEN TODAY WHEN TOURISTS VISIT THE TEMPLE OF EPHESUS AND THE TURKS CALL THEM… “ROMAN” RUINS!!!

The fact that fills you least with anger! For a lifetime they make money from Greek antiquities, even today when tourists visit the temple of “EPHESUS” and the Turks call them..

Roman ruins!!! NOT to mention the MUSEUMS everywhere in NORTHERN and CENTRAL EUROPE, that have STOLEN antiquities along with the rocks on which they rest!

It’s a DISGRACE, these countries like GERMANY and ENGLAND, are STILL allowed to keep these STOLEN TREASURES that have nothing to do with their histories🤬

“EPHESUS”=ΕΦΕΣΟΣ

THE EVALUATION OF THE OFFER OF GREEK CULTURE ALL OVER THE WORLD, IS DIFFICULT TO EVALUATE, BECAUSE OF THE WIDTH OF THE OFFER IT IS THE PLACE THAT HOSTED THE HIGHEST ALL HUMANITY RECEIVED, THE LIGHT OF KNOWLEDGE AT ALL LEVELS !!! EVERY SPIRIT OF YOUR HOLY EARTH IS A RICH OF INFORMATION OF WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY.

EPHESOS the CITY OF ARTEMIS & HERACLEITOS.

“EPHESUS” was one of the MOST important coastal cities of ASIA MINOR, almost on the AEGEAN SEA.

BUILT at the 10th century BC by IONIAN GREEKS

ANCIENT EPHESUS (today’s archaeological site) in ANTIQUITY was very close to the sea, even known as “THALASSOTHÉA “(=SEEWIEW), but the constant silting of the river KAǗSTROU forced residents to move the settlements of WEST. NEVERTHELESS, the ancient city was built on the low slopes of KORESOS and wields hills, where then the fertile plain of EPHESUS extended to the so-called EPHESUS field. The Temple of ARTEMIS was located right in this plain 1 Mile (ten stages) from the city. The fertility of the plain of EPHESUS as well as the location of the city of thalassothéas at a focal point of the natural way of communication of the AEGEAN SEA with the HELLENIC MAINLAND contributed to the edge of the city.

According to the ANCIENT traditions of the ANCIENT GREEK writers HISTORIANS, GEOGRAPHERS etc. EPHESUS was reported to have been occupied during prehistoric times by the amazons allegedly moved from the caucasus region by raiding ASIA MINOR capturing various areas – cities named after the most ikanotérōn of them, which were among others EPHESOS, SMYRNA , KYME , MYRINA and SINOPE… ETC….

STRABON also mentions the above that in later times these cities worship their famous heroines amazons and even cut coins with AMAZON shows. The EPHESIANS in particular in the 5th century bc, wanting to honor the famous AMAZON EPHESOS, a competition among the most famous sculptures of their time for the construction of a statue in order to place it in the temple of ARTEMIS.

Around The 8th century BC, EPHESUS became the economic center of ASIA MINOR. In The 6th century it passed under the rule of CROESUS, but preserving its independence. He then passed the rule of CYRUS and the next PERSIAN Kings and THUS became part of the PERSIAN STATE. EPHESUS was RELEASED in 334 bc by the troops ALEXANDER the GREAT, so EPHESOS BECAME GREEK AGAIN and CHANGED its name and was named ARSINÓEIA(=ARSINOI ARSINOE: (ARSIS = to LIFT = from the verb:

ΑIPΩ+NΟΥΣ/

AERO+NOUS = MIND ),

ΑΡΣΙΣ+ΝΟΥΣ= The HIGH-MINDED…

That LIFTS UP (“takes the mind”) the minds.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION/

MYTHOLOGY-COSMOLOGY/

JUST UTOPIA to REACH, or UNDERSTAND THE HIGH LEVEL OF THE ANCIENT HELLENIC SPIRIT of CREATIONS & SUNLIGHT-BEAMS CIVILIZATION, to BE UNDERSTOOD

….by ALL KIND OF BARBARIANS…

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

HERE: //ANCIENT ULTIMATE ARTS & BEAUTY… MOSTLY STOLEN, LOOTED, or DESTROYED, (or OFTEN.. COPIED & TWISTED.. & SHOWED by COUNTERFEITING BARBARIANS,..AS….THEIR OWN!!!😂🤣) MOSTLY BY ALL BARBARIANS!!

ALL OVER the WORLD, WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE,

BEEING – OFCOURSE –

SUPPORTED, as ALLWAYS, BY the CLASSICAL, GLOBAL BARBARIAN

GEOPOLITICAL MAFIA..

THUS BARBARIANS HELP BARBARIANS.. WITH HEAVY INFERIORITY COMPLEX, ENVY, JEALOUSY & OFCOURSE VERY FAR FROM THE AUPHTENTIC ETHERIAL & UNIQUE CIVILIZATION AS:

TEMPLES(CORINTHIAN, DORIC & IONIC ORDER), STATUES, MOSAICS, SCRIPTS, FRESCOS, COINS, SCIENCE:

MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS, TECHNOLLGY, GEOMETRY, PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, DRAMA, POETRY… PLUS:...

THE ETYMOLOGY of NAMES & WORDS by the UNIQUE MATHEMATIC- DIANETIC ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE(https://euphoriatric.com/the-mathematical-construction…/ WICH IS INTERCONNCTED MATHEMATICALY WITH ALL THE ABOVE ACHIEVEMENTS

.. ARE JUST ONE OF the WITNESSES… INSPIRING EVERYBODY WITH BASIC INTELLIGENCE.. JUST by VISITING ALL MUSEUMS,

AROUND THE WORLD….BUT NO ONE KNOWS the NUMBER OF THE THOUSANDS of THOSE “PRIVATE” ONES…..

The GREEKS SHOULD NEVER LEARN that: DEMOCRITUS , PYTHAGORAS, HERACLEITOS completely formulated the theory of NUCLEAR PHYSICS and SPECIAL RELATIVITY, unifying into single MATHEMATICAL

formulas, as ELECTRICITY, GRAVITY, MAGNETISM, ASTRONOMY, and the Weak Currents of NUCLEAR ATOMS.

The Greeks MUST NEVER LEARN that: the ASTRONOMERS – MATHEMATICIANS: EUDOXUS, CALLIPOS

, ARISTARCHOS,(https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aristarchus-of-Samos)

ANAXIMANDROS, EUKLIDES, ARCHIMEDES,

CONON, HIPPARCHUS, CLEOMEDES, APOLLONIOS, PTOLEMY, THEON, HYPATIA, PAPPUS, had EXHAUSTED the LIMITS of human INTELLIGENCE by solving MENTALY WITHOUT GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION equations of 12 unknowns (twelve equations twelve unknowns) while the limit of today’s computers is “7 equations 7 unknowns”.

BECAUSE the THIEVES of ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE, AS: – KEPLER, GALILEO, COPERNICUS etc. MUST be SHOWN!! …

The GREEKS SHOULD NOT KNOW that: the ENGINEERS & TECHNICIANS, AS:

EUPALINOS, SOSTRATOS, HERON, ZOSIMOS, KALLINIKOS, manufactured TOPOGRAPHIC instruments for TRIGONOMETRIC SURVEYING, AUTOMATIC MECHANISMS and INSTRUMENTS for ELECTRICAL applications, BECAUSE the GREAT SWINDLER EDISON “MUST” be SHOWN as the INVENTOR of …😂🤣 ELECTRICITY, ALTHOUGH the ABOVE GREEK ENGINEERS used the ELECTRON (AMBER) as a NATURAL ACCUMULATOR of STATIC ELECTRICITY in technical applications...

The Greeks MUST NOT KNOW that: the GEOGRAPHERS – EXPLORERS SKYLAX, PYTHEAS, EUDOXUS, STRABON, PAUSANIAS, COSMAS the INDIKOPLEISTIS, HECATAEUS, had mapped the ENTIRE surface of the planet, because there is a danger that the Greeks will learn that ATLANTIS and the AMERICAN CONTINENT belonged administratively in DELPHI, while Asia belonged administratively to SARDIS, with the central coordinator being the APOLLONIAN Center of DELOS, to which the Transborean Greeks (Northern Siberia) sent as a token of recognition “every year, choice grain”, through the Greek ARIMASPAS and ISSIDONES and MASSAGESTAE of Central and Southern SIBERIA.

The Greeks should not know that the Greek DOCTORS, GALENOS, CELSIUS, HERACLIDES, HEROPHILUS, PRAXAGORAS, AGNODIKIS, KTIRIAS, HIPPOCRATES, ERIVIOTIS, carried out “BALANCING ELEKTROMAGNETIC FLUIDS of the BODY” treatments by REGULATING the ALKALINITY and ACIDITY of the ORGANS. That they were making cures using “left-handed amino acids” (antibiotics) obtained from plants, fully knowing that only recently did molecular biology discover the action-reaction of left-handed amino acids (antibiotics) with right-handed amino acids (organism proteins).

The Greeks must NOT LEARN that the SYMBOLS “LEFT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” and “RIGHT-CROWNED SWASTIKA” were SYMBOLS of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS, by which the Greeks PYTHAGORAS and DEMOCRITUS and ARISTARCHOS expressed RIGHT -handed and LEFT -handed NUCLEI of ATOMS, PLANETS, SOLAR SYSTEM, GALAXIES and COSMIC DOMAINS CLUSTERS of GALAXIES.

*****************************Macedonia is Greece.

Absolutely fascinating! The discovery of ancient Greek coins scattered throughout the WORLD is truly impressive. It’s a vivid reminder of the extensive reach of Greek civilization through establishing colonies across the continent. These coins not only serve as tangible artifacts but also as symbolic representations of the cultural, economic, and political influence of the ancient Greeks. Each coin tells a story, offering glimpses into the time’s trade networks, artistic styles, and historical events. It’s remarkable to think about how these small pieces of metal have traveled across centuries, bearing witness to the interconnectedness of ancient societies and leaving an enduring legacy that continues to captivate us today.

GREEK COINAGE SYSTEM PROMOTED THE DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND MARKET EXCHANGE IN THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN/BLACK SEA AND HELLENIC EAST.

PICTURE: VARIOUS COINS OF GREEK CITY-STATES, COLONIES OF BOTH HELLENIC AND HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS IN THE MODERN COUNTRIES.

1)SILVER TETRADRACHM FROM CHERSONESOS IN CRIMEA, 2nd c. BC

2)SILVER TETRADRACHM OF BASILEUS(=KING) ANTIOCHUS=ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ= “AL-KHANOUM” GRECO-BACTRIAN KINGDOM/AFGHANISTAN, 230 BC

3) SILVER TETRADRACHM OF KING MENANDER I SOTER, INDO-GREEK KINGDOM, 140 BC

4)SILVER TETRADRACHM FROM EPHESUS IN IONIA (“ASIA MINOR”/TODAY’S TURKEY), 390 – 300 BC.

5)SILVER TETRADRACHM WITH HEAD OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM IN EGYPT, 313 BC

6)DIDRACHM FROM CYRENE (modern LIBYA), 250 BC

7)Silver DRACHM from MASSALIA (MODERN MARSEILLE, FRANCE) WITH HEAD OF ARTEMIS, 200 BC

8)SILVER DIDRACHM FROM NEAPOLIS=ΝΕΑΠΟΛΙΣ=NEW CITY (MODERN NAPLES IN SOUTH ITALY) 4th c. BC

9)• SILVER TETRADRACHM from EMPORION (Empúries, Catalonia/Spain) 4th c. BC.

🏛️Telly Raptis: yes Corinthians I believe set up a colony in (what is present day) Ukraine around 600 BC So Greeks went to the heart of Slavic territory before there were Slavs..

🔸Ancient Greek Coins, exhibit excellent examples of mythological figures. They can add a visual and tactile dimension that can greatly enhance our readings of history. Unlike vases and mosaics, ancient Greek and Roman coins are extraordinary numerous, cover a wide geographical area and are often of exceptional quality.

These are typical ancient Corinthian coins and their stories transport us back to a time contemporary with the myths. Handling them is an amazing experience begging questions such as: who handled them, where did they travel through the ancient world, what did the coins buy (food, pleasure, political advantage), what do they tell us about history of area or its origin, etc. 

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KINGDOM OF MACEDON. DEMETRIOS I ‘POLIORKETES’.
SILVER TETRADRACHM(=FOURDRACHM), CIRCA 300-295 BC. SALAMIS.
Ob: NIKE(=VICTORY), BLOWING TRUMPET AND HOLDING STYLIS, STANDING LEFT ON PROW OF GALLEY LEFT.
Rv: ΔHMHTPIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, POSEIDON PELAGAIOS STANDING LEFT, PREPARING TO THROW TRIDENT.

The “secret” of the golden ring, after 25 centuries, which was kept in the dark, will be revealed at the University of Athens by professor of Thracian origin (from Xanthi) Charalambos X. Spyridis (*) . The result of his many years of research, with which he managed to decode a unique text, written in the Thracian language of the 5th BC . ah! The reading of the “golden ring” will take place – a world first! – in a lecture by the professor, organized by the Department of Music Studies of the University of Athens on Wednesday, April 9 at 19:00 in the ceremony hall of the Foundation (30 University Street).
It is a text of 61 characters of the uppercase Attic-Ionic alphabet, in continuous speech – not divided into words – uninterpreted to this day, according to the official version.
The ancient text is engraved on the plate of a golden ring, which was worn by a prominent man of the ancient great Thracian country of Sapaiki or the ancient country of the Vissa Thracians, which coincides with the present-day Vorisogradsko region of Bulgaria ( Ezerovo village ).
From the reading of the epigram of the golden ring of Ezerovo, it follows:
– The recounting of events mentioned by most of the ancient Greek writers, tragedians and historians.
– Who and what was the one who wore the ring.
– What was the religion of the ancient Thracians of the region.
– That the language of the ancient Thracians was Greek.
– The existing Archaeo-Thracian linguistic material of dialectal words is enriched.
– It clarifies the way of writing the epigram and the double pronunciation of some basic letter in the language of the ancient Thracians.
– We learn where the ancient Thracians of the region came from, closing a cycle of centuries of migration.
– We learn what the city of Ezerovo was called at that time and details unknown until now about the name and geography of the area.
– We learn the main occupation of the ancient Thracians of the region.
– We learn information about ancient Thracian metric and rhythm.
– The origin of many people of spirit and letters from ancient Thrace is definitively clarified, such as the sophist Protagoras and Scythinus the iambographer.
It is, therefore, a unique – to date – extensive ancient Thracian text