PERIANDER enhanced Corinth’s natural advantages by constructing an artificial harbor and a passageway across the ISTHMUS (the DIOLKOS) that allowed ships to be DRAGGED over land from one gulf to the other. He also LEVIED taxes on the USE of CORINTHIAN harbors, markets, and the DIOLKOS.
PERIANDER, (died c. 587 BCE), SECOND tyrant of CORINTH (c. 627–587 BCE), a firm and effective ruler who exploited his city’s commercial and cultural potential. Much of the ANCIENT GREEK representation of PERIANDER as a cruel despot probably derives from the CORINTHIAN NOBILITY with whom he dealt harshly.
PERIANDER was the son of CYPSELUS, the FOUNDER of the CYPSELID DYNASTY of CORINTH. To promote and protect CORINTHIAN trade, PERIANDER established colonies at POTIDAEA in CHALCIDICE and at APOLLONIA in ILLYRIA. He conquered Epidaurus and annexed CORCYRA. The DIOLKOS (=“portage way”) across the ISTHMUS of CORINTH was perhaps built during his reign. It appears that the commercial prosperity of PERIANDER’SCorinth became so great that the tolls on goods entering its ports accounted for almost all government revenues. PERIANDER cultivated friendly relations with THRASYBULUS, tyrant of MILETUS, and maintained ties with the kings of LYDIA and EGYPT. In the cultural sphere he was a patron of art and of literature; by his invitation the poet ARION came to the city from LESBOS. Sometimes reckoned as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, Periander was the supposed author of a collection of maxims in 2,000 verses.
CORINTH, Greek KÓRINTHOS, an ancient and a modern city of the PELOPONNESE, in SOUTH-CENTRAL GREECE. The remains of the ancient city lie about 50 miles (80 km) west of ATHENS, at the EASTERN end of the Gulf of CORINTH, on a terrace some 300 feet (90 metres) above sea level. The ancient city grew up at the base of the citadel of the ACROCORINTHUS—a GIBRALTAR-like eminence rising 1,886 feet (575 metres) above sea level. The ACROCORINTHUS lies about 1.5 miles (2.5 km) south of the ISTHMUS of CORINTH, which connects the PELOPONNESE with CENTRAL GREECE and which also separates the SARONIC and CORINTHIAN gulfs from each other. The citadel of the ACROCORINTHUS rises precipitously above the old city and commands the land route into the PELOPONNESE, a circumstance that gave CORINTH great strategic and commercial importance in ancient times.
The site was occupied from before 3000 BCE, but its HISTORY is obscure until the early 8th century BCE, when the city-state of CORINTH began to develop as a commercial centre. CORINTH’s political influence was increased through territorial expansion in the vicinity, and by the late 8th century it had secured control of the ISTHMUS. The CORINTHIANS established colonies at CORCYRA and SYRACUSE , which would later assure them a dominant position in trade with the #1western Mediterranean.
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During the 8th and 7th centuries CORINTH was ruled by the BACCHIANS family of nobles, but they were eventually overthrown by CYPSELUS, who, followed by his son PERIANDER , ruled the city as tyrants from about 657 to 550. These tyrants founded further colonies, but the chief source of CORINTH’s wealth remained its possession of the isthmus, which controlled not only the land traffic between Attica and the PELOPONNESE but also the traffic between the Aegean and Ionian seas by way of the CORINTHIAN and SARONIC gulfs. PERIANDER facilitated the transit of ships and cargoes, which were hauled overland from gulf to gulf, by building a stone roadway between them, thus sparing SEAFARERS the ARDUOUS voyage around the southern tip of the Peloponnese. By this time Corinth had harbours on both gulfs that flanked it, LECHAEUM on the Gulf of CORINTH and Cenchreae on the Saronic Gulf. Under the tyrants, CORINTH’S COLONIAL expansion was extended along the ADRIATIC
and into MACEDONIA.
The tyranny of the CYPSELIDS was followed in about 550 BCE by an OLIGARCHICAL government that embarked on a major building program for the city. In the second half of the 6th century, however, CORINTH was OUTSTRIPPED by ATHENS in both seamanship and commerce, and it was often the bitter commercial rivalry between CORINTH and ATHENS that was to generate crises in GREEK politics over the next 200 years. After the GRECO-PERSIAN Wars (c. 546–c. 448 BCE), CORINTH joined SPARTA against ATHENS during the PELOPONNESIAN War (431–404 BCE), but, though that conflict brought about the military defeat of ATHENS, it did little to revive the power of CORINTH, which joined with some of its former allies to defeat SPARTA in the CORINTHIAN War (395–387 BCE).
CORINTH was subsequently involved in most of the political conflicts of GREECE, but chiefly as a pawn in the struggles of more powerful city-states because of the strategic value of its citadel. CORINTH’S independence finally ended in 338 BCE when PHILIP of MACEDONIA GARRISONED the ACROCORINTHUS and made the city the centre of the LEAGUE of CORINTH. The city remained the puppet of MACEDONIA and SUBSEQUENTLY of the ACHAEAN LEAGUE until the LATTER involved it in a FATAL conflict with ROME, and in 146 BCE CORINTH was destroyed by the ROMAN general LUCIUS Mummius .
In 44 BCE JULIUS Caesar reestablished CORINTH as a ROMAN colony. The new6 Corinth flourished and became the administrative capital of the ROMAN province of ACHAEA. The city is known to readers of the New Testament for the letters addressed to its Christian community by the apostle PAUL. It enjoyed some prosperity under BYZANTINE rule but declined in the later European Middle Ages. After the Turkish conquest in 1458, it was reduced to a country town.
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The remains of the ancient city of CORINTH lie just north of the ACROCORINTHUS, with which it was joined by a circuit wall about 6 miles (10 km) in circumference. The city was connected with its principal port, LECHAEUM, by two parallel walls and a paved highway that led to the PROPYLAEA, the entrance to the agora (the city’s main marketplace). Most of the substantial remains in the agora are works from the ROMAN period, but it acquired its present extent much earlier, in the 4th century BCE, with the construction of an enormous stoa (portico), 525 feet (160 metres) in length, that enclosed its southern side. IMMEDIATELY behind the SOUTH stoa began the road leading to the city’s other port of CENCHREAE, on the SARONIC Gulf. On a small rise northwest of the agora stand seven DORIC columns, which are the remains of the TEMPLE of APOLLO (c. 550 BCE). The remains of other temples, villas, a theatre, shops, public baths, pottery factories, a gymnasium, a large TRIUMPHAN arch, and other buildings dot the site, which since 1896 has been extensively excavated.
MODERN CORINTH , three miles northeast of the site of ancient Corinth, was founded in 1858 after an earthquake leveled the latter. It is primarily a hub of communications between NORTHERN and SOUTHERN GREECE and is the PRIMARY point of export for local fruit, raisins, 0 (municipality) of CORINTH in the PELOPONNESE (MODERN GREEK : PELOPÓNNISOS) PERIFÉREIA (region), as well as the seat of an archbishop. Pop. (2001) 30,434; (2011) 30,176.
Temple of Apollo, in Ancient Corinth, was built about 540 B.C. in the Doric style on the ruins of much earlier temple. It is one of the earliest Doric temples in the Peloponnese constructed of local limestone on top of an imposing, rocky hill.
The mosaics of the Hall of Arion based around the Greek myth of the poet Arion. In the UNESCO listed Ancient Roman mosaics in the Villa Romana del Cas
IDENTICAL-CLASSICAL MOTIVES, FROM the HELLENIC MYTHAGOGY-COSMOLOGY: ARION/ΑΡΙΩΝ ο ΚΙΘΑΡΩΔΟΣ(=ARION the CITHAR PLAYER) rides his DOLPHIN to safety in a third-century mosaic from baths in Henchir Thyna, Tunisia (DEA Picture Library)
Corinthian columns in Jerash, Jordan
Corinthian capital from the Colosseum with gorgoneia, made by Syraciusian sculptors
CORINTHIAN columns of the ARCH of SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS in LEPTIS MAGNA
Corinthinan peripteros of the Temple of Bacchus in Baalbek, Lebanon
CORINTHIA, CORINTH. Circa 350/45-285 BC. AR Stater (21.5mm, 8.53 g, 10h). PEGASOS flying left; koppa below / Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet with neck guard and laurel wreath on the bowl; I before neck, star to right. Pegasi 425; BCD Corinth.
CORINTHIA, Corinth. Circa 400-350/45 BC. AR Stater (21.5mm, 8.60 g, 1h). PEGASOS, wings raised and trailing rein, alighting left; koppa below / Head of ATHENA right, wearing Corinthian Store helmet with neck guard.
PEGASOS STATUE IN MODERN CORINTH
Bellerophon, Pegasus and Chimera, Laconian black-figure kylix C6th B.C., The J. Paul Getty Museum
BELLEROPHONTES: ETYM: ΒΕΛΟΣ+ΦΟΡΩΝ = ARROW CARRIER was one of the MOST celebrated heroes of myth. He was a son of the god Poseidon and Eurynome, wife of King Glaukos (Glaucus) of Korinthos (Corinth). In his youth Bellerophontes captured the winged horse Pegasos as it came to drink from the town’s fountain.
He was later exiled for the murder of a family member and journeyed to the court of King Proitos (Proetus) in Argos for purification. The queen, however, developed a lust for the hero and when he spurned her, she told her husband he had tried to violate her.
Proitos then sent him off to King Iobates in Lykia (Lycia) with a closed letter requesting the youth be put to death. Iobates was reluctant to do this himself and so commanded Bellerophontes to slay the fire-breathing Khimaira (Chimera) which was ravaging the land. He rode into battle against the beast on the back of Pegasos and slew it by driving a lead-tipped spear into its fiery gullet.
The king then ordered him to subdue the barbarous Solymoi tribe, and later the Amazones, but again he proved victorious. Finally, Iobates commanded his guards to ambush and kill the youth, but he slew them all. The king was forced to acknowledge that Bellerophontes must be the son of a god and welcomed him into his house as his son-in-law and heir.
Despite all of his successes, Bellerophontes was still not satisfied and sought to ascend to heaven on the back of Pegasos. Zeus was angered by his presumption and sent a gadfly to sting the horse, causing it to buck and cast the hero back down to earth. After this he wandered the world alone, despised by both gods and men.
The mythological etymology of Bellerophontes name was “Slayer of Belleros” from the Greek Belleros and phonos. However, it is likely that the name originally meant “Wielder of Missiles” from the Greek words belos and phoreô.
Bellerophon, Pegasus and Chimera, Laconian black-figure kylix C6th B.C., The J. Paul Getty Museum
An exquisite bronze CORINTHIAN helmet of c.510BC. Found at PUGLIA in Italy, it was acquired(!!) by… the British Museum in 1865, in whose collection it remains.
Humans Have A Funny Habit Of “Creating” Their Own Route
The STATUE of LIBERTY, whose OFFICIAL NAME IS: (ENGLISH: “LIBERTY ENLIGHTENING THE WORLD” GALLIC: “LA LIBERTE ECLAIRANT LE MONDE”),IS A COLOSSAL statue on the islet of the same name and in the upper part of New York Bay.
This statue was erected to commemorate the friendship between the peoples of the USA and FRANCE.
Its total height is 93 meters (302 ft) including the plinth, and in the Encyclopaedia Britannica version it shows a woman preaching freedom.
This woman holds a torch in her raised right hand and an inscribed tablet in her left bearing the date July 4, 1776.
An elevator goes up to the height of the balcony and a spiral staircase leads to an observation deck on the crown worn by LIBERTY. The torch she holds is 93 meters above the surface of the sea. At the base of the statue is the American Museum of Immigration.
The proposal for the construction of the statue was formulated by a FRENCH HISTORIAN, ÉDUATD DE LABOULAIS, AFTER the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR . A sufficient amount of money was collected by contributions from the FRENCH PEOPLE and the work BEGAN in FRANCE in 1875, under the direction of the SCULPTOR FREDERIC-AUGUSTE BARTHOLDI.
APOLLO’s ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is depicted in exactly this form.
And fortunately for us, the IMMORTAL GREEK LAND of CORINTH, saved us this image, so that today we can know the truth.
The figure of APOLLO ΦΩΤΟΦΟΡΟΣ/PHOTOPHOROS=LIGHT BEARER is today in the MUSEUM of CORINTH, but it goes unnoticed by the unsuspecting visitor.
It is on a three-fold plate together with two other representations.
The one in the left part depicts an angel, a figure similar to that of the Christian faith and according to archaeologists is the figure of the goddess HECATE.
In the right part, a rosette is depicted.
And in the midst of the miracle! The form of the Light-bearer APOLLO, the same as that of the Statue of LIBERTY! Intellectual property is not clear to whom it belongs.
It is said by people of CORINTH who know that the director of the American Archaeological Mission, a sober and honest man, has declared that AMERICANS should come and worship in the Museum area where the image of the light-bearer APOLLO is located, because it is the source of their national symbol .
(In the photo, we see the sculpture with the representation of ZOODOTIS ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΗΛΙΟΣ=APOLLO HELIOS with his fiery chariot).
Το Άγαλμα της Ελευθερίας , του οποίου η επίσημη ονομασία είναι “Η Ελευθερία φωτίζοντας τον κόσμο” (αγγλιστί “Liberty enlightening the World” γαλλιστί “la Liberte eclairant le monde”) ,
είναι ένα κολοσσιαίο άγαλμα πάνω στην ομώνυμη νησίδα και μέσα στο άνω τμήμα του Κόλπου της Νέας Υόρκης.
Το άγαλμα αυτό στήθηκε σε ανάμνηση της φιλίας των λαών των ΗΠΑ και της Γαλλίας.
Το συνολικό του ύψος είναι 93 μέτρα (302 πόδια) μαζί με το βάθρο , και κατά την εκδοχή της εγκυκλοπαίδειας Μπριτάννικα παρουσιάζει μια γυναίκα να κηρύττει την ελευθερία.
Η γυναίκα αυτή κρατάει έναν πυρσό στο υψωμένο δεξί της χέρι και μια ενεπίγραφη πλάκα στο αριστερό όπου αναγράφεται η ημερομηνία 4 Ιουλίου 1776.
Ένας ανελκυστήρας ανεβάζει έως το ύψος του εξώστη και μια ελικοειδής σκάλα οδηγεί σε μιαν εξέδρα παρατηρήσεως πάνω στο στέμμα που φοράει η Ελευθερία.Ο πυρσός που κρατάει βρίσκεται σε 93 μέτρα ύψος πάνω από την επιφάνεια της θαλάσσης. Στην βάση του αγάλματος βρίσκεται το Αμερικανικό Μουσείο της Μεταναστεύσεως (American Museum of Immigration).
Την πρόταση για την κατασκευή του αγάλματος διατύπωσε ένας Γάλλος ιστορικός, ο Εντουάρ ντε Λαμπουλάϊγ , μετά τον Αμερικανικό Εμφύλιο πόλεμο. Συγκεντρώθηκε ένας ικανός αριθμός χρημάτων με εισφορές του γαλλικού λαού και το έργο άρχισε στη Γαλλία το 1875, υπό την διεύθυνση του γλύπτη Φρεντερίκ-Ωγκύστ Μπαρτολντί.
Ο Φωτοφόρος Απόλλων , απεικονίζεται με αυτήν ακριβώς την μορφή.
Και ευτυχώς για μας , η αθάνατη Ελληνική Γη της Κορινθίας , μας διέσωσε αυτή την εικόνα , για να μπορούμε σήμερα να γνωρίζουμε την αλήθεια.
Η μορφή του Φωτοφόρου Απόλλωνος βρίσκεται σήμερα στο Μουσείο της Κορίνθου , περνά όμως απαρατήρητη για τον επισκέπτη που δεν είναι υποψιασμένος.
Βρίσκεται σε μία τρίπτυχη πλάκα μαζί με άλλες δύο παραστάσεις.
Η μια στο αριστερό τμήμα, απεικονίζει έναν άγγελο , μορφή όμοια και ίδια με αυτήν της χριστιανικής πίστεως και είναι κατά τους αρχαιολόγους η μορφή της θεάς Εκάτης.
Στο δεξιό τμήμα, απεικονίζεται ρόδακας.
Και στην μέση ω του θαύματος! Η μορφή του Φωτοφόρου Απόλλωνος , ίδια με αυτήν του αγάλματος της Ελευθερίας! Η πνευματική ιδιοκτησία είναι πασιφανές σε ποιόν ανήκει.
Λέγεται από ανθρώπους της Κορίνθου που γνωρίζουν ότι ο διευθυντής της Αμερικανικής Αρχαιολογικής αποστολής , σώφρων και έντιμος άνθρωπος , έχει δηλώσει ότι οι Αμερικανοί πρέπει να έρχονται να προσκυνούν στον χώρο του Μουσείου όπου βρίσκεται η μορφή του φωτοφόρου Απόλλωνος , διότι είναι η πηγή του εθνικού τους συμβόλου.
(Στην φωτογραφία, βλέπουμε το γλυπτό με την παράσταση του Ζωοδώτη Απόλλωνα – Ηλίου με το πύρινο άρμα του).